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PRIVATE ITEM
Digitization of this item is currently in progress.
Hydrologic documents, Dade County.
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00007549/00016
Finding Guide: A Guide to the Ernest R. Graham Papers
 Material Information
Title: Hydrologic documents, Dade County.
Series Title: Everglades Drainage and Other Water Issues
Physical Description: Unknown
Publication Date: 1948-1954
Physical Location:
Box: 32
Folder: Hydrologic documents, Dade County.
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Everglades (Fla.)
Drainage -- Florida -- Everglades.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: AA00007549:00016

Full Text





The salt front remained between N.W. 17th and N.W. 12th Avenues
until July 9th, after that time it was forced downstream east of
N.W. 12th Avenue.

Tidal Canals in Miami Area-6ontinued heavy runoff in the tidal canals
forced the salty water far enough down-
stream so that the danger of contamination of fresh water supplies
is, for the time being, negligible.

Tamiami Canal At 40-Mile Bend the stage rose steadily from 8.5 feet
the 1st to 8.9 at the end.

At Dade-Broward Levee the upstream stage rose from 6.4 feet the
1st to 7.5 at the end, The downstream stage averaged about 0.4 foot
lower.

Outflow to the South (Dade-Broward Levee to Monroe, a discharge
front of 43 miles) rose from around 1100 cfs. the 1st to 1290 the
llth, was around 1900 at the end, and amounted to 89,500 acre-feet.

Homestead-Florida City Area Continued heavy runoff during the
month forced the salt front downstream out of the farming areas. How-
ever, Mowry Canal and Six Mile Pond Canal still contained unusually
high salt concentrations for the season of the year.

GROUND WATER LEVELS

At all points the ground water level was
near or above land surface. The repletion
of the water supply, minimizing soil loss
and danger of fire, is favorable from a long
range viewpoint. However, the present flood
emphasizes the inability of the present can-
al system to control water in the interest
of agriculture.

BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS
EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The detailed summary section of this report was com-
piled from data obtained from the U. S. Engineers;
U.S. Geological Survey, Soil Conservation Service,
Everglades Experiment Station and U.S.Sugar Corpora-
tion. Their cooperation in supplying this data makes
possible the preparation of a report of this scope.


-6-


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( 7 years of record-T
no 20 years of record-

LI Staiard -opPaenpa amp

S8 years o record-U.S
SWettest !ear losses-

prorated by sawgrass-


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it of 0.733 to

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open pan. Bellle Glade, Fla.


I losses (Rain

minus runoff


fell minus 'r

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Inoff.)

MarCh I,194'


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SECOND m YEAR


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I


CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA
FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT






Review of the Plan of Flood Control for Central
and Southern Florida in connection with the pro-
posed development of the Everglades area and the
operation of the conservation areas.








A REPORT TO
THE DISTRICT ENGINEER, CORPS OF ENGINEERS
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA



BY

THE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA
FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT


NOVEMBER, 1949


__ _il_ _ L


1I














OBJECTIVE


The purpose of this report is to assist the Corps of Eng-

ineers in analyzing the peculiar hydrology of the Everglades, in

order that in its final design .the plan for flood control and related

purposes will achieve maximum benefits for monies expended.

It is realized that the plan presented to Congress was

hastily prepared, and while basically correct is subject to minor

revision and improvement. In preparing the supporting data for this

report, the knowledge and experience of engineers familiar with the

hydrology of the Everglades has been extensively utilized It is .be-

lieved that this report, although limited in scope as it is-, will

be helpful in the design of works embraced within the approved phase

of the flood control plan.


-1-











BASIC DESIGN CRITERIA

The design criteria used in the original plan is not entirely

concurred in. Empirical formulas and coefficients are not applicable

under changing conditions that will result from the completion of the

works project. Outlined below is the basis for the criterion used in

each instance. The results reflected by the use of these criteria, as

they apply to various areas'and problems, will be tabulated or shown

graphically later in this report.

Rainfall

For the average and dry years, the monthly values used by

the U. S. Engineers have been accepted as representative of such years.

Their annual totals are 56,90 and 40,90 inches, respectively0

For the wettest year, the last ten months of 1947 and the first

two months of 1948 were taken as a water year-March 1, 1947, to February

29, 1948. Monthly values were taken from the summary of the U, S. Geo-

logical Survey for the Everglades area. A water year was selected, rather

than the calender year, to equalize the difference in storage in determ-

ining losses obtained from the same source of monthly values,

For this wettest year, the U. So Engineers used a total annual

value of 85664 inches, while the annual value of 82.00 inches is used

in the results obtained in calculations reflected in this report. The

latter value is considered more applicable for use in connection with

the conservation areas, particularly in view of lighter rainfall in the

southern part of the Everglades during that flood year0o Incidentally,

projection of the rainfall records at Hypoluxo and Miami indicate that

the 1947 rainfall was one in approximately one hundred and fifty years

for the northern station, and approximately once in ten years for the

southern station where rainfall was much lighter

Evaporation

Evaporation is not considered as a single factor but is

included in the total losses from the area computed from measured and


-2-













weighed rainfall less measured runoff as determined by the U0 S. Geo-

logical Survey. The losses for an average year in agricultural:areas

and areas contributing to the conservation areas are considered to be

the average annual loss of the eight years of records,. modified as neces-

sary by a heat-humidity-opportunity factor. For the-wettest year loss,

the accumulated monthly totals for the water year March 1, 19l.7 to

February 29, 1948 are used, as the difference in storage is negligible

at the beginning and end of that twelve month period.

As the U. S. Geological Survey records do not reflect change

in storage from month to month, this is corrected by applying the month-

ly average percentage of combined losses from saw-grass tank and stand-

ard open pan to the annaul total losses as determined from U. S. Geo-

logical Survey rainfall minus runoff records,

To the annual total losses, as adjusted to eliminate change

of storage, is applied the heat-humidity-opportunity factor to obtain

the monthly losses as they vary between dry, average and wet years.:

Obviously, this factor will give greater evaporation-transpiration

losses in average and dry years than in wet years--if water. is avail-

able. Such available conditions of water will be present in the con-

servation areas most years, presumably.

Negative storage in the Lake Okeechobee agricultural area

is considered as being recharged from the Lake as needed to meet the

demand of agriculture. In the Davie agricultural area such demand is

assumed to be supplied from the conservation areas. Negative storage

in areas such as the Hungryland area must be from ground storage under

the present plan of improvement and must be recharged from following

periods of positive storage.

The accumulative graphs, showing evaporation values that

are considered in the computations contained in this report, are .

shown on Plate A.


-3-














Runoff

Runoff into the conservation area is considered both as pumped

inflow from some areas and as gravity inflow from others. Pumped in-

flow is computed using the average monthly rate of runoff figures as

shown for the Everglades area by the U. S. Geological Survey, corrected

by the heat-humidity-opportunity factors and applied to the Lake Okee-

chobee agricultural area and the Davie area. Runoff from gravity areas

is at a monthly rate in the proportion of the area to the total Ever-

glades area as determined from U. S. Geological Survey rainfall-runoff

data, taking into account negative storage.

Runoff from one conservation area to another is equal to

the positive storage above the median elevation 6f operation. In all

of the calculations for the conservation areas the operation is consid-

ered as controlling the stage of each pool at a maximum of the median

elevation of operation.

Seepage

No seepage factor is applied to any of the losses. The rain-

fall minus runoff data of the U. So Geological Survey does presumably

contain some seepage losses but probably not a considerable amount

under the general free-flow conditions existing during the years of

measurement. However, under conditions of water impoundment this factor

will become an important one in the operation of the conservation

areas. This problem will be discussed in greater detail elsewhere in

this report. Of all of the important hydrological factors of the

Everglades, this is the most difficult to evaluate.











THE CONSERVATION AREAS

(As originally designed)

These three areas are analyzed first as originally designed.

Later in this report recommended reduced areas are analyzed in the same

manner in order that the two may be compared.

The Palm Beach County Area (C.Ao #1)

This area as originally designed embraced 175,315 acres, pro-

viding at the median operation level of 15o5 feet mean sea level a level

pool storage of 206,875 acre-feeto (see Plate'B) Contributing inflow

in this conservation area is by gravity flow from 292 sq. mi. of Hungry-

land Slough and the equivalent of 118 sq. mio by pumped runoff from

the Lake Okeechobee agricultural area. In allocating the pumping from

the Lake Okeechobee agricultural area, it is assumed that only the

pumping station in the West Palm Beach Canal will discharge into this

upper area. The Hillsboro Canal pumping station should discharge into

the middle conservation area as this runoff is not particularly needed

in the upper area and pumping costs would be lessened by pumping into

the lower pool.

In the Palm Beach County Conservation Area, as in the other

conservation areas, direct losses from the area are based on wet year

conditions prevailing, with corrections in average and dry years for

the heat-humidity-opportunity factor.

Tabulated below monthly and annual water storage (4) or

losses (-) are shown in inches of depth on the Palm Beach County Con-

servation Area for the several types of years:


AVERAGE DRY WETTEST
MONTH YEAR YEAR YEAR

Jan. 0.81 2o82 1098
Feb. o140 3,16 io24
Mar. 2.17 658 4 7o57
Apro 0,21 9.07 0o98
May lo46 -.1.92 O2
June + 7o 8 *+ 88 +2034
July 4 3.o1 .* o66 o16o09
Aug. 5.o36 7o65 7.64
Sept. + 9085 boll .+23o67
Oct. + 6068 1.28 +23.21
Nov. 0.26 2.03 + 4-51
Dec. lo32 lo16 lok2
Totals 425.25 -1596 *96.99

-5-












The Broward County Area (C.A. #2)
This area as originally designed embraced 142,259 acres, pro-

viding at the median operation level of 14.5 feet mean sea level, a

level pool storage of 527,025 acre-feet. (See Plate C) Contributing

inflow in this conservation area is by pumped runoff from the Hillsboro

Canal pumping station, equivalent to the runoff from 157 sq. mio 'It is

assumed that the North New River Canal pumping station will discharge

into the lower pool Dade-Broward Conservation Area. The only other in-

flow into Broward County Conservation Area will be above operation level

spillage from the Palm Beach County Conservation Area.

Tabulated below monthly and annual water storage (4) or

losses (-) are shown in inches of depth on the Broward County Conser-

vation Area for the several types of years:


AVERAGE DRY WETTEST
MONTH YEAR YEAR YEAR

Jan. 0.69 1.70 1.25
Feb. 0.99 1.87 0.90
Mar. 1.48 366 + 4,93
Apr. 037 096 0o97
May 1,34 .61 0.66
June 4,8 297 *13.60
July 1.9 + 2.78 10o67
Aug. 3,33 4-31 4.91
Sept, 6.45 3.87 415.93
Oct. 4 4.29 lo11 415l63
Nov. 0.37 + 1.18 *' 2.90
Dec. 0.90 0.84 0.93
Totals 414.73 926 463086


The Dade-Broward County Area (C.A. #3)

This area was originally designed embracing 671,411 acres,

providing a level pool storage of 3,083,570 acre-feet at the median

operating level of 13.5 feet mean sea level. (See Plate D) Contrib-

uting inflow into this conservation area is by pumped runoff equivalent

to the runoff from a total of 375 sq. mi., including the runoff from

the Davie Area. In these calculations, two pumping stations of the


-6-












Lake Okeechobee agricultural area are considered as discharging directly

into this area--the North New River Canal and Miami Canal stations. In

addition, this conservation area will receive the above operation level

spillage from the Palm Beach and Broward County conservation areas.

Tabulated below monthly and annual water storage (4) and

losses (-) are shown in inches of depth on the Dade-Broward County

Conservation Area for the several types of years:


MONTH

Jan.
Feb.
Maro
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Totals


AVERAGE
YEAR

- Oo70
- 1.03
- 1.54
- 0.58
- 1.35
* 3.62
4 1,32
+ 1. 2
+ 2.932
* 4.-o93
- 3.23-
- 0.42
- o94
+ 8.96


DRY
YEAR

- 1,80
- 1.99
- 3.92
- .33
- 1,64
+ 2.12


2.87
- lo93
- 4,61
4 2o87
- 1.13
+ 0.81
- 0o87

-13o54


WETTEST
YEAR

- 1.32
- 0o93
+ 3.76
- 0.97
- 0O76
*10o59
S8.24
3 3.69
*12047
+12o24
* 2o19
- 0o97
*48.23


Summary and Discussion


over the

prepared


Accumulated annual storage and losses in inches equalized

three conservation areas, with comparative computations as

by the U. So Engineers, are as follows:

COMPUTATIONS COMPUTATIONS BY
YEAR BY THIS REPORT U. S. ENGINEERS

Average 412.68 21o49

Dry -13o36 3095

Wettest +59.12 *93o55


Enlargement of the above tabulations to reflect the level

pool storage at the designed median elevation of operation, using the

results of the calculations for this report, would result in the

following:


-7-


I~













Average Year The Palm Beach County Area would fill to

elevation 155o feet pool level the first year; the Broward County

Area would reach the operation level of 14.o feet the second year;

and the Dade-Broward County Area would require until September of

the fourth average year to fill to elevation 13o. feet (See Plate E)

These computations at no point make allowances for the increased

effect of seepage caused by increased stages.

Wettest Year In a wet year, such as the year 1947, all

of the areas would fill to operation level from a dry condition at

the beginning of the year. Maximum spillage at Tamiami Trail would

be 20,700 cfs.; therefore, the design spillway capacity of 20,000 cfso,

as proposed, should be sufficient for operation purposes. (See Plate E)

Dry Year Beginning with a storage equivalent to level

pool at median operation level, all pools would be substantially dry

by May 1, of the third year and entirely dry by March of the fourth

year. (See Plate F)


-8-








J--;E TC('SERVIATION .;TE.E :

(As recommended to be reduced in area)


Reduction in area in each of the conservation areas has

been considered in this report and recommended for exclusion for one

or more of the following reasons:

1. The lands have agricultural value greater than their

value for conservation purposes.

2o Such lands that have been developed to some extent, and

are now in use, thereby adding costs to the price of asquisiton in

excess to their value for water storage.

3. Lands under contract for purchase, the price of which

is in excess of their value for water storage

4. Lands held in trust for the Seminole Indians to be

partially excluded by compromise agreement.

5' Marginal lands having an inflated speculative va.la

influencing the acquisition price and establishing excessive v alue

for lands to be used for conservation purposes

6. Lands which by their exclusion would contribute .:co t:h

solution of the seepage problem of the Miami area.


The Palm Beach County Area (Co Ao #1)

This area as recommended to be reduced by sections "D1" ~:.:

"E" (See Plate G) would embrace 154,016 acres and provide a iesel

pool storage of 189,114 acre-feet at elevation 15o feet mean ses

level. (See Plate B) This would be a reduction of 12 o". f th

original area and 8.5% reduction in the level pool storage ati eie~ a,

tion 15-5 feet.

(Note A reconnaissance of this area since the computat:,ins

for this report were made indicate an even larger exclusion of :-..

may be desirable because of reasons of construction practisabil''.

and the usability of lands by agriculture,)

Correcting for inflow contributed by adjoining areas and

loss factors influenced by the changed conditions, computations indi-

cate the following storage (4) or losses (-) by inches of depth on

the Palm Beach County Area as reduced by section "D" and "E"' during

the various types of years: -9-













AVERAGE
MONTH YEAR

Jan. 0o82
Feb. 146
Mar. 2.27
Apr. 0o14
May o147
June 4 8037
July 4 3 83
Aug 4 5o9'4
Sept.o 10o63
Oct. + 7.37
Nov. 023
Dec. 1.38

ANNUAL
TOTAL +28.57


DRY
YEAR

- 2.98
- 3.35
- 7.00
- 9.65
- lo96
544
4 5o20
8o12
4 6.76
1.30
2 2,28
- lo20


WETTEST
YEAR

- 2.09
- lo29
4 8.32
O- o98
- -035
42250
417.65
4 8.42
426o17

. 497
- l.49


+107.23


The Broward County Area (C. A. #2)

This area has been recommended to be reduced only by
section "A" (See Plate G)o This reduction is an accomplished fact by

locating Levee L-35A in its present location. This area as reduced

embraces 135,187 acres and will provide a level pool storage of

474,782 acre-feet at elevation 145 mean sea level. (See Plate C)

This is a reduction of 5-0% in area and a reduction of 909% in storage

at level pool elevation of 145 feet.

Correcting for the changed conditions of inflow and losses

occasioned by the change of area, the following storage (4) and

losses (-) by inches of depth on the Broward County Area as reduced

by section "A" have been computed for the several types of years:


MONTH

Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Augo
Sept.
Oct.
Novo
Dec.
ANNUAL
TOTAL


AVERAGE
YEAR

- 0o69
- 0.99
- loS8
- 1034
4 4.97
* 2.03

4 6.o0

0- 037
- 0o90

41520


DRY
YEAR

- 1.70
- 1.87
- 366

- lo61
9 3.06
2 2.87
- 4o31
4 3097
-. 111o
S1,22
- o084

- 8,94


WETTEST
YEAR

- lo25
- Oo90
- 5o05
- o097

13o91
o10o92
4 5o03
.l6o28
+1597
4 2.98
- Oo93

46o044


_ _


-II


- -








The Dade-Broward County Area (C.A. #3)

The reduction of the original size of this conservation

area by sections "B", "C", and "F" is recommended (See Plate-G).
This area as reduced would embrace 563,724 acres, impounding at
level pool elevation of 13.5 feet a total of 2,716,875 acre-feet.

(See Plate-D) This reduction in area would be 16,0% of the area

as originally designed and the reduction in storage would be 11.9%

at a level pool elevation of 13.5 feet.

Correcting for the changed conditions of inflow and
losses resulting from the exclusion of section "B", "C", and "F",

the following storage (+) and losses (-) by inches in depth on the
Dade-Broward County Area is shown for the several types of years:


MONTH AVERAGE DRY WETTEST
YEAR YEAR YEAR
Jan. 0.71 1.88 1.37
Feb. 1.06 2.08 0.96
Mar. 19 43 4.35
Apr. 0.12 5.3 0.97
May 1.36 1.66 0.71
June + 4.24 + 2.55 412.11
July + 1.64 + 2.37 + 9.47
Aug. + 2.88 4.85 + 4.31
Sept. + 5.70 3.37 *14.22
Oct. + 3.77 114 413.96
Nov. 0.40 1.00 4 2.55
Dec. 0 09- 0.89 1.01
ANNUAL
TOTAL +11.62 -12.97 *55795


SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION

It is a paradoxical observation that net storage to an
elevation of level pool operation for the combined reduced areas is

more efficient than in the areas as originally designed. That is,

the gain in acre-feet of storage would be at a faster rate in average

years (See Plate-E) and losses in dry years would be at a slower rate

(See Plate-F). This reaction is due to different conditions of

inflow and loss. Storage at an operating level would be less in the

reduced areas than in the original areas at comparative operating

levels, of course. Spillage southward would also be greater in volume

at peak periods.


-11i











A comparison of areas and storage for the composite areas

as originally designed and as reduced in these computations follows:



DESIGNED STORAGE AT MEDIAN
AREA TOTAL AREA %OPERATION LEVEL %

Original 988,985 acres 10o0. 3,817,470 acre-feet 100o0
Reduced 852,927" 86.2 3,380,771 88.6

Difference 136,058 acres 13o8 436,699 acre-feet 114l



GENERAL SUMMARY
OF
CONSERVATION AREAS


It is apparent that changes may be made in the boundaries

of the conservation areas without upsetting the basic objectives of

the plan as originally designed. Certain factors influencing net

inflows and net losses may make a reduction desirable, especially

if and when seepage from the increased stages can be evaluated to

the extent necessary for the purposes of design.

It appears from the calculations forming the basis of

this report that in the Palm Beach County Area it is desirable to

raise the median operation level, making modifications in works at

other points to offset the effect of the increased stage. The

Broward County Area can possibly be regulated at the original de-

signed operation stage. In the Dade-Broward County Area, the most

drastic changes in the designed operating stage, as well as in loca-

tion and design of levees, will have to be made if the objectives of

water storage are to be achieved without resulting in harmful effects

to surrounding areas. This area should also have an additional

inflow supply to make its effectiveness equal to that of the other

conservation areas.

In arriving at these conclusions, certain recommendations

for improvement of the original plan are apparent and will be item-

ized at the end of this report.


-12-


L b - -- -.r.rr--r.--. r.....- .q.~-~ri ~Frrrprx:l*r.iii; Cd;AII~









SEEPAGE


While the control of seepage is a most important factor

in the operation of the .conservation areas, particularly the lower

areas, it is the most difficult to evaluate and the factor of which

the least is known. There are indications that seepage losses are

of considerable magnitude in some areas and possibly in amounts that

are excessive for the establishment of water storage areas for some

purposes. It is evident that a part of Dade County is such an area

and a thorough investigation of the problem should be made before the

location and design of levees are undertaken for that locality,

There is little knowledge upon which to base calculations

of this quantity of seepage. Hoy, Uo So Geological Survey, by tests

on wells in the Miami area determined that the aquifer had .a co-

efficient of transmissibility of 4,000,000 gallons per day for a strip

one mile wide and 70 feet deep with 'S: 0.00019 This figure reduced

to a laboratory coefficient of permeability = 57,200 gallons per day

for unity slope per area of one square foot = 0o086 cfso

Applying both Darcy's and Knappen's formulas, using a

7.0 fest head and a seepage travel of 200 feet, the results were

570 cfs. per mile and 595 cfso per mile of levee respectively.

It is not claimed that such excessive losses will occur,

but the same data applied to the conditions existing at the time

Bogart, U. S. Geological Survey, made his study of the seepage into

the Miami diked area, will result in approximately the same quantity--

100.cfs per mile of levee. Bogart's studies were based on measured

rainfall plus'storage, less evaporation plus runoff The head

against the levees at that tline was approximately lo5 feet.

The question is what effect the impoundment of water

in the Dade-Broward County Area will have on adjacent areas surround-

ing the conservation area. That seepage loss will be great under the

proposed increased heads is without question -- it is considerable

today with approximately one foot of head against existing levees.

Without question a more effective levee can be designed and construc-

ted than the existing levees; but unless a core is extended to the


I











bottom of the aquifer, or the same result is obtained by a sheet

piling cut-off, water will continue to pass under the levee in

quantity.

Accepting this fact poses the problem of designing this

part of the conservation area system to best meet the resulting

effects on surrounding areas. The following should be investigated

and evaluated in relation to the design and operation of the con-

servation areas:

1. The advisability of providing a buffer

strip between the conservation area and urban

or agricultural area to partially offset the

effects of seepage in these permeable areas.

2. The possibility of intercepting escaping

seepage by channels and returning this water to

the conservation areas by pumping.

3. The practicability of preventing such seep-

age losses by core or sheet piling cut-off. It

is believed that the cost of this solution would

be prohibitive.

4o The advisability of decreasing the designed

operating level in these permeable areas.


-14-











THE LAKE OKEECHOBEE
AGRICULTURAL AREA


Analysis of the design of the canal and pumping system

for the Lake Okeechobee agricultural area discloses two points

claimed by the plan of flood control that could not be verified:

1. That the storage value within the channels

of the system as designed is an important factor

of safety.

2. The implication that the designed pumped run-

off from the area is the economical design.


It was found that the storage in the channels to ground

level and above, assuming that the normal operating level to be 1.5

feet below ground level, would be as follows for runoff from the

entire agricultural area:

TOTAL STORAGE IN
.AT CHANNEL STAGE INCHES OF RUNOFF

Ground level 0.07
1.0 foot above ground level Ool.
2.0 feet I 0.24
3.0 feet 0.33

Assuming that' the total enclosed area is developed and

under pump at usual sub-district pumped runoff rate of one inch in

24 hours, this storage would permit general pumping for less than

24 hours before the'levees along the canals would be in danger of

being over-topped.

The disparity factor is readily admitted for normal

conditions of rainfall. It is also agreed that it is not economical

to design for all general rainfalls. However, it is believed that

the designed pumping capacity of one-half inch in 24 hours is not

the maximum to which it is economical to design.

Studies of rainfall frequencies in the Everglades result-

ed in the following calculated frequencies of general rainfall for

the'Lake Okbechobee agricultural area:


I










RAINFALL FREQU-EICIES FOR ENTIRE YEAR

24 HOUR PERIOD 18 HOUR PERIOD
Recurrence Rainfall Recurrence Rainfall
One Year in Over Area One Year in Over Area

2 years 337 inches 2 years 391 inches
5 4o20 5 o47 "
10 578 10 698 "
25 713 25 7o85 "
50 8o02 50 8o80 "


RAINFALL FREQUENCIES FOR WINTER SEASON
(November 1 to March 31)

24 HOUR PERIOD 48 HOUR PERIOD.
Recurrence Rainfall Recurrence Rainfall
One Year in Over Area One Year in Over Area

2 years 173 inches 2 years lo89 inches
S" 3o42 .68 "
10 .o47 10 L o 71 "
25 5o90 25 0o21 "
50 .96 50 7o2 "


The above tabulations are shown for the annual period

and for a five month period because of the general applicability of

the former to field crops and the latter to winter vegetable crop

production. Many of the vegetable crops such as potatoes or beans,

are sensitive to the effects of water near or above the surface of

the land. Ramie, a year around crops is very sensitive to the effects

of water within six inches of the surface or above surface It is

generally true that water within this range for a period of 48 hours

is fatal to the crop. The future of this crop, and others even less

sensitive to the effects of flooding, is dependent upon assurance

of protection from flooding for a period of years equal to, or ex-

ceeding, theeconomic range for loss of an occasional crop

Ramie is a perennial, planted and grown to harvest stage

at a cost of approximately $100 per acre. Green beans on the other

hand are a quick sixty day crop brought to maturity at a cost of

approximately $30 per acre Giving consideration to the difference

in cost of these two crops and the time of bringing them to maturity,

it is evident that the design of a plan of water control would not be

the same for either. Winter vegetables may or may not have reached

the market saturation point, but it is almost certain that this crop

will not be planted throughout the major part of the pumped agricul-

tural area. Conversely, ramie and other fibre crops will expand in


- I










the Everglades if the hazards of flooding can be overcome. Pasture

for the fattening of cattle is an expanding crop here and one that

is relatively tolerant of water. Field corn is another promising

Everglades crop that is damaged by short period flooding, although

not nearly as sensitive as ramieo

The future of Everglades agriculture has not formed a

clear pattern because of the uncertainty of the ability to combat

and use water. If given assurance of water control, development

could be in one Or more of several directions. If its future is

bound to an insufficient water control, it will continue to be a

spot crop gamble and development will be hampered Given adequate

assurance of reasonable water control, the Everglades will develop

rapidly. The economy of any flood and water control program is

based on this rate of development.

Hereafter are tabulated periods in hours to which crops

will be flooded once in 2, 5 and 10 years using an area-depth rain-

fall over 1000 square miles for 24 hour periods The tabulations

also indicate the period during each intensity of rainfall that the

water will be in the top six inches of the soil These latter figures

are particularly applicable to ramieo The calculations are for total

pumped area runoff rates of one-half inch and three-quarters inch in

24 hours. It is assumed that at the beginning of each rainfall that

the water table in the land is 18 inches below land surface, which is

an optimistic assumption during the rainy season Ground storage,

therefore, is 3 inches of rainfall in all instances


FOR ONE-HALF INCH PUMPED RUNOFF

One 24 Hour 1000 sq.mi. Area- Water Above Within 6 Inches
Rainfall in Depth Rainfall Land Surface Land Surface

2 years 337 inches 000 hours .9 hours
5 4.20 38 93 "
10 5.78 120 13 "

FOR THREE-QUARTERS INCH PUMPED RUNOFF

One 24 Hour 1000 sq.mio Area- Water Above Within 6 Inches
Rainfall in Depth Rainfall Land Surface Land Surface

2 years 337 inches 000 hours 25 hours
5 420 18 t7 "
10 .78 75 112 "


I .













From the above it appears that such crops as ramie would

be economically outlawed by the presently designed system once the

area is entirely occupied by agriculture An increase of 50% in

the present design would give such crops a chance of loss approach-

ing one year in five. This may not be prohibitive for this crop9

but the present designed rate of runoff certainly iSo A loss during

one year in two of even 10% of the average value to maturity of low

cost crops extended over this 1000 square miles of diked area would

justify the capital outlay for the increase in channel system and

pumping plant enlargement. Pumping machinery can be provided as

the area develops and the additional pumping capacity is required.

It is also believed that the addition of spillways in the

conservation area rim levees and at Lake Okeechobee pumping plants

would be an additional factor of safety as well as being in the

interest of economical operation. Studies indicate that at most

periods of flood that the stage in the agricultural area canal sys-

tem will be greater than that in the conservation areas and occasion-

ally greater than the Lake stage This is especially true south of

the Hillsboro Canal. Such provision for gravity runoff would save

im pumping operation costs to some extent during most periods of

the year. Dispersion channels in the conservation areas to decrease

the accumulation of tailwater stage at the spillways would be necessary












THE DADE-BROWARD URBAN-AGRICULTURAL AREA


This area lying south of North New River Canal and north

of Tamiami Canal, extending from the conservation areas on the west

to the Atlantic Ocean, is one of similar problems and limitations.

Their problems are flood control, irrigation and salt water

intrusion; their limitations are influenced by the low elevation

above sea level, soil capability and porosity of underlying stratum.

It is believed that the problems of this area could be solved better

as a whole than in the piecemeal solution offered in the approved

plan. It is recommended that this area be reconsidered from a view-

point of treatment as a whole.

It is believed that the proposed coastal canal improvement

in the plan of flood control is generally sufficient as designed.

However, considerable improvement in the New River Basin should be

included in any multiple purpose plan for the upper part of this area.

SThe conservation areas alone are not the entire answer for either

flood control or .salt water intrusion problems here.

Because of the urban development along the coast, the lands

between the urban development and the conservation areas will be util-

ized for agricultural purposes, despite the physical factors that make

such use costly. The feasibility of such future use is directly tied

to the operation of the conservation areas and a supply of water for

irrigation. Only by solution of the problems of these lands on a

large scale can they be utilized on an economical basis.

In the reconsideration of the design of works for this area

it is recommended that the following be investigated:

lo That a general pumping of agricultural areas be consid-

ered from North New River Canal to Tamiami Canal, similar to the pre-

sently designed treatment of the Davie Areao

2o That such pumping be in connection with the pumping of

seepage from the conservation areas, should further investigations

prove such pumping of seepage to be advisable.


-19n


1












3o That such pumping combined with gravity runoff from

coastal channels would eliminate the general necessity of levees as

presently designed for the Davie Areao

4. That ground water recharge be supplemented by,a connec-

tion with North New River Canal to further assure such recharge during

periods of low water in the conservation areas.

5. The extension of Snake Creek Canal westward to Miami

Canal as an important part of the proposed area solution, with con-

siderable enlargement of the channel for both drainage and irriga-

tion purposes.












THE HUNGRYLAND AREA

This area, approximately 300 square miles in extent, for

which drainage only has been provided under the proposed plan for

flood control, is a potentially rich agricultural area deserving

more consideration and better treatment. Irrigation is needed far

more than drainage. Given the complete water control that these

lands need, agricultural development will follow rapidly.

These lands need a direct supply of irrigation waters.

This supply can come from only one source -- Lake Okeechobee, This

can be accomplished by a connection with the Lake or with St. Lucie

Canal, the source of supply being the same. Supply of the Hungry-

land area could be intergraded with the future supply of the Loxa-

hatchee.River area and the irrigation requirements of both could be

met. Such a system lends itself to centralized supply of the whole

by pumping at the Lake Okeechobee end of the system. This system

could also be made to supply emergency runoff.from the higher flat-

woods lands by way of both the West Palm Beach Canal and Loxahatchee

River at times when the runoff was not needed or desired in the con-

servation areas.

The general location of Levee L-8 and its borrow-ditch

channel are concurred with as a part of such a system. However, the

construction of this levee as the second priority construction pro-

ject creates serious complications in the operation of the existing

canal system. After the completion of this levee and canal, result-

ing flood conditions near 20 Mile Bend and along the upper West Palm

Beach and Cross Canals will be worsened until the pumping plants are

installed and the conservation areas in operation. Change in the

design of the works of the Hungryland. Area, West Palm Beach Canal and

Palm Beach County Conservation Area would somewhat relieve this situ-

ation during the construction and completion of the works in the Ever-

glades section, as well as contribute to lower operating costs in the

future.


-21-













It is believed that the design of the runoff from the

Hungryland area as indicated in the present plan is excessive. The

inflow figure of 44.00 cfS was used in the computations for the con-

servation areas, and may well be representative of the total runoff

from the area, but the present movement of water does not substan-

tiate the use of this figure. Future individual development.will

tend to move a greater quantity of water southward to the West Palm

Beach Canal or north and eastward through the Loxahatchee River

system. The intergraded Hungryland Loxahatchee system that is

herewith recommended will tend to do the same thing, with the pro-

posed connection of the Levee L-8 borrow channel utilized primarily

for water conservation purposes. Such a plan was proposed in a re-

port to the Uo So Engineers in 1946, with the exception of the con-

nection with the conservation area.


-22-






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ROUTE SALESMAN'S DAILY REPORT


Date


Stop Service

Reason

Stop Service

Reason

Stop Service

Reason

Stop Service

Reason



NEW ACCOUNTS


COMPLAINTS


COX PRINTING CO.


salesman









U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


MIAMI OFFICE

MONTHLY REPORT FCF JULY 1952

lE ATHEL
Precipitation at Miami down-town station for July was 3,21 inches,
which compares with a normal of 5.60 inches, thus a monthly de-
ficiency of 2.39 inches occurred; however, total deficiency since
January 1952 is 17.93 inches. Precipitation at the International
Airport, Miami, for July was 7.14 inches. Average temperature
for July was 81.5 degrees, whereas normal temperature for July
is 81.3 degrees. Prevailing winds were from the south averaging
11.1 miles per hour.

GENERAL HYDECLOGIC CONDITIONS

Southeastern Florida:--Ground-water levels in southeastern Florida
during July ranged from 0.1 of a foot to 1.6 feet higher than last
month. The major increases occurred in south Dade County and in
local areas in the lower Everglades, Only minor rises of less than
0,5 of a foot were recorded at "rest Palm Beach and Fort Lauderdale.
New lows were recorded for the July record in wells U, S. 6 and
U. S. 7.

As compared with a year ago, ground-water levels were generally
lower with the exception of a few minor rises in isolated areas,
Losses ranged from 0,1 of a foot to 3,5 feet and were greatest
in the Fort Lauderdale and Vest Palm Beach areas, and in north
Dade County. Following is a list of selected areas showing approxi-
mate changes in ground water levels:


Area


Fort Lauderdale
Hobe Sound
Hollywood
Homestead
Howard
Miami
Opa-locka
Peters
South Miami
West Palm Beach
Lower Everglades (N.of Tamiami Trail)


July 1952 water level,
in feet. as compared with:
June 1952 ----July 1951
+0.25 -2,65
0.00 -0,35
+0.45 -1,20
+1,5 +0O10
+0.90 -0.55
+C.40G 0.50
+0O70 -1.30
+1.15 -0,65
+0.55 -0.35
+0,20 -1,15
+0.65 -0,15


Kissimmee Valley and adiacent'areas:--Ground-water levels, as
observed in shallow observation wells at the end of June, were
generally lower with losses ranging from 0.5 to 1.4 feet. As
compared with June 1951 water levels were generally higher, the
increase ranging up to 1.5 feet, except for areas in northern
Highlands and Okeechobee counties and Osceola County, where losses
were as great as 1.9 feet, Following is a list of selected areas
showing approximate changes in ground-water levels:

Area Cunty June 1952 water level,
in feet. as compared with:


Sebring
Lake Istokpoga
Eassinger
Fort Drum
Deer Park


Highlands
Highlands
Okeechobee
Okeechobee
Osceola


May 1952
-0,45
-1.15
-0.70
-1.40
-0.70


June 1951
-0,36
+0,75
+1,45
-1.85
-1.10


The small number of records so far available for July suggest that
water levels are about the same to 1.6 feet higher than at the end
of June. As compared with a year ago water levels ranged from
v.2 to 2.2 feet lower. Following is a liot of selected areas
showing approximate changes in ground-water levels.














Area County July 1952 water level,
L feet. as compared with:
June 1952 July 1951
Sebring Highlands -0.05 -2.15
Lake Istokpoga Highlands +1.55 -0.20
Fort Drum Okeechobee +1.20 -0.60

Surface-water conditions:--F:ainfall over the Everglades during July
was about normal at all points. The distribution of this rainfall
during the month, however, was poor since most of it occurred during
the first half of the month. There was a small net rise in water
levels in most of the canals, notably the Tamiami which rose more
than G.5 foot. The flow southward across the line of the Tamiami
Trail increased to about 400 second-feet. There was water over the
southern part of the Everglades but very little above ground in the
northern area.

Salinity barriers in the coastal canals were generally closed through-
out the month, The salt front (1,000 ppm chloride) which had gone
somewhat.above the controls at the beginning of the month was at the
downstream sides of most of them by month-end.








U. S, GEOLOGICAL SJI'vEY

MIArlI

MONTHLY CEPOCT FOE AUGUST 1952


Precipitation at Miami down-to,`n station for August was 4.22 inches,
which compares with a normal of 5.80 inches, thus a monthly de-
ficiency of 1.66 inches occurred; however, total deficiency since
January 1952 is 19.59 inches. Precipitation at the International
Airport,Miami, for August was 4.9G inches. Average temperature for
August was 81.9 degrees, whereas normal temperature for August
is 82.1 degrees. Prevailing winds were from the south averaging
7.4 miles per hour.

GENERAL HYD:OLOGIC CONDITIONS

Southeastern Florida:--Ground-water levels in southeastern Florida
during August ranged from 0.2 of a foot to 1.4 feet higher than
last month. The greatest increases occurred at Fort Lauderdale,
Homestead, and in the lower Everglades.

As compared with a year ago, ground-water levels ranged from about
the same to 0,8 of a foot lower with the exception of the Home-
stead-Florida City area where ground-water levels ranged from O,3
to 0.7 of a foot higher. Largest declines were recorded in the
lower Everglades north of the Tamiami Trail and in the south Miami
area.

With the oncoming hurricane season a comparison is made between
present water levels and water levels recorded at the end of August
1947 which was the year of highest water levels of record in south-
eastern Florida. At the end of August 1947 ground-water levels
ranged from 0.4 of a foot to 3.0 feet higher than present August
readings. The greatest changes occurred at Fort Lauderdale, the
Peters and Howard areas south of Miamit and in the Miami Springs
well-field area. Following is a list of selected areas showing
approximate changes in ground-water levels:

Area August 1952 water level,
in feet. as compared with:
Jul, 1952 Aug.1951 Au,.1947
Fort Lauderdale +1.40 +0.10 -5.00
Hobe Sound .OG1 -0.10 ....
Hollywood +0.95 +0.05 ..
Homestead + .OC +0,60 -0.85
Howard +0.30 -G.60 -4,00
Miami +0.4C 0.00 -0.45
Opa-locka +0.50 -0.10 -1.25
Peters +0.30 -0.45 -3.90
South Miami +0.40 -0,45
West Palm Beach +0.55 +C.35
Lower Everglades (N.of Tamiami .Trail) +0.50 -C.5G -2.00

Kissimmee Valley and adjacent atfcas;:-Ground-water levels in shallow
observation wells at the end of ,-ugust were generally higher than
at the end of July except at ChildCs and St. Cloud, where declines
of less than 0.5 of a foot were recorded. Increases ranged from
6.2 of a foot to 2.4 feet and wer,:, greatest at Deer Park and Sebring,

As compared with August of last ycar ground-water levels ranged
from 1.3 feet lower at Sebring to 3.6 fee,. higher in the northeast
corner of Osceola County. Gains -of 1.0 foot were recorded at Lake
Istokpoga and Venus. Following is a list of selected areas show-
ing approximate changes in ground-water l.!vels:











Area Cour.tl fugcst 1952 water level,
L.r. Lus c, 3comnared with,
952 A u. 1951
Sebring HighlandC +1.3G -1.35
Lake Istokpoga Highlands +0,80 +1.05
Childs Highlands -0,45 +0.10
Venus Highlands +0,75 +1.00
Fort Drum Okeechobee -0,65 +0.20
Deer Park Osceola +2.40 +0.15
Holopaw Osceola +0.35 -0.85
St. Cloud Osceola -0.15 -0.20
Davenport Polk +0.70 -0.40
Frost Proof Polk +0.25 -0,60

Surface-water conditions:---rainfall over the Everglades during
August was normal or somewhat above at all points. There was a
seasonal rise in water levels and flows in the canals with stages
rising an average of about 0.5 foot. The Tamiami Canal showed
little change in stage however, and the flow southward declined
from about 700 second-feet near the beginning of the month to about
500 near mid-month. The Everglades were generally covered with
a thin sheet of water.

Salinity barriers in some of the coastal canals were opened during
the month to accommodate increased flow. The salt front (1,000
ppm chloride) was generally below the barriers.











U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

MIAMI

MONTHLY FEPOFT FOr SEPTEMBER 1952

WEATHER

Precipitation at Miami down-town station for september was 4.88
inches, which compares with a normal of 8.65 inches, thus a monthly
deficiency of 3.77 inches occurred; however, total deficiency
since January 1952 is 23.36 inches. Precipitation at the Inter-
national Airport, Miami, for September was 4.44 inches. Average
temperature for Feptember was 01.2 degrees, whereas normal temper-
ature for September is 81,5 degrees. Prevailing winds were from
the south averaging 10.1 miles per hour.

GENERAL HYDEOLOGIC CONDITIONS

Southeastern Florida:--Ground-water levels in southeastern Florida
during September ranged from about the same to 2.4 feet higher
than last month, except at Fort Lauderdale where ground-water
levels declined about 0.5 of a foot. Major gains occurred in
the South Miami-Kendall area and at West Palm Beach.

As compared with a year ago, ground-water levels ranged from the
same to 2.6 feet higher with the greatest gains recorded at South
Miami, south Dade County, parts of the lower Everglades and at
West Palm Beach.

Ground-water levels during September 1947 (highest of record)
ranged from 1.9 to 4.8 feet higher than present water levels.
The greatest changes occurred at Fort Lauderdale, Miami Springs,
and Coral Gables. Following is a list of selected areas showing
approximate changes in ground-water levels:

SArea .. September 1952 water level
in feet, as compared with:
Aug. Sept. Sept.
1952 1951 1947
Fort Lauderdale -0.50 +0.25 -4.80
; Hobe Sound +C.95 +0.95 ....
S Hollywood +0.15 +0.45
Homestead 0.00 +1.00 -1.95
C- Howard +2.45 +2.05 -2.75
Miami. +0.30 +0.35 -3.00
Opa-locka +0.45 +0.55 -2.60
Peters +1.55 +1.20 -3.10
South Miami +1.50 +1.35 -4.00
West Palm Eeach +1.85 +2.00 ...
Lower Evergladces (N.of Tamiami Trail) +0.75 +0.50 -1.80

Miami well-field areas:--Ground-water levels in the Miami Springs
vell-field area were 0.15 of a foot thighcr than last month and
0.75 of a foot higher than September of last year. The 20 parts
per million isochlor in the northern cone of depression has shrunk
in comparison with the June pattern. lWater levels in the south-
*ivst well-field area were 1.6 feet higher than last month and
1.8 feet higher than last year.

The average daily pumpage for Leptember was 48.94 million gallons
at the Miami Springs well field and 6.98 million gallons at the
southwest well field. Following is a comparison of certain data
.or this month in the Miami Eprings well field with previous
:aximum and minimum September values of record (1940 to date):



i' /





f





Sept. 1952 Maximum Minimum

(A) -0.5 3.4 (1947) -0.2 (1945)
(B) +1.4 5,6 (1947) 1.4 (1945)
(C) 50 300 (1940) 100 (1945)
(D) 48,94 50.98(1951) 16,67 (1940)

(A) Lowest water table contour referred to USC&GS msl datum.
(B) Altitude of highest water table contour between FEC Borrow
pit and well field (msl).
(C) Highest isochlor in cone of depression of well field (parts
per million).
(D) Average daily pumpage from well field (mgd).

Kissimmee Valley and adjacent areas:-- The only available ground-
water level information for September is from shallow observa-
tion wells in scattered areas in the eastern portions of Osceola
and Okeechobee counties. Following is a list of areas showing
approximate changes in ground-water levels:

Area County September 1952 water level,
in feet. as compared with:
Au.q 1952 Sept. 1951

Fort Drum Okeechobee +0.15 +0.25
Deer Park Osceola +0.25 +0.55
Holopaw Osceola +0.70 +0.65
St. Cloud Osceola +0.70 -0.75

Surface-water conditions:--fainfall over the Everglades during
September varied from normal to about 50 percent above normal.
Stages in the canals rose seasonally in amounts up to about one
foot and flow increased accordingly. The flow southward across
the line of the Tamiami Trail increased from about 550 second-
feet to about 1,30L. The Everglades were almost completely
covered with water up to about one foot deep.

Salinity barriers in the coastal canals were open for part or
all of the month to accommodate the increased flow. The salt
front (1,000 ppm chloride) was well below the barriers in all
canals.




Lbtc 1/9/sQ


- a'


6='




,e


F. E. C. R. R.
6 F. 26 P\ / F 6- Unpublished records, subject to

PUMPING
.G4"37 'WELL HOURS PUMPt

8FI 0 0 19.30 9

G435 440 2 0 0 0 23.

3 0 OO 0 3.
.. A%7



,5o ,, L.... ,,

4 0 0 0 0

.6 436 r P 5. 24 24 19.45 0
__ 6 2, 2: "----^^ .. .. .\-4 9.30 0 0
1 7 0 22 24 1
SFIF 6 24 2 II 8
SII 0 22 24 9.F

o'. 49 P 3 F64 12 24 24 9 0
4 13 3.45 24 24 2
YYIII AN. W. 62D STREET _4 24 9 O 22.
5 F25 820.15 24 4.30 0
6439 SU 16 24 23 24 I




S1 19 O O 20.

0 20 24 8.15 0 0

PUM 4.15 9 19.45.0
OG575 ,22 4.15 9 19.45 O0
23 B24 24 20 24
424 0 0 O020
N.W __4H STREET TOTAL












S I4 .8 ,- -, -.W ACTIVE SUPPLETLY WELL
410OO 2 44 5 3 68 G 8 19 # AF













S. 7- 0.2- WAER TAB
._ 'CONTOURS
F__98.7 7 ----










S.w MIAMI WELL
N.W454 0,ESCALE INT


1\ 6 0 w OCTOBER 2
63 GEOL L
..R OCTOBER 2


















"0 "S .s US. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
F G 35
















Jl-o 9C


revision 4' 1

fORD
ED PER DAY
5 26 27 28
0 3.45 0
4517.45 0 0
30 24 24 24
9.45 0 21.45
0 21.45 24
22 24 24
S0 0 0
0 0 21.30
45 0 0 18.30
0 0 23
4 24 24 0
4E 24 6 0.-
0 19 24
0 0 0
4' 24 24 24
4 24 173020.45
24 6.30 18.
6 0 0
3.45 24 3.45
3.45 24 3.45
24 17.3020.4.
0 24 630 18 i

2041.09 44.8 47.5



)54.88 4.80 0.00






N WELL



MILLION CHLORIDE
LE CONTOURS
OF GROUND SUR-




N
EL U.S.C. 8 G.S.

OF

FIELD REA

FEET
2000 3000
0.3 0.5
0.4
F MILE
8, 1952
Y MIAMI, FLA.


i **'"






o47I


* 4w
- -.~ 4.

~. ...*


_ :_~I~


/ 4~ SV






F. E. C. R. R. _60 aF. 7 -,Unpubli


6. --i PUMPIN

_WELL HOURS
G 437O. 5

133 8 I I i 2 0

7 -3 24 I0

S4 4 24 .30 24

5 L 2
I.G 438 G 1 3 5 24 24


S____ 2
P4 83 24 2.30

_ 2 6(41^_ 12 24 24

S13 4 24


o I,0- 1 1
62ND STREET 14 0 9.15







S~r7 -- --*C
_-4A S. ATER4l 15 15 0 17
S4 S E16 24 24
y / WORK5\ I ___.-_ *4 v -r C



_6 0-_ -20 0 0

.- .7..>- 21 24 13.453




, \4- II i --l- ,o T esA
5F416G 58.6 57.62


fC / i\ X'^^ ,'^ 3'^"' )" A''-' 24 24 20
SN..W. 54TT STREET TTA




-408 _'-8 IN 0 .00 0.440
--6 L7


FF..3- -

__ a- 0 SHALLOW OBSER
8-8






4_, 20 G 195 --- \ i-i. -O
"F_ 05 0 --50-- PARTS9

408I 5 CONTO
F1 F00ZFACE








552O0 DAM COMPLETE
1 FDATUM: MEAN SEI










3__ G ST o MIAMI WE

544\SEP
412353 U.S. GEOLOGIC 20
F 39T- 6 F 5S




















/ jG33 USGE6 0CA
CU ~0


shed records, subject to revision


G3 CrORD
PUMPED PER DAY

6 7 8 9 1
0 0 7 15 0
12 2 5.45 0 I
.45 4.15 3.15 4.30 I
24 24 0.30 0 0
24 5.45 0 21.45 24
.30 24 6 22.15 24
7 0 22 20 0
24 24 24 24 24
18 0 0 0 0
18 0 22.45 24 24
24 24 24 24 4.15
18 21 24 24 5
.30 20 4.45 0 6.15
24 1.45 0 23 24
24 6 0 0 21.30
24 4.15 0 0 23
2.30 24 24 24 7
0 0 23 5.45 0
.45 15.45 24 6.45 21.30
.45 15.45 24 6.45 21
24 4.15 0 0 23
2.3C 24 24 24 7

9.4238.8343.4544.6443.38



.00 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.18






OVATION WELL
WELL


PER MILLION CHLORIDE
STABLE CONTOURS
'URS OF GROUND SUR-





LY OPEN ON 9-10-52
S LEVEL U.S.C. 8 G.S.

MAP OF

LL FIELD AREA.

LE IN FEET
o0 2000 3000
0.3 0.5
0.2 0.4
E HALF MILE
'T. 10 1952
SURVEY MIAMI, FLA.








SU. 5. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

,lI IAM I

MONTHLY REPORT FOR OCTOBER 1952

WEATHER
Precipitation at Miami down-town station was 17.59 inches, which
compares with a normal of 7.88 inches, thus a monthly excess of
9.71 inches occurred; however, deficiency since January 1952 is
13.65 inches. Precipitation at the International Airport, Miami,
was 21.08 inches. Average temperature was 76.7 degrees, whereas
normal temperature is 77.7 degrees, Prevailing winds were from
the northeast averaging 11 miles per hour.

GENERAL HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS

Southeastern Florida:--Ground-water levels in southeastern Florida,
at the end of the month, ranged from 0.1 to 4.6 feet higher than
at the end of September. The greatest increases occurred along
the Coastal areas of Proward, Martin, and Dade (north half) Coun-
ties* The heavy rainfall which occurred in these areas on
October 26-27 caused a rapid rise of water levels which caused
slight flooding on the lower lands. However, ground-water levels
in southeastern Florida, area wise, were not above the normal
average for October.

As compared with a year ago, ground-water levels ranged from 0.3
to 5.0 feet higher, Greatest gains were recorded in the Opa-locka,
Miami Springs, and Howard-Peters areas.

Ground-water levels during October 1947 (highest year of record)
ranged from 1.1 to 5.0 feet higher than present water levels.
The greatest changes occurred at Fort Lauderdale, Coral Gables, and
Homestead. Following is a list of selected areas showing approxi-
mate changes in ground-water levels.

Area October 1952 water level,
in feet. as compared with;
Sept. Oct. Sept.
1952 1951 1947
Fort Lauderdale +2,60 +1.55 -5.00
Hobe Sound +4.60 +1.95 ....
Hollywood +3.30 +2.40
Homestead +0.75 +1.'35 -3.40
Howard +2.05 +2.45 -2.80
Miami +3.00 +2.10 -3.05
Opa-locka +2.50 +2.50 -3.15
Peters +2.60 +2.35 -2.55
South Miami +1.35 +2.06 -4.50
West Palm Beach +1.60 +0.50 ...
Lower Everglades (N. of Tamiami Trail) +0.95 +0.98 -2.77

Miami well-field areas:--Ground-water levels in the Miami Lprings
well-field area were 1.00 foot higher than last month and 2.55
feet higher than October of last year. Water levels in the south-
west well-field area were 0.9 of a foot higher than last month
and 2.1 feet higher than last year.

The average daily pumpage for October was 45.17 million gallons
at the Miami Springs well field and 1.78 million gallons at the
southwest well field. Following is a comparison of certain data
for this month in the Miami Springs well field with previous
maximum and minimum October values of record (1940 to date):














Oct. 1952


(A) +3.8 5.6 (1947) 0,0 (1950)
(E) +5.0 7.0 (1947) 2.4 (1950)
(C) 50 200 (1945) 100 (1951)
(D) 45.17 46.84 (1951) 20.6 (1940)

(A) Lowest water table contour referred to USC&GS msl datum.
(B) Altitude of highest water table contour between FEC Borrow
pit and well field (msl).
(C) Highest isochlor in cone of depression of well field (parts
per million).
(D) Average daily pumpage from well field (mgd).

Kissimmee Valley and adjacent areas:--The only available ground-
water level information for October is from shallow observation
wells in scattered areas in the eastern portions of Osceola and
Okeechobee counties, Following is a list of areas showing approxi-
mate changes in ground-water levels:

Area County October 1952 water level,
in feet. as compared with:
Sept. 1952 Oct. 1951
Fort Drum Okeechobee +0.65 +0.35
Deer Park Osceola +0.10 +0.35
Holopaw Osceola +0.30 +0,15
St. Cloud Osceola +0.10 +0.45

Surface-water conditions:--Rainfall over the Everglades during
October was from 200 to 300 percent of normal at all stations.
There was considerable flooding of fields and damage to truck
crops in the agricultural area southeast of Lake Okeechobee.
A rain of about 9 inches fell in the Miami area on October 27 and
produced some minor flooding, particularly in Miami Springs and
Hialeah. The preceding relatively dry conditions reduced the
amount and gravity of the flooding. The rise in stage in the
canals and in the Everglades was from 1 to 3 feet. The flow
southward across the line of the Tamiami Trail increased from
about 1,300 to about 3,000 cfs. The discharge of the West Palm
Beach Canal at West Palm Beach increased from about 1,500 to
about 2,600 cfs.

Salinity barriers in the coastal canals were completely open during
the month and several of them were removed entirely. The salt
front (1,000 p.p.m. chloride) was forced downstream nearly to the
coast in most canals.


EMaximum


Minimum







i'1


U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

MIAMI
MONTHLY REPORT FOR APRIL 1953


Precipitation at Miami dowh.towfi statibh was 3.65 inches, which
compares with a normal of 3.44 inches, thus a monthly excess of
0,21 inch occurred. Precipitation at the International Airport,
Miami, was 4.17 inches. Average temperature was 74.5 degrees,
whereas normal temperature is 74,1 degrees,

GENERAL HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS
Southeastern Florida:--Ground-water levels in southeastern Florida
at the end of April ranged from 1.0 foot higher to 0.8 of a foot
lower than at the end of March. The greatest increases occurred
in the south Miami area and the greatest losses were recorded in
the lower Everglades.

As compared with a year ago, ground-water levels in general ranged
from 0.1 of a foot to 2.6 feet higher with the greatest gains
occurring in the lower Everglades and the south Miami area.

Water levels were generally normal for the month of April, except
at Fort Lauderdale where ground-water levels declined about 1.0
foot below normal, and in the lower Everglades where water levels
were about 2.0 feet above normal. Following is a list of select-
ed areas showing approximate changes in end of the.month ground-
water levels and a comparison of the monthly average water level
with the average of 1940-1953:

Area April 1953 water level,
in feet, as compared with:
Mar, April Apr. Average
1953 1952 1940-53
Fort Lauderdale -0.15 +0.10 -1,0
Hobe Sound -0.25 +0.15 ..
HbTlywood -0.10 +0.20 .
Homestead +0.30 +0.50 -0.05
Howard +0.45 +1.55 ....
Miami +0.20 +0.35 -0.10
Opa-locka +0.10 +0,30 +0.10
Peters +0.25 +1.15 0.00
South Miami +0.95 +1,75 ...
West Palm Beach +0.25 +0.25 .
Lower Everglades Nof Tamiami Trail)-0.45 +1.50 +2.00

Miami e ll-field areas--Ground-water levels in the Miami Springs
well-field area at the end of the month were about 0.5 of a foot
higher than in March, and about the same as April of 1952. Water
levels in the southwest well field were about 1.0 foot higher
than at the end of last month and about 1.7 feet higher than last
year.

The average daily pumpage from the Miami Springs well field dur-
ing April was 57,71 million gallons and from the southwest field
was 11.13 million gallons. Following is a comparison of certain
data for this month in the Miami Springs well field with previous
maximum and minimum April values of record (1940 to date):


A'
dP











ADril 195 M3 Mai mum Minimum
(A) -114 -0.4 (1948) -2.2 (1945)
(B) 1.4 1.8 (1949) 0.6 (1945)
(C) 100 300 (1946) 100 (1944)
(D) 57.71 60,19 (1952) 25,22 (1941)

(A) Lowest water-table contour referred to USC&GS msl datum,
(B) Altitude of highest water-table contour between FEC Borrow
Pit and well field (msl).
(C) Highest isochlor in cone of depression of well field
(parts per million).
(D) Average daily pumpage from well field (MGD)

Kissimmee Valley and adcent areas:--Ground-water level data
in the Kissimmee Valley for April were not available in time to
be included in this report.

Surface-water conditions---Rainfall over the Everglades during
April varied from about 30% deifciency in the northern part to
about 20% above the twelve-year norm in the southern part. There
were no net changes in the water levels of the canals with the
exception of the Tamiami Canal which dropped about 0.3 ft. dur-
ing the month. The discharge for the Miami Canal at Hialeah
Water Plant remained the same in April as it was in March, namely,
about 650 cfs.

Salinity barriers in the coastal canals were generally closed
throughout the month except for Snake Creek and Miami Canal,
The salt front remained in general on the downstream side of the
salinity control dam; the exceptions were Mowry Canal, North
Canal, and Florida City Canal.


























'-a


P e. C. R. R.








2.4 24 27.4514 5
G3PUMPING


o 3 No. 23 24 25 263



D STRE 4 s a 24 .24 16.45 5.0 0

,.uo45 ,L 405 2 24 24 17.4 3.15
3 243. 24 24 3.45
4 18.45 2 2





12 24 20 245. 24
6 F 224 24 24 24
__ __(-0.2) 6e 16. 24 24 4
4J O5 II 1924 17.45 24 5
S12 24 24 24 .45
19F2F2015.032
S13 24 24 24 5
o 6 N. ND STREET 4 19.4519.301 4

__ 15 9.450 20 08.45 2.45

























O. SHALLOW OBSERVATION
AUS1N ACTIVE SUPPLY WELL
F2611




-0.8) F20 24 24 24 3.15










-. 21 STAFF GAGE24 24 .4

6 0.2- WATER TABLE
S23 2 1 .15 17.4518.451 9.4

S.N.W 154TH STREETTO











FMAP OF
F FVL














F 5, -. 0- AR SCALE IN F
/ o S 0.-o WAEooo L
AL"6 % ONE HALFF



tG U9 0 a E O L I L S R
,F5
(F 4 15SF11NF 2




40 0001


0 O) 4 1 AP R 2.9 9
91 d epbO10








A O 0c


AI.

ORI) i

PE I PAY

27 28 29
23 1.45 20.3C
1.30 24 19.30
1.30 24 24
0 0 0 -
24 24 24'
24 24 18
1.45 0.30 1.15
24 24 24
0 7.15 9 ,
24 24 24
0 1.30 24
4.30 24 13.30
0 1.30 24
o -1.15 24 "
!I.3C 24 8.15 i.
24 21.45 21 ,
24 21 19.45
1.15 24 15.15
24 24 24, ..
24 24 24
24 21.45 21
24 21 19.45

0.3 54.6360.6. '



).00 0.00 0.00







WELL




MILLION -CHLORIDE
CONTOURS
GROUND SUR-



VISIONAL RE(CiUS


U.S.C. a G.S.



ELD AREA

EET
000oo 3000
0.1
0.4
MILE
1953
* MIAMI, FLA.


.v~.


*,

.4:


I;


'i


*'; .










WATER TABLE JULY 9th

Canal Readings Pennsuoo, Florida


1944 1.89

1946 1*28

1946 1.89

1947 S.72*

1948 1.67

1949 3801

1980 2 2.94

1951 2.43

1952 8.86

1953 3.26


* Major Flood


_ __I~









WATER TABLE June th throunb July 9th, 1968

Canal Readings, Pennauoo, Florida

June 30S .1 July 8 8.08 S

July l .3.45 8 3.28

a 3 O 7 3.25

8 55.1 8 3.21

4 3*29 9 3.26

5 *8.28

Da m reoaovd Jule SO, 1953

** Daons roplaood July S 19853

Avorane Drp nt Canal 8 days with Dae out .046 feet or *552 inches

Avorage Drop in Canal 4 days with dane t3 0076 foot or .0900 Inhcas

Cl. moare drop with Dams open


L.









e Water Is Likely
.- ...; ., .^o A ^ I ^ ..A . ,-^ ^


-'If 1947 and 1953 Floods Rept


Sunday, Seitember 5, 1954


* .. -


Comparative Maps Show Floods of 1947 and 1953 .(
... if the map shows 9 feet of water (above sea level), and I''


d Areas)... Circled Figures Show Depth of Water Above Sea Level
iet high, that means four feet of actual water. Note how flood control has dried some areas.


o j 'L nI I L 8 2I 2

THIS 20-YEAR'record of rairnall at Pennsuco, northwest
Sf Hialcah, helps show why some years bring floods ont
low' lads-aiound;Greater Miami.' Thhe.chart shows- thier
Ias .inre 'nin,,lst:yea than in. te-fl6od year of 194
6and 1948'. ; :1i ,. . ...
:. . ..- . .*.- : : -,. . - -


New Levees e Helpful




But Can't I I Rains


By JEANNE BELLAMY .- h eehe levees to come up on the other
Herald SLsaf Writer
What will happen in Greater Miami theAy Ehngineers have measured the seepage
next two months ame very rainy, or aWet-ir "ced -.where it goes. Here's what they
hurricane comes along? "
Low spots will be flooded, especially if .-1page rider the-levees Is just about what
suburbs far inland. alculated in advanCe'of construction. It's
t Then that good are the big levees bu 'it ot t ilmiatni Trail, where tie
0 ,est of the city in the past-four. yea 'i t: 3 s Il' holds, back very, little.
e 2"
Without t leveei,..may ons ~:
7 srri.seeedel, e ew tv h'-disstnce north ofitM '
J e iloo t.we. get ojet~iii. e ..emii r.thii
;er,'each- ^ E4t intp4.i'e'.Iity ahd' olohe f page water is caught by the
"a, -.-lb.e leveeop-hoe eastJ i eSt
iqirviUe,:;it' cT-ageof bhillirig a: o....bdc 4 .:-u& -
ytiit0o15q00 of square'iils o io'- 'o "
including Greater Miami. : -; --:T amollft ,of seepage 'water- is. bul a
The engineers recently checked up on-ri ,-: ::'uery.''sralaU..perA enr of the water 'that uould
they've done here. Their findings are.sliowii be he' .looding,-tie lands if the protective levees
in the accompanying diagrams. ha. i anot been constructed;" the engineers re-
S.* :porL,,
T.e Ls *
Three Feet Less in '53 ~ re Than Leees in Plan
316:'M re 'Than Levees in Plan ,


THE BIG TWIN MAPS above show what hap-
pened in the flood of 1947, before levees, and
the flood of 1953, after levees. The shading on
both maps means flood water.
Where water stood five feet deep in 1947,.
it w oas two feet deep last iall. Army Engineers
say the levees held back the difference, and
are holding about the same three-foot head
today.
The rest of the water in both these floods
came from direct rainfall. That alone can
still cause flooding in some places.
If the Jevees hadn't been built, the engi-
neers say, the three feet of water behind them
would be invading low western fringes of the
metropolitan diti let now.
Oldtiners lieie know all tils. Newcomers
don't.
People from other parts of the country are
likely to assume that land which is dry today
will be dry tomorrow, too. "It ain't necessarily
so" in South Florida.
Newcomer; sometimes learn too late that a
bhi area v.est, nortriwest anid southwest of
GCeater \liaiiii is still subject to flooding.
*

A I'asl NNo Man's Land
IT IS A "No Man's Land" in the $280,000,000
flood control project. The original plan didn't
call for drying up this undeveloped area, and
still doesn't.
As matters stand today, anyone who moves
Into this low section can count on flood trou-
bles. Whether the water around your home is
five feet deep or only two feet deep is hardly
worth arguing about.
Such land is cheap, naturally. It's also fair-
ly close to downtown Miami.
For both reasons. developers would like to
start subdividing this "No Man's Land"
It covers 224 square minle--nearly 10.000
acres from Broward county's Hollvttood
bird. on thie north to a point west of Kendall
on the south. The eastern boundary is roughly
along Red rd., jogging easLuard to the north
and westward to the south.
Why not drain the place i ght now? Army
Engineers say that might wipe out Greater Mi-
anmi's fresh water supply.
All tle drinking water usel here comes from
a shallow la\er of poroNu s iro. It is about 100
feet thick at the coastliiin,. tpel ng out to
the west like a slice of pie turned on it; side

Salt Water a Threat
TO KEEP THIS underground reservoir full,
a head of fresh water must be held on it.
Lowering the fresh water table below the land
surface everywhere would let salt from the
ocean move into the wedge of porous rock.
There are spots of solid ground no higher
than sea level in the "No Man's Land" between
the present west edge of Greater Miami and
the levees.
Muck two feet thick blankets these depres-
sions non. It drained, the murk would oxidize
and ill-apiiear. Then the \aircr table niould
laie Iti he li rolped belowv scu level to keep
the aui face dry.
'rliat's v.hen sall w\aitr \.c.uld take over.
peiliaps leaving Dade county: without any fresh
water at all.
The porous rock complicates flood control.
You've probably heard about "seepage" the
way \watLr can crawl through the sponge-like


S ITHE ;WALL OF LEVEES is just half of the
luflood.control system for Greater Miami. The
filari calls for. improving canals in the coastal
-.'idge to speed runoff from tme developed area.
S The levees already keeps Everglades flood-
i6aters from 'fillingthe canals. This leaves
space in the canals to carry off rain falling,
' ear the coast. The engineers say the canals
Swill do an even better job \wien improved.
SSnapper Creek, Biscayne and Little River
canals are being widened and deepened. Snake
,freek, Biscayne and Little River canals are to
.be extended westward. All will have control
.gates to prevent overdrainage and salt encroach.
ment.
SCan the "No Alan's Land" be made usable?
SCertainly by spending millions of dollars.
STo prevent unsound development, Dade coun-
ty commissioners have adopted rules to require
filling low land. They won't issue building per-
mits unless the land surface i raised to specie
filed heights.

Filling Is Costly
SARMLY ENGINEERS say if the lowlands are
filled to the levels required blv Dade county.,
they will be dry mot of the time.
'But filling is expensive. At the count:.'
urging, the engineers made a study to find out
how this cost could be cut.
They concluded it might be done by a com-
bination of drainage not enough to endanger
the water supply and land fill-less than
would be needed without drainage.
SThe'cost? Nearly $23.000,000 for four pnump
stations able to move water at the fantastic
rate of 14,000.000 gallons a minute, plus 53,000..
000 for major canals to carry the water to
the pumps.
Property owner' would still have to spend
S16,000,000 for land fill and $3.000,000 for feeder
canals.
Special action by 'Congress would be re-
quired to add the .2S.000,000 for pumps and
major canals to the 52&0,000,000 project. Even
then, the engineers say, present federal policy
for works of such localized nature would r-e-
quire those benefitting to foot most of te bill.
Running the giant pumps probably would
cost another S250.OiiO a year froin local taxes.
Army Engineers haven't recommended tlhis
plan. All they say is it could be donu that na,%.
It is by no means ihe only suggestion put
forward for maKing "No Mlan's Land" haitablie.

A Dream of Venice
YOU CAN GET a different idea from almost
any engineer, not to mention many laymen.
"Raise balloons over the levees to carn'r
signs saying, 'No rain clouds allowed east of
here,'" said a veteran Mliami engineer with
tongue in cheek.
Some day, Greater Miami's wepternmosl snb-
burbs may look like Venice \hitl a network of
canals and lagoon-i dug to cet fill for the land
between the man-imade \wateria.-.
Larido tners have -hut Lither e es to tin-
prospect to date. It would cost then a lot of
money.
As of now, these lowlands remain wild, subj
ect to flooding. There's no telling when-if
ever-tax dollars ,wJll be spent to dry up the
224 square miles.


.' --.I.
.' Um '


10 MI.


15 MI.


20 ML.


-Charts, IMaps by Corps of Egulneers. U. S. Army, JaCksonillp
A-MOUNTAIN on the shore of Biscayne tion. 25 miles wide, in the neighborhood
bay? No, that hump at the right just of NE and 1IW 54th sl., Miami. The pro-
shows how,the coastal ridge-the de- file shows how the new levees at left
veloped part of the metropolitan district held back'three feel of Everglades flood-
here-towers above sea level and the waters last fail. The abbreviation M.S.L.
lowlands to the west. This is a cross-sec- is mean sea level.


^- ^_^^ ^ ^ -----^_---------- -- _--^ ^^^ ^^ ^^_