c -JJY- YV
I.. Reort on
THIE DRAINAEO T~~~~IRGLADE OF FLORIDA-
W~ith Special Reference to --2
The Lands of the
EVERGLADE: LAND~ SATES COMapANY ~
EVERGLADE LAND COM~PANY3
EVERGLADES SUG[AR AND3 LAND COMBABPANY c
In the Viainity
Daniel W. Head
N~ov. 12, 1912.
New York, N. TY.
NJov. 12, L194.
Sverglade Land Sales Company,
Everglades Land Company,
Everglades Sugar and Land Company
We transmit herewith our report upon the drainage of the
Zverglades of Florida, with special reference to your lands.
We find the drainage of the Florida Everglades feasible
both from an engineering and finanoi l point of view, bJut we9 are
of the opinion that the development must be a grfadualt one.
~e! find thbe present and projected system of oa,7nals'r as,3
provided for by the State of Plorida, totally inadequate to accom-
plish the drainage! of the E~verglades.
WTe are of the ogpinioan that th~e reclamationr of your
lands can beat be accomplished by diking, ditching, and the con-
\ struction o f pump~ing; stationo by which the water ma be drained
(Signed) Da~Stiio W. Mead
(Signed) Allen Hazen
(Signed) Leonard Metoalf.
Board of consulting Engineerls
TABLE OF CONTEN~PTS
Letter of Instru~ction 1
Findings upon Questions Submitted 12
General Conclusions 13
First Meceting of the Board of Engineers 18
Extent of Exam~ination by the Board 20
Description of the Region 24
Sources of Information 24
Geology of the Evergla~des 24
Physical Gondition and Natural Drainage of the Ever-es 25
Lake Okoeehabee 26
The Kiossmmee River 27
The Caloonahatchee River 88
Lake Okeechobee as a Pactor in the ,rainage of the Evergladea 28
Drainage A'rea of Lake Okceechabee 29
Available Storage in Lakce Okeechabee~ 30
Plan of the Stlate of Florida for ;"rainage of the Evergladea 31
Extract of Letter from :Major J. 0., WIright Concerning Plans
for the Drainage of the E:vergladea 32
Dimensions of Canals under Constructiton 34!
North New River Canal 34
South N3ew River Ga~nal 34
Mdiami Branch ;44
H~llaboro Ganal 34
Capacity of Sylstems as lowJ broject~ed 34
Present Condition of Canals 37
Canal Outlets 40
Present Plans of the State of: Florida for the ReclRamation
of t;he Evergladea 44
Works under Construction Inadequate 44
Further Investigation Needed 45
Opinion of other Engineers on the Drainage of the Evergilades
and on the Required. anal Capacity 46g
%xtracts from Senate Document Ho.~ 89 "E~verglades of Florida.n 46
Report of Majgor J.0. Wirigh1t 46
Estimated 3xoavation in Proposed Canala 50
views of TW. C. G. Elliott; 51
Lake Okeechobee as a Storage Reservoir 52
Ditches Required 54
Cost of Excavation 54
Di~mensaions and E~stitmated Cost of cight M~ain Canals 55
Discussion of Rajgor J.r 0. ??right's Report 56
D~ison~asiaion of Report as Mlodified byr M~r, C. G. Elliott 57
Discussion of AvaPilable Data Relative to the Drainage of
the Everglades 58
Rainfall 6 1
The Rainy Season in Florida 61e
Number of Honths of Heavy Rainfall Excessive 64
Excessive 24-hour Storms not Experienced in Unusual
In Intensity of Rainfall, Florida Stations exceed most
Other in the United Statea 67
Study of Rainfall Affecting the Evcerladce should be
H'ade from Mbape showing the Rainfall Distribution 67
II I I I I II -
Evaporation Data of Little Value in Runoff Calculationa 0
Evaporation Measurements by U* 8* VlIeather :Bureau 72
Evaporation in Inchee at Certain FBlorida Stations 73
Evaporation in Alrid Regiona 73
Evaporatonn and Rainfall at Independene. California,
Reported by Mrt. Charles Hs Lee 74i
Average Evaporation and Temperature Records at Laguna
Seca, Californiar 74
Major Wright's Discussion oa~F Evaporation 957
-kethods of Study of Maximum Ru~noff' 78
'The Runoff Provided for ino Lontaiana 78
Value of Storage '80
Runoff Conditions in the Evorgla~des 80
Runoff of the Caloosahatchee River 81
Runoff from drainage Area of Lake Okeechobee 81
Runoff from Mack Landa 83
Tentative Con~cluaonys as to Necepeary Canal Glapaci~ty for
EPerglades Land 84
Md--n-axindh Flooda not; Provided for 84
Storage for Irrigation or for Storm Ploode fin L~ake Okeea~hobee 85
Lake Okeechobee Should be Controlled b Independent Canala 86
Probable Runoff from Lake Okeecrhobee 86
Capacity of Canala N-eeded toI Control Lake Okeechobee 87
Canal Needed for the Drahnage of the Evergladeo 87
Ultimate sncepss Assured 88
time Reqired foi)~~;TTTr Dveopen of Transportation Facilities 90
Time Required for Ag~ricultural and Commercia~l Development 91
:Danger of Growth~ of Jungle due to too Rapid Development 91
Danger from F~ires Due to too Rapid Development 93
Bad Results from Forced Development 93
Logical System for the Development of the Evergladea 9
Imdarte Effective Drainage ot Lande Dependent on Individual
Effort 94- .T8
Separation of Lands Unfortunate 95
State Drainage Act Necesesary 95
Draiageof the_ Lands of Everglade Land Sales 06mpany and
Aeolated C ompaniep 95
Exc~hang~e of Gertain Lands Desirable 987
Present Condition of Your Landa ~97
Possible Methods of Realaiming the Lands of the Everglade
Land Salee Company and Associated Companies 102
Diking of Landa Necessary 102
Shrinkage of Mruck Lands 105
Lateral Ditching 106
Water Levels in Ditches and Ganals 106
Drainage by Gravity 107
Drainage by Purmp~ing 109
Summnary for Pumping from Twso tracts 1'313
Summary for PhapingS from Bour Tracts r14
Drainage in Part by Gr~aytty in part by Pumping P15
State Co-Operation 117
of thre S~orgia tesatoi i
10. The.Olrl oana~~ls revDT:ise fr: Idti;Pitip B Oa of ~clak
Oke6sotobes and~~ths~~iterglardes nspot heq manrry $(asr te ~esp@($t
and will invoslve rj :tyibllk tbe Bobs)~##;a thoesenaq piktaeaf age
construotio or predesQted Wy the 84aig~ ata P;EoRides
Trhe can4al should w mbe usCleh r deep@ .tbakhese uterI~li son .
pruation -or projected by~ the Stats, .The rerxathfew by).$he't~
asea of there land to-be 4rataed ia net .gshat.4 gYp~~Jiikaq Mgt~~i .44
'in ths ~annaIl s i ay evet w 11~ ba Yggys esight~f i,b AAA the 4
of the ground rt.rsurfa bjy a ~skagas 4 t~he ag~i~~~~ij*al wo qeagg
.L t vided for. o.Br .effeative Amegange it9b Westattij, ha a.P
4Pi~ p 14 L gn thel QsaklpA~C shrouljd by ig~ti tahal t<:
14 e we h~Er .aeuth S. TZhLLris egiki 4& I@ mia:s nmos sa depl
,oned ~so -that at the~ir mIonthsB thefi~l~L discharging Bll9Empaq,~~:3 (E .i.
by irached ~in aPriSm that ise beclrrr-owasa lebarg het S~ta~te pgalsr
_ades(r caiesatrutioft and profsootd a~re partio~u1arly defiblitii' at in'this
fgageBo p the~ir b~ottascpr betag onlyi a lit~Yt~ebalaw aep.a lev414.and
t eli~'~o8peatie s beothg rrreaa he 984 witi~quegh MtgCher wars1ter~ la.
E~f tobive dtrrraitage off p$* .f' the r~4NriF;Wes canno9 bt olhiragne 11y
rush shall~ eanatsl bawavpisrrja w ide n riurea~X khrty may bre.
its iPt Ap Ap94 at;lff tha~t the ]p~rivat ha~ntsr drw ow4c~ 4
kZEa Barrglades:v will not: e effootulrly drainslt~by~~ the.B;ok abw
underv way7 or Projecte4 byl th Setat f qi lgdorida.
have:to be. xrie by Ul-irsq i8sat ohn The risk 4410.5* as6: :'
adL1 61111 amount invy,: systead thly at. sttlkotwa
coa taarekI abwervs psas~ o the' rid t as aoa tW1 Okeea obser
ars Sort a~brf i *4>*eas e aes447_
thdj n*aslwha~~~ reation -of. the ate ~japsble th~ sa augier 9 We t ee
survehand amintion of tvarkish IhatQ:P route bWI pet '` a
whe~~~oh r11 ean a d irano ~ta.3 heb Otd' r1 gaPrdyc
protegi n Ib ut h frteeangn ontra~Qo'a~aE L:za p
a1 .parbSt Altep aeaP: ietrl ~inite~ in h Zerg a **-~
op~r~eraston at: Qla s ate .Battal~~: s~ s~,8:~~~t .
/ A. In to reparat arle~ of' .OSda ~ .ahwS aig(rs~4
Fneofi Y9 W:asre~~ Pe~telaia y nd o
/i e. In the exrhange) of lana t o p eLrat of the
i segre~A~~igatisa.s of j~ $b hldag f prtate: :. ~~1~
soluare~~as of hdstatyile onbt .bgi e ted largely to .the son~i~ at
of liake Okeeehobee, the enlargesment of: "thenaura out;lead
the cronrYIBUotton Of Bd~addtiona elttibdsr tram .thet Evsrbka e 4a
the 0aean, and to jthe psgressive sornsrtraotton of adequght,.... ';
drainage cannepels tyom the orutlts so provided tlpito the nt
of t~he 'T~~ayerstades..
Y':lou ar face to f~acewt e almo rjl't~t~ 3~O Xlatata~:."
yousr owd lands and those sold bybJT ye~ ~to othes;. we habgns~~)av4. :.er a
consid er e t he pf~blem pjr ia i~ly fromp this~ rstandpo ilths;'
Tihe condi~tionsr found by: you rieard3F~ of Engt art~ -
vap9rso da..aavaixael and ~tap rselz or ~i s unuar 'on was
.above aon~lr'cluns arsrg based, are difseqased aet sload ~~legt~h I z~fha
The ga'.aheirs pit Abd.'- s~ soeart gnvn at fashonybs ille,.' "
Floria, on. SatargPdi BAngent 5, 19U12:4f where rbayre st la :
Kr. Henr~y H. Rakshon;0 ploa.q)1:t Psre -de$ nd; 1r.is 4' tr-rJC;Q141)
Jelagineer oaf 44~e $yet lcjade fcLapt Salip' Serapanyvi and by ljis. Fj.' 8
Warxghti Cidlf.'.Magineer for the T.rushes~ gythe lateS~J; salSar~se e
adab Fu9nd of- the Shtsr~ ptF Rorksh.
fkes party prece~hded to Fort jtaire sh thep west coas of
the gsquinsul~a, arriving Saturd~ay .eve~ntag and Issq~lea i .for. Elake~
Okechobes ISuda~y morn~ingi, Augtja~t ~, by boarrt, itpon9. th OIa10esaw
bat okee .River .. Sunda night waa s Post at' Zca~Lle .. Th par ty~
left bsbaelle at ait o' alook the foELowlag annirqng, Passing to
Lakie~ Oke~eho a by Er14rt., Bonnibt and IRtp~irpsey takesa and ~the
Thr ee Mile Canal. Soth e low and ab ove. Latelle eattead a a
recent fS~Ftloodl ,ar~erflow wFab seed, (Bet photq~gra ph ,ag 45)
A .atop was madae: at observati~onr Islea.to speure reaPt:
ainfall .,and xlake level data from Dr,8. -. gr. ArasPtrong whro beec been.
making observations at that pl eQe fqS the U. .8'q~ Warg or aPtesy.
(rsee appe~ndix 1). Fromr th~is pSace the party qroceeded'~ to RA t
tihe herad .0( South New Rivro Garral on Lake Okeeehotee, where~t I
Tuaadagl, morzline Aug~ust' as was spent -inE L 'ECI tr, solp the
S~o~uth NewP Ri~er Canais tlQ point I tj~ 20 dil'ea 4,fa~s~ tn We 51~Q~cidha .
Okaeehobel: where ty~rbalL c d~red~ge No. 8 (see photogr'a~q aPge.;JOj;;: 19'
was at ork re~ste n in treathe botm .pt ~thee .n~ Ap
ing .in the afterobon, the Dab~~tirt~ -eairneltd "the garden at Ri~th.(see
phgotogrph Bage 89) and' paid a Pisit. to. 04ahan'pl a fusery o8n thie
eaotherr-' oloorterl of Lak O~oehobeq3~e. at both of which potats ome of i1
Sheg aggrianhath1~ paesibil)itiri l of thB Evrg~lardest l;anS~r iCB ha e bee
On Wdneky Aunat7, the paty left the Mislest io
at rtr'a art 6 A..,; gailitiia siart~erly eight alles to the xottih. of
the North NewRve Unnal, e- acrnd t~hene, by the wray of this eanal
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etorage will become of the greatest taportanoe when the irrigation
of these lands is undertaken th the future, inandatigns :ef 10 a
Evergladea from this lake anst first be pre ented, after which
the drainage.of the Everglades enames a more simple problem.
Dring to the high temperatures of avaser, the law fainfall to
this pe iod, and the character of the.anok mil. the irrigatio6
of the reolamed lands will later prove necessary, and Lake
Okeenhotee will then became of greater value as a reservoir for
irrigation than as a reservoir for aborm flow-equalizatton pur-
poses. From.it, by aheane-of proper y designed steals, water may
be rapidly discharged during %he 10ad season, and drkES for brip
gation purposes during the dry season.
he drainage ichea tridttery to Lake Okeechotee has hot
as yet been determined with precision. Major 7. Q. Wright, for* .
marly Bra;1sage Engineer to the Board of Interna) Improvenant Fami
of the State of Florida, fixes the drainag6 area at 6096.8 square
miles, and the area of Lake Okeechabee at 710 MQuare adek.
An appropriation was recently made by the-government
for the.investigation of the feasibility of deepening $ge
Caldosahatchee River and providing an outlet from Lake Okeeababee
to the Atlantic coast for navigation :pur:posee. A Boar4 of
Engineers was appointed,.from the United States Engineer Gooti to
investigate and report upon this subject. By ourtesy of Captain
K. H. Slattery, U.S.A. Engineer in charge at Jacksonville, tre were
furnished with a Gopy of a"maD-of this-region, sus determined by the
Engineers of the United States Engineer Corps. (See Drawing 6,
..aptafh BLarttery estimates the total drainasge area.
tributaty to Lake Okseehobee to be apgproximately 5366 squaure
mflds' a~s fallows(
gKiesasmee River 5,059 Sq. MA.
Fish gating Creakt, 917.~L~W
Esat. of ~KissimmPlee 'Rivetr .3'75 .
rea, oPf Lake Okeechbobee 753
Allapgattah Sect~tion 8
Total~ area ., 5,6
depaifn Statteryr reports the area of Lake OSkeeshobee ~t~o
be approximately 753 squaree miles.
in da~tal of more exact informaut~tp and wisjhing~ to agske
all ealtrisates oonservative, your Board of Eng~neevrr' sb hars thmse
the drainage area tribatary to Lake Okteeeho~bes to be ap hezimtely
6000 sqauare miles, knowdingl the area of the la~ke 14841%~ estimated
The bottom of the lake- slopes iaery -I a~dab~Llr ~froqs thL.
shore to a maoXimun depth of 20.feet, moe OI LMqr eal thcrefPore,
there~ are large aesas of aboal water. The folX: lake leve L is t.
rqront 20.6 feet, and extreme high water at aboat 32 feet, both
aboeP mean low tide (pear levelI).
W~e underst4Lnd that the Uniited States Englaeelr Corps4 has
for payigatiop purposes, set an eleyattop of i0 fast a ove meoan low
tide as a minimum lladtt below wshich the lake Level is not qoBe
:- TRlhe d~trs asabag apaity-batrePamletat~ion 10nd 19
is ap raoxima~tejg ly,65,~000 acre feet~ or 5,957.~000000 onpie feet..
Equivalent to four anld one-quarter inches in depth oveh the entire
anaumed drainage amus of 6,000.aqu~arb miles.
The limit to which this storage, assumed t9be heava$1-
able, musat Be discounted by reason of the! whertaint~ty of meteor-
ological conditions and forecasts, and the co~nfliatig nature of"
the demands or ness~emities of' drainage and irrigatiozn, are dia-I
cussed hiereafter in thip report.
FLAN~ OF THE STAT OF BiLORI[DA $OR THE& DRAINGE
Gif TeR EVE~RG 58I~~S
The drainage of the Eporglades is under the juriedia.
tion of, and being activery: carried on by the Thrnatees of the
Interpal. Improvement. and of Th~arida -Th~i Board wats Qe~trestt
by a isw passed January 6, 1855,r whichr designated as *TrnateesP
.: L1the Govepptr, Comptroller, Treasurerl Athiersey Generadt( and 044$
mi~satonqr of ~.-Agript~ ltue of the Bt44, Ma~ their snecessors to
offi~e. Te' tamed~iate supe~rvision of the work for the last two-
years or. nare has been in charge of Masjor J. O. Wr~c;ght, Ohiefi
Drainage Engines~ to the BoardF.
MLajor WVright, as supervisinS engineer of the Boardr
of Experimtent Stations, Ulnited States Department of Agyrionltures
investigated the reolarmation of the Evsrgl~aders in the year 19Q07*
1908. Later, he was appointed Chief Drainage Engineer to- the.
TIruestes of the Internal laprovement hwad of rlorida, rand contin-
ued in this capacity up to the times of his resignation in AngPIet,
While consid~erable work laulB already been done by the
up to this time was-dasoribed in a letter rece9ived By the Board
from Maajor rWright, under date of Augnet 15, 1912, as followers.
Extract of Letter from ]Kajor J. 0 WVright, Conerning
Plans of the State-of Florida for the Drainage of the EverF-
'Thhe Sta~te is ngr an aged in cutting five oulgtlet from .
Lak~ce Oke~ephobseeto tide water for the purtrpose of lowering the
lake to: an e~levation of sixteen feet above sea level, The frt
ot these enter'a into~ -he ~saloesahatchee River., /Yd~f odtei et is
pract~iclly od;apletedi. the Gorp~rrement, herever, requi3aes that
the'oha~nno be deepeneda in sromre pleales s as to havPe a'oniformP
grade from an elevation of plue 11 at the lakre to plus.lat
Lagelle, channel to Be sixt~y feet Wi~de on bottom.
Trustees at the time of M'ajor Wright's app0ointaki, revised.
glans for the drainage 'of the ~tyargladea were adopted shortlyl
The work deflinit Ly grojeosta by thet Bt~te of FloridLa
"NoF~rh.New River Ca8enal -'Thf'b oanal leaves the lake
at an elevation of phatb 18 and has a uniform fall of three in-
obes to the m~iles to mean laws tide at the j~ufgtilon,of the Nforth
.Nlew River and 'olth~ New River canails -four mndles-weat of pt.
"SoutF1h New River 0Banal This canale leavesr the lake at
an relevatio4 of-~~~--~~--~~-- 12 .and has a fall of 0.2 per adle to tide water
at the duge~tion of the Mosrth NewR River andl SlcuthNew Rive. four
miles west 6f St. Lrandertale.
"Th~aUisant B3rnch leaves GzSouthr lo Rver.forty-five
miless fromLudse Okeechobse at the~ graide of this.oanal at that
point, and has 'a fall of 0.8 per mile to tide wa~ter in1 the
"KltLabdoe Canial This oana~l leaves th~e lake at an
elevations of ~twelvct fe##t above lsea level and has a .fall of 0.2
per mile to within about four miles of itsi mouth at which point
greade inCreased to p;ras tioally oen foot per mile to Oide water
in the HillasBore River
DThe lengSth, bottom wridth, depth of flowr, depth of
aut of the several portions of these canapls are shown# in a
~tahul~ated satebteIfnt att62:d-tackyedthert
R"The upper portion of these oanals for a di~stanoe of
twenty niles south of the lake is wfholly in atoak and the bank
* ~slopes are 1/2 horizontal to 1 perpendicular. The lower por-
tbon of these canals is usually in muck two to seven feet deep
underlaid with rotten lime stone. In some places near the lower
end of these canals the rock comes to the surface of the ground.
Where the muck is underlaid with rock the bank slope of the
rook is 1/2 to 1, and the slope of the earth, above the rook,
varies from 1/2 to 1 to 1-1/2 to 1 owing to the character of
nWest Palm Beach Canal The contract for this anal
has not yet been let and it has not been determined definitely
what width it will be mnade.
"I am enclosing, herewith, a profile of the Caloosa-
hatchee River and a condensed profile of the Hillaboro anal and
the Wr~est Palm Beach Canal.
"In mry original investigation of this drainage area I
concluded that it would be necessary to remove from the lake
3j938 ou. FIt. per second by means of the canals during the rainy
season. On further ingestigation of the subject I reached the
conclusions that a discharge of 3200 Bu. ft. per second would be
ample to control the lake except possibly in extroardinary
stprn periods which might occur at rare intervals. g eeec
to Senate Document No. 89, page 168, you will not& I eeechaVe pro-
vided for two canals not embraced in the plane now being con-
structed. It is the purpose of the Trustees, an explained to
you, to cut other canals as they have the metane, that may be
found necessary to prevent the overflow of the lake and to far~z-
nish outlets for lateral drained.
"In comp~uting discharge of the above canals I have al-
lowed the m~aximum'depth jf flow in the Caloosahatchee River to
be eight feet, and in the other canals seven feet.
"Shrinkage of muck soil This is a matter aojout which
there is more or less speculation. From my observation and ex-
perience I have concluded the shrinkage in the Evergladea will
range from 25 to 33-1/30 of the depth of the mueck above the
i plane of the soil water held in the "Glades when the land is
drained. By means of suitable looks and dams the level of the
water can be held at the elevation that experience shows to be
best suited for the growth of crops. From the experience of the
truck growers on the Davie lExperimen~tal barm and in the vicinity
of Miami andl Fort Lauderdale, it seems that from thirty to thirty-
six inches below the surface is a level for the soil water that
gives the beat results. The soil of the Everglades is not wet
but is simply overflowed and I think it would be an easy matter
to overdrain it. The proper depth below the surface to hold the
soil water can be determined by experience only.
wingg to the lack of reliable data concerning rainfall,
evaporation and runoff there is necessarily more or less un-
certainty as to the discharge capacity of the canals required.
.j;i I s 6Y d f ji ~
~, ~?. ~
:ri .i :
Ga.rr ass __tatan _-s-- .@ _y_-
'Eha .,, h~~~prC t ~~P~~t.Pitti;, .~Taia '
'Cave ~~text ght if waswhe jo 19414 ,;grat at 4 age
eaarsiton it.dtnange 1T.94i~~d r!i evee4 f s the~i~ othey lZ ut AAAA
~revadly be oagnatlrlroted.4
r(198 So'ttom a'R thI~ Depth of $low. Depth.0f of$t
c1. 4~';O'a 10r 00 ~ft. 7'ia 5 .0:.. St..
5S e 2 55.~, h .7 9t,:,.5 rt t .
So t~o: 30 'F 4D 9iF~ f .5 ft.
30 0 S f do.;L9. ftct 9.0- .ft.~i~,
0- t q 50P ti V. ft; 8.75 4[~
.1 :. as
SS II .'
oo ~ iti
Ifp rto 20
.8 %4 e ~
r 7 ft
5~V ft l
.7 St .
10 ~to .ag
Sso. t# so e
so8 LS. .
at~ i~t. '
C ~ II
e~ un xdersetan thato~: ~ the fire~s gates! BsongAA f~~~TQta Sa
Qksaineehobse~ spr~a so$~t~ thave beatsa ged ririq hqye..sr sis es~3`i~pa
~ity pf. s4dio .ibo fe~et per- seond `atb t3..he labs; w"i3t th& ej::th~ af:'
: la. 1e sefled tA the tabL& : i rpdate~ B~~th equ~~aptn;Lak 4;* *"4 es
.ad' lL .~iBFt T~b~~~PY~BF u~i.~ n~~ro: -;s~~ib;:
~ .~ .-
1 3?d IL~ I~ il~
r:Y. ..r i r
.r : i
elevation.19,' a apr tastel 87 on to: 99 per ***d agavata
aft 19 fet aoesea o a d Ih tr in thebe as
~Bage c.~a 'A 41 :AnP the~0 ka ayhe'S e ee
7F~4 th6 apdt t o a hr e to e heali~s
trob~ 3300 14bO 190 eabt feetn sEion dependidgglgs t;
extent -to waeb reist03t anyi~"*".fP. be at 1**> as Dateakshates h
Sesie ;aera aQ
batsed~19~~ .po an agaum: ffeear outrai n aal edS
kic "annot 'be **alisea f ete4 a sp es hranald. to
~~Yi~a rgaria~~~.:: 1 ~. 1( ~ ii
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ca# rt Anma: ist ho t: .4 asiddi on on..
the:~~~~~~~~~~~~ ..all frm?1 edo h ie otesaS ~i e
the tt wll tak she o 5t 4ta.hag at-ree ehh
.. .ed d e rver nd rastait the: coni naei
I .. .
5 ~to.~~U $ixe la innig o he 'a work It".P"f is doubt
eat~rri seac .o hsta il]eeaeu d
the data t ou tsat $ dithodCSh the wa"~ e (a the e
,.wa anot ,,:e1tow4 it1 mada~b~. a~i ab ation It 'i a1:
outibt.,~~~~ the mont ofteo ie: ae.rwn 0 p
1 e. entirly Aan atuatelf~ tot 4a r ad~oe4t~ fkeed wa f&~.
169~e cf.te ra ter .rfated oiarnl A-)Wll aet ef
mate~rtaj 1 ena~id .p thi bass aiU otaaS ~i-iL a~~~~th. nia
onstbr ptsin i an Bfank heorday oaq4;9,p~$~ wateh~ o~rJ the stj
projected~ t o onnect w*ith the-Royal 0144er g8rapakapw~ ajidesr
consrtructionPby the Everglade Lasnd sales tdeaspaiir, are designed:
to have a9 bottom widthl of 20 ~e~t, and a depth of 8' eet. Thes
caacaity of these danslalee as, will to tooP small to. pass the
wPaete which mutst res~oh them.
a anal has already been conrstructed ffrom Lake
Okeechobee to fort Thomlpsoni to connect the leae with the
Cailoosahatehee River-, although this anal e4111l Irmatapalr to
be deepened under ~the tems~ of *assura~nesa given to 80he United
States Government by the State. W~he your Board paessed thrrngh -
this ea~sal, there wraesa slig~ht.'carret outwa~rd from the La e4e
It sahotld be noted, sowevrer, thata during the flooi ~of~ Inae, 1918, .. I~
I in wbihin the m raki3nmum haintail as ce oncentrated on a~ Ps~p areawen
of. Lalr~e gkeecho b e (se Ema P page 82) the. Galgggabatshea-k,?~;* :--rL@-:
ulnable to carry the fly? frpp S. drai~nrag grBl~ea, @6 lalyeyeq
1 wqg ift ba ~(a4 pbjbtogetph pagh 43) IllG.afata411 reverg4 i
114i irow ira Tur~nerr P.0. west oqf Port Thosp~aon to Lake Okeechdbee
(0** profile, Drawing 2, Appendin 13), and thna diacoharged8 foro
this point ~in opposite directions, 6oth easterly into the take and.
weeterly in~to t~he GUlr. ..
It is evident that the ca~rring aerpaosty of the
Calloosahastehee River is not suffiolent to nare for .the noragL
flood flow fromL its own tributary drainage areal exoanding the
Lakre shed, and that it cannot theetfore be considered as afforrding
during rainy seasons an important outlet to lake Okep~ohobkee, for
there wrill unldoub~t~edly he times, as ~heretaifoa, whag1 the rivaW~
will o~ccasionorlly diseharge into ra~thePTtrrji thenfr the lake, thus
)contri'buti~ng to thae lood water~ condi~tions o Inthle1lae rather
th~nan feasiing AA .P living th em.s I~ wi~Ll untouibtedly~ bse esen'
$4tlto regulate.the flow between Lakte OkeethoeeP~ and thite river
by the .QBonstructionl of a look anid contro~llig rorsfi near the
point wphere it, or the Pannal buiLt in. extenrtion of' it, leaves the
14ke. IA. any. aso be necesary~4 in the futrtae to control other
ottljetsa 'In a similar ma~nner.
PRESENT ~PLAhS~ OF THE;SPTAER OF' FLORIDA 90R THIE FEGLAMATIGE
Up to the pke~aent time 'the State autho~r~ities have can
raitted themselves to the control of the flood waters.of xLake i:
Oke:f~sohobee, andc to comPl~leging the following s~ranalt the N~orth' '
i e ipiter Canal, the South .s~New Rivr Caal the ;:iant brnch:~. p~ ii*
the souith ew ruirr 04al1., e. ) Wi:fll ab or i-a a pmd. the s~etLr`.:` t1 ~
Benea~ Canma (seeDaw9~ains5 3.Appenrdix s). TEhe~ State mother
Zarw not ~apperently given formal notte9e that t~hese- works wouAA .
arrh in th ve rglades, but 1Git appeas.'that the ~~tarna ees the
Internal Imqprovemenrt Bund have ~been.led to hope.$hst they night
bb esuffiolent, and to public generaely h~as quite8 def1aitely ask
sumaed this to be the case. it is hi~rdly Bonesivable that th@ 1r~
dividual own~egsof saI ya tracts of. land; in thre Everuglpes, ubhe i
~iprobhrbly num~ber from 20,000 to X0,000, would h4av begght their ~i
hoiblding had they not presyumed that the wothe new under tnstrue -:
tian .b the State would accomlish the rolaat ion of the
E~orgladr~e s d make their.leadt tilltable. t
Itr; appeared ;to usi:`at the wHorks nOw. nager consrtruction
~~d:l~;i "'' r'"
:7~ if~t~A 3 ~
4st: ~ ~;]
R~ : QT
:"~;~~~?~~~r' :"~'~ '"'i4~;;-:
:3~a "'' F
i ~:CI1- ;1...:. i~33?tn;S
pt"~~~~. Ma agah. r a .v
agAAA~' 5% :- flwap t
Midhe 4:. 4Ij-44~.
he.~~~~ pnikD:~ of:' ,S.Tks.t 000 p
a-I a-r su'ae 14:s ehi p e
tas44ae~~~~~~~~ .:I 4 atw iA9 r n
that the ranfll j: tW i ythys
that of the enip wha ha r n aat.r
.i : t s A E bs'r toasel sh. Wa a
4...~ ne *a4 e
dars~ l~~ la .~ 4t ea s 4
*gadi dia~~~~o ~f4?~.. a
'' engwson Itr been ag ,i southe 91art
~ Stat Bes ramfilf tass ,3~p saftt SPp ;;t tte~
Icouraw n as *-
~r~~a 4 n laB*:dil a. Cbe'131~:a~niars~ s
i. We ; wasoP n we~i5
~~~ AF~iP'J~js usar.eti~' 4 84 susistee 0.1 1 sh
*0 oon ~re arsa i Ne WarSofpar 4
.~~a shilbojr;s F~ 4 insan.. ~isi. awawrno IIfrt 'ItL74 tee~i464- d~;a.
wJe~~?O ;:?s-o thIrs .aterpkA i ars psh t&.oa~ M
rcsAbJ 8;4 .'toPrg #ant9 s atJs~ t s~ttardit -ttg hse anth is
a aT ~as r: 4% tht to.taksb ia~ br YeoadgesPt~b
; trd times. i #aiad wte wReae toi1~~" -des
An.s aF orjJg~~:~~i5 Sa' fouawkg. rel~a ty,~ opatT~F' a atr
.. ce '..':p tass as. dA~~e4f0ml ed by w;ars,ir~tonai 4 M
:~u on .new rp~9e~ 1JsT aM WW. a~t t L
see een of .~tha A:Jely Ifinches.'
~h4lir4 ; .~ to. -.';'- ketatsities,~ jteevfr~iAjz a fro
ageA 95e As Adate
2, stuy of # deLtaip ofsuernkepalasto
Il thr p a aton alibd ttarjA## he.a
'L : :L F; .~. .-
r~ ou~ sr n. :r "6 h e ., per 'a
: thusi y asEt at' M 8prsn.Egr Mdt
ofi~~i Sh @ eat rgeato a~soveat';~~~i~ jiai 's .:::
: ~ *94 ': ...h we as~ Yt-tead sysi he day~~~~~9~ Uliurin .i~ltp~
''if:the-a 11e~~d~~;;Ptr pit i~Hftri. 2 li4 44 Pi-BIto 641 Adahas god ~'or~g_ .75 i p
eat... 65 thev44fb 61 ioF" &&: Mts.g .T'ya wih
Mae esavankhsF~Eiot-Lancr 'ton'the wat~ejabib hedi~ibib aJT aoo
"the ~atttpkense sop ~ani a~nd.PI 4 in i
:jOnei::"?I~~"~ apeainagrtht~ was~~la~ prva r s-. sa
.-1~b pePr~~~ ni~~a~i jasT 4.. .theaasted emn
., Ag s. Wit A a
I~pk~f~~i~ea i :0.0i ash:* top al~k~4i Lake i e
;~ tes4 :Qr Q0.88, ine 14e5 a~tiri;;ul~; 44Ot~~.45
''e rt 1,7ea a em
being estimated at 0.25 inch and the rainfall 0.387 inch, there rel
) Imaina 0.137 inch of water in the lakre, or 8.49 inches, wRhiCh, added
to the run-off from the land, makes 48.94 inches, the amount which
the level of the lake would be raised during July andCAugust should
the banks be high enough to retain it.
"From the above facts it appears that the most feasible
way to control the level of Lake Okeechobee is to dig canals from
the lake to tidewater of sufficient onapacity to rednoe its Level
to an elevation of 16 feet just before the rainy season sets in, and
allow a storage capacity for 36 inches of the run-off. There will
then remain to be removed through the canal 13.948 inches during the
62 days, or 0.2088 inch in 24 hours. To accomplish this will re.
quire canals having an aggregate discharge of 3,938 outic feet per
The report then goes on to a discussion of "5sie and
Arrangement of Canals." In brief, i~t may be said that the plan
shown in the report, comtemnplated the construction of seven canals
in addition to the improvement of the Caloosahatchee River, the
proposed canals being as follows: North Canal, Hillaboro Ganal,
NSorth and Middle N~ew River Canals, having a joint outlet above
Fort Lauderdale; Soeuth New River Canal, M~iank Canal, and Weest
Canal, which latter was to find an outlet In the lower Eterglades.
(See ]Drawing 4, Appendix 18).
It may be noted that while the plans under which the
drainage work is now being carried forward by the State of
Florida provide for the construction of fire, instead of eight
canals, as originally provided by Major Wright in addition to
the improvement of-the Caloosahatdhee River, Their carrying ca-
pacity is estimated by Mlajor Wright to be substantially the saerr
as that of the canals contemplated.in the earlier project.
The hydraulic elements, estimated capacities, and amounts
of excavation involved by these proposed canals are shownl in the
VIEWS OF MR. C. G. EEI.IOTT
) While the report referred to above, and written by
Major J. 0. Wright, was prepared under the authority of C.G.
Elliott, than Chief of the Drainage Bureau, United States
Department of Agriculture, and received, we understand, prefuno.
tory endorsement, Mr. Elliott subsequently concluded that the
proposed capacity of the canals was inadequate, and made certain
changes in the basic figures contained in Major Wright's report,
which were published later as a part of Exhibit 3 of No. 5 in the
nHearings before the Committee on Expenditures, in the Department
We quote from Mr. Elliott's published statement (see
page 33 et seQ.):
Examinations of this .grait area have not been made in
* sufficient detail to secure the facts tha.t are necessary to an
intelligent design of a drainage pigg_(ogthe EYe gladea... ThR .
area has distinctive abizait istles-And in :Many respects is unlike
any reclamation project which has been completed. Since it has no
counterpart, the plan must be worked out by comparing the condi-
tions which have beed food in 'leealities where drainage has been
successfully accompliphed with those which are known to exist in
the Everglades. The-discussion of the drainage problem therefore,
will be confined necessarily to the consideration of the factor
which relate to it, and to suggestions regarding their use and value
in formalating a practical plan.
"The problem has three elements which require separate
"First: The area of land lying north of Lake Okeechotee,
estimated at 5,500 square miles, which discharges its drainage into
the lake through the Kissimmee.River and several smaller streams.
"Second. The lake, comprising an area of 758 square
miles, w ich receives the entire runoff from the land before de-
scribed and when filled relieves itself westward through the
Caloosahatchee River and southward over the Everglades.
"Third. The upper Everglades, comprising a plain of
approximately 2,981 square miles, for which there is no natural r:.isi
"The rainfall of the interior part of the State is fair-
ly represented by the record of the Weather Bureau station at
Kiasteneetemn which it appearp that a precipitation of 15.
inches in one month coopia spossionally, but rarely exteeds -8
inches in $wo consecutive manyW. .This enount may $11 @ut
two consecutive meaths in the summer or early fall on.any portion
of abuthern Florida, so that it will be used as a basis for compu
ing the probabip runoff that phagt be provided fore The-astuat .
runoff free wither the Lake Okeenhabee watershed or the Everglades
has not been determined. 3 .:my this speciflo information, the
amount ofdragnage may be .Lasted by (Mpaparing the ranoff are@
whidb are.Maywhat similar bb southern Florida in surface sad
climate, giving due weight to the difference in conditions which
are known to exist.
"A comparison of the a knal runoff from large areas as
gives \f:the records of streat ingh shows a wide range of
readia, due to differences in the character of the rainatorms,
the temperature, the topoBraphy,-and the .eott anyface. .The .rable
. between rainfall and knoff opp be determined only by regage skymak
measurements of both,-. Da$a of-thia -ldUML for areas a qilarate '',E
southern Florida on ag be seenrt4, but by conqultipg the records -
of the quing of several sitesse th the (buth, ad the boweapond-
thg raiMall, it .appears that-t ewunaff for two conedentive anamer -
monthe Varies between 20 and.30 per dents of the rainfall for that
time. Taking into oo tion the difference in.greas Sqr wish
impoff has been measured & the wateighed of Lake Okeeshabee, 19
tp thoughtthit RS jpgr a of the rafafall whtehipsy @05 M
18 tini qonaeoutffe months will pass'tate iful lake. Assuming 24
tashes as the rainfall for AS days, the dotheof inn-off will be
5.88.inches. Since the area diseharging its water inte the lake to
seven and one-half.tiless larger than the lake, the lake.awrtaq4
would be raised 39.6 inehea b .$he inflow. Apuateg.Jhe edge Main-
fatt upon the lake, tht the same less by evaveration as we assumed
far the .land surface, the total ftee in $ Lak6 due $os rainfalA
of 24 indhea during OS Age wi)1 44.88 inches, should'there be
no diasharge.Aartag that.ttede-
14ss ougnaess 4a 4 syoaAaq gasanyopt
*It is proposed to **6 01 thiYTo PYWom The take and from
the land which discharges its 4 tipage ipto 4 by staring in thq lake
a part of the water which falle during maths of heavy ;precipitatAppi
and permitting it to flow through ditohes 44 We opean during the-
dry season of the years The water may also be used during that,
season by renewing the sapply th the EYorglades.-- --SRus lake will be
lowpred by-the ditches to an-elevation of 14 feet and.aay rise to
ahleteyation of 41 feet before it treatlps. IS.is proposed to.
all the lake to rise 3 feet ahter the conditione-ot.tainfall (MA
runoff previoaaly discussed, and to roviAe &itches with controlling
gates at the Edus ands to carry the remainder..
*The statement.of the problem is as follower
*Twenty-two per cent. of at blades of rainfall in da days
on the Tadre Okeechobee watershed a 0.28 inches.
Surface of lake raised by this inflow 5.28 inches
by 7.1/2 inches ........**************--***
Depth of Rainfall
T&tal depth collected on the lake in 62 days
Storage depth in the lake (753 sq, miles) ...
& Depth to be removed by ditches ....-*********
"Allowing 68 days for this amount to be dischar5 p
the depth per day will be 0.1306 inch and will require candle
wikh a capacity to remove 2.572 feet per second. This plan
of preventing the overflow of the lake requirede that its le
to gradually reduced during the dry season to anelevation
16 feet. During the rainy season, assumed to be two con
months in the anamer or fall, the water will rise to an e to a
of 19 feet, during which time the flow through the ditches w 1
.increase as the .depth of water becomes greater, reachigg a
imum discharge when the level of the lake reaches the highe't
stage. It will be necessary to maintain either a natural or .
artificial bank along the south border of the lake to prevent the.
waves from breaking over the adjoining land.
"The.foregoing examples indicate the prevailing drainage
practice with respeat to runoff from reclaimed lands. They are of
assistance in planning draine for the BYorgladea insofar as the
efficient conditions are Intelligeptly compared, The rainfall
will at times be not less.4han 24 Anghes instwo consecutive months,
with possibly 15 inqhyp.in a gingly South. Thery..will be.no felfef
except through the ditches which finilly diedharge into the sea.
While made soils when dry absorb a large volume of water, they also
require a large permanent supply wheran thrifty growth of Yegeta-
tion is desired. It is further observed that the total amount of
drainage required for turf Made does Act differ materially-frea
that of other permeable or opensails. This is found to be -10ams..
in central Wisconain, where mudk lands reeting.on a eand subsoil
are being reclaimed. It may be safely meanned, however, that
more water will be used by plante ,ant that the evaporation from
the Surfage will be greater in the Florida climate than in more
"With reference-to the shape and sise of the drainage wits .
in the Everglades, it should be observed that the entird area should
be divided by parallel ditohey into drainage sections, each 10atted
by the several outlet ditchea of the agrate. Instead of being a
large Valley, with bributary streams whiph colled the wa.tar from
the entire basin and finally discharge it into one stream it will
be a collection of drainage a was not amoeading 100 square miles
-e ash. :. .. ...a ...
"Taking it so atoRD ach differences & -der App6at
between areas 'which have been sucoessfully drained apd the SVere
Slaves, it is thought best to design the main ditches of sufficient
capagity to runner# ong-fourth,0th in depth.of water ,in 84 hopps.v'.
spot is.equivalent to 4.72 Cabis feet per second per square #:Us.
In the nature of the.problem there is an uncertainty is this mat-
ter whiph can only be removed by constrating a series of drains
which will be to qome extent experimental. It is believed, however,
that the drains should.have greater oa acity father than less, in
_ __ __
i ; I:
order to set all the requirements of the land.
DIZ0KES .BSQUEMMS. -- ---
"The ditches shown upon ths ERS 879 AhpigBed to 008#
water fkom the-lake 40 tidowetor -em$ aleK>.du> Egast Asoutlet -
drainage to amatrip at land ohe mile jwidd on gadbiaid Ad $444nal
ditchee shonid be constructed parallel to these at daAerraha 4%.
2 miles with enfficient capacity to care 4m..the 4 adhage ef.Zag
for a mile on each side of them. Creas ditehea one mile apart
should connect these, thue-dividing the land into .bloake.1 mile
wide by 2 .m:MLes kagglengt: Thtaxarraagemeat wiliginp(Ltd interior
drainagerto be mooon dibbed by titakee whiah needsot.19.Sen5er than
one 5tle. The mala 'drainage should not be consi$.erg .complete
until BR0se ditches have been provided. The 8 mile chdals should
ex*Lnd to the lake and there be furnished with gates by means of
whiW water can be admitted for subirrigating the land during dry
'seasons. The height of the water in the ditches can be regulated
by temporary dams and the supply be increased when desired byag-
mitting water to them from the lake.
?But little is kndwn regarding thi amount of ,anac.ituds.will
be encountered in excavating the canals. The material exoavated
by the State dredges on the New Biver Canal near Feat Leaddrdale is
composed of about 20=peg sent reek god 80 per cent ask. The
coat o .auch work, sus adGnut by the latea4,report of operations
upon that ditche-ta.-S Wants per onbie yard for-rook and 4 sents for
slack. The rock .ia sheaply blasted.and removed by the dre4 es
of the cost of work are based upon extremely meagre infamati.ea
conoarning the material that will be enocustWred and the contingent
oies which my arise during the excestian of the worked
"A few further observations upon mattere relatibs direetly
a the reolamation of th.e .Everglades may profitibly street attend
ion to certain contingencies whichwill modify the effoottronous of
he system. The mean Telosity of .flow in the attakes will be so
small that winds having a direction contrapy .to the current will
have a Yory appredikble retarding.effect upon their diasharge.
The Maintenance of the ditches will be an taportaat itae because
of the rapid greath of aquatic plants which age .indigenous to that .
region. Unless these are removed 'at timely Aptervals, they will
4 ander the ditokes ;partially or wholly inopetative. While the %mw@mne
surface of the Everglades Sa .generally a plane and 645 been treated
as each in the drainage lans which have been proposed, there up -
in reality runsar deprogatone 14 the Everglade.e probably 18 inehea
or more below the general surface which will not respond so assily
to the drainage systan as the lands of the general level. Coaasishat .
lor islands also secur, which will paggest the propriety of deftsot-
ing the course of certain Aitches #bish may be projected before a
complete examination of the gro#nt has been made.
PBrief mention has been made of the ,$4qilities for 178-
gating the land by using the water whtoh will.-be stored An the take.
The water which will be stored during two months .cd large.rainfall
may be used during the remainder of the year for maintaining& Ad-
atrable height of water in the ditates, and .La that sh4ner.anbirri2
gate the land. For example, the preciDitation at M:14mi during -
Seap tember-and 0Octoer, -1909-, was'44.45' Snd~as, an exaepti onally
) large s unarerk. .8lhold rAsh rainr oeur after the realamrattin.
works have been ea,anatr~Qed,. the 8jsyse wo-uld to tamp~d 44~ its
gre~atea;t: capacity. Thes .rainfall for Feb~ruairy ad Ma~Brc.19P07
wasr onlzy 9.88 iqchr, aFn4 ;Serequentl~y doe's niot erxqost & Apehea, during
thoea mq~nths, whics coa~gtt~ios 'suggest the necsessit fo~ jrriga-~
tion.~1 Wnght amk oi dry easily ancd. ail to prodnoee. iell anaess
the augpjphy oef moistUre is .mitaat i~ned Quite uxniforpkly ~during the
growing steaon. TPhe Tariati~oh in monthly rainfall in For~ida is as
great as it la in the regloioh having heavy looma reothe yet the powfer
of Plorida anok to ret~LS a moisture is an@d less. TLhe-A fri~gati on
featgr .in connection with drainage sahould- not be negleted, saw
pecially where 1,) can be so aeaily rs~oeemed
A'The~plans ran estimates Thre in~ given. are obty~ sihggestive.
h;4 data sad specific information. whioh.are neceeaspay for;the dQa
pelopmaent; of a thoroughly reliable plan.af drai~ndg halve Met gyet
:ieen obtained, nor can anchb information be 'secured w~fi~thea$ a more%
complg~ete' examination~ of the Everglades, and a tarter taf~rCsiltiga-
Stion-of there renoff. conditions which are pecoulia~r .to soakhas~rn
'31swida. Tfhe ~obbeat of this report is to presents, a Ladnebu sion-
oft he..variousa phasses of.the problem, to point out the fajtt~ers
wAA & enter.into it, aind' to direct attentionr to the ~man@@rd in
which1 the entire petrqeslt' shouZld be treated."
SI895ateNOy MAFJOR J.0;~, MRJ;ZdT'pREO
~~~ :an, apaination of ajlor rtigt's report upon thty drainage
..',~~.. -r -f~l Evsrergldesi..i~n U.S. Senate Document 89, leads to the' oan-
ao;lkteSr that not only were the~ baso .data contained th~tein in-
c~omplets~ and inadeangte*..bt Baadata ainigy 8a~Sattble were nhot util-
1 iaed. .Thuls the exceedingly raluable aS6 most sign~iighat ~raintell
recordp kept, by the U, 8. YVeather Bureau wrere. gappaeptly over,
.4pog:q- Bs Cerdpny po ~a ight *u a~ttahqld'to thamn .'lonthly-dooords
wfflj-g ven for but two '8tati one nd do~inveigation was; agparentc-
1 Made of the natual Emabbly digibutl0D Of TS1LII11 0797 ih h?"-
son harn '$orida, nor 9t the distributiol,, duration and intedgeity
of izit jpidual sta a w ith ereernce to the PeE6orLad eq. uopon which
the grainage plans mast-.sp .lrgely de~pendr The. drta -.o ,evapoaraties
.- *icih wetre givet ai the report were at ,least Ana4pplicabler ndefrfloot
cobnditioPnr, and the cano~asiona diawn fropl then wesFsure narkarranted
) either by the data discussed or by any other data with which
your Board is familiar. Runoff data from slailar low-areas upon
the Gulf or coast were unoonsidered. Observed and recorded
discharges from other drainage di'striatr in the southern United
States, of comparative value though not directly comparable were
unmentioned. The deductions as to the probably /Wunoff were based
upon unsound reasoning.
The uncertainties involved in the basic data, upon which
the report was predicated, were not clearly brought out, and the
reader was left to infer that the conalusliongs ere based upon
suffloiently socaurate date for the Aerelolpment of this great P18p-
ject, involving the expenditure of mlillionsofo doll5ars.
D~~OISQUSIO OF REPORT As IIODIPIED BY UR. G. G. ]ELL10!(
In the report as modified b. Mr. Pl~liott, while but few
additional data. were presented, a clearer conception of the
magnitude and uncertainties of the problem appearsg,- "th plane
and estimates given are only suaggestive;" "The data and spacifia
information which are necessary for the development of a thoroughly
reliayLe plan of drainage heCve not yert breps~ obtainedB.~
M'r. Enltott aazlle atteatidon to .aurrent'prlactipe ina other
drainage work, and based his estimates of runoff and necsessry
ditch cripac~ity ixpon the results of susoessful practice in other
laoalities.. HBe quoted discharge statistics toom Southern .rivesrs
and used those data as a basis for the plan of drainage whioh he
presents, and this, a tentative one only.. he showed ble appre~otation
) of his lack of data and exact knowledge, and impressed the reader
with the urgent need of more comprehensaive study and invoestigation
of the subject before the preparation of final plans for the reolama.~
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The ar"g nuk "a f $1: of tht'Yate Stte it
.shows on~ tip asp o t9f I 8~~ Ib., he h~lP ightl Ap tei1 bidh.B seenblast t
-P eninanie of 'Il$,iar~ ida llt~jXP ~th~~ eat~i ask .: 4- aianexipua sa
,in the.Unt d States (50'q 60 ) axopting: qleyss 4 %ew 11dited;
ar gas a e44o to atill gr eater r adatli, gke f th hl darkj
blulcoqP or on he asrrp. Hla~e resag anai~l: 41tb at~ ion qt ~rain4falf
: ~~ SE19t~'pidP is shown b~j the~ina~p on p9ag.I. Thle,, andmal painall
on the averglaa es (averaPgine 65 inches) to subjec:'is]al~ 5~rtiW to. an>tstt
-froin year to ysar u(aa' to sa ). :(see~ tabled. 4peth 8; M total
anniiial amount of li~raitLk'La,' howlevr,. not as tapolotant ~In the oQIwn
sideration of draia~qge pro'bltaems are it~s .Istr~ib't tpa $154 vba~qb
aerter of tho, Wa6 a so aM th f\1P~lrreq eney,/ nrthat l~i e I
tude adir. tn~tena% 'of: Andivga ikft
:as ada sus I.75RD .
Thfe distribation of the raqintod4ai 44tangtufs th ea t
wifeidi"vably upon the 71P4tida 'plni nrsl ngis ne2~I~BpEjral an ana'sd~
ais tho~.%@nual ra~iinfe 1O6~ nieiarawthin -the hpsto 4# moapsthe
c tim luded in the ratay seaso, -. h asn ea ,geea
o 4iesd wihis Ithe months4 of fistsi ruy, Aarsittd .0epteakey
oepftes toladea the month lZarof ir :actobelr, *.#**(&)ly siong te tl anthj:-.,
seaoart4~d:- ,(sdee Magnah)4 e99 as)..~ iMas of the areingy annaht
-b- digrbtitt to i of rainfall tp .Tunpe ijulfY,~ Arf~ga s an Setembef
shrown t ,4 P adiz 5.
,-~annual r~1qintly~Of thi IPen~ins eqal ta qgantiAY:
the8, atdbita asinfall b E~o;f Isladatan se me p.pit 0!; Se ~ a its distrI~
I:~~~ butiop a_ n~ot so nIbfora (ssee Diagram: psag -88, .ad Tab3C.: page SS) ap
a larger proportion occurs within the months mentioned, and that
in greater intensity and in a distribution more difficult to han-
dle by drainage work (see Mass Curves, Alppendix 9).
UMIJBER OF MONTHS OF` BAVY RAINFULrL EX31CESSXIVE
If the rainfall records are sta~nined in detail, it will
be seen that the number of month of rainfall in excess of 10 in-
obes is very much greater in Florida than in Louisiana. It should
also be noted that nonally months of heavy rainfall succeed each
other with greatere, frequency 14 Blorida than in Loutstana,
From the Table ;n page 65 it will be seen that between
the years 1886 and 1912 there were at New Orleans 19 months in
which the rainfall was ten inches or more, while during the esme
period the number of months of similar fainfall were 41 at Ft.
Head, 36 at Ft. Myers and 28 for Miami.
EXCESSIVE TWENTY-FOUR HOUR STORMIIS NTOT EX~IPERIENG~ED IN
In individual heavy rainstorms, of 2.50 inches per day
and over, a greater number occur at Louisiana stations (as repro-
sented by New Orleans) than at the Florida stations investigated
(see Table on page 66).
For the period, fron 1900 to 1911 inclusive, the follow
ing number of storms of 2.5" or more occurred at the stations
New Orleans 48
Pt. Mead 39
Pt. Myers 16
(Hh The Florida stones noted in this last frequently last for
.. m a C' in
longer pr toda (pQsetrldays) and hast, as A a o dre ttrs
avacina~ge qgendstona. ~ I..:
Ta inltenh pity ofrib' l cl, *S r op twoand threq:.:; ::
coes~outiVer days, and fe~o~~~r oe b- a:g4 t4 adneedus we mg-- onthe e
the ~rainfall at variousg abaions ta' FloridPase@ Ta~be ao Page* tea!
is tlieved to bea equaled of byeo"f' bqdbyfwloaite
the reop~ Iso"! Ti a a aS aeo be xcess e
peacid L1 vgea t t er rfr tiae tor *hea teagrds asr ava 1 6 to
conpstae d. .?
for: others tations. :is an~h' beley $19 Fo";erid4L reesi &ot aM~Ca
c~ ~~Ke Wh'.zi~i ro4 an :thb f$Ye. and. nant regard a4d anag,: hae.-beenl. [
efpaled bry buit fear stations in the eastr~jn Unithd,8~ r atr~ es (
the Ira ~infall, data t~roam esatgle stit~ionsia sQuomewhat at.g1
-teadng1 asr' they~ indisPagre the c:'obal onditiona pnly. To exhai t of` 6
the stormp gjo~singq the local ~rege~i p can be 64wanjoil neolyr ~by.
Ipol4earison of the~ ..atanitama ousanris attite a oth *4& ne. -.
In order to obtain a llwre definite idea of the actual
distribution of rainfall throughout the E~vorglades, the total rain-
fall for the three months of maximum rainfall for each ye'ar fran
1891 to 1911 inclusive, has been platted. (See Appendix 6).
The daily rainfall at the various stations on the peninsula
of Florida (see Appendix 7) has also been studied in relation to
certain specific storms, and platted on a series of maps as isohye-
tals or lines of equal rainfall, which are believed to give a bet-
ter idea of the distribution of rainfall over the Everglades than
can possibly be obtained from any simple examination of statistics.
Very little reliable information is to be had upon the
evaporation from water or soil surfaces. Most of the experiments
upon evaporation have been made upon such a small scale and~ under
such artificial conditions, as to lead to the suspicion that they
do nbt correctly reproduce or represent the actual or natural
EVAPORATFION DATA OF L;ITTLE~ VALUE INP RUNOFF CALCULATIONS
It is the opinion of your Board that, while evaporation
is known to have a substantial effect upon runoff, the data avail-
able concerning its amount and variation under any conditions, are
too meagre and too inadequate to warrant their use as a basis for
even an approximate estimate of runoff. Moreover, if provision
for the drainage of the Everglades must be made in large measure
independent of storage in Lake Okesohobee, in consequence of the
necessity for holding this storage for ultimate irrigation purposes,
the comparatively salrlL a~mot of aralarble atoage, and the
taspossibility of forecasting meteorological conditioned, the effoot
of evaporation in redneing rulnoff will be of little imrportance, by
reason of the excessively heavy rainfalls coeorring in this rer
gion in periods of from three to ten days (3"* to SUN) aad.the
fact that during~ the storms or the periods when the air is nearly
)saturated with water Papor, the actual evapor~ation is wwwwrtFy at a
i dni mum and negligible In amount.
EVAPORATIQ~ REASURlLEMENTS BY U.S. WEASHE BUREAU ,
In 1887 and 1888 the United Startes Weather' Bureau~add
: certain temperature observations with wet and dry bulb thermora
~~ ~eters, from whinbcha teattemrpt wnas made to determine the VIr~iationsl
in evaporation from warter~ erfaes throughout the Unitted States.
The results of these ex~periments have been platted and are shabow
on Map on page 71. The information contained urpon this mzip is
by no means exactbut rather comp~arative, indicative of the variac
tions found in various parts of the Qountry.
_ _I __ _
._~ I.-u ~ __ .,.. .. ~I- .~. -- se
: as Comp~uted,by, the 0.g.,V~~h sa 5th a ?breen tyth~
Wet and Dr~tf ulb- Thermomeater .Rdkfipgs):
Jacrk~sonville T'itupgv'l e edaF rJ Key Keiii~iD Seracr e ..
Feb, 2.6" 2.6 8c8 3.9 2.8
Mar* 3.8 3.8 3. .84.
Apr.; 4 .3 3.8 4.6 4.8 ) .0*
aitiy 4.6 3.8 4;,5 4*4
JTaner 5.3 4.3 4.8 ',
Jul~y 5.0 3.8 5.0 8.13 iro ,0
BAg. 4,7 4.3 83.5 8.4 5s.4
8ept. 3.8 4.0 4.5 4.7 5.8
04te. 3.6 4.1 1 4.8-. 4.5
07. I 5. 3.0 3~362.5 5, 8 '3.6
Dec. 2.1- 3.1j 2.6 3,2 2.4
48.7'P 44,8" 49. 59~. 5Li6" 48. eelr
In the. rar~id regBionBs were the ralinall tor srlight and- '~:
wvhere the hum~idity is very awr, cond~itique' ibf~avor bl to aximoan
evaporatish o~oor and the evaporation i econasequently hi5~ Th
resu~lta obtained under s3hanhcoditions oomeparpp well wi'th the ev~ap~. .~
oration assumed. by Masjor Wjright, but they are not.af alil aP~ppian.
able to Blorida conditions..
M t. Chbarlea H8. Lee (see Engineesring Nwass A'ptober 12:,
1911) m~ade certain esxp~er~iments of the soil erVaporation neaCr Inde-
pendenda, Califoirnia, and determined the: evaporation in inches,
fr~om month to morl~h, and the average precipitation e4be as followed
yd 2 WRIGpt's-b58CUSSI o
__~ __ ~ _
These Ireeart~ ys are d importaner only as sawiBrrng ~thkhb
tlhe musaimum aun art of-oYdporation ia s 'coincdenT0 withlhighln~ temspe
nature and lag ra~infall at the qtatiionr. .
Ifn regard tor the evapotratiol2 sta~tippie q~rioted in he~~
reprt: (see gc45 47) it shou;Ld by nabed thbat M~ajor WaSr9:ht'se de~.
.ductione/ ;$;eed- on obnditions. in other loscaithiaes .ateofllastpus .~i
inaestcPh: as he takes the avefra~e of the observatfions duringL a
number of maonthb without n~~~kmaig notI of the correspoondng tempera-
ture and hjigromtric conditioapi~, and,#f the-AgP~ poipO 9( alafalk~c3
Dako~ta, obser~ttions for Maty to Septemnber inclusive, 'are a pe 1sta
of. four si~onesetriV e yeBT~~aVryaver ~ag,4' for the fiveaQrbFnn~~hy a te
thr ;Xuly are~L~~$ a"reachingf kW hig'14aoq a Elliottlrl rle 'jta~teri
that duringthse :period~ the ave~rage annthiYP BZC2 y g:Bat solutiE 1 jo''
14.,8* or 45 or ceant. lessa than ~thB abadwed evapogc ra~t; ion, sad lth
resp~trd shlow t.hart for eadd months the a9e agp evaporation' a~s perat
gr than.the. rainfaltl. Itj is alrt.pyknown thaict-datr;X a.can oif the
patteds oovered .by theea obseVOrvat$4ae, $b t7`j' tbeased wasI so lea
peeaively wat that oriops' wrert injured By. he.;iack of brainag~e.
iihe. obse~rvation s on the~C sfa CrotoneF 817e~r ateed ins Bne
Yo~rk haers little signifiwanie fo3:~r~r riaConaditions, '..ths TON .cd
the averages aptal~ evaporation wrhich oeours. Prom Jiune $@;.sgtember:
:ih inpive, oc~ueatiirstee at aL seaboa9 when evap~~oratn is at a
aI~UIm *and with a low rainfarll s compared with the rainy season
in- P2oridas. Stlalilay obsrilvat~ionr smade at Boatonc, ME~assachuseStts, .
and Roch~ester, NEw York, arer no oCriteriona for Plorida co'ndi~tions .t.
I' I The experiments on the consumption of wnater br crops,
made by Reisler, Har~rington and King, deal with general averages
in Jther latitudes and under climatic conditions differing largely
from those prevailing in Florida, and they- cannot therefore be
applied to Florida conditions, 'under which maximum runoff must
be determined for times of maximan rainfall abi under conditions
unfavorable to large evaporation.
The runoff from any area, wh'rich m'ray' appear either as
the flowi of streams in definite channels or the broad surface
flow, reavlting from flood conditions, is the direct result of
rainfall distribution,, modified by geological, topographical, and
physical conditions which space will not permit us to discuss.
A brief examination of the rainfall data already presented showsa
that thee heaviest storms, which would naturally produce large
runoff, are concentrated in limited areas,` and iht follows from
these conditions that the h/unoff from small areas must be much
greater, per unit of area, -than from large areas.~ Extended obser-
vations upon numerous stream have clearly indicated the general.
law, to which there are few exceptions, `This condition Is well
illustrated by the K~uichling diagram sh~own on page 77, upon which
appear the actual maximum discharges observed upon vari~a namerican
(chiefly northeastern United S3tates) and foreign rivers. .A curve
of limiting maximum flood discharges is also drawn,- showing
graphically thre law held to apply under thle conditions considered,:
deerinto oh f thb 14W Applicable o h e rigion adp q'attko
~and 'tiEs' Leoa law 941 he Quald. SCo ira gre9atif. withb PIh s
tt LQal la;r ponditi ons .t ha there obtain,~. Thus no~it eh otrre la r ed
~:~ ::Plaged, by'e 'an the Kni.ehlinig dtagram. for tent~ative So'
: 10 PoidM,. and ~fos' further azample. ise DigriSam op 4444 9 wr~~ihi abows
two OUrvesi ~~a;bz agedb :tEi A C. cao t. thiC in o;ias aFdadve oped
by hiLm for application in the Little River Dirstriot, of irkansas,
t he low ~"ar fo~4r dentgg d hs~, swag andq~71 low I da: t4 the Upper
:~~Ms : 'lltB V~ley).4 egi~lar oufve dev41,oped :by -Mr? Athat is~
a isve97preda~~ .by us ro~ughl~y tadicatingrg ~ 'qr 1 ir i ca~ :i 'A:
Logf~ii~ea~:and fiiinaly a curv suggested. y go! for.) }eq$4ti-i _B*
in. the regionz. of tas~. 9eergiadesa. TheP1 first four. of these durye
ar te -result .of stary and a qtual, obsetrved rqiosf~f f~rom Qig 4 .'
MarrC s ~ayWhat. sii~lar, phy spal. da nd.Jttons~ ~prail~a~T1 ed46\qrmth :
ation of a stimlaS: ~la f~or iay- tres, dida~tes maust An~tok 1. ptudy
of all. the rsainall; and. eheqr pigf ralwa conditifons wh~PP).thEL~Te .obtiainl.~
_anat n~ea rl 984191 th& re fcqiins ~ous ini the mtilQad the-e
41whop -rane. aspingr'.~roa .Manicasu .foS tentase So so~~ .ane sit~albal l i
bae uo etni'uif r d-s4.i te24aur p
~~~aad~~~ ~ ~ ~ 1,ol L ;~~j3i`~$eP
Appendjix 12), Clr~f m 2~ to 27 quble feet pe-r peeasd.pe7 squere
ag~e of' driainage area for nlarea at ten aguaremls Dri~eaoreoii.
In many of. these Ma~triot the Ingoons and bayons along
the Wl~asiasippi River and. its tr.~ibutarr iaes ef~ford cojnaterable
stocra~ge, Ieservoir capcitiees equivaenet to from one to two in'ahas
o~r aore over Bthe enCi~re ariea of the district. Under thee gon-~
'... Atitjona the pumptng and Apnls cana 1 egptatties, need not be so
pr at asr when no rstorage is aaraiSablej).hen the dhitches and puapse
shotls be able to'tuatte the neathus rate of flowr from ~the' gj;en
atre~, bSo wpuld be .the eaa68 fa the N~rgsx;Ls eat.,
YpsUE~, Q S'PQRApp
It abou~ld be nted that storaBgesof this kinda,.wh~ere it
aZ~lreaY ~ extata wihi drainge~qb dislt rlet, w hile. of distinsa ea-
of such toage by nkw ex~anations. The aust df the newe$sary knat
leands and of exssavation is missily ach g eater tha~n is w~aftinate
by the r~erSultnin benefit.
.i RUNGF:9 GCOBDITINS' IN 559~E VEf~RGLAD)~~
Q :: .: zrunoff jengitP) she'LL inh~ rthr~oggS deal have ract~icall not
yat been te~rribned and. need fa~ther obsaervartion, aintstigatiqu.
and sindyr. .T~he flowsa of varotune Souithern river's have ~been' ex~amine
4 L by us (AlfppengJiLq1)4 p~ad whljle the Obqervatione upon thdese
riverr are' not strictly applicablea, they~ are of some assistanrle.
Zn-;determining t~he conditions wRhich a~y be anticipated. Th~e
iFnteasity of the rainfghs which. prevaiL lead uB to believe that.
(he trunff In the Evergtlades waill be greater than ia Logisiana.
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710 x 12
averageb discharge from this area was 6,000 x 9 = 0.2 of an inch
per day over the entire drainage area for a seven day period. As
the above discharge was the average for a seven day period, the
maiimum discharge must certainly has been as much, at least, as
143/4 inch per 24 dap hours, and it. is not improbable that it was
In .ths connection it should be noted (see~ Nag page 82)
that the center of the storm was west of Lake Okeechobee, and that
its drainage_ eyeatherefore probably..did not discaSgeg the -Cazimum
that manat be anti'crpat~dd.
~The partially completed South New River, N2orth New
River, and Hillabore Canals, and possibly other outl'etg, were
dischargingg water fiiom the. lake during the rise, wtdle the
oanal frdsl the Caloosahlatchlee niver was disohargingwahter into
the lake. Whatever this outward flow may have been it would
augment the intensity of runoff comp~uted above and might increase
the latter from 5 to 10P.
RUNOFF~ FROM6 MUCE LANDS
dunch stress has been laid upon the porosity of t~he muck
soil of the E~verg~lades, and its ability to absorb quantities of
water. It must be tfeamebered, however, that when the Evergl~adea
are anocessfully drained and thoroughly cultivated, a change will
take place in the character of the muck, and that the woil above
the water table will become different in character, more ta~per-
vious and less absorbent. As pointed out by Mr. $lliott, it
has hmno not been found under Wiacronsin conditions that the quantity of
) drainage from peat and muck lands la greatly different from similar
',dhierliefo.~:ptwi othy ~soils? aoh8 it, sea~gems roa b that no an mlu (
.dtfferwoe~ ip th qunantt of nrunff~ a be anticipbatd in the
long Suni"',9b aount of the spharactor of the soil of he :5Btrgladbal
SENTATIVP GONEQLUSIONS As To ZOPWSSARLY GANTAL CAPAG* .
_ITIE B.OR EV41 GAD3 8
YeB conclude .$renatsivaly,, thaerefore, Ithait fr oap~Jletea
drainage, when the are-as. are~ faljir y concentrated, the ditch. oj -
canal'o;apacitie4 should provide For a discharrge of about -
1.1/2."par 24~ ho~urs, or 40 abic qetPa far seond: ger @ are 541*
of tf~L ~da e~ia~8:li~ Bp 6'0 d1RBIae: Ib:L
less than ..3/4" p~ey! 24.hoPs, or 21 o8u'ota feet.per seechId per
Igilli rPa%%ggaltigellat)381 soo sparei ~ zrsattr ep.nos seas sam .'
1/2? pr 84 hoUreier X 14dhtt@~ fee Perd~l~ phntprauare ai. on
t~rats of about~ 750 square 41iefi anid tha~t ~if the whzole drakinage
diedha~rges di the Everglaes w~Ere concentlratpt n a slIgle~ 44Wal, 14.
' ,weald not bbe safe to eatisaate .tgon a capqgatty at itse outlet' of 14bE:.
thanr 1/4" in deptlzP ofrunoff pe~r 24 sotuPr syr 71 oubio feet' apr
'second 9er Pquare' mile of drain~age area..
for minded iate construction 9 rposess it. i~ll probabigly. e
uzndesijrable-to desrigni d.4tces for hth samad~lerand areas T-rot mor~e .
than onie iah'oapa ity in 24 hours. Thrsa nill probably affiord, a a
.ple 4raiinage p~uter most au~dit~dions but ms~~ay psl~'in limi~ted, evr-~
Sflow~a during ocessional heavy stolrms.r
MARTHUKt 8GOOD rJOT atWEP~ ED POS
Wer do notC conaier it .n@e0~a auryv to jrefidaa drainagLe-fas l
e~ii9ties th rermo~er the largese t Ifloodstha iduck use 105 especd -in.~ a 14gf
-' I i
- -* *
r:'i ~ '`'
tem4,# 74ky~~la. '.o Xa4d' :this whald large asr th'Asmenft in panals
ati.;ong interni thel itsabhon throleoghys Ithisi ~rapport bs be@~.'
to .~ravide 4raigpgelor f~loods .~lriky to rear~ with a'eii debint
egnancyi~-S sa d~r .lub wiPrsrdis:adrle~ fo~ 8r 4th~1. for their emplXtte
demoarral, .Tfhb4~~f tirzpn which to sestimae these quant 'i ies suare
as(#6aely 1ge. It anst be rog isa .tha exextage: in he
gated1~' a PaMtrrcl pf trBiaiage. tll Wodi~ ~;t $$k tthe-yeasrs gor~n ge
etC p re01sg~8sent: we hfae .Iqtend 4 :tO keep irrnnd adaoderrate. figures
.'-l~l~weio a lk:~ :er~tain1/ro id2e 4 d ~red of.gralnage sufflniats to
..I\Qqrrtrrata th Pbgossibilitiet at he prpject,-and, proba lly''A Eftw
!~~?~~~P Bt~ ob eas-Al 33agatnablje aggpgreaatle f orr spr19 ygea~e. 21u~8
n ag who ti onat:1t~l 'fagiliths and. 4% so~b toR~f wat-to .
''..,:`.~gr~it~ would be ed~~iXr i'ai't~ yihna~altst a develops at a8; a~P~PrPq.
py )ybleft f ~_dthemasination after cactual a ~Pe tence A
:sysabbe.h~: 111 aPA; figures hereinarter' seafioned ;:'halpdforthey as
.a~eragralr are tp be unde~rstood.. ta thio~sg may an it-ru apq} he seog
atagP that cocasionally at Siaabs f lory heaty asine,:jthere will
ai fPloods ;;thatrp J1 oprobabtly overtattrhe we fr.PisO, a uges~Bted-:
srpja;e ih Og 70&j~Q~~~~.~~ PbB1 $18:0 k& That a oD p ix-LI;A~ERI osmExampBO
1 ;: ~ ~ ~gThre ca be' no doubtg0 the t~jhe ~r9estant value of Lakg
Gk~ ~eeehotte li~ep in r'r Sature' ava03iab'ili~ty or iirria~q stionri 3purPeoan
T ihe~ s9a pragoe pacit~y~betweepl bfh l~m~im of i6 andl 19 feet (Pbqiabe .
-.~ ~ R -. :elL i~ ) projeted bay the State, we Ad g~veh a tOtal storageB et:
3 et A pop, 510 aquEarel sites, or 1.5 ,000 aore f9eet to~jStariga
tw6,~ millon ~or abre spr~esa'' a and.: An exuamination -of the rajifiat
and temperature recordsr shows that during the dry winter months
the rainfall is so alight and the evaporation necessarily so con-
siderable, that the quantity of water available even wvith a full
reservoir, would be insufficient for proper irrigation of the
area which, judging from results of practie in irrigated regions.
elsewhere, would perhaps require from 12 to 18 inches in depth of
)f water during the orop growing season. It is probable, therefore,
that ultimately it will be advantageous to materially increase the
maximum leVel of Lake Okleeehotbee by ~he construotio# of ardeqruate
dikes along the' low western and southern margins of the lake.,
This possibility should receive thorough atudy and investigation.
LAEE 0EiECHOBEE gHJUL Bl oE CONRolLrED'BY INDEPENmDENT-CAN~LS
It is our opinion that the flood waters frolm Lake
Okeechobee anart practically be controlled~by a canal' or canals
constructed essentially for that purpose, and that it is imprao-
tica~ble to accomplish this control by long oanale designed for
both the drainage of the lands of the Everglades and for the con-
trol of Lake Okeechobee.
The important of irrigation must be recognized, and
the system of drainage canals for the Everladses should be so de.
signed or supplemented with additional canals that the irrigation
waters from the lake may be brought to the lands for that purpose.
PROBABLE RUNGFF FI~ROM LAKEC OKESiCHQOBI~
It is the opinion of your Board that the amount of water
to be removed from Lake Okeehhobee during flooded will not be lets
than o~ne-fourth of an inch of runoff per 24 hours, and thait it
may be,. in feat, oensiderably greater in exce~ption~al rains; but
during a considerable period of years, while the develoe7ment of
the gverglades is taking. place, and during which the water of
the lake is not used.for irrigation, it will be possible to
ordinarily hold the lake level at a low stage, and. to use the
storrige in the lake t~emperorily for flood waters. Under those
conditions half the flood flows, more or less, maaybhe stored teJm-
porarily, and Canalsr having a smaller oaptacity, of perhaps not
mrore blan oneweighth of an inch runoff per 24 hours, may suffice.
CAPACITY _OF CANALS NEEDED, To. CONTROL LAKEi OKEECROB~ES
i ~Upon this .basis the flood flow to be ultimsrtely pro-.
:I ided will be 40,000 oubia feet per second, requFirig a channel
from Lake OPkeecehobee to the saeaboard uponi the shortest practiona-
g i ~ble route, approximately 1000 feet wide and 15 teet in depth faks
/. below elevation~ 18 at the lakte shd 15 feet belo~ rsea leve~l at the
point of diaoharge. Bor imme~dikte requirmenjts, with~storage on-
pacity in the-lake uitilised for s-tory~ag flood flows, to be dis-
charged as soon; as possible,- without- holding them for use ~in irril
gation, 20,000 oubio feet per second must be provided for, rer
Squiring a canal 800O .feet widea, and of the depth previorpoly men-
These qunantities .refer to the control of Lake Okeeobhobee,
and are independent of t'he. drainage district lying south of the
cANAL~S 1EE;DED 798 THE DRAbINA(7E OPT~I LT~SHE EV4R ESJ
age and irrigation of the Evergl;ades, it may be of interest to
consider the approximate size and distribution of a series of
canals which would be sufficient. If, for example, the Everglades
wAere to be drained by a system of canals running e t from the
weat side of the Everglades and provided with proper outlets to
the seaboard, and if these canals were paced three miles apart,
allowing each to drain the territory one and one-half miles on
each side of it, these canals would drain an area three miles
wide and an average of about 50 miles in length, or a total of
150 square miles.
Upon anchi a long narrow: strip, the distribution of
the rainfall would probably be auoh that a runoff of not more than
Jne-half inch per ;24 hours need be anticipated. On this basis,
the main conal for draining each of these areas should have, at
the outlet, a capacity of
150 sq. mi. x 13..44 ou. ft. per seco. per sq. mi. :
2100 cu. ft. per sea.
Such oanals would have a mean alope of about 0.2 f~ot
per mile, and for the onapacity estimated abould have at their
outlets water sections ab..ut 110 feet wide and 12 fel-t in depth.
In the actual plans for reclamation, fewer and larger
outlets would naturally be used by the union of a number of these
canals into a common outlet. The above culoulation will, however,
give some conception of the margnitude of the problem and of the
extensive system of canals necessary for the final reclamation of
ULTIMATE SUCCEB8 ASSURED
Ho one can carefully examine the results already achieved
on the lands on the borders of Lake OkeechJbee at the Callahan
nursery, in the gardens at Rita, in the experimental station at
Wiami, and in the various developments along the Ever L~ades near
8lmid and Eort Lauderdale, without, fnling confident of thea Attai-
mate agricultural success which will result from the reclamattion
of the Everglade lands. These lands have the advantage of a great
market within much less distance than the irrigated lands of the
West, an~d h~ave the advantage of a climate that will permit the
growth jf agricultural produce at a time when it is not available
elsewhere. As thle problems ;f supply and demand becomes progress,
ively adjusted by development of transportation facilities, by
rate adjustments, by a thiorojuhr kanowledge of agricultural pesai.
bilities and practicabilities, as determined in the light of all
these factors, there can be no doubt that the entire Everglades
can and will be suoceeafully reclaimed. Conservative opt~im~ism ..
must admit, however, that the safe and sanne development of this
vast tract will require a large expenditure of time and money in
agricultural exiperimentation, in the development of suita'cle
markets, and in the adjustment of agricultural supply to the market
TIME~ REQcUIRED POR DEVE~LO3;PaET O~'Tr~F TRANSPORT A~TIG PACILITIES
Even were it financially possible to complete the drain-
age of the Eiverglades promptly, it must be remembered that years
will be required to build up transportation facilities needed to
move the cropa involved. in the cultivation of this large tract of
land. The marked development in winter market gardening in the
vicinity of F't. Lauderdale and Miamni, now carried on along the
edges of the Everglades, while of comparative limited extent, has
) .rlllaed'th freight cong~stion add hcrnY losses unon 44@ t of
: $~69requ tane.ysportaio~ln fac'tit~iesr', n equL s.te aly w~i~ll a~~ i
ofeu;paigt .sfflistent ~to e4 still aseore wmarlshd~d (~v~bo~idi~
along :~fis line. Time ara is o gre~lat aqBt th e posflrlbiia4 ;
larjuge that other antm.aere extended tranop~rtett on: sSTSI e ijp12::a
bae o be prpriderd through andrtfgreath 87i ~~rgladess-
Theb.snonesssfni. agrlcultural deitalopmeont .of twou a~i~t'oA
-aores:, f~med in ten acre tracts, foer maurket gardeaningt abd..ike
q` ... pfedneton; of~easily partgabiab ptodhe-, seemllls ep 4 eitly .jd~la.:a
ticable; The~ bu.lk of tls Everogioade lands manuat icsS'e-.~developdi
jlarge tract s for gitruEB ~ orbohards, rlab-tweginal ityit, sar~ an: ._.
therPriaqd: fr whireb. theseiataara. ada~pted bat~ rhiohI:
in.4 e P-nature are not readily perisheable.~
:: alel wth aggricultural ramatefcohae samatracisi;- :t I aprrPeio
[' ~ rman~~ Th~te~:daevelo p of the canning ihd~astr, ah 9 t~rla3bl~- : :
of suga fsd~pPiiries and -~'of ort~her 51eduiLstri Qerpendi .s bn 968agr4~~;.I
on-tits.~uret m stprallel the agrioSltural development of her l~anrdl
The cooplqte agriculturaj 'develo~Pment- of~ 'the.'~1 equ t~Lt 11 paqutt
kdpl on -i Pa~se~ss, n~dtigot 9 a2L1 tt@@ a .
oo Vsaeniencs, along Zlines always oatiledP by growhi L-pay ta-d~
tion. Under the-beat of conditions, mhoh ~growth agesb b. l wg
..t is evident by thje luxurinqglerb~ rro t O regetation
tfha't has rapidly-.fail lowed the ~progrpap of canal on~8ietuion.
seprolthard fla~rom Blre poetbei spat ir thle land-werer success-
fully drained long prior to its agricultural ulilization, a S$ngle
would soon develop which would be more difficult and expensive to
subdue and bring under cultivation than the saw grass lands which
at present constitute almost the only vegetation of the Everglades.
DA1JG~EHR FRM FfIRES DUE TO TOO RAPID DE~VEIL.PMNT
The rapid draining of the Everglades, far in advanoe of
agricultural development, would also entail a still greater dan-
ger from the probability of the total destruction of large areas
of the newly drained muck lands by fires. The newly drained
lands must be carefully guarded from this danger until the muck
has deoumpaeed and is beyond the danger of destruction from this
cause. The frequent fires in northern peat bogs during unusually
) dry seasons, and the impoassbility of controlling them, deman-
strates this danger.
BAD RESULTS FROM FORGESD DEViELOPMENT
A too rapid growth will result in congestion, extrava-
gance, loss and disappointment. Ill-advised attempts at too
rapid development, while possibly profitable to the few, must
result in great lose to the many, and t~han injury tJ the develop-
ment of the t~ate. Real progress, and the greatest good to the
State itself, will come from slow, substantial, progressive devel-
opment which is the most certain, the safest, and ultimately the
best for all .concerned. W7hen the great financial investment is
considered, such development is the only practical wfay in which
the problem of the reolaima~tion of the Everglades can be accom-
thor z odgby anyase and~rg plaa sh#1 bb~ tMgthred.~ on no
preha ie cl-e. tht ftur pamliodca 1.1 be.atide
fU~ina stoces assures.~ ;
owseid- rso ate ladwti h.Ees#scpe rae 8rin ,
.im tbo fr apsOtheir ino6L~~divda ad r oe nd rmtewr
ungor~~~f. way or o bdb h th f ol. Or-eva~.tb- : h
b: ~ th chaond~itS~r. ionf~~sed that.~ie~ obtain In ou JaggaleS$, the oV A fitnde
of t~he~~ stakes. can bet bett~r applied at~~ the prs t ie t~o a teraggh
atdyofth ety pdbon t fgnghptaeqat ot tat
the obe thog rites delrgdnbtlca s A t
thena~ spontrol of aktec'' O~ehbe If th 'und tha san ber
b~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~- th stt fMtd ge iieett gomA b .rsl
thy ,o ht.o afd h rsn
'~'JnpSa~e':'JW~~r~'PRA3lb5;1C lle s DP~ID~IE1E ~jr
P .:... ..
In our fludlgment, therefore, theB nanoseserl reojenratloJ
of thfe pgrivata' lands: within the ILyergladse is largtely !%penden
ypon pyriate effort. 'WitShout wofrks of your own, we believe
that theVariousa lands cnt~rolled by you will be subjest to
frequent inunidation whidh will make continuous aertonltural
'opeS4tiongl UPon thema impgractiocable .
BSPARATIONr 07_~AD 8 UnFzORTUNATS
The method adaoted by the State of Florida of selling 1
alternate instead of .contign~uou seetions ? land to unfontniate, :
.imalamuhase it makesrthe problem of drainage b indiviBqual effort :
andbh~ more difff ielt.
sTr~spaTS RAiKAE ADfT Nf&EpSSARY
We waere atdvised byT~~r .tjm r~iteer.Of ther.Ine~tena~lrla.-
-Pbrovement Fund that a drainage -set: would probrb~ly bro passed at
tCh .comigg session of the legiselature..
Obvionealy such an set will be niecessary if :property
owngSra are.to no~tindepenzdently or in groups upon the problem
of drainirg Btheir lahatndswt~hout. waiting for final~ action byr the
State. The paesage of.a.uchr al aot Is. of importance as it will
staPolify the obtainin~g of consent to proceed with effective
jjrirtate trainage,..and should make possible s~oloperratio: wRith all
of the land holders who will be benefited by any iqprovement
work whtth may be projected,
IEVERGLhDE .IJO SALiES COURAR~Y AMD ASSOCIIATED~ 40MPAN~IESL
Portunaterly, certain of your lanBts are contignous as
th~at they oan in any event be drained in four' tractaG
EXB~a OF DERTAIN L~IDfS DRSERAH~P: .~
It would be of distinct advantage iP exchaange of sortagin .
of your lands couLd be effeoced so as to bring your property into
one or two areas, thus reduc~inSt to a minimum the coat of dikilng,
ditching and canalcisation.
The co-op'erartion J the State, and perhaps of individual.
property owners or corporations holding large tracsf of land, wi1l
be necessary to accomplish thing but it seems likely that the
Trustees of the Internal Im~provemaent Funld will assist in pagh an
exchange of lands as ~far as possible in Vpiew of the conrditions tut-
der whieh these land have been purchased from the State, and as
a means Jf 'arssriting in the earlier development of hi _t e~_~rJ~r.ri ta
thus benefiting the State as well las the individual, b~ the InO-
crease sat in value of real estate whiph Will inevitably res~ULt, and
which will make it possible for the IState to resalise incrlesegy.
returns Qrpan upon~the lands which it may sell h~~ereater..
It has been aamperd in our report that enob.excehange at
Lyeds 9pul, ap# wuld be effee44d bi you and o~u skudies'af
d~iai'daget luhre been ma ie ~n certai. ~albe~ native e ~;so ends involving
the segregation of all of your landa i a~sO, two 'and four PareeLa.
~as~PRST COD co iOinr ~ Y JU:-R AND)
With the exception of certain slougha, $be landal'of thes
Davie Tract lie about 5.1/2 feet above asan liow warter in Bisosylne
Bay~. The lands in the other tracts ownrled by you are apparently.
8 feet and lees above the same datum.
About May~ 15, of the present. yea~r all of thed~lands
we3re overflowed as a reenlt of an early and eseere rainy seasron.
At the seeven adile post of the North New 'River .CanaAL
at the point where this sangi is joined by the Royael Glade Canal,
nowP uder construction, the water elevation has been approximately
$t, abo~vs eru MonLow Tide
February 14, 6.2
June 27.i 9.4
July 22, 8.8
August 1 8.6
Anusut 15, 8.~4
September 1, 8.2
September 15, 8.0
DOtober 1 8.0
At the time of the visit of the ~Borard (August B and 9),
e(ry little of the middle ZTabt, as V.rievel Sgosm theasixth andL..
of $itmni Canal (see photogztaphs page 21) seemed to be abora water,
a~nd: the lands of the ,ROyal Olade Tract (eae photographepagse s )
and 23 were. practically a~bmartlged
On the Isea antateil, the Davie riEath~ oh acoeunt.of its
location near the jtago~tion.of the anal waith .the Soqth Niew River
()ope.' Photog~raph`ipyege dS) wacs par~fja~ 13.ra f re4oin water, and it was
wholly so o~n .OctJber 6, on the' ootasion f a s~ubsequbnt visit of
MrL. Yaead (see .photographa ~pages 100 and 101.)r although the lands-of
the Royal GOlade Tract here still largely submerged.
We are informed that, xce~ting certain alougha, the) lands
adjaent to the easterrn edge of the! Evergle~ades e commaonly3 free fromp
wva~ter during the wrinter seas-on, and many elf these lands Are then
stilised for the raising of? garden produce. ~thi~s condition holds
for all or maOs of the land owned byF you.
_1_ _~ ~_~^ 1 ~ __II _
)~ l#. & D. Miller, of te IE9er~glblsXazge landares Soupany,
Anerored the ]Lokrd that:ii the last :10 years the a salada. Lanta
near adds aniud fr. IsandeaF~rdale had been' ree~de hd 4*
dur ias the part ed of datar 'l.qPrPp ing, and that tklSa .eajses Ilat~i
were -Awk~ya floot~d during. the rai~y u;o on.r
:' .QLSS~~&IBI.E EE DS OF RELAfP iNG (PS L~ASDB QI -
Inae~8anuoh oras teprojecte~ed, oanas of~~B he Sahj t'. L~.
FloridcaL~m.n nt .lnecessablly dsratap goii Idl~ands have,: nfell
g~ated.-thd rolloinag Btfiltert ae~thods for rataingr thed: 1~0~
:-independent of tht n'lation of the stQate. ~: I
i .ygrvty y-P 3 th onastrastfo rc:b of ~r.:.
a. BIUY 4 Ji ping
as : .: n odth 51 o a
~part tyb perse~v~i-tn pa prg byJ Pu
lhaotever sseheins is aP~tat.Q~ rY;O yOu te tabase9. at ~
ayor laeda, 'tedien~pat of h~e terrigoryr surrean~'sds $4ir
wailS~ be, ashessary to .IonB~rset dIkEs Or salO1i4alift44ta~ .run I a
2;~cadd to pzrctvire therbeir.9ng flooddi$ d uring tho.ppn of ~~
wgrrtar in the! Everglades. :
.'-1 ~ -'-The underlying email@example.com ed rooak, whid> tol at~ a a~sg;c~a
in.:parbF'age traoliB 5 a 15 is~t. or$ st b'elow .i4ht suFi~rts a 6~Q~
gross ,.( As wered,. a ~:Losetl orlj~: some of your~ pwai)rop pty,::
lawyers~ of 'ay san~,f16d,. ie ad a~~j~ Ie wk$h pubs; C Lay ~of r~l~::1-
Anig In depth fr~atwOr.to g~idr~fe, mo~re 9 3ipy.5ij -' di4 ahi:~:
acite4r. 94qdthe d.99the of -the matesr'alr a prer2t~~ I.at hero~Yc:a,~ a :
considerably, we have suggested the construction of the embank-
ment or dike in the following manner, the suggested crose section
being shown an the sketch on page 104.
It is suggested that a narrow trench, four feet, are
or less, in width, be excavated first on the center line of the
proposed embankment, the material being taken therefrom being
dumped within the lines of the proposed embankment, and that this
trench be back filled with the best available material taken out
of the oanal adjacent to the embankment, the construction of
which will be carried at the same time. In this manner a oore
can be built in the abankment, of the most impervious material
available, without greatly increasing its cost. The rest of the
embankment work will then be completed from the material removed
from the canal. Vihile the material in the embankment will be
compaoted in considerable measure b, the prooeas of construction,
it will probably be necessary to build it two feet, more or less,
above the final surface decided upon, which has been placed ten-
tatively by us at an elevation of five feet above the present
ground surface in order to allow for subsequent shrinkage.
An embankment section sixteen feet in width on top,
with side slopes 1-1/2 horizontal to 1 Yertical, and with an
eight foot berm on the inside of the embankment adjacent to the
oanal, is suggested. The side slopes of the canal may have to
be varied, according to the character of the material traversed
by it, but can probably be built as steep as 1 to 1, as we
found the embankments of a considerable portion of the canals
traversed by us were standing successfully on a elope of 1/2
) .hprianntal .to 1 YrFtical.. '
Thed final he~iht. necessary. for' the dikes~ at.6X~. agg
(Atential embasnkkPeati a ill, of course, hdieii to b~~e detain~~.'ine
tcer a warefull study of the~eXtreme high rsater. ef 18 psrevPail~ingi
In the Evargl~ates, with allotance for the infl shoe~ of the an:dleri~ :'
wvhich hav:e Precently b~een constructed. by the ~State, or wrhich nay
~:be added hereafter,
SISON AGR~ 0$ mUCK 8Irbb '
eoug~o: 9ae:e Iaoaking5 4 Qt~~-~pS @,b a ount.
of shrinkage. in thie' 2uk soil olF the EVe'rgliadrag ~ We th~1es
viewed a Tnmnber ~of, egn .upon thiis.aubjecot.iluing, our e.~qy :in
I;~ ldrido eamong tha IOpr ight, .audq Caiptala os p, Chemiht a ':
) ...~h~e:f~e gtteof %loridarl wo has hadl considerable exppr~!ienceqi~~~i~wAA ,:.
the soilsF of ths ?region and o was in n sharge of th(C e 8 (icu~~c~
raugar. plntations'. the Mis~rPhase~ Valley at the Stua eof i1 4.
devaltopment :by Mlr. 3Diieaton in 1885. The. croseansub of" op.';insto
seemed to be t.h~t a s~hri Jkage of at leaet thirty .per 'ust bad .
Bpqrh~ap a~l~r~ knok-as (orgy 9er cent should: be ~provided ftor~~~~: Ap ..
tbat portion~ of t~he soil lying aboved the 'gpqua lay~eZ after":
drainae8. F drom experiinene in ot~her.~parts #.:g \hep~ 4nungry sath peat
:.. $d~;8bcar aimiay.aol11a,~ ^sm ar o the opiniioe.that a shrinkagle
of~S a t leastlsfif3~ty per t~ ab tnhe deprtk of the drained soil~
shliould Re ;provtded for even though. khis shriasnkg e ay no~lart exwoo
thitty pe$r goat aor~e ~oi less during therer fIrst frewP yopLra. ; Cophe
kinue4dl oulistvatioanwill graduallyphango e the oibaracter -of the'Yopr
) ..'. soil and riealt; in its further comapaeting$ aniert etlemaent.
u ~ -
r: .u I;i"'i :' .arp
--;1: -ki '''
~ ;'r .~r4 i .* ;;r
~;~;:~~.~,~~ I~~iP.5 L.-
i9C 1'5 I '
r. ~ :Yici6T~G'I '~,%~-:~
j ~ IC."~A~ Ilil~~i~2-YL* ~F~illWlj~3~ -(~EC1~iLrr~-~: r~~l~~~X7e4?:~iiT~'~U~.jyih~t~EClf71.C : ~
!'Fr~';~&-i~;;~tk~B?`IE~,`~G~~:;;~h~7~E '~ B
DIRAIKAGE BY GRAVITY.
We have outlined and invbatigated a project for the
drainage of your lands by gravity. The general plan suggested
is shown upon page 108 and the profAle on Drawing 1, Appendix 13.
This project involves the exchange of certain of your present
holdings for lands that will lie within one rectangular strip,
comrising approximately 186 square miles, pAthewgh the property
controlled'-by ydgfamounts-to but tyo-thirds of this a pa, approx-
imately 181 square miles.
It ip suggested that the location of the portion of the
South New River Canal not yet built should be modified so as to
run along the northern boundary of your property, or that such
portion of this property as lies upon the northern aide of the
proposed oanal should be changed for landa lying south of it;
water level five feet below the present surface of the muck.
We have assumed, however, that during exceptional
flooded the water level at the end of the lateral canals may
rise temporarily two feet or to a level one foot below the
assumed ultimate ground surface without injury to the trees and
orope. This may cause the water level at the extreme end of
sons of the lateral ditches to rise aconsionally for a brief
period to the surface of the ground. The raising of the ground
water level to such a degree, occasionally, during the rainy
season or times of heaviest storm, we are assured by those who
have worked in this region and soil, will not permanently injure
the fruit groves or arope.
and that the land comlprised in your southerly tract should be exl
changed for land contignous to the other tracts wltthinl the ree.
tangular tract eaggseted.
It is further proposed that the easterly boundaryr of
this rectangular tract shall be upon the highland lying Mast of
t~he Evergladaes. plans showing the proposed arrangementt of main
canals, profiles, cross and typical sootio~ns and the 6etimbate
of cost uf drainage by this pr ject have been Jutlined in samne
detail in our preliminary report of September 14, 1918. .
Suffice to say, witbh reference to this gravit~y dr~ainage
project, that the elevation above the sea level is adequate and
the method is a desirable cine if practicable and not to3 expen-
sive. Thie objections to thia plan are that it involves ~ob~Gitan-
ing from the State, authority to exclude. from1 the main outlet oansrl
all drainage wRater other than those coming; from your -lander 4548
to losee that portion of the 1i~ami Ganal which under the preageoted .
plans wnill traverse your lands diagonally. It involvesl,91so the
purchase of the necessary rights-of-way for the construction of
the obtle at oanal, and very high cos t of ins tallati on r eslt ing
in high fixed charges, in large measure regardless. of the exte44b
to which the lands drained nmy be cultivated or opened up.
W~e ar~e of the opinion that this plan is the least attrsae-
tihe of the three general plans considered.
DRAIN~AGE BY PUMhPIPtG
Two general projects for the drainage of your properties
by pumping have been ~3oppyrldered. The first of these, sPhown on the
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) The estimated coate of these alternative develey.
ments have already been submitted in the preliminary report.
The information thus far carllected indicate-s that
the steam plant insta~llsa~tin seems to offer same alight advanl
tages over the others.
.The project for drainage by pumping has the merite
of smaller cost olf installation, ready enlargement to meet thd.
growing needs of the futures, operating cost in large measure
dependent upon the rainfall, and flexibility in operation.
It has one great advantage not possessed by the gravity scheme
in that it lends itself advantageously to the future deVelopment
of an irrigation scheme for these lands which hall utilize the
pumping--plant during the dry season, when it would othefwise
be out of condi.asion, without materially increasing the fixed
charges upon the plant.
DRA~INAGE IN PART BY GRAVITY, INJ PART BY PUMPING
Finally there .bae been considered.a project. for maggaa-
aiting four lahtsii ito tw~o
the Atlantio Ocean, along the same general lines, .but of lees
magnitude, than that involved in the grgrity~ sohemae first out-
lined; and draiangta the remaining parcels by pumping, in the
same general an'ner- outlined in the pumping projetot described
This project, as the others, involves some inter.
change of land, dikring and ~sanalization, and the construction
of various pumping stations and the ma~in outlet canal. In
its details it is similar to the schemes previously described.
The final decision, as to which of these projects
is to be preferred, may perhaps advantageously be suspended
until you can determine the feasibility of co~-operation with-
s"the State authorities in the exchange of lands, the construcation
of a gravity outlet from your lands, and the possibility of
swearing by purchase, or otherwise, the necessary righta-of-way~J
upon which to locate this outlet anal. Present indications -
point to the all pumping project as likely to be the most
practicable and advantag~eous, although the scheme for drainage
in part by gravity, in part by pumping, has distinct merit if
it is.feasible. While the scheme for draining the entire
property by gravity alone is desirable from an operating pJint
of view, the first cost seems to us prohibitive under exist-
As to the choice betreen pumping by steam, eleo.
trlcity or oil, present evidence indicates that the steam
driven plant will prove more advantageous under existing oir.
c~umratanc~es; but this`loubject is worthy o~f further study.
STATE: CO OPERATIOgl
In carrying out the plans for the drainage of your
propesrty, the co-operation of the State authorities, and more .
particularly the Trusetes of the! Internal Improvement Tund
of the State of Florida, is desirable.;
1. In the passage of a sound drainage
2. In the exchange of lands so as to
I segregate your land holdings into
as few anld compact parsels as
3. In the enlarging of the 4New River,
the Miami River and Canal, and
4. In the increase in number and
) magnitude o-f ou~tlete from the
Everglades to the se~a
S5. in the abandonment -ed' the section
of the proposed. Yiami.Q~anal cross
ing your prpPerty diagonally south-
easterly' from its function with the
~~ South N~ew River GlarJsal.
6. In granting authority to you to
build certain looks between the cannals
proposed by ycru for counstruction
upon your property and.oankte heretol
fore built or projected by the State.
7. In li miting the speed of power boats
upon the canals to prevent the un-
4 ) reasonable washing or sli,;ing away
of the banks of these aanale..
r 8. In the control of the water hyacinths
and similar aquatic growths.
We assume that all necessary co-operation can be scoured.
i' Should you determine to> drain: andi reolaim your landsa, doinSg tqe
Work independently of the -ction of the State if necessary~, your
/ ~landis will be the first land in the Everglades to be rbalaland
on any considerable acale. Such pioneer reclamation will be of
the erteates advantage to the State and to all individual: land
owners within the Everglades, for it will demnonstrate beyond ques-
'il tion the fact that the reclamation of the E~Verglades is p~ractioable
both as an engineering .~and as a. financial undertaking.
The Board of Engineere expressed its oblig~ations for infor-
mation furnished and courtesies extended to it by the Trustees of
the Internal Improvement Yund of the State of Florida, and their
former Chief Engineer, Major J. 0. Wright by Captainl H. H. Slat-
tery, U. 8. A., in charge of the Jacksonville office of the U. S.
Engineer Corpe; by A. J. Mitchell, Forecaster, U. S. Weather Bureau
at Jacksonville; and by the officers of the E~r~vglade Land Sales
(8(gned) Daniel W. Mea3
(Sign~ed) Allen Kazen
(Signed) Leonard Motoalf
Board of Consulting Engineers.
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