Nailebn =


Material Information

Nailebn = New life
Parallel title:
New life
Added title page title:
Physical Description:
v. : ill., ports. ; 28 cm.
Icor, Association for Jewish Colonization in the Soviet Union
Place of Publication:
New York
monthly (irregular)
completely irregular


Subjects / Keywords:
Jews -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )


Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Title also in Yiddish and text largely in Yiddish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began in May 1928.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Volume numbers irregular: Jan.-Oct. 1946 called v. 20, no. 1-10, Nov.-Dec. 1946 called v. 19, no. 11-12; 1947 called also v. 20.
General Note:
Description based on: Vol. 11, no. 1 (Jan. 1937); title from cover.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 19068832
lccn - 50017200
lcc - DS101 .N25
ddc - 296
System ID:

Full Text

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64,000 wmny Ittwei r penq ,n54mp
-y1 yltiDi'5mp nI .n'jvK Y vn5mi17
im"T 1j5'om t53?$ s prv9 Dit? "nr,
"It Dt), tIIN,, yws5o4miap 9,000 n Isn
lyatt ; Y'smtitllit f ppmi- l, lpYS 1w9
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11,000 PIlK me31 mla I' .my'jyoll nt
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100.00 15P 13 lm5
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$ 4,619.00 n-
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425.00- 983 .71" i .3m18
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19 7 1945 ,tai1ntI

Icor Orphans Campaign

in the Summer Resort

Peckskill, N. Y.
Saturday, July 14, 1945
Hollowbrook Lake Association
Suffcrn, N. Y.
Saturday, July 14, 1945
Ray's Airmount View House
Goldens Bridge, N. Y.
Saturday, July 21, 1945
Goldens Bridge Colony
Ferndale, N. Y.
Friday, July 27, 1945
Overlook Hotel
Ulster Park, N. Y.
Friday, July 27, 1945
Camp Chi-Wan-Da
Spring Valley, N. Y.
Saturday, July 28, 1945
Karmel's New Pine Villa Hotel
South Fallsburgh, N. Y.
Saturday, July 28, 1945
Clarion Acres
Loch Sheldrake, N. Y.
Sunday, July 29, 1945;
Hotel Allaben
Sea Gate, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Sunday, July 29, 1945
Lerner's Lodge
Monticello, N. Y.
Monday, July 30, 1945
Skliar's Inn
White Lake, N. Y.
Tuesday, July 31, 1945
Lake Shore Chateau
Kenoza Lake, N. Y.
Wednesday, Aug. 1, 1945
Lake View Country Club
Tompsonville, N. Y.
Thursday, Aug. 2, 1945
Mayflower Hotel
Mountaindale, N. Y.
Thursday, Aug. 2, 1945
Linden Lawn Hotel
Spring Valley, N. Y.
Thursday, Aug. 2, 1945
Singer's Lakeside Manor
Monticello, N. Y.
Friday, Aug. 3, 1945
Little Hungary Mansion
Kenoza Lake, N. Y.
Saturday, Aug. 4, 1945
Edgemere Hotel
Ferndale, N. Y.
Monday, Aug. 6, 1945
North Star Hotel.
South Fallsburgh, N. Y.
Tuesday, Aug. 14, 1945
Commodore Hotel
South Fallsburgh, N. Y.
Wednesday, Aug. 15, 1945
Hotel Irvington
Ferndale, N. Y.
Saturday, Aug. 18, 1945
Plaza Mountain House
North Branch, N. Y.
Saturday, Sept. 1, 1945
Maud's Summer-Ray
Beacon, N. Y.
Saturday, Sept. 8, 1945
Camp Beacon
(Additional engagements in progress)

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1945 M, 11M3 4 U

Philadelphia, Pa.
"The Spruce Street Group sends
heartiest congratulations to Mr. and
Mrs. Abraham Moskow in honor of
their daughter's marriage.
The Moskows' are doing excellent
work for Russian' War Relief through
the Spruce Street Group. We hope and
feel certain that they will continue to
do so.
The Spruce Street Group also pledges
to exert every effort to cooperate with
the Philadelphia Icor in every one of
their undertakings."
Executive Chairman.
Additional New York Organizations
which contributed in the Orphan
Campaign for Birobidjan
Breslover Aid Society
Akiba Eger Ind. Brotherly Soc., Inc.,
Emergency Committee

Wholesale & Warehouse Workers Union, Lo
65, U.R.W.D.S.E.A., Affiliated C.I.O.
Breslover Aid Society
Int'l Fur & Leather Workers Union
Local 1225, U.E.R.M.W.A., C.I.O.
Hebrew American Typo. Union 83, I.T.U
Cloak, Skirt & Dress Pressers Union, Lo
35, I.L.G.W.U.
Lodge 37, J.P.F.O.
East Side Icor Branch
Ida Yanovsky ......... .........
F. Erum kiss ..................
D. Rabinowitz .................
Los Angeles Icor ........ ........
\ *_

Ethel Dickerman ................
Miami Icor Comm ..............
J. Raichick .... ........... .
F. Rosenkrantz ............... .

M ax Jenkins ...................
M innie M azer ..................
Bessie Choskey .... ............
Sam Jaffee ....................

F. Buchm an ...................
Atlanta Icor Comm...........
S. Lefcowitz ...........
3 L. W olfson ...................
1 E B ador ....................
11 Eastern Parkway Icor
Ida Rothstein ..................
6' Jamaica Icor
4 B. W oods .............. ......



T otal .... . ....
P previously .......................
As of July 31, 1945 ...............

'F.:o Clara Kassman

Ithaca,. N. Y.,
June 25, 1945.

Dear Mr. Jenofsky:
When I received your letter and receipt book re-
questing me to raise money for the Orphans in Biro-
bidjan, I was at first a little puzzled. I did not believe
that much could be done in a town like Ithaca, with
such a small Jewish community.
However, after contacting Mr. and Mrs. Genatt
and Mrs. Dworsky, I not only found them sympa-
thetic, but most enthusiastic, and they agreed to the
suggestion to raise $500.
A gathering was arranged at the Genatt's house
with the following present: Mr. and Mrs. Genatt,
Mrs. Dworsky, Mrs. L. Siegfried, Vice President of
the local Hadassah, Rabbi Gunsberg of Temple Beth-
El, Dr. and Mrs. Irving Kirschner, Treasurer of
Jewish Welfare Fund, and Mr. and Mrs. M. P.
In the midst of refreshments, served by Mrs. Genatt,
the importance of the campaign was discussed, and
all present agreed the Orphans' Campaign to be a
worthy cause and were happy to help. The following
day the group began soliciting. I am happy to'say
that we reached the quota of $500.
Wishing you success in this worthy cause,
Sincerely yours,

Finds "Nailebn" Indispensable
SJuly 11, 1945.
Dear Mr. Jenofsky:
Frankly, I couldn't get along in my contacts with
people organizationally without the information gained
from our magazine. It is good news indeed to hear
that NAILEBN is going to expand.
With warm greetings from Dr. Chaimson and

Cable of Condolence

Solomon Mikhoels, Chairman
Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee
Kropotkina 10 /
Moscow, U.S.S.R.
National Executive Committee Icor Association
mourns the loss of the great leader for Jewish Unity,
the executive secretary of the Jewish Anti-Fascist
Committee Shakno Epstein in U.S.S.R.
We honor his name by intensifying our work for
unity and friendship between our two great nations
and extending our campaign to help settle war orphans
in Birobidjan.
National Exec. Com. Icor Assn.
Prof. Charles Kuntz, Pres.
M. L. Olken, Nat. Organizer
A. Jenofsky, Nat. Secretary.






AREA: The territory of Birobidjan, approximately that
of Belgium and Holland combined, extends over an area
of 30,000 square miles. It is situated in the Soviet Far East,
on the banks of the Amur river and of its tributaries, Biro
and Bidjan-hence the name, BirobidjIn. The Amur sepa-
rates the region from Manchukuo on its western and south-
ern boundaries along a distance of 400 miles. On the north
it is bounded by the Khingan mountains, the highest peak
of which reaches 3,500 feet. The region's chief city, also
called Birobidjan, is 5,113 miles from Moscow.
tends from the 130th to the 134th meridian of longitude,
east of Greenwich and from the 47th to the 50th parallel
of northern latitude*
CLIMATE: The climate of Birobidjan is vigorous and
healthy. The winters are cold but clear and dry, with an
abundance of sunshine, making it possible for an immigrant
even from the temperate zone to work outdoors in the winter
season. The summers are hot, with frequent rains.
CROPS: The productive soil of Birobidjan in its virgin
fertility, taken with its abundant summer rainfall, make this
an area of luxuriant plant growth. The chief crops of the
region are such grains as wheat, rye, barley, buckwheat, rice
and soya beans; garden crops' as beets, carrots, rutabagas,
turnips, potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, watermelons, squash,

(Facts and Figures)
Compiled by M. L. 0.
pumpkin, cabbage, lettuce, radishes; medicinal plants grow
in abundance. Fibre crops as flax and hemp do well. Grain
and other forage 'crops of many kinds can be made to
furnish ample feed for various kinds of livestock. Such
fruits as strawberries, gooseberries and blueberries growing
wild indicate what might be done with cultivated varieties.
The area of cultivation in Birobidjan (official data, 1937)
was 36,000 hectares, or about 90,000 acres. In 1944
224,595 acres were under cultivation. Collective farms of
the region have harvested almost a ton of wheat per acre,
more than a ton of oats, about a ton of soya and up to 20
tons of potatoes.
Birobidjan is exceptionally rich in honey-producing flow-
MINING: The earth is rich in mineral deposits. It con-
tains fine building stone, granite, basalt, quartzites, high-
grade limestone, marble of a variety of colors: pink, red,
green, etc. Rich deposits of graphites and magnesite. The
gold deposits contribute a considerable amount of the
gold produced in the USSR. High grade iron ore, tentatively
estimated at 600,000,000 tons, had been found near the
Birakan and Kimkan railway stations and in the vicinity
of the Amur. Iron ore mining has as its basis the richest
deposits in the Far East-the Malikhingan deposits, which
contain 50 per cent iron.

2(owoA. 6olL
(for the month of July, 1945)
Friends and Organizations who contributed $100.00 or more toward the Icor Campaign to settle Jewish
refugee war orphans at the Children's Settlement in the JexWish Autonomous Region of Birobidjan.
Benjamin Zucker, Beverly Hills, Calif......... $2,000.00 Philip Sagik, New York City ................. 100.00
Lodge 32, J.P.F.O., Philadelphia, Pa....... .... 1,650.00 J. W. teon, New York City ................... 100.00
Jewish Theatre Collective, Los Angeles, Calif .... 1,620.40 M. Stillman, Brooklyn, N. Y. .................. .100.00
International Fur & Leather Workers Union, New Patients City of Hope, Los Angeles, Calif ........ 100.00
York City ............................... 500.00 Group Arum Samovar, Los Angeles Calif .... ... 100.00
Martin M. Gottlieb, Goldens Bridge, N. Y...... 500.00 Raboy "Ycuf" Reading Circle, Los Angeles, Calif. 100.00
Jack B. Steinberg, Richmond Hill, N. Y ........ 300.00 Louis M. Fish, San Jose, Calif ................. 100.00
Lodge 277, J.P.F.O., New York City ........... 225.00 --Ethel Gavent, Roxbury, Mass.. ....... ....... 100.00
Max Spool, Jamaica, N. Y. ................... 200.00 Lodge 114, J.P.F.O., Boston, Mass .............. '100.00
Cloth Hat, Cap & Millinery Workers Union Local Chas. Weiner Associates, Roxbury, Mass. ........ 100.00
6, Philadelphia, Pa. ...................... 200.00 Romanoser Relief Society, Dorchester, Mass...... 100.00
J. A. Rosenkrantz, Los Angeles, Calif .......... 200.00 Friendly Six Circle, Brookline, Mass......... .. 100.00
Krinker Verein, Los Angeles, Calif ........... 200.00 Eastern Baking Co., Chelsea, Mass........... .. 100.00
Gess Sportswear Company, Los Angeles, Calif .... 200.00 A. Sabelman, Lewiston, Mass. ................ 100.00
Chmelnicker-Podolier Committee, Los Angeles, Dr. & Mrs. H. Chaimson, Milton, Mass. ........ 100.00
Calif. ............................... ... 200.00 Samuel Blashow, Goldens Bridge, N. Y ......... 100.00
Samuel Abramowitz, San Francisco, Calif ....... 200.00 David Pitchersky, Goldens Bridge, N. Y ......... 100.00
Hollowbrook,Lake Association, Peekskill, N. Y. .... 150.00 Samuel W. Kalish, Goldens Bridge, N. Y........ 100.00
Mrs. Ida Levkov, Lake Hiawatha, N. J ........ 150.00 Meyer Hillman, Baltimore, Md. .............. 100.00
Jewish Ladies Advance Club, Los Angeles, Calif... 150.00 Mr. & Mrs. Jacob Gerber, Baltimore, Md. ...... 100.00
Jewish American Victory Club of Boston, The Lapidus Foundation, Inc., Baltimore, Md.... 100.00
Boston, Mass. .......................... 150.00 Mr. & Mrs. Leo Fox, Omaha, Neb. (previously
I. Spool, St. Albans, N. Y ..................... 118.00 $100) .................................. 100.00
WnWm. Nelson's Cochecton Center, Cochecton, N. Y. 102.50 Sam Ingber, Philadelphia, Pa. ................ .. 100.00
Sima King, E. Boston, Mass......... ....... 102.00 Elisavetgrader Ben. Association, Philadelphia, Pa... 100.00
$100 will help maintain an orphan for one year. Send your contribution today to the
ICOR ASSOCIATION, One Union Square W., New York 3, N. Y.
Contributions to the campaign are income tax exempt

AUGUST, 1945




In the year 1928 I was' sent by the Joint Distribution
Committee to paint life in the Jewish colonies in the So-
viet Union. My first stop was'in the city of Simferopol,
not far from the Crimean Mountains. It was a beauti-
ful city. From one side of the city, the mountains of the
Crimea are visible. From the other end of the city there
is a passage that leads up to the aforementioned mountains.
At the end of the city, an exceedingly beautiful scene lies
ahead, the structure of which is like a cone that .omes
from the bottom up, circling all the way up. to one thou-

Jewish Girl Colonist. Frank Horwitz
sand feet high. Going up, one lands in Yalta, where for-
merly the palace of" the Russian Czar was located. Now it
was occupied by workers as a health resort.
My memory flashes back to Simferopol and my journey
to the first Jewish colony. I wonder what has become
of it? The first colony I visited was named Icor. It con-
sisted of one central street with buildings on both sides.
About sixty families settled there. They were all very
happy as the crops of that year had been good ones. They
had plenty of wheat and corn. Their homes were com-
pleted and at that time they were building a school for
the children. They had great ambitions to install elec-
tric lights and to have institutions for the cultural devel-
opment of the youth of the colony. As a matter of fact,
children who were exceptionally talented were sent to
the larger cities to get their education.

The chairman of the colony, a young man, healthy and
good-looking, was a real leader and did a very good job
for the benefit of the colony.
I visited many places, most of them new colonies, as some
of the inhabitants were there only for a year or two. In
many instances they had just come out for that particular
summer to start work on the land and to build their
homes in order to settle there. In all of these places I se-
lected the most energetic and inspired subjects for my
work and I painted portraits of them. I wanted to pre-
serve the character of the Jewish people who had started
in their adventure to become very good farmers. I did
not limit myself to the Crimea. There were many colo-
nies at that time in the Ukraine, whose inhabitants tried
to develop not only wheat but many other crbps. Some
of the colonists also tried honey, while others cultivated
vineyards. There was great vitality in all of their work.
It was hard work, yet all these new farmers were all
happy because they had the feeling that they were creating
something for themselves and for their children. I also
painted many of their children.
In my travels I came to the city of Krivoy .Rog. It
was really a beautiful vicinity. Most of the settlements
were in existence for more than five years. They had
gardens around the homes, flowers and all kinds of vege-
tables for their own use. Here and there I was able to
hear musical strains as some of these people possessed
pianos. I met the family Poltinikoff from Lorindorf,
Krivoy Rog. I visited their home. I walked out of the
house and looked around. It became warmer and the wind
had subsided. Looking into the distance, I noticed the
green trees above the fence which occupied a long stretch.
These were grape vines. All around the house was the
garden containing watermelons, sweet melons, cantaloupes,
peppers, tomatoes, potatoes and a good many other vege-
tables and fruits. I saw two horses and two cows and
a buggy. One could notice that here is an experienced
hand which is taking care of everything. For the three
or four years they have indeed made a success of it, and it
was easy to understand that they are not going to leave.
They closed their way back with their labor.
It is seventeen years since I left these colonies. Since
then these colonies became self-reliant and rich with a
cultural life of their own. Jewish was the language of
these people. Who knows what has become of the colonists
who had the opportunity for higher education and whose
meritorious farm work gained them medals in open com-
petition with colonists of other regions. I am sure that
a good many of them have participated in the struggle
to free their land, on which they worked so hard, from
the brutal invasion. of the Nazis.
Now they are victorious in this battle. I am happy
I painted among these people and preserved the charac-
ter of the men who worked and developed the land of the
Jewish farmers in Crimea.




in all spheres of economic, civic, government and cultural
life of society."
It is precisely this freedom of national development of
the various republics which strengthened the Soviet Union.
The friendship of the peoples of the Soviet Union in all its
beauty and strength was displayed in the days of the war for
the Fatherland against the German invaders. The knowl-
edge gained in this war showed that no small or middle
nation could have upheld its national independence without
unity with other nations. Only through unity with the
brother Russian people and other peoples of the Soviet Union
was the Ukraine liberated from the German yoke, and
retained her independence. Until the war our life was
beautiful. The future held even greater possibilities of well-
being and culture, if it had not been for the criminal attack
of fascist Germany.
The German usurpers brought our people a sea of sorrow,
suffering; they flooded our soil with the blood and tears of
our people.
Having the advantage of a surprise attack, and in the
first stages of the war, the advantage in technique and size
of mobilized forces, the Germans dealt an unexpectedly
strong blow to the Soviet Union. The Ukraine was one
of the first republics of the USSR to feel this blow. In
heavy defensive fighting, the arena of which was Ukrainian
soil, the Red Army prepared for future deadly offensive
blows against the enemy and retreated to the East. The
Germans temporarily occupied all of the Ukraine. With
unbridled terrorism, beastly cruelty and oppression they tried
to enslave her people. They burned, hanged, shot and
buried alive millions of children, women and old people.
Approximately three million Ukrainians were carried
away into slavery in Germany. Many laid down their
lives with weapons in their hands. In the years of war the
Ukraine lost no less than 7,000,000 men. The Germans
ruined villages, cities, cultural centers, the economy of the
Ukraine. They mined and destroyed 294 large coal mines,
31 foundries, 158 sugar factories, 18,134 kilometers of
railroads. Tens of cities and thousands of villages -were
left in ruins. The total destruction amounts to 355,422,-
000,000 karbovantzi (rubles). The giant Dnieprohas was
turned into rubble, as was the world famous Kiev University
named for Shevchenko, which was known'for its scientific
traditions. Five other universities, all institutes and most
of the high schools were also destroyed.
In their struggle against the Nazis, the Soviet Ukrainian
people were not alone; they felt the strong moral and
especially material support of their allies, Canada, Great
Britain and the people of the United States. For this aid
the Ukrainian people extend their fraternal thanks to the
people of the United States of America.
But despite all these cruelties the Germans did not succeed
in breaking the will of the people pf the Ukraine to oppose
the invaders.
Outstanding military men of today who attained glory
in the field of battle as Stalinist war leaders'were such
Ukrainians as Marshal Malinovsky, Army General Cher-
niakhovsky, Yeremenko, the present Peoples' Commissar of
Defense of the .Ukraine Harasymenko, partisan-General
Sydor Kolpak. With a mighty blow, under the leadership

of Marshal Stalin, the Red Army and the entire Soviet
people threw back the enemy beyond the borders of the
Soviet Union, and then together with the Allied Armies
finished him off on his own lands. The Ukraine suffered
more in this war than any other country in Europe.
The factories are silent, the shafts are caved in, the fields
are overgrown with weeds. Cities lie in ruins. The
thousand-year-old Kiev Abbey no longer gliste s with gold
cupolas-the Germans leveled to dust its beautiful temples.
The colors of the capital of the Ukraine-Kiev-have
faded. Khreschatyk Avenue is no longer the beauty of
Kiev; impassable ruins lie on the sites of her prospects and
plazas. There is not an unharmed building in the cities of
Chernihiv, Zhitomyr. Dead are Kolomya, Tarnapil, much
has been ruined in the ancient Lviv, in Drohobich and
Before the Ukrainian people now stands the complicated
task of rebuilding their country. The leaders of the Soviet
Ukraine-Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Michailo
Hrechuha, Chairman of the Council of Peoples"'Commissars
Mykyta Khrushchov, his vice chairman, Demian Korot-
chenko, Leonid Kornietz and members of the Ukrainian
delegation to San Francisco-Dmitri Manuilsky and Ivan
Senin, with great governmental wisdom steer the strength
of the people to the rebuilding of economy to normal con-
ditions of existence and for the welfare of the people.
Before the Ukrainian people, as before the people of all the
world, stands the task of building a post-war peace so that
the horrors of war will never again. disturb the development
of civilization and the raising of the well being of peoples.
The Ukrainian delegation at the San Francisco Con-
ference, headed by the Commissar of Foreign Affairs of the
Soviet Ukraine, Dmitri Manuilsky, together with the dele-
gates of other nations, worked out the Security Charter.
In order that this document be brought to life, to guarantee
future world-wide cooperation and that this may become a
reality, it is necessary that there be unity and sincerity in
the United Nations and the people in the creation of the
Security Charter; that there be patience and faith in the
responsibilities and pacts taken upon themselves, that there
be unanimity of purpose and glory, so characteristic of the
peoples of the Soviet Union.
In the hope of a bright future the Ukrainian people turn
all their energies and will to the rebuilding of villages and
cities, industry and culture. Taking part in the rebuilding
of the Ukraine are other republics of the Soviet Union.
Especially great aid is being given by the government of
the Russian Republic which has sent to the Ukraine ma-
chines, cattle, products of necessity and technical aid. The
smokestacks of many rebuilt factories are already smoking
in the Ukraine., Coal and ore are being brought up many
shafts, the Dnieprohas, the Kiev State University, hospitals
and schools, and numerous educational institutions are being
rebuilt. But the wounds inflicted by the Germans are very
deep and the damage done to the Ukraine is very great.
In order to heal these wounds, years of tireless work and
great material investments are necessary.
United and strong in their unity, the people of the
Soviet Ukraine, aware of the difficultiesjhat face them, do
not fear them. The Ukrainian people return to work.


AUGUST, 1945

"nflIL Bn" (new Life)

VOL. XIX, No. 8 (177)

New York, N.Y., August, 1945

.gz o209 Single Copy 10 cents

NAILEBN, I Union Square, New York 3, N. Y., Telephone ALgonquin 4-2045, published monthly by the ICOR Association for information on the
economic, cultural, and social life of the Jews the world over. Yearly subscription, $1.00.
Re-entered as second-class matter August 22, 1938, at the Post office at New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879.
Business Manager--A. JENOFSKY

Dean of the Kiev University

The Ukrainian Soviet Republic is one of the largest
European nations. Her population is 40 million people.
The Ukraine has a highly developed industry and agricul-
ture. Her culture and education is flowering.
The area of the Ukraine is greater than the area of
Poland, France, Spain, Italy. The magnificent Ukrainian
steppes border on the wide expanses of the Black and Azov
Seas. To the north of them stretch dark forests. Through
forests and steppes flow deep quiet rivers. Under the bliss-
ful sun of the Ukraine ripen cotton and flax, grapes and

(Left to Right) Professor P. S. Pogrehniak; Rabbi Abraham J. Bick,
co-chtirman of National Jewish Ukrainian Committee; and Professor
Volodimir G. Bondarclhuk.
almonds, rubber trees and "koksahiz." In the depths of
Ukrainian soil lie limitless deposits of various useful minerals.
Before the war the Ukraine held fourth place in the
world in the mining of coal. The yearly output of coal
was over 90 million tons-twice as much as that of France
and.40 times greater than that of Turkey. In the smelting
of metals, the Ukraine held third place in the world.
More pig iron was poured in Ukrainian mills than in
those of Great Britain and France. One mill alone in
Makiyivka smelted more pig iron than all the mills of
Poland, and the metal industry' in one district-the Stalin

District of the Donbas-produced five times more metal
than the entire industry of Italy. In the Ukraine, man-
ganese, mercury, graphite, and ceramic chalk (known
throughout the world), natural gases and oil, building quartz
and marble are mined.
The socialist agriculture in the Ukraine, in the main
highly mechanized, gave large crops, guaranteeing the feed-
ing of the population and the needs of defense. The gov-
ernment of the Soviet Ukraine pays special attention to the
development of culture, education and maintenance of the
health of the people. The establishment of compulsory
education has embraced all our younger generation. A
thick network of higher schools in the Ukraine guarantees
Ukrainian youth the choice and study of desired professions.
In the Ukraine there were 29,878 high schools in which
there were approximately 6,543,000 students and 100,000
teachers. There were 6 universities and 160 various insti-
tutes in which 127,172 students studied. Wide circles of
workers and peasants are receiving their higher education
by taking advantage of the special government subsidies.
Thirty-one thousand five hundred and eighteen doctors
cared for the health of the people. There were 6,634
permanent medical establishments 'for their use, where
free medical care was given. Approximately 2,000
establishments gave aid especially to women and
children. There were many cultural centers in
the Ukraine, places for rest and entertainment. There
were: 26,213 cultural centers and clubs, 5,963 movie
theaters, 135 theaters, 150 museums, 41,000 libraries.
There were being published in the Ukraine 1,120 news-
papers and 68 magazines. The Ukrainian Academy of
Sciences which recently celebrated its twenty-fifth anniver-
sary has 36 educational institutes.
If this be compared with what the Ukraine had up until
the October Revolution we would see what colossal progress
she had made in the past 25 years in the development of
culture, in the raising of the standard of living of the people.
The main factor in the attainments of the Ukraine is its
Soviet socialist structurethe Leninist-Stalinist national policy
of our government. These policies are reflected in the
Constitution of the Soviet Union, which guarantees every
opportunity for the fullest development of national state-
national culture. The Constitution is based on the premise,
as Joseph Stalin said, that "all nations and races, regard-
less of their past or present position, regardless of their
strength or weakness-should benefit from the same right