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Nailebn =
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00007530/00011
 Material Information
Title: Nailebn = New life
Parallel title: New life
Added title page title: Naylebn
Physical Description: v. : ill., ports. ; 28 cm.
Language: Yiddish
Creator: Icor
Publisher: Icor, Association for Jewish Colonization in the Soviet Union
Place of Publication: New York
Frequency: monthly (irregular)
monthly
completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Jews -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: Title also in Yiddish and text largely in Yiddish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in May 1928.
Numbering Peculiarities: Volume numbers irregular: Jan.-Oct. 1946 called v. 20, no. 1-10, Nov.-Dec. 1946 called v. 19, no. 11-12; 1947 called also v. 20.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 11, no. 1 (Jan. 1937); title from cover.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 19068832
lccn - 50017200
ocm19068832
Classification: lcc - DS101 .N25
ddc - 296
System ID: AA00007530:00011

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>"" i'P"ROFr. CHARLES.KUUNTZ -" ABRAHAM JENOFSKY. ; M. STERlf"'," I .
S" ": Presidel t National Secretary Treasurer .
i SH. LEVINE.,:15 l -, ' '. DR.. L.. SCHATZOV .. -
JENNIE POSNER .. ...MORRIS L. OKEN Chirinan, New, York ...
Doinmittee for the .Celebration of the Twentieth Anniversary




*,,'' Vice-Presidents : :' I national Organizer '..-City. Committee "
'' Dr. J. S. Efreoff Albert E. Kahri' Hon Vito Macntonio. R. Saltzman
,'':i ..,"-. B. Eppelbaum n '. Jacob Kalich Proi Jacob BRader Marcus Philip Sandler
I. H. Feingold Morris '.Kallem Dr.. A. Marolin H. SchillerY
.. : .'."..''. ". Jacob .Finkeltein.. Moishe Katz Kalmm.Marmor L Schnur '
Moses I inkelstein Man Katz Zuni Maud. Secholer
cker. ..Dr..A. I. Fisher . atmai Gina .Medem .' -. SelCer
t.iitfi .'. Abram Flaxer. .. Rockwell Kent Jacob: Mestel .- ".',Sarah Shapr.. .
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!1 2X,9 lU' 'N 1 19 'i2 ''N 'T 1 21 U XT


MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA FRIENDS OF THE ICOR


H. Blumberg
L. B. Bortnick
I. Davis
Max Fink
J. Feinberg
W. Garetz
Wm. C. Hechter
J. Jacobson
J. KANTER
Max Liman
A. Overbach
Louis Perry
Hyman Peyser
Theodore Ptashne
Louis Press
Dr. Norman R. Schneidman
L. Schwartzfield
Abe Sclarow
A. Segal
Chas. Silberman
Anna Star
Mr. & Mrs. Chas. M. Bank
Mr. & Mrs. R. Banwell
Mr. & Mrs. Max Blank
Mr. & Mrs. I. Binstock
Miss Beatrice Blank
Mr. & Mrs. I. Berg
Mr. & Mrs. P. Brazman
Mr. & Mrs. I. Brooks
Mr. & Mrs. L. Cohn
Mr. & Mrs. S. Chemrinow
Mr. & Mrs. H. Fox
Mr. & Mrs. Ben Fox


Mr. & Mrs. D. Gitis
Misses Gitis (sisters)
Mr. & Mrs. M. Gross
Mr. & Mrs. M. German
Mr. & Mrs. H. Goulin
Mr. & Mrs. B. Goldman
Mrs. Eva Gutkin
Mr. E. Hoffman
Mr. & Mrs. Hash
Mr. & Mrs. Helfer
Mr. & Mrs. I. M. Isenberg
Mr. & Mrs. B. Jacobs
Mr. & Mrs. H. Kiperstein
Mr. & Mrs. D. Lazar
Mr. & Mrs. Chas. Lee
Mr. & Mrs. Lerner
Mr. & Mrs. R. Levitt
Mr. & Mrs. B. Lipkin
Mr. & Mrs. M. Lipkin
Mr. S. Lipkin
Mr. & Mrs. S. Locketz
Mrs. M. Melnick
Mrs. M. Melmut
Mrs. A. Moses
Mr. & Mrs. S. Mogilevsky
Mr. & Mrs. Moskovitz
Mr. & Mrs.. Naidich
Mr. & Mrs. A. Murman
Mr. & Mrs. Nachamkin
Mrs. F. Neviasky
Mr. & Mrs. D. Orenstein
Mr. & Mrs. H. Ostrow


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Mrs. Ida Polur
Mr. & Mrs. J. Prell
Mr. & Mrs. S. Rank
Mr. & Mrs. Rosenfeld
Mr. & Mrs. A. Sachs
Mr. & Mrs. I.Sell
Mr. & Mrs. M. Schwartz
Mr. & Mrs. B. Shapiro
Mr. & Mrs. A. Singer
Mr. & Mrs. M. Schraiber
Mr. & Mrs. M. Selmanoff
Mr. & Mrs. S. Selmanoff
Mr. & Mrs. H. Stulberg
Mr. & Mrs. A. Segal
Mr. & Mrs. Sloan
Mr. & Mrs. M. Schuldberg
Mr. & Mrs. P. Shames
Mr. & Mrs. J. Soskin
Mr. & Mrs. Shelfin
Mr. & Mrs. Silver
Mr. Al Snyder
Mr. & Mrs. Ben Solomon
Mr. & Mrs. P. Shelley
Mr. & Mrs. Shragovitz
Mr. & Mrs. N. Supak
Mr. & Mrs. Wm. Schnitzer
Mr. & Mrs. S. Stock
Mr. & Mrs. H. A. Simon
(Moorehead, Minn.)
Mr. & Mrs. E. Weintraub
Mr. & Mrs. F. Weiss
Mr. & Mrs. M. Zaslavsky
Polar


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Jewish Peoples Fraternal 1944




Order (IWO)
Jim ,at"yIrB'nl Jim nvtybt. DyV 'Iliz'







Toms River, N. J.i
A. L. BROFMAN Secretary
MORRIS WINCHEVSKY BR. 142
Jewish Peoples Fraternal
Order (IWO)
Toms River, N. I.
A. L. BROFMAN, Secretary


JERSEY HOMESTEADS BRAN
Jersey Homesteads.


ICH 205. IWO


N. J.


Branch 86, Jewish Peoples
Fraternal Order (IWO)
West New York, N. J.
MILTON MAINSFIELD, Secretary
MORRIS SMERL!NG, Treasurer


I. L. PERETZ LODGE 211 (IWO)
Farmingdale, N. .
S. GERSHBIEN, Fin. Sec'y

Greetings from
Branch 175, Jewish Peoples
Fraternal Order (IWO)
ABE GLANZMAN, Secretary
Indianapolis, Indiana


Lodge 149, Jewish Peoples
Fraternal Order (IWO)
Bridgeport, Connecticut
A. GLICKMAN, Secretary


IWO LODGE 174
and WOMEN'S CLUB
Winthrop, Massachusetts

BRANCH 191
Jewish Peoples Fraternal
Order (IWO)
MORRIS FLEISHER, Secretary
Rochester, N. Y.


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CITY COMMITTEE

Jewish Peoples Fraternal

Order (IWO)

Branches 13, 164, 300.

N. WINKLER, Secretary
Norfolk Portsmouth, Va.
Nsrfolk Portsmouth, Va.


LODGE 92

Jewish Peoples Fraternal

Order (IWO)

ZSAU-UEL LIEBOWITZ, Secretary

R chmond, Vi:ginia


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Greetings from


LODGE 192

Jewish Peoples Fraternal

Order (IWO)
A. BENEMOVSKY, Secretary
Miami, Florida


Greetings from


SAM MINDLIN


Ft. Lauderdale, Florida


Greetings from

Louis and Rebecca Touby

of the Touby Painting Co.

669 N. W. 8th Street

Miami, Fla.


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1944 ,nymnynV2y 2 3"' I58


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GRAIEVER OSTROVER ZAROMBER BR. 56
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
B, Binder, Secretary

LODGE 34
Jewish People's Fra:ernal Order (IWO)
E. Levine, Secretary

LODGE 27
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Celia Okin, Se:retary

LODZER BRANCH 24
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
S. Smulow, Secretary
BRANCH 22
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Max Korenman, Secretary
ODESSA BRANCH 20,
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Nat'l Theatre Bldg, Houston St. & Second Ave.
Morris Granick, Secretary
BRISKER-CHECKANOVTZER BRANCH 15
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
L. Weiner, Secretary
BRANCH 11
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
M. Natman, Secretary
BRANCH 60.
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Oscar Chudnowsky, Secretary
BORO PARK LODGE 71
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Louis Rubenstein, Secretary
LODGE 72
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Brooklyn, N. Y.

BRANCH 82
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Rae Tenenbaum, Secretary

SHOLEM ALEICHEM BRANCH 85
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Ph. Weinstein, Secretary

BRANCH 112
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
M. Lifshitz, Secretary

BRANCH 122
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
M. WALTER. Secretary

NAPHTOLI BOTVIN LODGE 133
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
F. Fleigel, Fin. Secretary

LODGE 134
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Sarah Remaes, Secretary

KALMEN MARMOR BRANCH 138
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)

LODGE 139
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
S. Perlmutter, Secretary

LODGE 140
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
S. Zussman, Secretary


WOMEN'S CLUB
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
E4 Daniels, Secretary
READING CIRCLE CLUB 140
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Ida Cohn, Secretary
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
BRANCH 167
Harry Lotker, Secretary
BRANCH 7
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
B. Leiner, Secretary


RICHMOND HILL LODGE 184
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
R. Alper, Secretary
MOZIRER TUROVER BRANCH 3
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Jos. Levin, Secretafy
LODGE 223
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
J. Shapiro, Secretary
BREZINER BRANCH 241
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Wm. Teitelbaum, Secrdetary
TALNER BRANCH 8
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
L. Shapiro, Secretary
LODGE 272
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Philip Felberg, Secretar y
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
LODGE 277
N. Schneider, Secretary
YOSSEL CUTLER LODGE 279
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Samuel Reitman, Secretary
BESSARABIER BRANCH 302
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
J. Friedman, Secretary
DRESSMAKERS BRANCH 322
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
L. Altucher, Secretary
LODGE 327
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
LODGE 337
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Chas. Zelkowitz, Secretary
LODGE 400
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Harry Bernstein, Secretary
LODGE 419
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Isaac Garfinkel, Treasurer
BRANCH 419
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
LODGE 620
Jewish People's Fraternal Order (IWO)
Jamaica, New York
FRANK WEXLER
601 West 141st St., Bronx, N. Y.
SCHWARTZ & GROSS
155 West 29th St., N. Y.


Greetings

BYALISTOKER

KNITTING CLUB


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E. WOLMA N, Secretary-Treasurer


ON NOZICK, President a i




HYMAN WOLLMAN Treasurer
.DANIE . ,265 Fin. Secretary
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WORKERS COLONY CORP.


627 Britton Street


Bronx, N. Y.


E. WOLMAN, Secretary-Treasurer


BRANCH 585, WORKMEN'S CIRCLE
Academy Hall, 853 Broadway, N. Y.
Max Stein, Chairman Max Earl, Secretary


FAMILY RING SOCIETY, INC.
SOLOMON NOZICK, President
HYMAN WOLLMAN. Treasurer
DANIEL KIER, Fin. Secretary








NAI LEBN December, 1944


Furriers Joint Council

of New York


250 West 26th Street

New York City


MORRIS PINCHEWSKY, Rec. Sec'.






United Furniture Workers
OF AMERICA

Local No. 76

Affiliated with the
Congress of Industrial Organizations

101 West 28th Street
New York City
Phone: LAckawanna 4-3284-5-6

MORRIS PIZER, Sec'y-Treas.



Furniture Workers Union

LOCAL 76-B
of the
UNITED FURNITURE WORKERS OF AMERICA
Affilated to the
Congress of Industrial Organizations
80 East llth Street
New York City
RICHARD MAZZA, Manager


BAKERY & CONFECTIONERY
WORKERS UNION
Beigel Bakers Local No. 338
115 East Houston Street
New York City
MRS. WOLFSON
114-30 Sutter Ave., Ozone Park, N. Y.
NIVLAN SOCIAL CIRCLE, Inc.
110 West 48th St., New York City


Greetings from


Knee Pants Makers Union

Local 19, A.C.W.A.


M. KAUFMAN, President
H. SUSSMAN, Secretary
D. HANIG, A. CARDINAL, Business Agents



Bakery and Confectionery Workers
International Union of America

Local 164
AND WESTCHESTER BRANCH


1301 Boston Road
New York City






























Jamaica, N. Y.
-POD. BEN. SOC., 0 ItolNC.'Ti


ynS. MINZ, Secretary
.Jim -lyyy"T



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PROG. KIyTTAIGORODER i








POD. BEN. SOC.. INC.
S. MINTZER, Secretary


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CAMP ANNISQUAM
Gloucester, Mass.
ABRAM RESNICK, Director


FOLLOWERS OF THE TRAIL
Incorporated
BUCHANAN, NEW YORK


ABE & LENA BERNSTEIN

1161 N. Hazard Ave., Los Angeles, Cal.



SOLOMON COUTIN
3187 Blanchard Street
Los Angeles, California



VICTORY CAFE
2405 Brooklyn Avenue
Los Angeles, California


MR. & MRS. I. PUSHKIN
1237 Hollins Street
Baltimore, Md.


DR. J. BARENBURG

Baltimore, Md.


GRamercy 5-9718
Eat in a Delightful Atmosphere
NEW STARLIGHT RESTAURANT
A. JURICK, Prop.
55 Irving Place, New York
Catering for Parties, Banquets, etc


NAILEBN


December, 1944








December, 1944 NAILEBN


OMAHA, NEBRASKA,
ICOR COMMITTEE
MRS. BELLA KLEIN, Secretary


PORTLAND, OREGON,
ICOR COMMITTEE
BEN WIENER, Secretary


PHILADELPHIA ICOR COMMITTEE
HARRY EPSTEIN, Chairman
JACK COOPER, Hon. Vice Chairman
N. PERSOFSKY, Vice Chairman
BROINE STERN, Vice Chairman
S. I. LEON, Secretary
M. KAELIS, Organizer
B. YANOWSKY, Treasurer
YETTA POLIN, Literature Director


PHOENIX, ARIZONA,
ICOR COMMITTEE
S. AMPER, Secretary



ROCK ISLAND, ILL.,
ICOR COMMITTEE
DR. H. J. FRIEDMAN, Secretary



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.,
ICOR COMMITTEE
CHAS. PECKERMAN, Secretary


ST. PAUL, MINN.,
ICOR COMMITTEE
I. GOODMAN, Chairman
S. LEFKOWITZ, Secretary



SAN DIEGO, CALIF.,
ICOR COMMITTEE
R. BOGIN, Secretary


TOMS RIVER, N. J.
ICOR COMMITTEE
M. ZEITZ, Secretary


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DAVID SELTZER
361 Amboy Street Brooklyn 12, N. Y.


TOLEDO, OHIO,
ICOR COMMITTEE
J. LAIBOWIT.Z Secretary


YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO,
ICOR COMMITTEE
ANNA BEEN, Secretary


WASHINGTON, D. C.,
ICOR COMMITTEE
WM. WEINSTEIN. Chairman
SARAH SHAPIRO, Secretary


Greetings
S. KAUFMAN
Member Nat. Exec. Comm., Icor


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December, 1944


NAILE B N








NAILE B N


December, 1944


THE ICOR WOMAN


By Ana Ostrowsky


The Icor woman works in the cause (of the rehabilitation
of Jewish life destroyed by the Nazis; but, in addition, she
understands the value of Jewish colonial settlement and the
greatness of the creation of Biro-Bidjan as a realizable
Jewish Autonomous Republic.
The Icor movement in America has stood for these
basic ideas. Today it has enlarged its scope to include inter-
est in movements for the benefit of Jews the world over.
Twenty years ago, when the Icor was founded, Jewish
land culture in the U.S.S.R. was in its initial stage. The
Soviet Union had just solved its problem of nationalities.
Settling on land by Jews required added constructive and
educational building up, for the Jews had been deprived
of territory and had lost the consciousness of the value of the
cultivation of land during the Ghetto period. When the
Soviet Union allocated large tracts of lands in the Ukraine
and the Crimea, the movement needed stimulus. Thus the
land culture was in their blood, the love of the feel of the soil
Icor came into being in this country, both as an organization
for material aid and for spiritual enlightenment.
Women in particular, instinctively grasped the value of
the organization. Coming from Kherson, our Malkes,
Braines, Chasses, flocked to it. They had seen and remem-
bered well the peasant women on the farms, digging up the
soil with their bare hands and depositing the eye of the
potato that contained the germ of life; the)' had watched
the maid squeeze the milk from the cow's udder in rhythmic
cadence; they had seen her tie the wheat stalks into sheaves
in deftly manipulated motions. They had envied them, for
land culture was in their blood, the love of the feel of the soil
in their sinews.
SWhen Biro-Bidjan was set aside as a Jewish territorial
region, with a taiga to be turned into cultivated fields, homes
for people, cities and industries to be built, Jewish cultural
life to be stimulated with Yiddish the official language, the
boom days of the Icor were at its peak. The publication
"Nailebn" as a magazine for the dissemination of the
progress of this work had a wide circulation. Tractors, agri-
cultural tools, Yiddish typewriters and printing presses were
gratefully received by the struggling early settlers. Women
helped carry on the work.
Then, after so many years of arduous uphill work came
the Nazi scourge. The Hitler deluge destroyed every vestige
of the thriving Jewish colonies in the Ukraine and in the
Crimea. The hundred-headed hydra of death and devasta-
tion is being laid low; one by one its heads are being lopped
off and made innoculous, and the land and the people freed.
The Jews that have survived are returning from the hinter-
land, from the Partisan groups, from hidden nooks in the
homes of friendly non-Jews. They are arising "Tchias
Hameissim"; the) are coming back to build anew Jewish
colonial settlements.
Many organizations have been formed to aid in this


colossal work; but the Icor has an historic and traditional
background which is of twenty years standing. That is its
glory.
The Icor woman will render not only material assistance,
but will be a factor in the realization of the basic concept of
the value of territorial, economic, and cultural unity in
Jewish life. The American-born women have imaginati'-
and vision in their spirited souls to see the necessity of
reconstructing Jewish life.
The Icor has a great mission before it. A great revival
will enable it to continue until Jewish life in the Soviet
Union and elsewhere will have reached a new height in
creative effort. Jewish women have a great role to play
in its fulfillment. Their realization of this fact will add
to the glory of Jewish womanhood.


-..



-_ Among the Soviet front
S''' -' line fighters are many
S : women doctors devot-
ing all their time and
-'.. ., energy to the cause of
t ,_" their motherland.


20 YEARS "ICOR" MEMBERSHIP AND SUBSCRIPTION DRIVE


October 25th
.M11IAMI, FLA.
.I. Raichick .............
Mrs. Eugene Weiss .......
M. iKaufman .............
F. Rosenkrantz .......
Air. Bogasik ..........
Helen Rosenoff ...........

WASHINGTON, D.C.
Sarah Shapiro ..........
LOS ANGELES, CALIF.
East Side Branch "Icor"
Frieda Frimnkin ..........
Celia B inch ..............
J.. Solnit ...............
J. D rutz .................
K K oolik ................
Mr. Bilovsky ..............
D. Frinm kin ...............
Hollywood Branch "Icor"
Eve Meyers ..............

MILWAUKEE, WIS.
L.uba Shapiro ............
A. Goldwasser ............
Kaim an ..............
F. Keller ...............
I.. H or vito ...............
G ordon ..............

PHILADELPHIA, PA.
W Gordon ...............
B. Yanofsky .............


to November 25th, 1944
CINCINNATI, OHIO
11 Molly Tenenholtz ......... 2
8 NEWARK, N. J.
3 B. Landesberg ........... 2
2 BOSTON, MASS.
I Shifra Tarr .............. 1
1 Riva Chainmson ........... 1
1 2
26 BALTIMORE, M1D.
Mrs. M. Dubow. .......... 1
25 CICAGO, ILL.
Chicago "ICOR" ......... 1
PI'TTSBURGH, PA.
Pittsburgh "ICOR" ...... 1
ROCK ISLAND, ILL.
5 Dr. H. J. Friedman. ......
3 NEW YORK COMMITTEES
2 Staten Island "ICOR"
2 Staten Island Conn.mittee.. 7
1 Downtown "ICOK"
1 M L. Olken.............. 2
1 F. Korinsky .......... 2
4
8 Brownsville "ICOR"
Chaim Singer ............ 1
23 D. Yanishefsky ........... 1
Louis Siegelson .......... 1
6
2 3
2 Crotona "ICOR"
2 H. Wolf .. ................. 3
2 Eastern Parkway "ICOR"
1 Hanna Aronoff ........... 1
Brighton-Coney Island "ICOR"
15 Ph. Felder ............... 1
2 T otal ...................... 121
1 Previously ................ 2,494
3 As of Nov. 25. 194- ........ 2,615











Soviet Jews Greet American Jewry
"On the occasion of the twenty-seventh anniversary of "We do not for a moment forget the enormous toll in
Sthe great Socialist October Revolution the Jewish Anti- -human lives exacted from all peoples and from the Jew-
SFascist Committee in the USSR addresses through you ish people among them. The closer we penetrate the
this appeal to the Jews of your country to rally all their principle lair of fascism the more burning becomes our
forces to deal Hitlerite Germany and its accomplices hate, our' thirst for just retribution. Fascism must be
the final crushing blow. annihilated not only on the battlefields, but morally and
"The Soviet peoples, among them the Jewish people, politically. It must be pulled up by the roots in all coun-
Sare making this a significant date in the history of man- tries of the world.
kind with the great victories of the gallant Red Army "Let us bring closer the day of final victory over the
on all fronts in this Patriotic War and with the great perfidious hated enemy.
achievements of the working people in all spheres of in- "Forward to a new free life for al mankind, for all peo-
Sdustry, agriculture and cultural activity, ples, and for our people."
"We are celebrating this anniversary at a time when Presidium of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee of the
Sthe armies of our Allies are gaining ever new victories USSR; Solomon Mikhoels, Peoples Artist of the USSR
over the common enemy. The day is close at hand when and President of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee
- the whole world will breathe freely after it is forever de- USSR; Shakhno Epstein, editor of EINIKEIT, Executive
Slivered from the bloody nightmare of fascism. A new Secretary of Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, USSR;
era is beginning in the life of all mankind, in the life o Lieutenant-General Jacob Kreiser, Hero of Soviet Union;
Small peoples, in the life of our long-suffering people. L. Gonor, Hero of Socialist Labor, Director of War E
"The final victory of the Allied Nations will bring about Plant; S. Bregman, Assistant Peoples Commissar, State
Sthe reconstruction of the world on principles of true Control RUFSR; Itzik Feffer, poet; L. Kvitko, poet; Lena
g friendship among peoples, on the principles of justice Stern, member of Academy of Sciences, USSR, and Stalin
Sand freedom. prize winner; Alexander Frumkin, member of Academy
"In this unprecedented wa,. our peoples, along with all of Sciences, USSR, and Stalin prize winner; L. Scheinin,
Soviet peoples headed by the great Russian people, chief of Main Engineering Courses, Peoples Commissariat
along with the freedom loving peoples of other countries, of Railways; Moisei Gubelman, president Central Com-
has shown it is a people of fighters and creative workers. mittee of Trade Union Employees Trading Organizations,
We Soviet Jews are proud of the fact that among the Z. Bricket, president Trade Union of Cinema Workers;
valiant Red Army soldiers awarded by the Soviet Gov- David Belgelson, novelist; B. Shimelyovich, head doctor,
ernment with marks of distinction, including that of Hero Botkin Hospital, Moscow; P. Markish, poet; B. Zuskin,
of the Soviet Union, our fearless brothers and sisters Peoples Actor RSFSR and UZBEK SSR; H. Nagler, Chief
have held fourth place all through the Patriotic War. of War Plant.

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FROM AN ARTIST
As one of the small band of American artists who cham-
pioned the cause of Soviet Russia from its birth I am
cheered to greet Icor on its twentieth birthday.
We artists in our field and Icor in its field did pioneer
work for the U.S.S.R. in its pioneer days. Today millions
the world over .pay grateful tribute to the great land of
the fighting workers who have by their colossal efforts and
sacrifices made possible a continuation of the democratic
process in our own country, the U.S.A., and the spreading
of its benefits to other lands.
So it is only fitting that all that is possible be done to
strengthen Icor to continue its important work today. It is
part of the task of keeping alive the spirit and genius of the
Jewish people whom the Nazi and Fascist monsters have
failed to subdue or destroy despite the vast tragedy of their
Kharkovs, Lublins and Warsaws. MAURICE BECKER

DR. B. M. NADLER
Member Nat. Ex. Comm. Icor
1944 is a year of tremendous importance. It is the ap-
proach of the end of our struggle against fascism, and is
the beginnnig of the most important era in modern history
-that of a reconstructed life of lasting peace among nations


of the world. In the revaluation of all present values, we,
the Jews, should have our share of benefits and at last find
a practical solution to our unsound economic and social
structure. In this struggle for a better world at large and
the Jewish in particular, we in the Icor played an important
role and we are proud of our contribution within the last
twenty years. Let us keep on working and hoping that only
a dim flicker today, it will become a bright shining sun of
tomorrow-with justice and happiness to all mankind.

REVA CHAIMSON
Member Nat. Ex. Comm. Icor
The Icor in its twenty years of existence has traversed a
difficult and rocky road. A road beset with prejudices dis-
seminated by biased and antagonistic sources. But the Icor,
imbued by a profound understanding of the great historic
event which elevated the Jewish people to their rightful
place as a nation among nations, has fulfulled its'objectives
with honor.
And now, when the defeat of the enemy is imminent,
and the maps of war are being supplanted by maps of peace,
the Icor is drawing a boundary of warm friendship, under-
standing, aid, and respect between American Jews and
their brethren across the ocean. Long live the Icor.


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Greetings on the 20th Anniversary of the Icur


FOR REAL BROTHERHOOD
I wish to commend "fcor" on its 20th Anniversary for
the fine work it has done in bringing to the people of the
world the accomplishments and contributions of the Jewish
people to the progressive march of mankind.
On this 20th Anniversary we can also rejoice that fascism
is rapidly being destroyed on the European continent, that
many nations have already been liberated, and that anti-
Semitic and discriminatory decrees are being removed. The
toll that has been paid for these victories is appealing. Our
responsibility is to maintain that firm resolution that fascism
will he destroyed the world over, and that we will never
allow it to rear its bestial head.
The democratic peoples of the world, following the policies
of the United Nations, will build upon this earth the real
brotherhood of man.
PETER V. CACQHIONE
Councilman, Borough of Bklyn., N. Y.

ICOR'S PATRIOTIC SERVICE APPRECIATED
Congratulations to the "Icor" Association on its twen-
tieth anniversary celebration. This is an event that should
be marked with pride by all democratic Americans irrespec-
tive of race, color or creed.
'The "Icor" is one of the organizations which pioneered
in bringing to our country the glorious truth about the
Soviet Union and how it represented a new and free life for
the Jewish people and for all mankind. This patriotic ser-
vice is greatly appreciated today when the victory of our
country and the United Nations rests so heavily upon the
closest collaboration between our nation and the Soviet
Union. As a member of an under-privileged minority my-
self, I am especially happy to felicitate "Icor" for the great
work it has done in the behalf of the Jewish people.
You are today beginning to see the horizon of victory
over the forces of fascism, barbarism and persecution. The
"Icor" has symbolized the unity of the Jewish people and
has been a leader in the common cause of freedom for all
peoples. I wish it an unlimited life of service. We all hope
that before another anniversary of the "Icor" takes place
that fascism will have been destroyed; that, we shall be on
our way to permanent peace and security, and that the
Jewish people and all other peoples of the world will be free
and living in human dignity.
BENJAMIN J. DAVIS, JR.
Councilman

PROGRAM OF ICOR IMPORTANT
All honor and congratulations to the Icor Association on
the twentieth anniversary of its great work on behalf of
the Jewish people throughout the world! Today, even with
the downfall of Nazi Germany approaching ever closer,
the hideous doctrines of anti-Semitism and racial prejudice
are still rampant in many countries, including some that
profess democracy. Hence the program of Icor remains
as important as ever.
Naturally, because of my profound interest in the Soviet


Union and its enlightened policy toward ethnic minorities,
I have been especially happy to note Icor's fine work in the
rehabilitation of Jewish colonies in the Crimea. This or-
ganization has established a most significant place for itself
in America and the world at large. And I hope it will
continue to carry on as successfully in the future as in the
past.
CORLIss LAMONT
ICOR PERFORMED VALUABLE SERVICES
As the war in Europe draws near to a victorious conclu-
sion and our attention becomes centered on the tremendous
and difficult problems of post-war reconstruction, American-
Soviet relations take over a most vital significance. Every
organization that helps strengthen the growing bonds of
understanding and friendship between our two countries is
contributing to the future peace and well-being of the world.
The Jewish people, we must add, have a major stake in
this relationship, for we have suffered proportionately higher
losses than any other people and face the most complex
rehabilitation and reconstruction problems.
The Icor Association has performed many valuable ser-
vices in its twenty-year history, and particularly during the
war years. I am confident that its members and friends will
give unstinting support to Icor's current projects of relief
and rehabilitation in Biro-Bidjan, the Crimea and elsewhere
in the U.S.S.R., with a full understanding of the broad
implications underlying this work.
I wish Icor all success.
STANLEY M. ISAACS

ICOR PROMOTES BETTER UNDERSTANDING
May I offer my good wishes on this memorable occasion.
During the twenty years of its existence the Icor has pro-
gressively increased its influence and has made a place for
itself in all parts of our country. Here at Cincinnati the
local branch is intensely interested'in all of the Icor's activi-
ties; its members join wholeheartedly in all community
efforts to aid and encourage our Russian ally.
In promoting a better understanding of the Soviet Union,
the Icor is playing its part in cementing together the United
Nations. It is only through this union that we can hope for
a future devoid of wars.
MAx HIRSCH,
Cincinnati, Ohio.
CONGRATULATIONS TO THE ICOR
It is a great pleasure to congratulate the Icor on the
occasion of its twentieth anniversary. All of us are in favor
of any great Jewish organization that is devoting its energies
to the colonization of Jews and the furtherance of their
spiritual welfare. May you continue with your fine work in
the crucial years that lie ahead.
My very best wishes for continued success.
JACOB R. MARCUS,
The Hebrew Union College
Cincinnati, Ohio.


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December, 1944 NAILEBN


I am Shliomke, the shochet's boy, and I am not little-
I am ten already. Will you stay in our house? It is the
first house you'll come to. Mama will be so glad!
Yes, Shliomke, maybe.
But sure, sure; we will all be so glad-sure, I'll see you
in the evening, uncles. . .

Our Ford is jolting along the furrows and deep ruts of
the dirt road cutting across a billowing sea of ripening
grain, the abundant award of human effort. The three
occupants of the car, I, the Canadian and the "agrispets"
are silent-absorbed in thought brought on by the sight of
nature's response to man's knocking at the door. Thousands
of years the nomad wandered here from grassland to grass-
land; Petcheneq, Khazar, Tartar, Mongol appeared and
in bloody strife their hordes disappeared. The virgin, wind-
swept plane patently waited for the magic touch of the
debilitated hand of an ancient race of city-dwellers ..
We are nearing the settlement: Orchards, vineyards, berry
bushes, enclosures-and here is the first house-large, squat-
ting, straw-thatched . .
A middle-aged woman, barefooted, sunburned and
braided, welcomed us at the gate. We washed and refreshed
ourselves with the cold water from the deep well in the
yard and entered the house. When our eyes got used to the
diffused light we observed our surroundings: a spacious
room with a large brick stove, a long heavy table flanked by
home-made benches, a large clothes closet and a "Lenin-
corner." A low partition separated it from the sleeping
quarters. We seated ourselves at the table which was laden
with brown corn bread sprinkled with poppy seeds, pitchers
of milk, dishes filled with butter, cream and cheese, a large
dish of mixed berries and a jug of wine. We simply gorged
ourselves with the appetizing food. Our hostess approached
us with a large platter of steaming "blintzes" and bashfully
excused herself for not having fowl, as her husband, the
shochet, is away to a neighboring settlement and she
wouldn't prepare any but ritually killed meat, and for not
having coffee, the drink of Americans. "Well, dear guests,
you will have to he satisfied with our home-made wine." ...
*
The cultural center is the gathering place for all social
activities, recreation and relaxation. It houses a circulating
and reference library where the Yiddish classics occupy a
place of prominence, a Lenin Corner, and a large reading
room which is frequently converted into a lecture room or
dance hall. Evenings, it is a beehive of activity, but there are
always a few tables occupied by silent chess players and
studious bookworms.
In our honor the comsomols played on the brassy phono-
graph, records of Negro spirituals. Our Canadian doctor
was trying to translate for them, the dialect lyrics into his
lame Yiddish. They laughed heartily at the Jew who was
not master of his own language and asked him whether his
knowledge of American dancing was somewhat better. It
certainly was and he proved it to our mutual delight . .
There is a committee meeting in the corner. The merits
of the candidates as delegates to the regional convention
are considered. Our hostess is one of the favorites. She is


From


Eugene II.


Kisselev




Mr. Abraham Jenofsky,
National Secretary,
"ICOR" Association
One Union Square W.,
New York 3, New Cork

Dear. Mr. Jenofsky:
Please accept my most cordial greetings on the occasion
of your celebration of the twentieth anniversary of the
"ICOR" Association.
Since 1924 your association has been actively engaged
in an effort to acquaint the American people in general and
the Jews in particular regarding the manner in which the
government of my country has solved the so-called "Jew-
ish Problem,"-how it abolished anti-Semitism and discrim-
ination and reconstructed the life of the Jewish people on a
basis of equality with the other free nationalities and peoples
in the U.S.S.R.
The campaigns of the "ICOR" Association to aid the
colonization of Jews in Crimea and later in Biro-Bidjan,
have been grately appreciated by the people of my country.
In recent years, your organization has actively participated
in campaigns to render aid to our heroic Red Army and in
the rehabilitation of our cities and villages.
Your present activities on behalf of aid to the colonies in the
Crimea, and your project in Biro-Bidjan are strengthening
the bonds of sympathy and understanding between the peo-
ples of the great and freedom-loving U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.
Yours sincerely,
EUGENE D. KISSELEV,
Consul General


raising the largest pigs (though not for home consumption).
Her neighbor is another favorite-her specialty is cream ....
The black-eyed, olive-skinned teacher is telling us the
history of the Negro in America. Her friend, the aviator
who is on leave, visiting, asks her: "Why such interest in
things American?" "We need some of the American things,"
she answers thoughtfully, "machinery, technical knowledge,
efficiency-even silk stockings for my legs. They are pretty,
you say; but they will be prettier still, hosed in silk-for your
sake. .. "


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Greetings on the 20th Anniversary of the Icor


MAKE IT ONE WORLD
It is an honor to share with you, the celebration of the
Twentieth Anniversary of the "Icor" Association and to
share in your contribution toward providing a printing plant
for Biro Bidjan.
Though I do not belong to the Jewish race by birth,
I feel- related to Jewish culture from which much in my
life has drawn nourishment. I am glad Jews have added their
great gifts to the enrichment of our multi-peoples of the.
U.S.A. I am glad we are now one nation, striving together
to make it one world.
Cordially yours,
MRS. ALICE HOLDSHIP WARE

ICOR'S PARTICIPATION IN FIGHT AGAINST
ANTI-SEMITISM
It is with a great deal of pleasure that I greet Icor on
the occasion of its 20th Anniversary. The role Icor has
played over the years has helped cement the bond of friend-
ship between American and Soviet Jewry, and between the
American and the Soviet peoples. Despite all the obstacles,
and there were many, Icor kept at its task and today has the
satisfaction of knowing that its labors were not in vain.
Among its important contributions in addition to the
material help sent to the Soviet Union and given to relief
and rehabilitation organizations in the United States, have
been its efforts to bring about American Jewish unity. This
unity devoutly desired by the overwhelming majority of
Jews, while not entirely realized, is closer to fruition than
at any previous time, and much of the credit is yours.
Icor's participation in the fight against anti-Semitism in
the United States and in support of the Lynch Bill H.R.


2328, to bar race hate material from the U. S. mails and
other democratic measures have been of great help in further-
ing these campaigns. It is scarcely necessary to add that I
am sure that Icor will continue to actively participate in all
pro-democratic movements and will do its utmost to help
bring the war to a speedy and victorious conclusion.
May I conclude by wishing you great success in your new
undertaking to bring help to the Yevpatoria region in the
Crimea. This project will undoubtedly be received enthusi-
astically by your members and friends, and I have no doubt
but that it will prove to be one of your most successful
undertakings.
MAURICE ROSENBERG
Administrative Secretary
Jewish Peoples Committee
for United Action Against
Fascism and Anti-Semitism

ICOR DESERVES CREDIT
It bespeaks an impressive vitality that, Amid the upheavals
of the last two decades, an organization like the Icor has
survived to celebrate its twentieth birthday. The Icor de-
serves credit not only for what it has done in behalf of
Jewish colonization in the Soviets but also for the manner
in which it has stimulated and inspired its followers in the
United States. We should rate the remarkable enthusiasm
which the Icor awakens among its devotees as not the least
of the accomplishments for which the Icor merits congratu-
lation.
DR. ABRAHAM CRONBACH
Department of Social Studies
The Hebrew Union College
Cincinnati, Ohio


CRIMEAN MEMORIES

By Dr. N. N. Bloom


Miami, Florida
Now that we read the incredible tale of woe, slaughter,
and ruin, wrought by the Nazi-hordes in the territories they
overran, memories of a visit to the Jewish settlements in
the Crimea, vividly come back to me. I am jotting down
these lines with the ardent hope that their perusal may
further our efforts to help the bereaved survivors rebuild
their homes on the sites of martyrdom and desolation. May
the horrible atrocities perpetuated by mankind's foe steel
our determination to help repair the repairable damage even
at the cost of sacrifice and self-denial.
To you, fellow-citizens of our youngest "ICOR" Com-
mittee, whose splendid record of activity towards the Yevpa-
toria rehabilitation is a stimulus to "ICORISTS" every-
where, this contribution of mine is fraternally dedicated.
*


The serpentine side road, hedged in by brushwood and
tall marsh vegetation, abruptly changed into a Euclidian
straight line. On either side of us, stretched to the far
horizon, were green meadowlands. Cattle were grazing at
some distance ahead of us and a mottled cow with her
jaunty calf stood in drowsy stupor in the midlle of the road
and would not budge for all the tooting of our Ford. We
stopped and, together with the little shepherd boy, dragged
cow and calf off the road.
The youngster jumped upon the running-board and beam-
ing with joy, addressed us in a juicy melodious Yiddish:
Sholem-aleichem! I know; you are uncles from America.
I know!
Yes, we are uncles from America, and who are you,
little boy?


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December, 1944 NAILEBN


nations which are both uproarious and heartrending, as is
Jewish life in general.
In Peretz we have the master of Yiddish literature. He
endowed. it with European universality; for even Sholem
Aleiklem moved in a ghetto atmosphere. His characters
were taken from life and needed little interpretation. Peretz,
on the other hand, forced us to reflect, and his themes were
heavy with ideas. Having published a book of nearly 500
pages on this towering personality, who has become the
Symbol of modern Yiddish literature, I am at a loss as to
how to describe this dynamo -or gushing fountain at which
so many of the younger writers drank. His uncanny yet
sublime folk tales, contain an epitome of Jewish history, and
his Night at the Old Market Place is a Jewish conception of
Faust minus the heroes; for Peretz does not deal with in-
dividuals. He flashes relationships, situations, communities,
collectives. A person is only a cog in the wheel. Thornton
Wilder's The Bridge of San Luis comes close to Peretz's
genre of writing.
Among Peretz's successors, Sholem Asch stands not only
on the highest rung of Yiddish letters, but is among the
dozen greatest novelists of our decade in the world's litera-
ture. With nearly forty volumes of drama, short stories,
and novels, to his credit he has shown a steady progress, even
though the fresh bloom and charm of his early novelettes
will be missed in the heavily charged historical kaleidoscopes
of the birth of a new faith turned later into a religion. Asch
has been criticized by his own people for his interest in the
founders of Christianity, but he has also been stoutly de-
fended for his artistry and daring. Asch has attempted to
see the ancient religious drama with the eyes of a liberal
Jew, transcending dogmas and traditions.
Asch may be the most noted Yiddish author, today, but
he is by no means the only distinguished writer using this
medium. There are even now after several hundred Yid-
dish writers have been killed in cold blood or died in battle,
still over a thousand Yiddish writers scattered the world
over. Hundreds are in service fighting the Nazi beast.
The yvo men the Soviet Government sent to America on
a goodwill mission, Mikhoels and Feffer, are intimately
associated with Yiddish literature, Mikhoels being the direc-
tor of the (Moscow) Yiddish State Theatre, and Feffer,
being one of the leading Yiddish poets in USSR, and a Lieu-
tenant-Colonel as well. What a quip of fate! Only some
decades ago, Yiddish was proscribed, degraded, and ridiculed
in Russia as a ragged vagrant, and now high officers, in-
cluding generals (and there are no fewer than 120 Jewish
generals in USSR) write and converse in Yiddish without
feeling self-conscious about it. Yiddish books are being
translated into a dozen languages in Soviet Russia alone,
with editions running into the hundreds of thousands.
Sholem Aleiklem's books have sold in the millions to date;
and Soviet encyclopedias treat Yiddish writers just as they
would Russian men of letters.
More remarkable still is the elevation of Yiddish to an
official language in Biro-Bidjan, so that it must be studied
by Gentiles in that territory, for the Government schools
there are conducted in Yiddish, as are the trials and law-
suits.


Prof. S. Michoels and Itzik Feffer


In far-off Biro-Bidjan, where West meets East, sur-
rounded by races of all kinds, the Jews for the first time in
centuries, are living as an autonomous group without the
fear of being dislodged or attacked by neighboring peoples.
And what is more significant, a Biro-Bidjan literature, press,
and theatre in Yiddish is developing as a tributary of the
global Yiddish literature. Israel Aksenfeld, who spent years
of his life in an attempt to publish his works in Yiddish,
without being able to obtain permission from the Czarist
Government to do so, finally is bringing out two or three
fascicles in Leipzig, could not have dreamed that this de-
spised language would not only thrive and prosper in that
country, but that translations of his own works would be
made under Government supervision, and that an academic
edition of his writings would be prepared as commissioned
by the Whtie Russian Academy. Alas, its editor, the brilliant
literary investigator, M. Viener, has now given his life on
behalf of the Soviet cause in the gargantuan struggle with
the brown monster.
While Yiddish literature in the United States is scarcely
75 years old, it already counts a "galaxy of authors in the
hundreds, and a library of Yiddish books produced in this
country would aggregate several thousand volumes. No
other racial element has contributed nearly so much to
American culture. There will come a time when a general
course in American literature, if spread over a long period,
will include American Yiddish literature as an- important
chapter; and the Yiddish theatre in America will be studied
in connection with the development of the American theatre
in general; for Broadway without Second Avenue is like
an uptown without a downtown. The Yiddish Art Theatre
with such dazzling production as The Brothers Ashkenazi
and the Family Carnowsky has rendered a great service not
only to Yiddish dramatic art but also to the American play.


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NA I LEBN December, 1944


Yiddish Literature


- Mirage or Miracle


By A. A. Roback


There are many literatures, many great literatures, like
Greek, Latin, English, French and German, but there is
one literature which enjoys a distinction of its own. It is a
literature of a homeless, though ancient people, written in
a language that is often called a jargon, nevertheless it
counts many thousands of books, including such best sellers
as Sholem Asch's The Nazarene and The Apostle, and a
press and journals numbering about 400 regular publica-
tions prior to the outbreak of the war. That were, in itself,
a prodigy, but add to this that Yiddish is the most ubiquitous
of literatures, i.e., there is no civilized country which has
not produced some Yiddish books or journals, and you have
something unique. Few of my listeners knew that Argen-
tina has a Yiddish press of considerable dimensions until our
own President Roosevelt interceded in its behalf when it was
put under a ban by the Ramirez regime. It is probably the
first time that the ruler of a foreign country has expressed
himself emphatically on an injustice against a literature or
culture of a minority in another country.
How old is Yiddish literature? Where did it spring up,
before it began to spread to the remotest corners of the
earth? There are all sorts of misconceptions on these points.
Most Jews still believe that Yiddish is a language in which
only a funny story can be told. Non-Jews often don't
know the difference between Yiddish and Hebrew. Well-
read people are under the impression that The Nazarene
and The Apostle were written in English, or German, or
Hebrew, then; their attitude being "can anything good
come out of Yiddish?" Educated Jews -ippose Yiddish
literature to be about 75 years old.
As a matter of fact, Yiddish as a language is about a
thousand years old-only a little younger than English and
is as much a mixture of other languages as is English.
Yiddish literature is almost contemporaneous with English
literature. It, too, has had its start in Biblical paraphrases,
in chronicles, in legends and romances, but it has also had its
scientific beginnings way back in the sixteenth century,
with treatises on medicine, which I saw in the Bodleian
Library at Oxford University which harbors the most price-
less collection of Yiddish books; in fact, I reproduced many
pages to convince those from Missouri. Yiddish literature
had its troubadours, its gleemen, and Minnesingers in the
twelfth and thirteenth centuries, even though the records
have been largely destroyed by the ravages of war and perse-
cution as in our own time, but we have the fossils, so to
speak, out of which the living organism could be recon-
structed.
Yiddish literature was 1 orn in the dark Middle Ages,
like many another Europe: a literature, but in a sense, it is
more ancient; for Yiddish literature is a continuation of
that book of books which was fashioned in the wilderness,
and which came into being with the burning bush, long to
serve as the inspiration, yea even the groundwork of all
modern literatures. When the Jews in most of Europe


adopted Yiddish as their language, they merely poured old
wife into new bottles, bottles which were better adapted
for their purposes. Until about a year ago, ten million
people spoke Yiddish. Within a short period of time, per-
haps only months, the number was reduced by at least three
millions. Has any language suffered an equal loss through
dastardly extermination on the part of human beasts? And
here we have another mark of individuality-its martyrdom.
Not only has it been reduced by at least one-third as a
vehicle of communication, but hundreds of its writers who
formed the bulwark of its literature were slain or just
asphyxiated. No other literature has suffered such a blow,
at least in modern times. -
Like its creator Yiddish literature has been a wandering
production. Born in Germany, bred in Italy, Holland and
Switzerland, it spent its journeyman days in Russia, Poland
and Lithuania, with trips to Rumania, Austria, Czecho-
slovakia, thence branching off to France, the Scandinavian
countries, and finally spreading to the Americas, the Dark
Continent, Palestine, and even Australia, where some Yid-
dish books have begun to appear in the last five years. In
Shanghai, at this moment, Yiddish writers, who have been
stranded there, are creating while starving.
What does the literature consist of? Yiddish literature
has had its heyday several centuries ago, then declined be-
cause of both inner and outer persecution. It is scarcely
known what Yiddish had to contend with on all sides. The
pious people would not encourage a secular literature deal-
ing with romances; the so-called enlightened and educated
people, in all their variegated shades and modes. His style
of respectable people. The Russian government would not
permit the publication of Yiddish books, journals, or news-
papers for many decades; and Yiddish theatre was taboo,
so that Yiddish actors had to invent all sorts of ruses to make
the officials believe that the language of the performance
was not Yiddish. A large volume of many amusing and
pathetic anecdotes could be written on this phase of Yiddish
literature.
Then came the artistic period, ushered in by Abramovitch,
in 1863. When young, he had travelled far and wide in
Russia, as a beggar's assistant, and observed the woes of the
people, in all their variegated shades and modes. His style
was satirical, his diction polished, and his types realistic, ex-
cept when writing in allegorical fashion. His Dobbin created
a furore, because it was couched in fantastic episodes which
nevertheless spoke eloquently of the wrongs committed
against the Jewish masses even by their own leaders. It is
my belief that the title "Three Men on a Horse" was taken
from the situation in The Dobbin.
Then came the inimitable Sholem Aleiklem, who hardly
dared to write such undignified stuff under his actual name,
Rabinovitch. This questionable stuff soon became the
essence of humor among the Jews; and few in the world's
literature can compete with him in the development of situ-


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December, 1944 NAILEBN


-. -.








Dr. Ch. Zhitlowsky

right to free development which they have secured" (Stalin),
created a number of Jewish national districts in the Ukraine,
Byelorussia and Crimea. The Icor was one of the first
organizations to popularize this deed and mobilize Jews to
help the new colonists in those districts. Agricultural machin-
ery and implements of various kinds had been sent to the
new settlers. In recognition and expression of gratitude, one
of the colonies in Eupatoria (Crimea) was named Icor.
In 1934 Biro-Bidjan was proclaimed a Jewish Autono-
mous Region. This great event marked the highest achieve-
ment of the national minority policy of the U.S.S.R. It
laid the foundation for a Jewish national state in the Soviet
Union-a Jewish Socialist Soviet Republic! The Icor lost
no time in popularizing the significance of this act in the
life of the Jews in the U.S.S.R. and throughout the world.
While explaining the significance of Biro-Bidjan, the Icor
was instrumental in organizing aid to the newly formed
Jewish settlement. Since 1934 tractors, excavators, a print-
ing plant, a woodworking mill, various iron and machine
shops, an art gallery and other equipment-all amounting
to hundreds of thousands of dollars, have been shipped. Biro-
Bidjan began to grow and prosper.
Hitler's attack on the Soviet Union and later Japan's
treacherous attack on Pearl Harbor attracted the immediate
attention of the Icor to the new situation. Along with other
patriotic American organizations, the Icor mobilized its en-
tire apparatus, all the energy of its members, for the partici-
pation in the war effort, in full support to our Commander-
in-Chief and all the agencies organized by the Government.
The Icor is very proud to record the many citations for
meritorious work it has received from the American Red
Cross, U.S. Treasury Department, U.S.O., National War
Fund and others. Simultaneously, the Icor rendered con-


r

~~
,:


December, 1944


I


siderable aid to our allies-especially to our most heroic
partner-in-arms-the U-.S.S.R. The Icor's role in helping
to organize the Russian War Relief, the Jewish Council of
the R.WX.R. is a well known fact. Clothing, medicine, 10
mobile X-ray units, field hospital, medical and scientific
books-all these gifts, valued at over $100,000, had been
sent to the heroic Red Army. In the same period 2 hospital
rooms in the name of the late Dr. Chaim Zhitlowsky and
the Icpr, have been equipped in Leningrad Hospital. We
appreciate the words of Professor Solomon Michoels, who,
at the Icor reception for the Soviet delegation, Prof.
Michoels and Lieut-Col. Itzik Feffer, remarked: "In our
land the Icor is widely known, for not with sighs alone
have you helped us, but with glowing deeds. We know, toofi
how great a part you have played in the upbuilding of
Biro-Bidjan."
What are the main activities of the Icor now?
Continue the campaign of enlightenment on the signifi-
cant development and accomplishments of Biro-Bidjan,
Jewish Autonomous Region in U.S.S.R.; serve as an in-
formation center on the economic, cultural and social life
of the Jews the world over. Published the monthly maga-
zine "Nailebn" ("New Life").
Representatives of the Icor are touring the country and
appear together with local prominent leaders at the celebra-
tions of the 20th anniversary of the Icor.
At present the Icor is busy transporting to Biro-Bidjan, a
modern printing plant (press capable of printing a 48-page
newspaper, 4 linotypes and other necessary printing equip-
ment). This plant was donated by Sam and Pearl Lifshutz
of Philadelphia.
To intensify the campaign to aid in the rehabilitation
of the Jewish colonies in Eupatoria (Crimea).
To complete the assignment received from R.W.R. for
selective seeds for the Soviet Union. The Icor consultant,
Agronomist Mr. J. W. Pincus, in charge of this project,
reported that seeds valued in the amount of $10,000 are
ready for shipment.
Biro-Bidjan is destined to become a haven for a great
various institutions such as orphans' homes, etc., are being
number of Jews, sufferers from Nazism. At present,
set up. The Icor anticipates to receive a project to aid in
this work.
In these days when our victorious armies and those of
our allies, at great cost, are approaching their goal-Berlin
and Tokyo-the Icor recognizes that our organization must
help speed the day of victory, to be followed by an enduring
peace, in a world cleansed of fascism. We are confident
that our efforts in aiding to build national unity in our
country, cement friendship and understanding between Jews
in the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R., and all over the world,
our activities in behalf of Biro-Bidjan and campaigns to
help in the rehabilitation of the Jewish people in the
U.S.S.A., will be correctly evaluated by Americans at our
Twentieth Anniversary.
Vith confidence in a better world, we are entering the
second score of our activity.
We invite everybody to join us.


NAILEBN






December, 1944


TWENTY YEARS ICOR

By M. L. Olken


'Ihlie Twentieth Anniversary of the Icor Association is
now being celebrated in scores of American cities. Progres-
sive organizations and prominent Americans, Jews and Gen-
tiles, Negro and white-are sponsoring these celebrations.
lWhat is the Icor? What are its accomplishments? What is
its present program?
The name Icor is abbreviated from the Yiddish, "Yid-
dishe Kolonizatzia in Ratnfarband," meaning Jewish Col-
onization in Soviet Union.
The Icor was organized December 24, 1924. It came
to life as a result-of what happened to the Jews on one-sixth
of the earth seven years prior.
In October 1917, the people of Russia, under the leader-
ship of Lenin and Stalin, overthrew the old Czarist system
of national oppression and enslavement, of pogroms, dis-
crimination and anti-Semitism and instituted a system of
equality and freedom for all the nations of Russia. The
"Declaration of the Rights of the Nationalities of Russia,"
issued in the name of the Russian Republic on November 15,
1917, bearing the signatures of V. Ulyanov (Lenin) and
Joseph Djugashvili (Stalin) established the -..1i.. ;i prin-
ciples:
1. "The equality and sovereignty of the nations of
Russia.
2. The right of the nations of Russia to free self-determi-
nation including separation and the formation of independent
states.
3. The removal, of every and any national and national-
religious privelege and restriction:
4. The free development of the national minorities and
ethnographic groups, living within the confines of Russia."
That was in 1917.
Now, twenty-seven years later, we in Amefica fully
realize what the national liberation accomplished. It cre-
ated a multi-national state of free nations and peoples united
to a degree hitherto unknown in history. Hitlerite Germany
is realizing it on its own ground.
On August 9, 1918, a "Decree of the Council of Peo-
ples' Commissars on the Uprooting of the Anti-Semitic
lMovemnent" was issued. It was signed by the chairman of
the Council of Peoples' Commissars, V. I. Lenin. The
concluding paragraph of that document reads:
"The Council of Peoples' Commissars instructs all Soviet
deputies to take uncompromising measures to tear the anti-
Semitic movement out by the roots. Pogromists and pogrom-
agittiors are to be placed outside the law."
.-\Ad llthus in accordance with the Soviet dictum: "From
word to actionn" P(groms-that terrible scourge of tile
Jew ish people unIder the Romanlovs, and anti-Semitism
(alas! ) still tlhe plague of Jews in countries outside of the
U.S.S.R., have been uprooted!
lhe Soviet Government forever solved the so-called
"Jewish Question."
It was the Icor which brought to the American people


all the above historical facts. Naturally, the Jews in America
were especially anxious to learn about that new life which
was granted their brothers and sisters by a powerful govern-
ment in a country with a new approach towards their
people. The Icor made an invaluable contribution to the
U.S.A. as a whole by acquainting the people with the life
and customs of the country which was destined to become

UNITED STATES TREASURY '
e-1



IN ACKNOWLED GEMENNIT
v1jtatW9t6 fiaFtel/tioafn in th/e wo.a./fnancti, /woyram ,

THIS CITATION
SSi ata(l/ed to
is awared& 1.


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n0. +


Ax jiwie(4ytoui iexvce Yenc/eyed in Mne c7ViI Y/a/ Yiatt
nfte / o Iful, 8. A9M
WAS FINANCE COMMITTEE FOR NEW YEMK
n<../ IT./

i52,000 Fifth War Loan Bonds were sold by the
Brownsville (Brooklyn, N. Y.) Icor.
our powerful ally in the struggle for the preservation of the
civilized world.
The Icor published hundreds of bulletins, scores of books,
millions of leaflets explaining the method by which the
Soviet Government converted the "Luftmensch" into a
free, healthy Soviet citizen and proud Jew. This work was
supplemented by series of lectures, mass meetings, celebra-
tions and other activities participated in by thousands of
people from all walks of life. In brief, it was due to the
activities of the Icor that so many Jewish people have
learned the truth concerning the Soviet Union as well
as the facts in regard to the status of the Jews in that
country. Undoubtedly this action resulted in closer rela-
tions and better understanding between the two greatest
Jewish settlements in the world-U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.
It was not an easy task. Forces inimical to the Soviet
Republics attempted to becloud and poison the minds of
the Americans on this score. Amongst the Jews, a small
but well financed and vociferous clique of discredited journal-
ists and all kind of "has beens" sought to undermine the
growing admiration for the Soviet Union which was ema-
nating from the masses in America. However, the Icor re-
fused to capitulate. On the contrary, its activities increased.
It began to publish a monthly periodical in Yiddish and
English, "Nailebn." This publication has proven itself to
be indispensable in the Icor enlightenment campaign.
The Soviet Government, in line with its policy to "help
national minorities to make the fullest possible use of the


NAILEBN








December, 1944


NAILEBN


was organized. Its business was to choose the machines
most suitable to the war conditions. And so during its most
difficult period Biro-Bidjan received through the Icor: a
number of tractors, road building machines, trucks, auto-
mobiles, motorcycles, construction machinery to equip a saw
mill and the like. Furthermore, this power machinery was
accompanied by technicians whose task it was to teach the
pioneers how to use it. To this end short-term courses
were organized where the youth received instruction in the
art of both handling and caring for the machines. And it
is interesting to note that those young pioneers who had
never before been near such complicated mechanisms
acquired in that short time the necessary skill to use them
and evinced the intelligence to keep them in repair.
It will not be amiss to relate the following episode which
characterizes the atmosphere in which the Icor has had to
work.
As indicated at the outset, some of the "sophisticates,"
who deserted the Icor, turned their guns against it. Now
Biro-Bidjan gave them cause to intensify their campaign of
vilification both against the Icor and the Soviet Union.
Briefly they presented Biro-Bidjan as a place unfit for
human habitation. To meet these wanton attacks the Icor
sent an expedition of American experts to investigate Biro-
Bidjan. In order to eliminate all suspicion of bias the lead-
ing members, forming the majority of the Expedition were
chosen non-Jewish. It was in 1929. After about three
months of arduous field-work covering the main parts of
Biro-Bidjan the expedition returned with a report (pub-
lished in English, Yiddish and Russian), confirming the find-
ings of the Soviet experts who, naturally enough, had in-
vestigated Biro-Bidjan before it was set aside for the Jews.
The American experts also toured the country and before
large American audiences related their experience, to wit:
The potentialities of Biro-Bidjan are great; its soil is fit for
diversified agriculture; its rivers and lakes teem with fish;
its beautiful hills are pregnant with rich mineral resources
(graphite, iron, gold, etc.); its climate despite the severe
winter is wholesome. In a word, Biro-Bidjan is a land
flowing with milk and honey, and enjoys a large average of
annual sunshine . .
During the Second Five-Year Plan, the industrialization
of the Soviet Union has reached the high level that entitled
it to the first place in the world in the manufacture of the
most advanced farm implements and to second place (after
the U.S.A.) in the production of tractors. This industrial
progress has greatly stimulated the collectivization, that is,
the complete industrialization also of agriculture. The
Soviet Union, including the Soviet Jews, has reached the
stage of inchoate prosperity. Clearly enough, the material
aid of the Icor was no longer needed. However, the ties
of the Icor people with the Soviet Jews have continued as
ties of cultural fellowship. To illustrate the point. The
Jewish artists connected with the Icor have contributed to
the Biro-Bidjan museum a collection of their fine paintings.
Some branches of the Icor would now and then send to
Biro-Bidjan as material token of culture such objects as type-
writers or other useful articles that were not yet manufac-
tured in large quantities in the U.S.S.R.


,rol ooru


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tuoutive secrstory


"lcor authorized to earmark its contribution for
Yevpatoria Region."

Today, alas, the flourishing lands of the Ukraine, the
Crimea, White Russia lie once more in utter ruin. True,
the U.S.S.R. of today is a highly industrial country; it is
moreover a co-operative Commonwealth so that its nations,
unaffected by the war, aie in brotherly fashion helping the
victims of the Nazi barbarians, and the reconstruction is,
therefore, proceeding at a marvelous pace. However, the
devastation of the foregoing areas is so complete, so appall-
ing that the sooner the victims are rehabilitated the gerater
will be the salvation. And so, in response to the urgent
needs of the historic moment, the Icor is again in the harness.
Besides its cooperation with the Russian War Relief, the Icor
is getting ready to extend all possible aid to the survivors,
who are returning to their Crimean homes ruined by the
Nazi hordes.
It is noteworthy in this connection that Biro-Bidjan has
come of age and is now strong enough to help others. In-
deed we learn that the region is already preparing shelter,
schools and the needful supplies for many of the children
left parentless and homeless by the Nazi beasts, and the
Icor is preparing its contribution to this cause.
A Concluding Note
Twenty years ago when the Icor was organized in New
York, organizations of a like type and inspired by kindred
motivation sprang up in all countries with a Jewish popula-
tion: In this Hemisphere, from' Canada down to Argentina;
and in Europe, from England to every country on the con-
tinent. Manifestly, the vindication by history of the Icor
position is the vindication of the aspirations of the common
people the world over.


SUITE I111 t EXINGTON I-6t1
July 14, 1944

Ar. Abraham Jnofahky
National Secroetoy
loor AIeoolatioa
1 loto Square
ei. Took. 1. Y.
Dear r. Jenofsky,
Sar- indeed happy to be able to tIfom you that wie ho
raceteed approval of your request hereby floor illl be able
to earik its contribution for the Yeopatoria region l the
Cri..a
We are uro thatt his project will have a particulrly strong
appeal to your melbership. It was not mny years ago that the
Icor took an otie part In hlping to build Jeetsh agrioultural
ooloniea I this particular region. One of the oolonls.,
uadendrs d, was even named the floor Colony in approoiation of
your Iffors. We ean therefore. think of no better contribution
that loo: can oake at the present time than to help lmiediately
to rehabilitate agriculture and the condition of hue-n existsee
In the territory that the Naail devastated with their usual bru-
tally and to which th people are already returning.
It is surely tonessseary for vs at this late date to restate at
any lengh the feeling of those of us who are responsible for
the work of the Jewish Counoil, toards Ior. whioh has been one
of our roeatest sources of strngtbh ftm the beginning and whloh
in all its aotltles has shoen suoh appreciation of the high
oral and hi torio mlus of trsngtheniog the bond of friendship
between, the asriso and Soiet people. Tour nsneet project 1i1,
.e kn., be as s uoo..fuol as all your prerloue onue.








NAILEBN December, 1944


that the procession of events has vindicated the position of
the Icor. It has at the same time admonished the more
thoughtful that only the history-blind are prone to mistake
virtue for sin.
No Anti-Stemitism on One-Sixth of the Globe
The contemplation of two salient facts in the history of na-
tions renders the Soviet solution of the "Jewish question"
something of a miracle. Indeed consider first this fact. The
great democracies, such as are the USA, Great Britain (pre-
war) France, never could, although they earnestly would, rid
themselves of the disgracing blemish called anti-Semitism.
Why? . Then consider the second fact. Russia, when
the realm of the Czars, is avowedly the classic land of
pogroms upon the Jews, and is generally known as the
"prison of nations." Now set over against these two facts,
the forward march of history ushers in a new era; its
harbinger is the October revolution of 1917; a new State
formation is brought into being, viz. the Soviet Union and
within its far-flung dominations the emancipation of the
Jew is complete. The gates of the ghetto, rusty with age,
are broken down, never to close again, and the Jews issue
forth as a free Soviet nation equally-righted with the many
other emancipated nations that thenceforth form the USSR.
Verily, a miraculous performance of history.
When viewing the problem of anti-Semitism as it besets
the great democracies, we ask the question Why? Why is
democracy as we know it impotent to solve this vexing
problem? No adequate answer is forthcoming. Now that
the Soviets have effected the final solution of this problem
the well-intentioned adherents of democracy ask in turn the
question How? Motivated by a genuinely democratic im-
pulse, they are eager to emulate the Soviet "miracle";
hence they anxiously seek the answer to this question How?
As loyal apologists for the bourgeois order of things, the
only answer they could possibly find is the one inscribed in
the Soviet Constitution as article 123. According to this
article "any propagation of racial or national exclusiveness
of hatred and contempt, is punishable by law."
In other words, it is commonly believed that anti-Semitism
has been banished, in the Soviet Union, by sheer legislation.
This belief, it must be pointed out, is erroneous. Crime in
general and group "exclusiveness" in particular is a socially
pathological phenomenon, and being such it can not be
decreed out of existence by iMere law. Social criminology
will tell you that in this case law is at best only a palliative
and by no means a cure. Article 13-15 of our grand Con-
stitution have not cured the Jim-Crow disease. . No,
anti-Semitism is a systematic disease; it is, so to speak,
congenital in a given system of social organization. Its cure
therefore calls for a thorough overhauling of the system.
The Icor At Work
No racial or national exclusiveness, no anti-Semitism on
one sixth of the globe! In America, the broad Jewish masses,
that is, the common people, felt deeply the historic signifi-
cance of this revolutionary event and they found in the
Icor the articulate exponent of their sentiments. They felt
that the cherished ideal of oppressed mankind, the ideal of


a world blessed with genuine Freedom has become real in
the Soviet Union and that there millions of Jews have
acquired complete national emancipation. Thus the Icor
established a bond of fellowship feeling between the Jews
of the Soviet Union and their brethren in the United States.
In the early twenties, the situation was somewhat as
follows: Idealy, that is, along the road of history the Soviet
Jews had moved far ahead of their fellow-Jews, but mate-
rially they were lagging far behind. Indeed in this respect
they had to begin from scratch, and if all beginning is hard,
their beginning was doubly hard. To make a long story
short, it will be remembered that the heritage left by
Czardom to the Soviet Union was very poor; it was more-
over reduced to ruin by the first WVorld War, by the counter-
revolutionary foreign intervention and by the Civil war.
Furthermore, the country was predominantly agricultural
and the methods of farming were most primitive and least
rewarding. The man and the ox formed the motive power;
the wooden plow and the back-breaking sickle formed the
means of cultivating and harvesting.
Now in conformity with the dictum of socialist economy
which forbids exploitation of man by man, the Jews had
to abandon their "air castles," settle down on land and
engage in productive labor. Thus they had to revive a long
forgotten art, and they had to do it the hard way. Be it
noted right here that on the whole they did it with flying
colors. Of course, the Soviet Government, through a spe-
cially appointed organ (the Comzet) allotted large tracts
of land for Jewish settlements in the South Ukraine, in
White Russia, and in North Crimea. In addition the settlers
were given credit and were supplied with means of produc-
tion, however rudimentary.
It was at this point that the work of the Icor set in.
The motto was: help the settlers so as to ease their pioneer-
ing labors. The first aid went to the Eupatoria region of
the Crimea. It was assistance on a rather minor scale; for
the initial pattern of the colonization was the "familiy-size"
farm and the individual peasant could not at that time
possibly handle modern machinery. Yet the Icor sent there
a couple of tractors and, interestingly enough, this novelty
stimulated the Jewish peasants to use the machines in conm-
mnon, a step to collective effort.
Serious work on a major scale the Icor began to develop
in 1928 when Biro-Bidjan was put on the map as the
territory which the Jews were at once to settle and to build
into a Jewish Autonomous Soviet Republic. It will be
recalled that in 1928 the first Five-year Plan was still in
the blueprint stage; the industrialization of the country was
barely in its nascent state. All the Soviet Government
could do for the settlers was to provide them with horses,
wagons, seed, and the like basic necessaries; it also freed
them from the burden of all taxation for a period of twelve
years. But Biro-Bidjan like'all new physical frontiers was
hard to conquer with primitive means. The land was prac-
tically virgin, marshy and roadless.
It was to help meet these difficulties that the Icor under-
took to send power machinery to the Biro-Bidjan pioneers.
To accomplish the task effectively, a Technical Committee


December, 1944


NAILEBN









"fl,.RIL CB I" (n ew Life)

Vol. XVIII, No. 12 (169) New York, N. Y., December, 1944 4i.209 Single Copy 10 cents
NAILEBN, I Union Square, New York 3, N. Y., Telephone ALgonquin 4-2045, published monthly by the ICOR Association for information on the
economic, cultural, and social life of the Jews the world over. Yearly subscription, $1.00.
Re-entered as second-class matter August 22, 1938, at the Post office at New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879.
Business Manager-A. JENOFSKY



THE ICOR TWENTY YEARS OLD

By. Prof. Charles Kuntz


The Birth of the Icor
Just twenty years ago, in December 1924, a group of
Jewish people called a mass meeting of their fellowmen and,
with the hearty support of this "Constituent" Assembly,
organized themselves under the cryptic name Icor. This
name was chosen to indicate the immediate objective of
the' newly born organization, namely, to help the "Jewish


Prof. Charles Kuntz
President of the Icor

colonization in Russia." The members of the initiative group
were men of labor, business, and intellectual professions.
Generally speaking, an organization comes into being as
a common response of people who are all confronted by some
compelling need engendered in the course, of events. That
need may he material in the sense that it directly concerns
the vital interests of those who unite to meet. it collectively.
For instance: working people organize themselves into trade
unions to defend jointly, their common interests; other, peo-
ple -unite fraternally in pursuit of self-help or mutual aid.
On the other hand; the -need to organize may be of an
altruistic, of a "purely" 'deal nature. Indeed, some people do
organize to help others, and the Icor is an eloquent case
in point.
It must, however, be noted in this connection, that the
ideal type of organization presents two varieties; one rests
upon charity, the other is conceived in good-fellowship. The


former is characterized by the fact that its members, the
benefactors, are neither like-minded among themselves nor
are they of a kind, socially, with their beneficiaries. Charity
as is well known, is the necessary evil (or good) calculated
to bridge the gulf between the rich and the poor, a gulf
characteristic of all class-stratified society. As to the :.. -
ship variety, it is characterized by the fact that its members
identify themselves with their fellowmen whom the --eek
to help; here both the donors and the recipients are at once
like-minded and like-hearted.; they share a common outlook
upon life. Thus it was this spirit of fellowship with the
Jews of the Soviet Union that imbued the Icor throughout
its existence.
It will be observed that the further growth of the Icor
was adversely affected by the conspiracy of the following
two factors. First, the intellectual members, for the most
part subservient to the "better classes" of the community in-
terpreted the Icor as a charitable organization. The\ ac-
cordingly insisted upon currying favor from the philan-
thropic rich. Moreover, this attitude was bolstered hby the
second disturbing factor which was this. W'e are reminded
that at the time under consideration the Soviet Union was
the pariah among nations. It was the object of unmitigated
calumny and slander. The bourgeois :'ii.. ...nr-; the
mouthpiece of the powers that le, used all the channels of
communication to paint the Soviet Union as the source of
all evil. In their turn, a number of Jewish intellectuals joined
the chorus of anti-Soviet propaganda and, unconsciou-.ly,
ascribed the plight of the Jews in the Soviet Union ta, the
Bolshevik revolution.
Clearly, the inevitable result of the operation of these two
factors was that the over-sophisticated intellectuals at once
eliminated themselves from the Icor and promptly turned
against it. They decried the organization as radical, na\ as
communist-dominated. In the eyes of these recalcitrant the
original sin, of the Icor was twofold: First, the Icor was
pro-Soviet inasmuch as it recognized that the socialist revo-
lution has resolved the age-old baneful "Jewish question"
with a finality unprecedented in history; and, second, the
Icor realized that the problem then facing the emancipated
Jews was not one of indigency to be met by anonymous
fruitless charity, but one of free reconstruction inviting fel-
lowship assistance of a constructive nature. Needless to add










|JCOI, ASSOCIATION * ,,. t F O EYoSa;ER-, Y PYE
DL 'OUIS B CTEAfV, Chalima *. .. IC: R: COMMITTEE GR~COMMI#^%Tf.
C 0 ZC VI: t117K=40
A;-i *' **01KV c B S. LESIKIN. Secretary. '0
:: c. "L:O K cr. R S etar
I A. L IEVENBSON Lit. DrectorSTAN I ND -.
ITATENO INSAND
....... 11 ,,,o, -.._....., ,__._,_ _._ _,_,...,_ .... u r..-,r .... .. _"'_'__ ___. _',_ ***.<_ ..__=._._ __.



; OMANHATT.AN ICOR COMVIITTEE Gi
Dr. Cham Zhiitowsky Icor Committee N. LIEBERMAN. Chairman
nd Center L H. HORWOOD. Fin. Secretary OE C m 'REN r
.:149 Second Avenue D. LU IE. Rec..Secretary, O' : i C ,
'.I SCHNUR. Organizer M. MOSS, Mem.. director .. ..:
JACOB AFRAID EN Secretary .
BRONX N. .-. ALB N. Y ICBM OR COMMITTEE AE OD N'

rotona -Ioar .Committee ad Center ICOR OCOMIV I TEE. r
291 Third ACentue .rM. TUROFF. Secretary OR.I AST e
: H. WHOLFR Organiin. rer. .
L. G EN BERGn. Secretaarry 'I a "WOtLFs.R u
SCELIA RUB anizer .M.'L. DirMe sector ''. -O:S: CAI ''.
_,_ _._ _,.'_:,_.._.,BALTIMORE, ,MD.. L E T i... .'.'.
aBRONX; -N. Y.- ALBA N.Y CTTEE .hi .b




;.'; Nailebn Icor Committee 'BOSTON. MASS.N. -P
'.'. ro ICOR CENTER ICOR COMMITTEE n. .OR. MIEE .
I..R a n .. I SADORE SHORE. Chairman H. S C .:, .:.m






MEIROW. nN. FUDEMe BERG Sretar
I. EHRLICH. Secretary . YELIN. Secretary .. N' r y"

; BROOKLYN. N Y. BINGHAMPTON. N. Y MOUNTAIN
SBrownsville Icor Committee ; COMMITTEE I. M
and Center ICOR COMMITTEE I R
1707 Pitkin Avenue LOUIS PINCUS, Secretary ". KRA.l Sec
,.. DR. L. SCHATZOV. Organizer .
'D. YANISHEFSKY. Fin. Secretary .R:' M.e. ..
ANNA SAFRAN. Secretary MEM
BIO Y N .EMPI. Y. NTENN. ?
E.r CL.EVELAND, OHIO I CM M o-. ;IN.S _;4'.: .
Eastern Parkway Icor Committee . '
S1190 St. Jhns Plce ICOR COMMITTEE .. N'ORW LL Seret-ri,.'. "L
.. H. KAPILOW. Chairman _____. ,.,
HANNA ARONOFF. Secretary CHICAGO. ILL. ICOR COMMITTEE MILRUEE WIS S
L. M. .GELLER. Chairman,
Brighton C. I., Icor Committee M. D. BELL. Secretary .. ,LD ..ASER na
ANA OSTROWSKY Educational Director:,
..3161 Coney Island Avenue DR. B. M. NADEIR. Fin. Secretary A. ZEmLIGON ecreary" ,
ERTHA RESNICK Organizer D. B. M. NADLER. Fin. Secretary BAHPIROE Se
WM. SCHWARTZ. Fin.. Secretary H. H IRSHENBERG, Literature Diretor
i: WEINSTEIN. Iec. Secretary :I--
Si GOLDIE BERNSTEIN. Corr. Sec rotary MA ISO W ISC
S PHILIP FE"DER, Mem. Director DETROIT,' MICH COR COMMITTEEE ,'.
CEa st New -Yor.co Committee .ICOR COMMITTEE so' IEBER

'.12 Riverdale Avenue LUCY NEWMARI Secretary. '.RE
,"6 BE RA. LERNER, Organizer .-.'-

aIcor.Committee and Center DULUTH MINNESOTA ICOR COMMITTEE*
9 e uP. FISHER Chairman
.a9,m8..erriBtead.:-- ,: ICOR -~(COMMITTE N. DRoPKIN, Treasr
,.. WS.HWARDZ, Fin. Secretary FANNIE FLEIS HMA N tar : DiESBER Secre
ISNR. W "Ier. SecS re tary :,p N KA E c, _
PHILIP .. I om ,... 7b






4,. 5. ICOR COMMITTEE-..- :OiRW ,
LERNER .. -" -' .


trick ., a. .,. -'P "FISHER. N .....;. ,







N No 6e.S el aI
kA. . . -



















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I I. IC O R ..ANT .. O L....... ... .......... ....... ............... ... .,,s:ro.w k
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HE ,CONT ENTS :,. -:
I., COR TWENTYYARS OLD-'..... .:,-Charls Kn '
TWENT: I..COR.. ......'.M.


.,E YIOR D LIRA LETRA UR -M RA E ........ ....... A" A......... R. oa ':.',' -

ICR.-W... OMN.............. Ana Ostowky ....44: X2


on$,Eug ;D.Xi.tile
L'QlreefingsSoyiet General Consul Eugene. Kissiley JewisihAnfi-Fascist Committee in the; !"'
-,, ietUnion; Coriss Lamont; -,.taniy.,:. M. is c.s Beniaj in'.: J. Da, Jr.. br rn .,
66h Mi4ice Ro'senberg; Mrs. Alice We Jacob Marcs bDr. B. M. Na dler Reva6~'~ t~ H
bCm n au6r6ice Becker.;'

.. . . .. ... . . .e:. ...... . . ... ., ..,,., .