Nailebn =

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Nailebn = New life
Parallel title:
New life
Added title page title:
Naylebn
Physical Description:
v. : ill., ports. ; 28 cm.
Language:
Yiddish
Creator:
Icor
Publisher:
Icor, Association for Jewish Colonization in the Soviet Union
Place of Publication:
New York
Frequency:
monthly (irregular)
monthly
completely irregular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Jews -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Language:
Title also in Yiddish and text largely in Yiddish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began in May 1928.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Volume numbers irregular: Jan.-Oct. 1946 called v. 20, no. 1-10, Nov.-Dec. 1946 called v. 19, no. 11-12; 1947 called also v. 20.
General Note:
Description based on: Vol. 11, no. 1 (Jan. 1937); title from cover.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 19068832
lccn - 50017200
ocm19068832
Classification:
lcc - DS101 .N25
ddc - 296
System ID:
AA00007530:00009

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Jewish Guerrillas



JDR. W. PINCUS:
American Seeds Replant the
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WILLIAM ZUKERMAN:
A New Era for the Jews of
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A. SUTZKEVER:
Jewish Guerrillas
DR. N. N. BLOOM:
Miami Is Doing Its Share
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RIXAIIFLORMA S-P1E-EMt3ER /0


SAMEmRCA, N oATIOxAL BANK OF MIMI


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1944 ,lyZptMV I3 y 7 j -I


STATEMENT OF THE OWNI:iSHIP, MAN
AGEMENT, CIRCULATION. I-TC., REQUIRED
BY THE ACTS OF CONGRESS OF AUGUST
24, 1912, AND MARCH 3, 1933
Of Nailebn (New Life) published monthly at
1 Union Square, West, New York 3, N. Y. for
October 1, 1944.
State of New York

County of New York

Before be, a notary in and for the State and
county aforesaid, personally appeared Abraham
Jenofsky, who, having been duly sworn accord-
ing to law, deposes and says that he is the
Business Manager of the Nailebn (New Life)
and that the following is, to the best of his
knowledge and belief, a true statement of the
ownership, management (and if a daily paper,
the circulation), etc., of the aforesaid publica-
tion for the date shown in the above caption,
required by the Act of August 24, 1912, as
amended by the Act of March 3, 1933, em-
bodied in section 537, Postal Laws Regulations,
printed on the reverse of this form, to wit:
1. That the names and addresses of the pub-
lisher, editor, managing editor, and business
managers are: Publisher "ICOR" (Association
for Information on the Economic, Cultural and
Social Life, of.the Jews of the World, 1 Union
Square West, New York 3, N. Y. Editor Rabbi
A. J. Bick, 1 Union Square West, New York 3,
N. Y. Managing Editor none. Business Man-
ager Abraham Jenofsky, 1 Union Square West,
New York 3, N. Y.
2. That the owner is: (If owned by a cor-
poration, its name and address must be stated
and also immediately thereunder the names
and addresses of stockholders owning or hold-
ing one per cent or more of total amount of
stock. If not owned by a corporation, the
names and addresses of the individual owners
must be given. If owned by a firm, company,
or other unincorporated concern, its name and
address, as well as those of each individual
member, must be given.)
"ICOR" Association for Information on the
Economic Cultural and Social Life of the Jews
the World Over (a non-profitable association),
1 Union Square West, New York 3, N. Y., Prof.
Charles Kuntz, Presideit, 1 Uonion Square West,
New York 3, N. Y., M. Stern, Treasurer, 1
Union Square West, New York 3, N. Y., Abra-
ham Jenofsky, Manager and Secretary, 1 Union
Square, New York 3, N. Y.
3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees,
and other security holders owning or holding
I per cent or more of total amount of bonds,
mortgages, or other securities are: (If there
are none, so stale.) None.
4. That the two paragraphs next above, giv-
ing the names of the owners, stockholders, and
security holders, if any, contain not only the
list of stockholders and security holders as
they apepar upon the books of the company
but also, in cases where the stockholder or
security holder appears upon the books of the
company as trustee or in any other fiduciary
relation, the name of the person or corporation
for whom such trustee is acting, is given; also
that the said two paragraphs contain state-
ments embracing affiant's full knowledge and
belief as to the circumstances and conditions
under which stockholders and security holders
who do not appear upon the books of the com-
pany as trustees, hold stock and securities in
a capacity other than that of a bona fide
owner; and this anmlant has no reason to believe
that any other person, association, or corpora--
tion has any interest direct or indirect in the
said stock, bonds, or other securities than as so
stated by hinm.
5. That the average number of copies of
each issue of this publication sold or dis-
tributed, through the mails or otherwise, to
paid subscribers during the twelve months pre-
ceding the date shown above is ..............
(This information is'required from daily pub-
lications only.)
ABRAHAM JENOFSKY
Business Manager
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 22nd
day of September 1944.
HAROLD LIPPEL
N. Y. Co. Clk's No. 191, Reg.; No.
75L6, Bronx Co Clk's No. 9, Reg.
No. 16L5, Kings Co. Clk's No. 26,
Reg. No. 137L5. Commission ex-
pires March 30, 1945.


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1944 ,Ptatpj \ 7 n 3r_ 18






19 I'3 y ; 1 13 21944 ,-YItVQPt


Rosoff's Restaurants

Hotels

147 West 43rd Street

New York City


M. B. DWOSKIN'S PHARMACY
4602 Ft. Hamilton Parkway
Brooklyn, New York


DR. D. CHAIKIN, DENTIST
505 Rockaway Parkway
Brooklyn, New York


CHARLES & NATHAN SACKS
Wqplens
215 West 39th Street
New York City


DR. SCHLOSMAN
295 Pennsylvania Avenue
Brooklyn, New York


Dr. Julius Littinsky

80 Fifth Avenue

New York City


DR. W. A. WEINREB
1199 Eastern Parkway
Brooklyn, New York


WORKERS

COOPERATIVE

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Bronx, New York





Board of Directors:


I. Wolman, Manager
A. Rambaum, President
A. Dicerson, Vice-Pres.


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251 West 39th Street


New York City



u lll n I [ [ [ l [ l [ [ I I


Waterproof Garment Workers Union
Local 20 I.L.G.W.U.
1181 Broadway
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Dr. S. Feit, Dentist

1425 Townsend Avenue,

Bronx, New York



GLUCKSTERN'S RUMANIAN


RESTAURANT


135 Delancey Street


New York City

STEAKS AND CHOPS A SPECIALTY



IRVING PLACE
THEATRE -
IRVING PL. AT 14th ST.
Presents
Soviet Russia's Greatest Yiddish Cinema
Production Masterpiece by
SHOLEM ALEICHEM
"D'3TTT U1T *'"D '21n, ,,
with a cast of the Moscow Jewish State
Theatre (English titles)
PLUS:
The Great Soviet Celebrated Artist Who
Recently Visited the United States
PROFESSOR S. MICHOELS in
"The Return of Nathan Becker"
with the Leningrad Symphony Orchestra
and Ballet
Extra! "MOSCOW MELODIES""
A Musical Salute
Commencing Oct. 12 ARTKINO presents
"Adventure in Bokhara"
PLUS:
"JANOSIK"
The Legendary Saviour of the
people of Czechoslovakia
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I








October, 1944 NAILEBN


and waiting among the willows for the
arrival of the train. Soon they heard a
puffing in the woods that merged with
the horizon. The puffing came nearer
and smoke showed above the treetops.
Now they could distinctly see the en-
gine creeping out of the depths of the
woods and behind it a string of cars-
ten, twenty, thirty, forty! The sound
of German songs reached them from
the distance.
It seemed to Vitke that the locomotive
passed over the mine without exploding
'it. She closed her eyes, afraid to voice
her misgivings. But Iske was cool and
confident. His eyes were riveted to a
definite spot; he knew exactly where he
had placed the mine. The engine hadn't
reached it yet but it was coming
closer, closer .. .
Then the three friends hugged each


Some twenty years ago Jews began
the settlement of the virgin flatlands of
Northern Crimea. It was a difficult task,
this overnight conversion of the petty
tradesmen, the city-dweller, into a pio-
neer agriculturist; but, with his super-
human effort and the adequate help and
encouragement of the federal and local
authorities, he has succeeded beyond all
expectations.
On the eve of the Nazi invasion, the
once virgin soil presented a picture of
billowing fields of grain, rich pastures
with an abundance of cattle, orchards
laden with fruit and vineyards heavy
with grapes. Prosperous colonies with
mechanized agriculture, cultural estab-
lishments, schools and hospitals,, testified





P6/,ITI# iT TI/EM!
ol~%~Llllrllll s ~ ~ ~ *


other as earth and metal shot into the
air. .
*
Thirteen carloads of ammunition and
many German soldiers en route to
Polotsk were blown to bits. It was one
of the first acts of sabotage in the Vil-
nius district, and to this day no one ex-
cept a few members of the underground
organization in Vilnius knows that it
was carried out by three youngsters of
the Vilnius ghetto with a mine produced
in a basement at No. 31 German Street.
From the peasants summoned next
morning to collect the dead, we learned
they had counted about 200 German
soldiers killed in the wreck. They had
also picked up many pistols and rifles
and large quantities of ammunition. In
the fall the guerrillas got all these weap-
ons from the peasants and used them
against the Germans.


to the ability and adaptability of the
Jew to build a new home on a solid foun-
dation.
The American Jews helped generously
the Jewish settlement in the Crimea, in
recognition of which one of the colonies
was named ICOR.
This pride of human labor is now a
desolate ruin. The Nazi fiend massacred
the Jews, pillaged their homes and laid
waste their lands. Those who escaped
with their lives are now returning in the
wake of our heroic ally's armies to the
cinders of their homesteads .
The Miami Jews, under the leadership
of the Miami Icor Committee are vigor-
ously conducting a campaign for $23,000
to help with seeds and implements these
bereaved sufferers. It is the proud duty
of every Jew to contribute to the utmost
to this sacred cause. The names, photo-
graphs, and biographies of the contribu-
tors will be perpetuated in a Golden
Book, published by the Miami Icor, copies
of which will be treasured in the archives
of Moscow, Biro-Bidjan and the Crimea,
and, also, the contributor will receive
such a copy.
Good luck to you, Miami! Go ahead
and succeed! I I


_ ICOR BRIEFS
ni ll! illllllll illll llllllillll iilillllillllllllll lllllllli lliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii

8476 lbs of Clothing Sent to Eupatoria.
The executive secretary of the Jewish
Council, R.W.R., Moses I. Finkelstein
in a letter dated September 25 writes us
the following: "This is to inform you
that we have just instructed the ware-
house to prepare a shipment of 8476 lbs.
of clothing for Eupatoria, Crimea." This
information will, undoubtedly, stimulate
further the good work our friends are
doing everywhere for the rehabilitation
of the Jewish colonies in Eupatoria.
20 years Icor. An important event in
the life of the Jewish people in our
country. Has your city arranged a cele-
bration (proceeds to go to the Icor Can-
paign to help rehabilitate, Eupatoria) :
If not, let us know and your community
will be added to a score of cities where
affairs will take place during the com-
ing three months.

Seed Projects for USSR Ready. Two
months ago the Icor undertook a project
to obtain experimental seeds for ship-
ment to the USSR. The importance of
this project is ablye presented in an ar-
ticle elsewhere in this issue by Mr. J. W.
Pincus, agronomist and consultant to the
Icor. The job is completed. We are
very happy to inform you.

"Nailebn." We think our magazine
has considerably improved its contents,
etc. The subscription, however, while
growing, is not in accordance with the
importance of this periodical. One year
subscription including membership in
Icor is only $1.50. Have your friends
subscribe, please.
Elect Roosevelt-Truman. The Icor
Association is actively engaged in the
non-partisan movement to re-elect Presi-
dent Roosevelt and elect Senator Harry
S. Truman and all progressive candi-
dates. We urge all'our readers to regis-
ter. On election day vote for Roosevelt-
Truman. M. L. O.




\ f g VOTE FOR

\ 4i l ROOSEVELT!


MIAMI IS DOING ITS SHARE

DR. N. N. BLOOM

Miami, Florida


October, 1944


NAILEBN







NAILEBN October, 1944


JEWISH GUERRILLAS


By A. SUTZKEVER


The author is a well-known Jewish-
Lithuanian poet who was a member of
the guerrilla detachment formed in the
Vilnius ghetto during the German oc-
cupation of that city.

ONE evening Itzik Vittenberg, Com-
mander of the guerrilla detachment
of the Vilnius ghetto, asked me to come
to his garret room to discuss the ques-
. tion of a Soviet officer, a friend of mine,
who took shelter in the ghetto and want-
ed to be put in touch with the guerrillas
outside the city. When we had finished
with this matter, the door opened and
Abe, a member of our staff, entered
.with gunsmith Borukh. Vittenberg
asked the latter to sit down next to him
on the bed.
"I know, Borukh, that you are a
good and faithful guerrilla," the Com-
mander said. "And I know you're
clever at fixing all sorts of weapons.
The pistols you repaired worked excel-
lently. So it is not a question of con-
fidence. But I must be sure that the
mine you've contrived will explode. You
see, it's our first act of sabotage. We'll
send our best comrades; they will be
risking their lives. If the train isn't
blown up, we'll all lose more than if
we had done nothing-some comrades
may suffer, and the rails will be guard-
ed so strictly it will be impossible to
make another attempt. That's why I
ask you again-are you sure your mine
will explode?"
"Yes-I am sure," said Borukh.
Abe added, "If Borukh says he's sure,
I'm sure. All we have to do now is to
hurry up with the job. We have infor-
mation from Comrade G. that loaded
trains are expected to pass through
Novo-Vileika all tomorrow night. We
mustn't miss this chance."
Suddenly heartrending cries were
heard outside. Itzik jumped up and
opened the window. A dozen Jewish
women were running through the
street, wringing their hands and crying,
"Our children what have they done
to our children?"
We learned that the children, driven
to forced labor in Novo-Vileika, had
not returned. On the way home they
had been searched and some potatoes


and two pints of milk found on them.
Now they were in Lukishki prison
awaiting execution. Tomorrow other
Jews would be sent to work in Novo-
Vileika.
"So ... it will be Novo-Vileika," said
Commander Vittenberg. "And now..."
"And now," interrupted Borukh, "I
beg you to let me take part in the sabo-
tage, if only because I contrived the
mine and I know its mechanism."
Vittenberg exchanged glances with
Abe and a smile lit his wrinkled face.
He was sorry he had asked Borukh so
many times whether the mine was sure
to explode. Of course Borukh could be
trusted! For a month he had been work-
ing in a basement, weighing and sort-
ing gunpowder he had smuggled in
from the labor camp in his boots. He
had poured it into the long copper casing
of an anti-aircraft shell, mixing it with
a yellow dust of his own invention, fil-
ing, sawing, fitting the percussion cap
-glancing every now and then at a
ruled sheet of paper with formulas and
mathematical symbols-until one day
he had rushed in excitedly to report that
the mine was ready.
Now he stood with a grave face, the
yellow patch (the badge the Germans
forced all Jews to wear) over his ex-
citedly-beating heart-and he had only
one request: to be permitted to take part
in the first act of sabotage.
"I'm sorry, but I can't allow it," said
Vittenberg, patting him on the back.
"You know yourself that so far we
have no one else to repair our weapons.
And besides, you're in charge of a
group of grenade-throwers. It would
be a crime to send you."
A tall slender girl with a boyish bob
and freckles on her sunken cheeks came
in. She was Vitke Kempner, liaison
worker between the ghetto organization
and the Party in the city. Handing Vit-
tenberg the latest bulletin of political
news received over the secret radio, she
said, "I know what this is all about .
I didn't sleep a wink all night. Now, I
want you to know my name isn't Vitke
if I don't get a chance to wreck that
train."
The guerrillas burst into laughter.
Vittenberg interrupted, "All right, I


agree. Whom do you want to go with
you?"
While Vitke thought, Abe suggested,
"Iske Matskievich and Moses Brause."
*
On a night in July, 1942, a boy and
a girl slipped out of the ghetto through
a secret passage. Neither wore the.yel-
low patch. They walked slowly in the
direction of the city, the boy holding
the girl's arm and speaking loudly in
order not to attract the attention
of passersby.
It was 9:30 and they had to hurry,
since Aryans were permitted in the
streets only until 10 o'clock. Before
that hour they must be out of the city.
Through Backsht and by the Vilenka
Bridge they hurried to Polotsk Street.
It was a quiet evening and only the
swastikas on fences and posters show-
ing "how Jews dominate the world"
reminded them the Germans were
about. They left Polotsk Street behind
and turned into the Batory highway-
the road to their destination.
To avoid passing automobiles they
left the road and took to by-paths. At
11:3'0 they were to meet Moses Brause
at an old oak tree near the paper mill.
Brause had gone to the meeting-place
that morning with Jews from the Vil-
nius ghetto who worked there, carrying
bricks and repairing the road. He had
the mine with him.
As they neared the spot they heard a
rustling-in the distance they saw the
oak tree and from beneath it Brause
emerged.
"I had just decided not to wait any
longer," he said, as he joined them. "If
you hadn't come, I was going to plant
the mine myself."
At two in the morning they entered
a little wood near the track. Vitke and
Iske crept up to the rails. Brause kept
watch. Iske produced a small shovel
and dug a little hole beneath one rail.
Vitke handed him pebbles, which he
heaped up around the edge of the hole.
Borukh had told them to do that to
prevent the mine from being pressed in-
to the ground by the train. Iske placed
the mine in the hole and covered it with
sand. The three then immediately with-
drew toward Vileika, crossing a stream


October, 1944


NAI LE B N







October, 1944


NAILEBN


which once had a Jewish population of nearly 200,000 and
was one of the greatest Jewish centers in Russia, one must
not forget that scores of thousands of Jews left Minsk with
the Russian army when it retreated before the Nazi advance.
In fact, thousands were evacuated by the Red Army before
they left. Thousands of others escaped into the forests and
fields, or were hiding in houses of non-Jewish friends after
the Nazis had occupied the district; and..thousands of still
others were fighting as guerrillas.
All of these people are beginning to come back now to
their old homes. Minsk, Pinsk, Bobruisk, Wilno, Kovno,
Brest-Litovsk, Byalistok, Kovel, Lemberg and the scores
of other cities in Galicia, Poland, White Russia and
Lithuania will not remain without Jews for long.
Hitler .has not, in spite of all his terror and atrocities, suc-
ceeded in making Poland, Lithuania, White Russia and
Ukraine Judenrein. He has failed in that as he has failed
in all his other aims of terror and extermination. And now
it is too late. The tide is running the other way now. The
Nazis are now being blitzed and they are running in panic
back to the German borders even more precipitously than
their victims did four and five years ago. The war is not
yet at an. end, but the Nazi terror is broken; the Nazi
stranglehold on enslaved Europe and on the Jews is already
eliminated. A new era is on already. Jews are already
facing a new and more hopeful world. From now on Jew-
ish news in Europe is bound to be of an entirely different
type than during the last five years.
Jews in Liberated Poland
The first example of this new type of news on a major
scale came recently from Russian-liberated Poland. The
newly formed Polish Liberation Committee on Polish soil
issued a manifesto to the Jews of Poland such as they and
we have not heard in many, many years.
The manifesto declared anti-Semitism to be a criminal
offense and announced that all identified with anti-Jewish
propaganda will be regarded as Nazi accomplices and tried
as such.
Property confiscated from the Jews will be returned to
them.
All the anti-Jewish legislation introduced by the Nazis
into Polish territory are to be -abolished forthwith. The
Ghettos are to be destroyed; the concentration camps
opened; the hunted, driven, persecuted Jews whose only
fate was extermination are to be free again and equal with
all other people of the New Poland.
The proclamation was signed by the entire National
Liberation Committee which includes two Jewish members,
the former Zionist Deputy Dr. Emil Sommerstein and an-
other prominent Zionist Socialist, Dr. Boleslav Drobner.
It is true that the Liberation Committee still has not the
status of a government and is not yet recognized by other
powers except Soviet Russia, but those who know the trend
of events realize that no Polish government that will be
established in liberated Poland soon will be able to act differ-
ently. The conscience of liberated Poland and of the world
will not permit any other action.
Hungary Yields to World Protests
Another sign of the same new tendency in Europe was


the official announcement by the Hungarian government
that it had suspended the further deportation of the Jews
from Hungary to Poland and to certain death.
In a sense, this action was of course inevitable as a result
of the great victories of the Russian army in the East. Not
only can no more Jews be deported to Poland now, but
the Nazis themselves are already driven out from there.
But in spite of that the action of the Hungarian government
must be recognized as a victory for democratic public opinion
of the world and for a sign of the new trends in the world.
In the first place the decision was taken before the really
great Russian victories in Poland. Secondly, there can be
no doubt that the storm of protests which the Nazi atrocities
against the Jews in Hungary has aroused all over the world,
largely contributed to that decision. For the first time since
the outbreak of the war practically the entire non-Jewish
world, the Catholic and Protestant churches,\public opinion
in Great Britain and in the United States, the American
and British press, neutral Sweden and Switzerland rose to
demand the cessation of the terrible atrocities which the
Nazis had been committing against the Jews for nearly.
five years. And the common united front of the civilized
world has had its effect even on the world dominated by the
Nazis.
No clearer signs of the coming new and better world
can be cited.



20 YEARS "ICOR" MEMBERSHIP AND SUBSCRIPTION DRIVE
August 25th to September 25th. 1944


Los Angeles, Calif.
Hollywood "Icor" Branch
Eve Meyers ........... 15
Bessie Fish ........... 6
Mrs. Goldblath ......... 2
Mrs, Mishelow ........ 1
East Side "Icor" Branch
Joe Lazar ............. 2
Max Soifer ........... 2
R. Brownstein ........ 1
Mollie Drexler ........ 1
Mr. Glazer ............. 1
31
Miami, Fla.
J. Raichick ........... 6
Miriam Baumel ........ 4
Miami "Icor" ........ 4
Rebecca Touly ........ 2
M. Benemovsky ....... 2
S. Malakoff ........... 2
20
Philadelphia, Pa.
S. Leon ............... 2
B. Marginson ......... 1
S. Ingber ............. 1
M. Painter ............ 1
B. Rubin ............... 1
M K aills ............... 1
B. Yanofsky ......... 1
8
Boston, Mass.
M Yellin .............. 6
Shifra Tarr ............ 5
Boston "Icor" ........ 5
Isidore Shore .......... 3


19


Peekskill, N. Y.
Followers of the Trail.. 7
Chicago, Ill.
Dr. B. M. Nadler..... 7
Newark, N. J.
M. Landesberg ........ 3
J. Kuperman .......... 1
Newark "Icor" ....... 1
6


Washington, D. C.
R Lift ............... 4
Milwaukee, Wis.
L. Shapiro ........... 3
H. Schneider ........... 1
4
Rochester, N. Y.
N. Katlin ............. 2
Sioux City, Iowa
H. Gurshtel .......... 1
Omaha, Neb.
B. Klein ............... 1
NEW YORK COMMITTEES:
Brighton-Coney Island Icor
Ph. Felder ........... 5
V. Lichter ............ 2
7
Bronx Icor
Bronx Committee ..... 3
Zippa Katz .......... 2
Fannie Davidoff ....... 2
7
Brownsville Icor
Rose Maltzman ........ 2
Brownsville Committee. 2
J. Olshansky ......... 1
5
East New York Icor
J. Lerner ............. 3
Crotona Icor
H. W olf ............... 2
Downtown Icor
M. L. Olkin .......... 2
Eastern Parkway Icor
L. Steinberg ........... 1
Jamaica Icor
E. Silver .............. 1

Total 137
Previously 2,263
As of September 25, 1944.2,400


a







NAILEBN October, 1944


this Commission sent in a list of about 80 varieties of the
following crops: winter and spring wheat, winter and spring
barley, oats, rye, soybeans, flax seeds, beans, peas, peanuts,
clover and alfalfa.
The "Icor" Association undertook to secure all these
seeds. Numerous stations were in a position to contribute
these seeds, others could not contribute but recommended
where these seeds could be obtained. In nearly every state
of the U.S.A. there exists an organization called Crop Im-
provement Association. This Association is composed of the
leading farmers who are entrusted to grow the new varieties
of seeds from the foundation stock, or mother seeds fur-
nished to them by the plant breeders or agronomists of the
station. The seeds that they grow are called registered or
certified, that is, after field and granery inspection they are
furnished with a certificate and tag that they are certified
seeds. The inspection, supervision, etc., is done by the
Agronomy Department of the State Crop Improvement
Association.
The "Icor" approached all these Associations, and all the
(seeds requested will be obtained by the time they will be
harvested this fall. In addition to the seeds requested by
U.S.S.R., we have also consulted the Bureau of Plant In-
dustry of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and through
the courtesy of Dr. M. A. McCall, Assistant Chief, and
his associates, received a supplementary and corrected list
of new experimental seeds; efforts are being made to obtain
these.
Soybeans is one of the crops that is of great importance


to the U.S.S.R., as well as U.S.A. It is an oil producing
crop. During the last decades and particularly during the
war years, this crop grew by leaps and bounds in the U.S.A.
Many new early-maturing varieties have been developed in
this country. A special journal, "The Soybean Digest," is
published in Iowa by the American Soybean Association.
Both the Association and the publication are ready to co-
operate with us in securing their latest and most desirable
varieties for tests in Russia.
It is interesting to note that Biro-Bidjan is one of the
most important regions for Soybeans, and compares very
favorably with Manchuria, which was considered before the
war as one of the largest soybean producing countries. We
shall make a special effort to see that some of these experi-
mental soybean seeds go to Biro-Bidjan.
In Arizona there are many valuable varieties of "Sorgh-
ums," and one of the leading seedsman of Arizona, Mr.
Manley, is sending about 25 bushels of these varieties for
tests in Russia. By the way, the author saw excellent sorgh-
um fields grown in the Crimean Jewish settlements in 1933
-and the seeds were imported from the U.S.A.
In closing, the "Icor" riembership should take a special
pride in this constructive rehabilitation work for U.S.S.R.
As it takes special interest in the settlements in Crimea and
Biro-Bidjan, special attention should be paid to them. We
must ascertain from Soviet authorities in which way the
American people can be of assistance in the rehabilitation
of Crimea, and to the increased population in Biro-Bidjan,
and then start an intensive campaign to secure this assistance.


A New Era For The Jews of Europe

By WILLIAM ZUKERMAN


SHERE can be no doubt in the mind of the observer of
the European situation that the tide of the war has
turned not only on the battlefields of the East, West and
South, but also in the countries behind the battlefields. The
victorious end of the war may still be far off, but already
the entire trend of events in Europe as far as the enslaved
peoples are concerned, has taken a turn for the better. The
Nazis are on the defensive not only on the battlefields, but
also in all countries of occupation. The Nazi terror is broken,
even if it is not yet eliminated entirely. From now on the
news from occupied Europe is going to be better; it is better
already in spite of the Nazi threat to slam the door with a
bang before they leave the stage.
This applies to the Jews as well' as to the non-Jews. The
time when every important piece of news from Europe was
one of unspeakable terror and unbelievable beastliness is over.
There is a new tenor in the Jewish news from Europe now;
there is a sound of hope, courage, and even of a kind of a
jubilation" which is growing in volume with the defeat
and retreat of the enemy.
The past weeks saw the liberation of hundreds of square
miles and of thousands of cities, towns and villages formerly
populated by Jews and later driven out, or murdered by
the Nazis. Minsk, Pinsk, Bobruisk, Brest-Litovsk, Byalistok,


Wilno, Kovno, Grodno, Kovel, Chelm, Lemberg, Lublin,
-these were once all big centers of Jewish population, social
life and culture. And these are now all free from the Nazis,
free for good and forever.

The Liberation of' Poland and Lithuania

It is true that in most of these cities and their environs
the Jews have been murdered, massacred, or exiled, and the
first reports coming from those liberated places are reports
of terrible atrocities and tragedy. But within these come al-
ready other tidings, of returning settlers, of Jews who fought
as guerrillas, of Jews liberated from ghetto prisons, labor
and concentration camps and from death chambers.
The scene is still too confusing to be seen clearly. No
one can yet tell whether any Jews are left in the newly
liberated territories, and how many of them will come
back to the old homes. But we have been fed for so long
on stories of pogroms and murder, mass extermination of
the Jews, that we are apt to believe that there are absolutely
no Jews left to be liberated.
But this is obviously not the case. When we read, for
instance, that the Russian liberators of Minsk found only
three Jews left alive in that city, the capital of White Russia


October, 1944


NAILE BN








"nAIL B l" (new Life)

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Business Manager-A. JENOFSKY



American Seeds Replant the "Scorched Earth" of U.S.S.R.

By J. W. PINCUS


N the spring of 1942, during the past springs and in the
spring of 1943, over 5 million pounds of all kinds of
American seeds were contributed by American farmers,
seedsmen and other American citizens to replant the
"scorched earth." These consisted of all the leading vege-
tables such as beets, cabbage, carrots, spinach, beans, peas,
onions, etc., as well as wheat, oats, barley, corn, soybeans,
alfalfa,,clover, and many other legumes, grasses and forage
crops. These seeds, assembled by the Russian War Relief,
were shipped to VOKS and were distributed to thousands
of victory gardeners near Moscow, Leningrad, Stalingrad,
Sevastopol and other Soviet cities, also to thousands of kol-
khozniks on their farms, as well as to some of the sovkhozi.
Through the American Lend-Lease- millions of pounds of
seeds were also ordered by the Soviet Purchasing Mission
in Washington through War Food Administration.
That these seeds were of magnificent assistance is testified
to by messages received from officials of the Commissariat of
U.S.S.R. American newspaper correspondents, Mr. Edward
Carter, President of the R.W.R. and Mr. Eric Johnsen,
President of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, and many
other Americans reported of the splendid crops grown
from American seeds. In this connection it is interesting
to note that American farmers have shown an unusual
interest and sympathy to this work. Agricultural papers like
Capper's Farmer, Missouri Ruralist, Country Gentleman,
American Agriculturist, Soybean Digest and many others
printed not only articles on Soviet agriculture, but also had
editorials appealing for contributions...
In the states of Minnesota, North Dakota, Nebraska,
Kansas, and several others, special state committees were
organized which in turn formed special committees in every
county, and thousands of dollars were raised with which
seeds were purchased in respective states by special commit-
tees composed of leading farmers, experiment station men,
and seedsmen. Space does not permit to enumerate in de-
tail this splendid work. The vegetable seeds contributions
were largely made through the seed trade, and trade pub-
lications: "Seed World," "Seed Trade News," and "South-
ern Seedsman" rendered great assistance. The American
Seed Trade Association, as well as Southern, Western, and
Pacific regional Seed Associations and many state seed
organizations were of great assistance.
In addition to the commercial seeds sent to Russia, the
author of this article in the seed campaign of 1942 consulted


Dr. Love of Cornell University, Dr. Hayes of Minnesota,
Dr. Briggs of California and Dr. Newman of Canada and
several other well known American plant breeders about
supplying experimental seeds from America suitable for ex-
perimental institutions in Russia. Having visited many of
their experimental stations, farms, etc. in the past, in Ukraine,
Caucasus, Crimea, etc., he felt that due to the invasion of
the Nazis, and the scorched earth policy of the Soviets, they
would appreciate experimental seeds from the U.S.A. In the
spring of 1943 and 1944, requests came from U.S.S.R. for
definite varieties of certain kinds of seeds. This summer an-
other special request came from the Governmental Commis-
sion for Testing crops, and "Icor" was asked to participate
in this work.
This commission is known in Russian as "Gosudarstven-
naya Kommissia dlia Ispytanii Zernoyvykh i drugich Kultur"
(Governmental Commission for Testing Field. Crops). This
is a special organization, organized by special decree about
ten years ago. It is under the direction of the Council of
Peoples' Commissars, and works somewhat independently of
the Commissariats of Agriculture, and the research institutes
under them. As the name implies, it conducts field crop
tests with grains, legumes and forage crops. These tests are
conducted in various regions of U.S.S.R. and seeds are
planted not only from Russia, but from U.S.A. and other
foreign countries to find out which of the varieties will pro-
duce largest yields or better quality crops. For example, about
six or seven years ago, the Russians discovered that many of
their wheat fields were badly affected by "rust." In the
U.S.A., "rust" also has been a very destructive pest. Ameri-
can plant pathologists, agronomists and other scientists
worked for years and discovered or rather produced "rust
resistant" varieties. The Russians sent a special commission
to the U.S.A. to study this in 1936, and much to their
surprise discovered that the original leading wheat varieties
came from Russia, and those descendants of Russian wheat
were not subject to "rust." These immune seeds were pur-
chased in Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota, North Dakota and
in Canada and sent to Russia. As this work with seeds
requires constant vigilance and continued tests, due to the
fact that there are dozens of kinds of "rust" another
diseases, some varieties are more immune than others.
SBy conducting these tests, the commission thus ascertains
which of these varieties is more adapted to the given location,
and distributes these seeds in the locality. As stated above,