Nailebn =

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Nailebn = New life
Parallel title:
New life
Added title page title:
Naylebn
Physical Description:
v. : ill., ports. ; 28 cm.
Language:
Yiddish
Creator:
Icor
Publisher:
Icor, Association for Jewish Colonization in the Soviet Union
Place of Publication:
New York
Frequency:
monthly (irregular)
monthly
completely irregular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Jews -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Language:
Title also in Yiddish and text largely in Yiddish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began in May 1928.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Volume numbers irregular: Jan.-Oct. 1946 called v. 20, no. 1-10, Nov.-Dec. 1946 called v. 19, no. 11-12; 1947 called also v. 20.
General Note:
Description based on: Vol. 11, no. 1 (Jan. 1937); title from cover.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 19068832
lccn - 50017200
ocm19068832
Classification:
lcc - DS101 .N25
ddc - 296
System ID:
AA00007530:00008

Full Text

















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ANA OSTROWSKY:
Crimea, "The Garden of
Eden"

M. L. OLKEN:
For Victory and Peace

ILYA EHRENBURG:
People and War

BIRO-BIDJAN-
A Geographical Description
A Geographical Description


WORTH KNOWING


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17 y 7 1944 ,-nVyWVy0D


"ICOR" AFFAIRS AT SUMMER RESORTS


The National Executive Committee of the "Icor" Asso-
ciation expresses its heartiest thanks and appreciation to the
owners, managements, social staffs, and guests who cooper-
ated and contributed to the successful "Icor" Campaign for
rehabilitation of the sufferers of Nazism in the U.S.S.R. at'
the following summer resorts:


Hollowbrook Lake Association, Peeks-
kill, N. Y.
Hotel Capitol, Livingsl.tn Manor, N. Y.
Skliar's Inn, Monticello, N. Y.
North Star Hotel, Ferndale, N. Y.
Chait's Farm House, Accord, N. Y.
Ray's Airmount View House, Suffern,
N. Y.
Edgemere Hotel, Kenoza Lake, N. Y.
Golden Camp and Hotel, Hurleyville,
N. Y.
Singer's Lakeside Manor, Spring Val-
ley, N. Y.


July 8, 1944
July 8, 1944
July 12, 1944
July 13, 1944 -
July 14, 1944

July 15, 1944
July 22, 1944

July 24, 1944

July 27, 1944


$151.72
36.00
120.50
60.10


Camp Chi-Wan-Da, Ulster Park, N. Y.
Harmony Country Club, Hurleyville,
N. Y.
Eager Rose Garden, Bushville, N. Y.
Maud's Summer-Ray, North Branch,
N. Y.
Lake Shore Chateau, White Lake, N.Y.
Overlook Hotel, Ferndale, N. Y.
Camp Beacon, Beacon, N. Y.
Lake Side Inn, Ferndale, N. Y.
Camp Lakeland, Hopewell Junction,
N. Y. "Neilebn" subs.


July 29, 1944


200.00


July 31,1944 110.00
Aug. 5,1944 1,100.00


Aug. 6,1944,
Aug. 10, 1944
Aug. 12, 1944
Aug. 13, 1944
Aug. 13, 1944

Aug. 20,1944


53.32 Woodland Hotel, North Branch, N. Y. Aug. 18, 1944
Plaza Mountain House, Ferndale, N.Y. Aug. 19, 1944
60.00 Goldens Bridge Colony, Goldens
72.02 Bridge, N. Y. Aug. 19, 1944
Hilltop Lodge, Hopewell Junction, N.
70.00 Y. Aug. 26, 1944
Congregation Derech Emunoh, Arverne,
189.54 N. Y.


1,262.00
50.00
21.00
222.50
41.50

30.60
(Subs.)
189.00
96.00

85.00

145.00

152.50


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MESSENGER'S CAFETERIA

705 Aller+on Avenue Bronx, N. Y.



BEN'S LUNCHEONETTE
Quality, Service, Cleanliness


101 University Place


New York City


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B<

NATIONAL B 0 B l 'T pB IP'm
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NATIONAL PALACE
Special Accommodations to
Labor Organizations
Second Ave. & Houston St. New York


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1944 ,tacunN1 y 3 18



GREETINGS TWENTIETH ANNIVERSARY "ICOR"


DR. B. WEALTH
135 New York Avenue
Brooklyn, N. Y.


DR. B. M. BECKER
8617-21st Avenue
Brooklyn, N. Y.


DR. H. A. WARWICK
1034 St. Johns Place
Brooklyn, N. Y.

I.W.O. DRUGGIST
S. GARBER'S
RELIABLE PHARMACY
901 Sutter Avenue Brooklyn, N. Y.


DR. A. H. MAREL
464 Pennsylvania Avenue
Brooklyn, N. Y.


BUckminster 4-3669
Official I.W.O. Laboratories
FLATBUSH LABORATORIES
INC.
2700 CHURCH AVE., BROOKLYN, N. Y.
Basal Metabolism Diagnostic Laboratory
Pathology Clinical Laboratory Serology

AARON WEINSTEIN, D.D.S.
3133 Brighton 7th Street
Brighton Beach


I. KOULACK, M.D.
SExtends Greetings
1540 Charlotte Street Bronx, N. Y.


DR. W. A. WEINREIB
1193 Eastern Parkway
Brooklyn, N. Y.


DA. 9-9547
I.W.O. Slayton's
Hoe Pharmacy
S. SLAYTO.N, Ph.G.
1760 Hoe Avenue Bronx, N. Y.


Tel. ST. 9-0580

IRVING PLAZA

Banquets : Receptions : Weddings

MEETING ROOMS

17 IRVING PLACE COR. 15th ST.
New York City



DR. L. KIRSHENBAUM
P699 Fulton Avenue
Bronx, N. Y.


Rickoff's Safe Drug Store
116 Second Avenue New York City
(Corner 7th Street)


GREETINGS FROM .

AMALGAMATED

BANK

I UNION SQUARE

New York, N. Y.
ALgonquin 4-1500


ALgonquin 4-2228
ACADEMY HALL
MEETING ROOMS
By Day, Month or Year
853 Broadway New York Cit~


JOINT COUNCIL NO. 13

United Shoe Workers of

America

487 BROADWAY

New York City


Ityat m-y-; y uyll

4.=3 N ,83 1P=
.p2nDU ? .Ta ,JWYT$nf .n


Furriers Joint Council of
N. Y.
of the I. F. & L. W. U. of U. S. and C.
Affiliated with the C.I.O.
250 WEST 26TH STREET
New York I, N. Y.


BAKERY & CONFECTION-
ERY WORKERS
INTERNATIONAL UNION OF AMERICA
LOCAL NO. 164
and Westchester Branch
1301 BOSTON ROAD
New York City


BEDDING LOCAL 140
United Furniture Workers of
America, C.I.O.
ALEX SIROTA, Manager
80 East I th Street New York City

Prescription Dept., Phone ACademy 2-0920
Phone ACademy 2-8716-9732
SUPERIOR DRUG CO.
G. ZUKOF, Prescription Pharmacist
915 Columbus Avenue New York
(Near 105th Street)








RUSSIAN MUSIC CO., Inc.
121 Lexington Avenue New York City
Catalogue Sent on Request
LATEST SOVIET RECORDS
HEAR
The Glorious Red Army in a Series of Songs

J. Wexler's Tailor Shop
657 Allerton Avenue Bronx, N. Y.


- --






19 7 31944 ,tmw1


GREETINGS TWENTIETH ANNIVERSARY "ICOR"


AARQN HOMNICK
PHARMACIST
46 First Ave., Cor. 3rd St. New York
Phone: GRamercy 3-9480


KAVKAZ RESTAURANT
MOST EXCELLENT SHASHLIKS
317 East 14th Street New York

Greetings from
WEINER'S BARBER SHOP
717 Brighton Beach Avenue Brooklyn, N.Y.


SMUL & SONS
China and Restaurant Supplies
317 Bowery New York City


L. ESTEROFF DRUG STORE
I.W.O. DRUGGIST
132 Second Avenue New York City
Corner 8th Street

MIRKIN
Analytical Laboratory
230 East 12th Street New York
Tel. ALgonquin 4-2558
OFFICIAL I.W.O. LABORATORY

Tel. GRamercy 5-7370-7371
FRED SPITZ, Inc.
CHOICE FLOWERS
Baskets of Fresh Fruits, Nuts and Candies
For All Occasions
74 Second Avenue New York City
DR. B. BLOCH
SURGEON DENTIST
3957 Gouverneur Avenue Bronx, N. Y.

Phones:
Dickens 2-1273, 1274, 1275
Night Phones:
Dickens 2-1273, 1274, 1275


1. J. MORRIS, Inc.

Funeral Directors

296 SUTTER AVENUE

Brooklyn, N. Y.


Phone GR. 7-7553
UNION SQ. OPTICAL CO.
Eyes Examined by Physicians
Official I.W.O. Optician
100 per cent Union Shop
147 Fourth Avenue New York City

Phone MElrose 5-7733-7734
HARRY KAZAN
CARPETS : RUGS : LINOLEUM
3060 THIRD AVE., CORNER 157th ST.
BRONX, N. Y.
BRANCHES:
440 East 149th Street
2756-3rd Avenue, Cor. 146th Street
3300-3rd Avenue, Cor. 164th Street
1058 Westchester Avenue

GREETINGS -

DR. SAMUEL J. LITTMAN

Medical Director
Cooks and Kitchen Workers Union
Local 89, A. F. of L.
Cafeteria Employees Union, Local 302,
A. F. of L.


DR. I. STAMLER
DENTIST
2808 Bronx Park East Bronx, N. Y.


DR. I. HARRIS
I.W.O. SPECIALIST
147 Fourth Avenue New York


City


COMPLIMENTS FROM
MR. & MRS. J. E. SALTZMAN

EYES EXAMINED Hours:
GLASSES FITTED 8:30 to 7:30 P.M.

ASSOCIATED

OPTOMETRISTS
J. P4 FREEMAN, O.D.
OFFICIAL OPTICIANS TO THE I.W.O.
255 WEST 34th STREET
NEW YORK, N. Y.
Telephone: MEdallion 3-3243


GREETINGS:
Joint Board Fur Dressers
& Dyers Unions
LOCALS 61, 64, 80, 85, 88
JOINT BOARD FUR DRESSERS & DYERS
UNIONS
Sam Burt, Manager


DR. J. REICHER
357 Eastern Parkway Brooklyn, N. Y.


DR. I. HALPERN
31 West Mosholu Parkway Bronx, N. Y.


DR. S. SCHUMACHER
1133 Grant Avenue New York City


DR. HELPGOD
SURGEON DENTIST
2300 Grand Concourse Bronx, N. Y.


Boston Road Pharmacy
1. PINCHOUK, Pharmacist, Prop.
1500 Boston Road, at Wilkins Avenue
Prescription Dept., Phone Kllpatrick 5-7032


COMMERCIAL SYRUP

COMPANY, Inc.


131 Chrystie Street


New York City


MORRIS BANK

STRAND

Woolen Co., Inc.

251 West 39th Street
New York City.

Typewriters, Mimeographs and Adding Ma-
chines-Rented, Sold and Repaired
PURYIN
92 Second Avenue New York City
ORchard 5-8262


I







1944 ,lll3yapD] .y 7 3 zu





S Icor Accepts Project to Obtain Experimental Seed for U.S.S.R.


August 7, 1944
Mr. Abraham Jenofsky,
National Secretary
Icor Association
One Union Square West
New York, N. Y.
Dear Mr. Jenofsky:
This will confirm arrangements
made at the recent conference
with Prof. Kuntz, Mr. Olken,
yourself, Mr. Finkelstein of the
Jewish Council of Russian War


Relief, and the writer. At that
time you indicated that your or-
ganization was desirous of under-
taking a project to obtain experi-
mental seed for shipment to the
U.S.S.R. through Russian War Re-
lief.
Soviet officials have advised us
that this project is of extreme im-
portance to their country and that
they are highly appreciative of
your efforts in this behalf.
As soon as the seeds are ready


we will arrange for immediate
shipment to the U.S.S.R.
Russian War Relief is grateful
for the splendid cooperation your
organization has given since the
very beginning of our work and
we know you will handle this
project with the same devotion as
you have undertaken other pro-
grams in the past.
Sincerely yours,
David Weingard
Assistant Executive Director.


20 YEARS "ICOR" MEMBERSHIP AND SUBSCRIPTION DRIVE

June 25th to August 25th, 1944


Miami Beach, Florida
J. & T. Raichick .............................
N K aufm an ......................................
Louis Pearl ......................................
Louis Powesky ..............................
Leah Adler ...............................
Dr. N. N. Bloom ........................
C. Furman ...................................
Mr. Rosenkrantz ............................
N. Benemovsky .............................
J. Holmstock ...............................
M r. Siegel .......................................


Los Angeles, California,
East Side "Icor" Branch
J. S oln it .................... ......... ..........
Sol L azar ..........................................
East Side "Icor" ............................
J. D rutz .......................................
D. Raibnowitz ............................
Mrs. Sideman ..............................


Hollywood "Icor" Branch
Eve Meyers ......................................
Boston, Massachusetts
M Yellin .....................................
Omaha, Nebraska
Bella K lein ....... ..........................
Leo Fox ..................................
Binghamton, New York
Louis Pincus ...............................
Newark, New Jersey
M. Kramer ...................................
Newark "Icoi" ..............................
P. Rabinowitz .............................


Rochester, New York
Rochester "Icor" ............................
Chicago, Illinois
Esther Levinson ............................
Chicago "Icor" ..............................


M Trossm an ................. ..................
12 H Geller .. ...... ..................
10
10
4 Baltimore, Maryland
2 Mrs. M. Dobow ................................
2 Trenton, New Jersey
2 Trenton "Icor" ...........................
2 Mountaindale, New York
1 M K ram er ....... ..........................
1
1 Washington, D. C.
A. Hirshfield ...............................
47 Washington "Icor" .........................

9 Denver, Colorado
6 Denver "Icor" .................................
3 Akron, Ohio
2 Ph. Dunn ................. .............
2 Cincinnati, Ohio
1 H N ovikoff ....................................
- Detroit, Michigan
23 N Cohen ......... ............................
23 Gloversville, New York
Sarah Axelrod .........................
11 Houston, Texas
L. Wexler ........................................
6 Philadelphia, Pa.
3 Philadelphia "Icor" ........................
South Bend, Indiana
9 B. Newman ................................
West New York, New Jersey
5 H G ew irtz .......................................
2 NEW YORK COMMITTEES
1 Downtown "Icor"
Jacob Adler ............ ...................
8 F. Korinsky ...............................
M L 0 ................ ...... ............
6 S. Shapiro ........................................
Leah Adler ...............................
1
1


1 Brigton-Coney Island "Icor"
1 V. Lichter ...................................... 9
Bertha Resnick .............................. 3
4 Ph. Feider ..................... ............. 2
Miriam Shevin .............................. 2
4 J. Weinstein ........................ .... 1
G. Bernstein ................................... 1
3 E. Berth ....................................... 1

2 19
East New York "Icor"
1 J. Lerner ....................................... 13
1 M Penchuck ................................... 2

2 15
Brownsville "Icor"
2 D. Yanishefsky .............................. 10
R. M altzm an ................................... 4
1 I. W atsky ....................................... 1

1 15
S Bronx "Icor"
1 Bronx Committee ......................... 4
Celia Rubin ...................................... 1
B U tevsky .................................... 1
1

1 Nailebn "Icor"
M Stern ......................................... 3
1 Crotona "Icor"
H W olf .............................................. 1
1 Amalgamated "Icor"
M A pple ........................................... 1
Staten Island, New York
S. Pinchenson ..................... .......... 1
31 Far Rockaway, New York
5 I. Gallay .......................................... 1
3
2 T otal .............................. ................ 265
1 Previously ..................................1,998

42 As of August 25, 1944 ..........2,263


kllllllillllllllllll11111111111111111111






September, 1944


Ilya Ehrenburg speaks on "People and War" i Worth Knowing


"I should like to show the moral
causes of the downfall of German fas-
cism and the moral causes of our vic-
tories. Our victory is the victory of man
over the robot, of reason and conscience
over the automatism of the subhuman,
of good over evil."
These were the introductory remarks
of Ilya Ehrenburg, noted Soviet writer,
at a lecture delivered by him in Tchai-
kovsky Hall in Moscow on August 1.
The address was entitled "People and
War," but as can be seen from the
above he spoke on a variety of cognate
topics.
Ehrenburg's terse, clear-cut words
were a scathing indictment of German
fascism. He showed how like a Frank-
enstein monster .the indoctrination of
chauvinism, contempt for other peoples
and automotive discipline into the Ger-
man people-brought to a head by the
Nazis and their infamous racial theory
-has during this war turned against the
Germans themselves.
That fascism has converted the Ger-
mans into brutish automatons is in
Ehrenburg's opinion most fully ex-
pressed in the German atrocities. "The
Germans have turned the murder of
human beings into a huge industry."
Reviewers abroad often ask the rea-
son for the Germans' rapid retreat in
Byelorussia. "The Germans are retreat-
ing so fast," Ehrenburg replies, "be-
cause the Red Army is advancing so
fast. Our officers and men are spurred
on by the unconquerable will to reach
the German borders. This will brought
the Russians from the banks of the Vol-
ga to the banks of the Niemen. It will
bring them to the banks of the piddling
river called the Spree. Under the blows
of the Red Army the iron shackles of
discipline are bursting and the German
soldier is becoming demoralized."
The epilogue to the tragedy the
world is now living through, Ehrenburg
said, dealing with some problems of
postwar organization, should never be
allowed to become the prologue to a
new tragedy. The comedy of SS men
recanting and beating their breasts in
repentance must never happen. That the
poison of fascism may never penetrate
a single living soul, not a single snake


with poisonous fangs must be left in
Germany.
There are in Europe, however, "neo-
appeasers" who view Munich not as a
military objective but as a pleasant mem-
ory. Mr. Brailsford, Independent La-
borite, has written a book in which he
suggests that Hitler should not be haled
up for trial, that the Germans be left
to put their own house in order, and
similar things.
"Inhuman and stupid" is the brief
qualification with which Ehrenburg dis-
missed this point of view. He added that
he had no doubt that the British people
wish to finish conclusively with German
fascism, whose creatures are murdering
British prisoners and whose flying bombs
are killing British women and children.
It was with pungent sarcasm that the
writer spoke of people in Allied coun-
tries who would consider Hitler's mu-
tinous generals."virtuous Germans." By
throwing Hitler overboard these gen-
erals wished to save the military caste
in Germany.
"The world sees our people as a na-
tion of warriors," Ehrenburg said in
conclusion. "Our people will again
amaze the world when they begin to
build up a purposeful and happy life."

JEWISH MILITARY, CIVILIANS
CITED BY SOVIET RUSSIA
MOSCOW-The roster of Jews who
have distinguished themselves in battle
and through their behind-the-lines ser-
vices to the war effort and the recon-
struction of liberated territories, grows
by the day. Mentioned by the press in
the past few days are:
Daniel Davidow, an engineer, and
Friedlina, a woman agronomist, for
their contributions to the restoration of
the sugar industry which the Nazis had
destroyed in, the Ukraine.
Dr. Paul Emden, of Rostov, a neuro-
surgeon, was awarded the Order of the
Red Star for his surgical services un-
der fire.
Major General Volkenstein and Lieu-
tenant General Rodzinsky are cited for
services on the Lemberg (Lvov) and
Baltic fronts, respectively.
Major General Vogel and Major
Saks are cited for their role in the bat-
tles that preceded the Nazi evacuation
of Volkovysk.


MEMORIAL TO CRIMEAN HEROES
A monument to the heroes of the bat-
tle for the Crimea was unveiled on May
21 on the battlefield of the Turkish Wall,
near Perekop. The monument is 105
feet high and can be seen from a dis-
tance of many miles. It bears the words
with which Stalin invariably concludes
his Orders of the Day: Eternal glory to
the heroes who fell in the struggle for
the freedom and independence of our
motherland.
GOVERNMENT COUNCIL FOR
RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS
The Council of People's Commissars
of the USSR has set up a Council for
Religious Affairs to maintain contact be-
tween the Government and the Armen-
ian, Georgian, Old-Believer, Greek,
Catholic and Lutheran Churches, the
Moslem, Jewish and Buddhist religious
communities and the sectarian organiza-
tions on questions relating to these re-
ligious bodies on which the decision of
the Government is required. I. Poly-
ansky has been appointed Chairman of
the Council.
MUSSOLINI'S RACIAL OFFICE
LIQUIDATED IN ROME
A decree ordering the reinstatement
of Jewish teachers and other employees
of the educational system in Italy who
were dismissed from their posts under
Mussolini's anti-Jewish laws was issued
here by the Italian Minister of Public
Instruction. The order is effective as of
the date of liberation of the territory in
which the dismissed personnel reside.
Earlier in the week the Italian Min-
ister of the Interior issued an order
liquidating the Racial Office which en-
forced the fascist anti-Jewish laws in
Italy.
JAPS DEPORT 3,000 JEWS TO
TOKYO WAR PLANTS
Three thousand young Jews, trapped
in Shanghai by the war, have been de-
ported by the Japanese authorities for
forced labor in Tokyo's war factories.


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3'71 17'-12 1-7 I I1 'I T ID1T



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NAILEB N






September, 1944


dealing with the national election in 1944 was adopted.
We quote: "The personal participation of President Roose-
velt in the Teheran Conference and his declarations on the
complete unanimity of the tasks and objectives of the Con-
ference is a strong guarantee of the hope for a victory and
a lasting peace.
"We pledge ourselves to do everything in our power to
combat the maneuvers of reaction and to help re-elect 'Pres-
ident Roosevelt and all the candidates for Congress and
Senate who are for winning the war, for a complete vic-
tory and for an enduring peoples' peace over the whole
world."
The resolution warns against the danger of the reaction-
ary forces in America.
In this election campaign all that is reactionary: nego-
tiated peace elements, isolationists, anti-Teheran, anti-labor,
Jew and Negro haters, are being magnetically drawn to-
ward Mr. Thomas Dewey-President Roosevelt's oppo-
nent. This "young and inexperienced" aspirant for this
great public office, cuddled and nurtured by the old and ex-
perienced reactionary Herbert Hoover, must be defeated in
the coming election. Dewey's election would prove disas-
trous to the present program of the American people to win
the war, establish peace and amity among the nations of
the world.
There is no such thing as a "Jewish" vote. The Jewish




BIRO-BIDJAN


people, like other national groups in America, constitute a
part of the various political, social and cultural groupings
and ideologies in our country. Jews, however, fully recog-
nize the danger pro-fascist elements constitute to America
and to their people. No political flirtations emanating from
the Hoover-Dewey camp will entice many Jews. Times
are too serious to allow demagogues ("young" as they may
be) to get hold of the political reins of our great country.
Nevertheless, progressive people in our country have a
tremendous job on their hands. The reactionaries are well
organized. The campaign for the Roosevelt-Truman elec-
tion will require steady, unremitting effort on the part of
all who desire the continuance of our present progressive
policies and vigorous prosecution of the war effort.
This is not just another Presidential election. A people
engaged in a war against the worst enemies of mankind will
on November 7, 1944, designate who its President shall
be, who would help to dictate the peace terms, and would
negotiate with the peoples of the earth for a peaceful, pros-
perous, happy life.
The people's candidate for President is Franklin D. Roose-
velt. Their choice for Vice President is Harry S. Truman.
The Icor calls upon its membership and friends to register
and on election day, vote for Roosevelt and Truman and
for all progressive candidates. Let us have a people's victory
in November.



(A Geographical Description)


Biro-Bidjan, or the Jewish Auton-
omous Region, an administrative unit
in the Far Eastern provinces of the So-
viet Union. It lies in a pocket made by
a bend in the Amur River, which sep-
arates the region from Manchukuo. Its
boundary in the south and southwest
runs along that broad stream for a dis-
tance of 340 miles, from a point just
west of Khabarovsk to Pashkovo, from
there northeast along the Khingan Riv-
er, thence following an arbitrary line
and finally the course of the Kosmun,
the Urmi and the Tunguska Rivers.
The chief town, also called Biro-Bidjan,
is 5,113 miles from Moscow and 120
miles from Khabarovsk, the nearest
sizable city.
The area of the region is 14,208
square miles (over 9,000,000 acres);
it is thus considerably larger than Pal-
estine. The Little Khingan Mountains,
the highest peak of which reaches 3,500
feet, rise in the western section and the
north. This hilly country is not suitable
for agriculture, but is covered with vir-
gin forest taigaa) which yields valuable
varieties of timber and where some fur-


bearing animals may be found. It is also
very rich in mineral resources, such as
coal and peat, mercury and tin, copper
and iron. The deposits of the latter
have been estimated at 600,000,000
tons. Gold, too, is available, and recent-
ly .large deposits of magnesite were dis-
covered there. Graphite, marble, asbes-
tos and semi-precious stones are present
as well. A geological map of the region
was prepared in 1932-33 by members
of an expedition sponsored by the Far
Eastern Geological Trust.
Opportunities for farming are of-
fered by the lowlands of the south and
east. Much of the ground is marshy,
but, when drained, the swamps' as well
as the more elevated flatlands form
fields suitable for truck farmingas also
for the cultivation of wheat, oats, rice,
soya beans and potatoes. The meadow-
land allows for dairying, cattle raising,
and bee-keeping. There is an adequate
water supply. In addition to several
lakes, there are some 200 streams which
crisscross the region in every direction.
The largest of these, navigable for 500
miles, are Bira and Bidjan, tributaries


of the Amur. They give the place its
name. The region lies in the same lati-
tude as the Ukraine and southern Can-
ada, and the immigrant from the tem-
perate zone is said to find the climate
tolerable. The winters are severe, but
the cold is dry and there are many clear,
sunny days. There are apt to be droughts
in the spring. The most trying season is
the summer, particularly the rainy
months of July and August, when
floods are apt to occur.

(From a monograph "Biro-Bidjan"
by Avrahm Yarmolinsky, The
Universal Jewish Encyclopedia,
Vol. 2, page 372.)


NAI LEB N







NAILEBN September, 1944


program in the collectivization of the land, allocated three
million acres of territory in the Ukraine and the Crimea
for Jewish settlement. With the assistance of the Agro-
Joint that started functioning at the time of the famine of
1921-22 for the purpose of relief but which continued its
efforts in these colonizing projects, plus the activities of
organizations within the Soviet Union such as the Ozet,
Komzet, and'Geserd, the great era of Jewish colonization
on land began. Territory of sandy steppes, arid and unpro-
ductive, were turned into veritable "Gardens of Eden" by
the heretofore landless Jew. It is a landmark in renascent
Jewry. The small trader, the handicraftsman, became
a farmer, a peasant, a breeder of live stock and poultry
whose products received the prize at the agricultural exhibit
ii Moscow, whose large wheat kernel from successful crops
was used for seeding in,other parts of the country, and
whose grapes became famous, for size and juiciness. Near
Yevpatoria the "Freidorf" settlements were created into
an "Autonomous Jewish Region'" with thirty-three villages,
in which Yiddish was the official language. Other collective
farms in this vicinity were Ratendorf, Horopashnik, and
Icor, the last one named in honor of the Icor organization
for assistance rendered.
Eighty-three Jewish collective farms were prospering be-
fore the advent of the destructive forces of Hitler.


The Crimean-born Jewish poet, S. Chernichovsky, writing
in Hebrew, proclaimed the glory of this new healthy type
of Jew. Having imbibed in his youth the golden panorama
of the sun-flooded steppes of the Crimea, the aroma of its
cedars, the tang of its salt lakes, the gentle breezes from the
sea, the colorful blues, greens, and purples of the Black Sea,
Chernichovsky struck a novel note in Jewish poetry: the
love of nature and the strength of man. He reflects and
embodies the re-birth of the Jew whose virile power he
attributes to the traditional heritage of the conquering
Canaans and the heroic Bar Kochbas.
Needless to say these great beginnings of collective farm-
ing by Jews were destroyed in entirety by Hitler. A fresh
start has to be made. Already neighboring peoples from the
hinterland in the Soviet Union are sending gifts of all kinds.
The settlements will be rebuilt. The Icor, as always in
movements in the interest of Jews, will do its part. The
Jewish Council of Russian War Relief has designated such
funds as the Icor will raise for the colonies in the Yevpa-
toria Region. The Crimea'will again be the site of great
Jewish collective farms; they will grow with greater impetus
than heretofore, spurred on by the tragic suffering from the
Nazi colossus.
Short was the stolen pleasure of the robber Nazis on the
"Russian Riviera," the Crimea.


For Victory and Peace

By M. L. OLKEN


We are rapidly approaching another important day in
the life of our nation-Election Day, Tuesday, November
7, 1944.
In times like ours, when our country is fighting for its
very survival, events at the home front determine, in a
great measure, the outcome at the military fronts.
Our heroic armed forces together with those of Great
Britain, the Soviet Union and other Allied nations are about
to deliver the knockout blow to Hitlerite Germany and
treacherous Japan. The rendezvous in Berlin and Tokyo
will take place on time, provided doings at home do not
interfere with the decisions reached at Teheran to strike
the enemy from the "east, west and south."
It is precisely because of the great anxiety on the part
of the American people to have a speedy victory and an en-
during peace that the resentment against isolationists, de-
featists, and other sinister forces who generate strikes (racial
strike in Phila.), anti-Semitism, propagate negotiated peace
movements, etc., is more and more pronounced. National
unity is no longer an abstract, fine-sounding slogan to
patriotic Americans. We can't win the war, nor enjoy the
fruits of victory, unless we are united as a nation.
The election of 1944 is no ordinary peacetime political
campaign in which a party or group can display its ordinary
issues and "regular" candidates. The issue that faces all of
us in the critical months is: Win the War, establish a People's
Peace. This is not a partisan slogan. We must elect a
President, a Vice President, a Congress, and local political


officers that will assure our united people a leadership and
guidance to achieve a speedy victory and a lasting peace.
Franklin D. Roosevelt is the best fitted man for the
highest political office in our country, the Presidency of the
U.S.A. As President he has proven himself worthy of re-
election on the basis of his record of the New Deal, concern
for the common people, hatred of fascism and bigotry. As
commander-in-chief he distinguished himself as a great
leader and strategist, a welder of national and international
unity.
The President, in his acceptance speech, has outlined the
tasks and objectives confronting the American people as
follows:
"To win this war wholeheartedly, unequivocally and as
quickly as we can is our task of the first importance.
"To win this war in such a way that there be no future
world wars in the foreseeable future is our second objec-
tive.
"To provide occupations and to provide a decent stand-
ard of living for our men in the armed forces after the
war, and for all Americans, are the final objectives."
Together with all progressive, patriotic American organ-
izations, groups and individuals the Icor Association whole-
heartedly endorses the above tasks and objectives. The Icor
Association, a non-partisan organization, will energetically
work for the re-election of President Roosevelt.
At the National Conference of the Icor Association held
on January .30, 1944, in New York City, a resolution


NAILEBN


September, 1944








"nIfILCBIl" (new Life)

Vol. XVIII, No. 9 (166) New York, N. Y., September, 1944 .@209 Single Copy 10 cents
NAILEBN, I Union Square, New York 3, N. Y., Telephone ALgonquin 4-2045, published monthly by the ICOR Association for information on the
economic, cultural, and social life of the Jews the world over. Yearly subscription, $1.00.
Re-entered as second-class matter August 22, 1938, at the Post office at New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879.
Business Manager-A. JENOFSKY


Crimea, "The Garden of Eden"

By ANA OSTROWSKY


When the escaping Nazis and Romanians, who had
made merry in two years of occupation, were hurled into
the Black Sea by Soviet airplanes and the "Invincible Fort-
ress of Sevastopol," so termed by Hitler, was retaken by
the Soviet Union, the Crimea again loomed up in our
minds as the land that figured so strongly in renascent
Jewish life by virtue of its Jewish colonizing settlements.
The Crimea is a peninsula jutting angularly into the
Black Sea, the Isthmus of Perekop connecting it with the
mainland. It is about the size of Holland. Its climate, due
to the tempering breezes of the sea, is ideal. The natives
call it "A Little Paradise." It is both a summer and winter
resort. It was the "Playground" of the Russian nobility;
today it is the health resort and recreation center for work-
ers, peasants, and children. Rolling undulations of vast
steppes in the north, becoming hilly towards the south,
ending in a range of mountains along the coast almost
parallel with the sea, peaks, four to five thousand feet in
height, rock formations rising directly from the sea with
deep purple crags and gulches between them, all these
make the Crimea mysteriously captivating. The Black Sea
washes its shores in colorful nuances of tones ranging from
silvery effects to sapphire blues, emerald greens, and deep
turquoise. Trees and -flowers grow in abundance-oaks,
beeches, elms, pines, firs, and cypresses; magnolias, tulips,
myrtles, and camelias; fruits, vineyards and tobacco planta-
tions; fields of golden grain. The mountain peaks are
covered with snow.
The history of the Crimea is interesting and unique, hav-
ing been successively occupied by Cimmerians in the year
1000 B.C., then by Scythians, Persians, Greeks, Romans,
the Huns, the Goths, the Genoese, the Venetians, and the
Byzantines. In the 14th Century came the "Golden Horde"
of the Tartars who paid tribute to the Turks until 1771
when Catherine the Great freed them from Turkish domi-
nation. Then in 1854 the British and French, allied with
the Turks; fearing Russian control of the Dardanelles,
waged the famous Crimean War. It was in this war that
Florence Nightingale, the "Angel of Mercy," initiated the
Red Cross movement. Her headquarters were at Balaklava,
for the major battleground of that war was in the fields
beyond that city. Sevastopol was in that war subjected to
)a siege that held out for 332 days, surrendering only because
Threatened with hunger. In this war of 1942 Sevastopol
again held out until the very hills around it, sheltering


defense emplacements, were dynamited by the overrunning
Nazi hordes. The heroic deeds of its Gakhokidzes and
Trachenkos who tied grenades to their belts and flung them-
selves beneath tanks are still fresh in our memories; Sevas-
topol became the symbol of resistance.
As for the Jews in the Crimea, history tells many an
interesting tale. The Khosars, a Turco-Tartar sect adopted
Judaism as their religion. According to legend, the Khan
wished to divert his people from Paganism. He summoned
to his court a Christian, a Mussulman, and a Jew. He asked
the Mussulman which one he would prefer if he had to
choose between Christianity and Judaism; the answer was
Judaism. Of the Christian he queried, if the choice was be-
tween Mohammedanism and Judaism, which one would it
be. The reply was Judaism. He thus accepted Judaism and
converted his tribe to that faith.
Here, also lived the Karaims, numbering about 15,000,
a Jewish sect that based its religion on the Bible, denying
the Talmud with its interpretative commentaries. Their
Shul and Museum still stand. The Karaims prospered in the
commerce of tobacco, fruits, and wine. Russia, under the
Czars, accorded them preferential treatment, not subjecting
them to Ghetto restrictions and persecutions.
Then there were the Krimchaki, Jews who have lived
among the Tartars for six hundred years. Some of them
claim descent from the Khosars. At Semeiz, a village near
Simferopol, the chairman of the village Soviet was Osman
Dobra, a Krimchak Jew.
The Crimea has many Tartar villages nestling among
the hillsides. The larger cities are all on the shores of the
Black Sea. Simferopol is the capital. It has old, narrow
streets and houses as well as modern European homes and
hotels. Yalta, further east, has many villas, in Moorish
architecture built on the slopes of the surrounding heights
and is a famous health resort. At Livadia the former
country home of the Czars is now a famous Children's
Rest Home. The ports of the Crimea are Sevastopol,
Feodosia, Balaklava and, to the west, Yevpatoria. At one
time Yevpatoria was the headquarters of the counter-
revolutionary movements of Wrangel and Denikin. Since
the October. revolution it became the center of many of
the Jewish colonization projects. Such is the happy irony
of fate.
In 1922-23 the Soviet Government, as part of its general