Nailebn =

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Nailebn = New life
Parallel title:
New life
Added title page title:
Naylebn
Physical Description:
v. : ill., ports. ; 28 cm.
Language:
Yiddish
Creator:
Icor
Publisher:
Icor, Association for Jewish Colonization in the Soviet Union
Place of Publication:
New York
Frequency:
monthly (irregular)
monthly
completely irregular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Jews -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Language:
Title also in Yiddish and text largely in Yiddish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began in May 1928.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Volume numbers irregular: Jan.-Oct. 1946 called v. 20, no. 1-10, Nov.-Dec. 1946 called v. 19, no. 11-12; 1947 called also v. 20.
General Note:
Description based on: Vol. 11, no. 1 (Jan. 1937); title from cover.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 19068832
lccn - 50017200
ocm19068832
Classification:
lcc - DS101 .N25
ddc - 296
System ID:
AA00007530:00007

Full Text


















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PROF. CHARLES KUNTZ
Biro-Bidjan and Postwar
Reconstruction

WM. ZUKERMAN
The Failure of Anti-Semitism
in ,Europe

"Icor" Project in Crimea

The Natural Resources of
Biro-Bidjan



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    Grandchild of Morris Galler,
    Chairman of Chicago Icor
    and
    Abe Korn of the Polish Federation,
    Chicago
    Donated $25.00 for the
    Icor Campaign







    NAI LEBN August, I 944


    have been saved from the Nazis through these efforts and
    aid of the non-Jews.
    II. That thousands of non-Jews have given up their
    freedom, property and even lives to save, or help the Jews.
    III. That if not for this silent, underground aid to the
    Jews there might not have been a single Jew left in Europe
    now.
    IV. That anti-Semitism in Europe has not only not in-
    creased during the war, but has actually reached its lowest
    ebb in this and in any other century.
    V. That the violent anti-Semitic drive by word and deed
    which the Nazis have launched in Europe has failed more
    than any other Nazi drive; the very ferocity and beastliness
    of the attack has called forth a reaction among non-Jews
    in Europe that is a marvel of the age.
    VI. That in this remarkable movement the Christian
    Churches and leading churchmen have taken a prominent
    and leading part. The Catholic Church, once the greatest
    enemy and persecutor of Jewry, has in this war become the


    leading defender of the Jews, both as individuals and as
    communities.
    The Greatest Hope of European Jewry
    The vistas which this new manifestation in Europe open
    for the Jews after the war are of such magnitude that they
    cannot even be envisaged at the present moment, particularly
    in the United States. This country is too far from Europe
    in space, as well as in spirit, to form a clear idea of what is
    going on there under the dark cover of the war.
    In addition, Jewish nationalists are concerned with the
    suppression of these hopeful facts of Jewish life which run
    counter to their theories that the Jew and the non-Jew
    can never live in friendly relationship and that anti-Semitism
    will never be eradicated. But facts speak louder than theories
    and soon this new phenomenon which has now been officially
    recognized and greeted by Italian Jewry will be recognized
    also by Jews in the United States as the greatest single
    compensation for the pain and suffering of this war.


    The Natural Resources of Biro-Bidjan


    Biro-Bidjan is a vast area of about
    36,000 square kilometers. Biro-Bidjan
    nas untold natural resources which may
    oe briefly listed as follows:
    (1) Two-and-a-half million hectares
    i'cen million acres) of forests.
    (2) A network of rivers, in which
    fish and caviar are exceptionally plenti-
    ful.
    (3) Two thousand species of flowers
    which makes it possible for Biro-Bidjan
    to produce a great quantity of honey of
    the rarest quality in the world.
    (4) In the depths of the earth are
    huge deposits of coal, iron, gold, graph-
    ite, magnesium, and a rare kind of
    marble which is now being used to em-
    bellish the new stations of the world
    famous subway in Moscow.
    The gigantic natural resources of
    Biro-Bidjan have not been completely
    surveyed, but the portions that have not
    been measured yield figures that are well
    nigh astronomical in magnitude. Thus,
    for example, it is reported that Biro-
    Bidjan possesses 600,000,000 tons of
    iron ore;- the lime deposits in Londoko
    and Birokan are reckoned at several bil-
    lion tons; the Sutar gold mines are re-
    garded as significant gold reserves. It is
    estimated that along the shores of the
    river Belaia alone, near the village of
    Soznaia, there are a million tons of
    graphite.


    Biro-Bidjan can support a population
    of many millions, because agriculture
    and varied industries can be developed
    there. The climate of Biro-Bidjan is
    approximately the same as in North
    Dakota, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan.
    The winters are cold, but dry. Not only
    is the cold quite bearable, but because of
    the dryness of the atmosphere there are
    a great many sunny days, and many
    kinds of occupations can be carried on
    even during the winter months. Work
    in the forests, and road building is never
    halted for even a single day.
    The summers are hot in Biro-Bidjan,
    with frequent rain. Especially rainy are
    the months of July and August. In gen-
    eral, the climate of the autonomous
    Jewish area is very healthful indeed
    .(there are no diseases peculiar to the
    locality), and a very favorable one for
    agricultural pursuits.
    The myth that Biro-Bidjan is "far
    removed from the center" is most mis-
    leading, because while Biro-Bidjan is at
    a distance from Moscow, it is neverthe-
    less near such large cities as Khabarovsk,
    Vladivostock, and Komsomolsk. The
    "mosquito scare" is also unfounded, be-
    cause the "rainy seasons" pass quickly in
    Biro-Bidjan. In this new land portions
    of forest are being cut down, and the
    soil, which due to the dense forests could
    not be dry, is being drained.
    Biro-Bidjan has no swampy stretches


    of land, and the mosquitos are not long-
    lived pests. Nor do they carry malaria,
    as is the case in most swampy lands.
    The flora of the Jewish autonomous
    territory are very luxuriant and varied.
    The colossal forests contain a profusion
    of cedar, redwood, and fir trees. Also,
    there are to be found over a wide area,
    pine, Mongolian oak, white and black
    birch, Manchurian lindens, Manchurian
    hickory, cork trees, maple, etc., etc. The
    widespread varieties of timber would
    furnish splendid material for building
    houses, furniture, veneer, for an aviation
    industry, and the manufacture of chemi-
    cals. Included among the wild fruit trees
    and berry plants are plum trees, apple
    trees, pear trees, Amur grapes, huckle-
    berries, currants, etc., etc. A scientific
    expedition of the famous Mitchurin In-
    stitute investigated a part of the fruit
    and berry resources of the region and
    realized that many of these could be
    cultivated. This was proved practicable
    by the Jewish community of Waldheim,
    which succeeded fully in cultivating wild
    berries. (A. Kirzhintz.)
    It may be confidently stated that Biro-
    Bidjan possesses all essentials for furnish-
    ing food to millions of people. Were
    Biro-Bidjan to become as densely popu-
    lated as Holland and Belgium (and
    Biro-Bidjan is actually as large as both
    these countries), it would then harbor
    a score of millions of people.


    NAILEB N


    August, 1944






    NAILEBN


    The Failure of Antisemitism in Europe

    By WILLIAM ZUKERMAN


    The first act of the liberated Jewish Community of Rome
    was to hold a Thanksgiving Service in the old Rome Syna-
    gogue last week to render thanks to God and to all men who
    had participated in the liberation of the city of Rome and
    particularly of the Jewish people from the Nazi-Fascist yoke.
    The significant part of this service, however, was not
    the Thanksgiving as a whole, but one specific feature of it
    which is both unique and important in Jewish history. This
    is the fact that the Chief Rabbi of Rome, Dr. Zolli, speaking
    in behalf of the Rome Kehila (the organized Jewish Com-
    munity) thanked the Catholic church, Pope Plus and the
    Catholic clergy, and the non-Jewish people of Italy who
    had given aid to the Jews during the Nazi-Fascist occupation
    of the city.
    The event is not only significant, but also symbolic and
    deserves more attention than has been given to it by Jews
    and non-Jews all over the world. For this Thanksgiving
    service in the old Rome Synagogue brings out dramatically
    one of the most important and hopeful manifestations of this
    war as far as the Jews are concerned, namely:-The
    changed attitude of the non-Jewish world, particularly of
    the Christian churches towards the Jews.
    The writer of these lines has throughout the last four
    years, continually drawn the attention of the Jewish public
    to this remarkable manifestation brought out by the war.
    But none of his and of other people's writing can compare
    in significance with this act in the old Rome Synagogue.
    For here was the first official recognition by the oldest Jewish
    Community in Europe of a fact which is likely to revolu-
    tionize the relationship of the Jews and non-Jews in the
    world after the war and to start a new chapter in the history
    of the Jews.
    The Remarkable Pro-Jewish Movement in Europe
    To understand the significance of the event one has to go
    back to the beginning of the war and to follow the develop-
    ment of a curious movement which has been going on in
    every Nazi-occupied countryin Europe and which is destined
    to stand out as a landmark of the war.
    This movement consisted of a deliberate, and at times
    even organized, attempt on the part of the non-Jewish popu-
    lations of Europe to counteract the Nazi campaign of the
    extermination of the Jews and to help them, in every way
    possible to escape from their enemies.
    The effort was unique, universal and most effective and
    will certainly go down into the annals of the war and of our
    entire period as one of the paradoxes of this global struggle.
    For, if the Nazi had built and depended upon any one
    social force in Europe, it was anti-Semitism. Hatred, perse-
    cution and extermination of the Jews was not only the
    most spectacular part of Nazism and the one flaunted more
    than any other before the world, it was the emotion that
    was to serve as the cement for all others and to keep the
    New Nazi Order together. Only those people who had


    lived under the Nazi regime can realize the extent to
    which the Nazis had made use of anti-Semitism for their
    purposes. The persecution and even the physical mass ex-
    termination of the Jews was only a side-line to the propa-
    ganda use that the Nazis had made of anti-Semitism for
    other, non-Jewish purposes.
    And it was in this that the Nazis have failed probably
    more than in anything else. From the very beginning the
    people of Europe have scented the use that the Nazis were
    making of anti-Semitism in this war, and almost instinctively
    they put up a remarkable fight against it. It is a curious
    fact that in every Nazi occupied country without exception,
    the Germans met with their greatest opposition in their
    attempt to enforce their anti-Jewish measures.
    It began in Holland with the Protestant clergy leading
    an open revolt against the Nazi enforcement of the anti-
    Semitic laws; it spread to Catholic Belgium; it flared up
    in occupied France in the Summer of 1942 in one of the
    most spectacular popular revolts; it found expression in
    Greece, in Yugo-Slavia and Bulgaria. It assumed sharp
    forms in Czecho-Slovakia and Poland. It flared up heroic-
    ally in Norway and Denmark; it made a spectacular stand
    in Italy during the brief period of the Nazi occupation of
    the country; and it makes now its last fight in Hungary.
    Everywhere non-Jews of all classes and stations in society
    have opposed, fought and sabotaged above everything else
    the Nazi anti-Semitic measures. Everywhere Jews have been
    helped in most substantial ways, not merely with food,
    clothing and other forms of relief, but with the more im-
    portant and risky aids by hiding Jews in their houses for
    months and even for years, by adopting and bringing up
    Jewish children as their own and by organizing escapes of
    individual Jews and even of entire communities as was the
    case in Denmark.
    The outstanding fact about the present position of the
    Jews in Europe is that non-Jewish aid to the Jews has
    become as much a part of wartime Europe as the Under-
    ground movement, the Sabotage and Guerrilla movements
    which are contributing so much co the undermining of
    Nazism on the European continent. Nazi anti-Semitism has
    failed; probably more than a good many other Nazi theories
    and practices. The Nazis may have exterminated physically
    a great portion of European Jewry, but they have not in-
    creased anti-Semitism, as they have not killed Jewry. If
    anything they have themselves, cleared Europe of a good
    deal of the anti-Semitic poison by the very barrage which
    they let loose. It may sound paradoxical, but it is a fact.
    The oldest Jewish Community in Europe, the Kehila of
    Rome, has publicly proclaimed it now in its first free act
    after its liberation.
    The manifestation is remarkable in many respects and
    will be a source of interesting study for years to come. All
    that can be stated now without going into details is:
    I. That thousands upon thousands of Jews in Europe


    August, 1044







    NAILEB N


    August, 1944


    surroundings and under competent guidance the creative
    spirit was both awakened and nurtured in the "waifs" and
    they gradually learned to value production as the paramount
    source of human welfare, both material and cultural.
    Space does not permit to dwell longer on this fascinating
    chapter of Soviet educational endeavor. Suffice it to say that
    these Delinquents' Colonies have done wonders in solving
    the problem under consideration; they have turned a menace
    into a blessing; they have brought up the homeless children
    to be the worthy sons and daughters of their devoted parent,
    their socialist society. Many of those in the Red Army, both
    privates and generals, have begun their road to life in this
    special Institution! Many a Soviet scientist, artist and worker
    have been started on their respective careers in these Delin-
    quents' Homes! And, alas, today many, very many of their
    children have been made homeless by the fiendish imperialist
    lust of a Hitlerized Germany!
    But today the problem of the "waif" although serious, is
    much simpler of solution. For one thing, the S.U. has come
    of age as a socialist society where conditions breeding de-
    linquency are no longer extant. For another, the brutish
    enemy was stopped and turned back in ignominious defeat at
    Stalingrad. By far the greater part of the country has
    remained intact, and under socialism mutual aid, is the
    inherent characteristic of the competent parts of society.
    Finally, today the land of socialism is thickly covered with
    a network of trade schools of all denominations, a fact that
    will greatly facilitate and thus simplify the care of the
    homeless.
    With the foregoing background before us, let us now
    view the Jewish problems of reconstruction, paying special
    attention to the part which Birobidjan is most likely to play
    in their solution.
    To begin with, it will be remembered that Birobidjan was
    conceived as a dual purpose project. It was at once designed
    to solve the Jewish economic problem and prepared to do
    so on a Jewish national scale. Thus has the idea of a Jewish
    statehood become associated with the Birobidjan territory.
    The history of the project however, has shown that neither
    purpose has proven sufficiently strong to cause a mass immi-
    gration to Birobidjan. This fact teaches two things. One;
    under socialism, the economic problem finds its solution
    wherever and whenever it arises. Two; under socialism,
    social equality is a reality and does not depend upon territorial
    statehood. And so it has come to pass that Birobidjan, which
    in virtue of both size and natural resources could accommo-
    date millions, has attracted but a fraction of the Jewish
    population.
    The global war has changed the Soviet scene. The three
    Republics, Ukraine, Byelorussia and Crimea, where the bulk
    of the Jews have their home, have been devastated by the
    fascist fiend. Birobidjan, a trans-Volga region, is now the only
    Jewish community that has escaped the Nazi fury; and in the
    present historical moment it looms large as fhe Jewish
    Autonomous Territory, the land already firmly established
    both economically and nationally, thus fulfilling the dual
    purpose for which it was designed.
    In the light of these facts it is reasonable to forsee an
    influx of Jews into Birobidjan where their problem of recon-
    struction in a wartorn world would be simplified as it becomes


    a problem of construction in a settled land. Not only will great
    numbers of refugees who have enjoyed the temporary hospi-
    tality of the Soviets, gravitate to the Jewish Autonomous
    Territory. Many of the uprooted communities from the
    above three Republics are sure to seek their rehabilitation in
    Birobidjan. Finally, the homeless, parentless children will
    find in the Jewish territory a Home without any traces of
    war to torture their- sorely wounded impressionable souls.
    Ever since the inauguration of Birobidjan, the Icor has had
    a happy share in its construction, and needless to say, it stands
    ready now to extend a helping hand, particularly to the
    cause of the orphaned children. What is the kind of help
    that this cause calls for?
    As noted earlier, under Soviet conditions the Child's
    Home is in effect an educational institution. Thus, besides
    the personal needs of the child, such as clothes and the like,
    the institution is in need of school facilities to equip work-
    shops, junior laboratories, etc. Such equipment can readily.
    be supplied from here and its need determines in the .main
    the kind of help the Icor can render.
    It will not be amiss to suggest, in conclusion, that the Icor
    ought to interest our youth in the work here indicated. In-
    deed the young boys and girls have the immediate feel of
    school life and its needs. Moreover, like their parents, they
    are today more receptive and more eager to do things for
    the people of our Great Ally. Thus, organized in clubs of
    assistance to and correspondence with the Child's Home of
    Birobidjan, our youth could greatly enhance the Icor con-
    tribution to the part which the Jewish Autonomous Territory
    is to play in the postwar reconstruction.


    II EAST 0T.H OTOET. NEW TOOK 1. N. Y.
    SUITE 1103 LEX1N6TON .7-T62
    July 14. 1944


    Mr. Abraha Janofsky
    National Secretary
    SJT. Ior A.oolatlou
    1 union Square
    New York. i. Y.
    Dear Mr. Jsaofsby,
    We are indeed happy to be able to Infor you that we haie
    raoaeived approval of your request whereby leor will be able
    to en ark its contribtlion for the Ycrpatoria region In the
    S Cria..
    S ie are sure that this project will ha~e a prtioularly strong
    ..u. ...ai appeal o your membership. It ,ar not mnny year, ago that the
    loor took an motlto part in helping to build Jewsh agrioultural
    -olonaio In thls portloular region. O fn of the colonlsa, we
    .und erstd. nas even m ad the floor Colony in appreoiation of
    your effort.. We an therefore. think of no better contribution
    that floor can make at the present time than to help in-ediately
    to rehabilltate agrloulture and the conditions of human exlstenoe
    in the territory that the Ra.ia devstated with their usual bru-
    tality uad to whloh the people are already returnlg.
    It 1i *urely Aoneoaary for 0s at this late date to rastate at
    m"any length the feeling of thoae of us eho are responIble for
    the ort ofi tho Jeli h Counol, towandl Ioor,. hlh ha been one
    ^ ,...r a ~ ofour greatest sources of strength from the beginning mand whiloh
    in all it. motivlties has ahon such appreciation of the high
    Soral and hietorieo lue of strengthening the bonds of friandohip
    betwen the Aa.rioan and Soviet people. Your noest project l.ll,
    knwe twa be as ooee.sful as ll your previous ones.


    Sincerely yours,

    ;2L^e___e ) z,-_
    Loul LIaia NIosel I. Pinkelatein
    National Chlrao Exeoutltv Seoretar


    NATIONAL OrnCERS
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    AvWA aI V" r- (1A'^








    "nflILCBI" (new Life)

    Vol. XVIII, No. 8 (165) New York, N. Y., August, 1944 209 Single Copy 10 cents
    NAILEBN, I Union Square, New York 3, N. Y., Telephone ALgonquin 4-2045, published monthly by the ICOR Association for information on the
    economic, cultural, and social life of the Jews the world over. Yearly subscription, $1.00.
    Re-entered as second-class matter August 22, 1938, at the Post office at New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879.
    Business Manager-A. JENOFSKY


    Biro- Bidjan and Postwar Reconstruction

    By PROF. CHARLES KUNTZ
    President of Icor Association


    As the heroic Red Armies on the Eastern Front and the
    Allied Armies on the Second Front are bringing ever
    nearer the end of the war the problem of reconstruction is
    becoming the compelling order of the day. Now it is clear
    that this problem as it concerns the Jews in particular is
    an integral part of the more, comprehensive problem affecting
    the Soviet Union as a whole. It will be well, therefore, to
    first consider the situation under its general Soviet aspect.
    As history would have it, the Soviet Union is, in its short
    existence, confronted a second time with the grave problem
    of reconstruction. It is important to remember that hardly
    more than a generation ago the newly born S.U. found its
    heritage in ruins as the result of the First World War, the
    counterrevolution and the war of foreign intervention.
    Naturally enough the reconstruction problem was at that
    time overwhelming. It was, however, met bravely by the
    Soviet emancipated peoples who, with their unremitting cre-
    ative labors, have in a short time erected upon the ruins of
    the old, a new social structure, the grandeur of which has
    gained them the admiration of progressive humanity. Today
    the S.U. again finds a good portion of its flourishing socialist
    garden laid waste by the Hitlerite imperialism, which for
    three years has been reveling in the hellish work of destruc-
    tion. Now that the Red Army having decimated the wanton
    invader is chasing his last remnants out of the Soviet garden
    all attention is being focused once more upon the gigantic
    task of reconstruction.
    It is clear that a program of reconstruction is concerned
    with the rebuilding of houses, the reestablishment of factories,
    the reorganization of colhozes, the restoration of cultural
    values, and the like. But it should likewise be clear that the
    pivot of all this constructive effort is the human element and
    that, moreover, the nucleus of the human element is the
    child. Now the sad fact is that the savagery characteristic
    of modern war reveals itself particularly in the unspeakable
    cruelties visited by it upon the helpless young. If the war
    fiend does not directly slaughter the child he leaves it parent-
    less, diseased, helpless in the present and hopeless for the
    future. In view of this fact it is easy to see why the rehabili-
    tation of the child occupies the prominent place it does in
    the Soviet reconstruction program.
    The experience of the Soviets with this problem of the
    -waif, of the child made homeless by the aftermath of World
    : C Var 1, affords an instructive study both in social science
    nd in educational practice. For the present purposes it will
    flfce to sketch briefly this experience.
    j0 .
    ,/W~3


    It will be recalled that 'the counterrevolutionary war
    (1918-21) was raging all over the Soviet territory, from
    the Black Sea to the Pacific. In consequence, the number of
    the homeless children ran into the million figure. These
    waifs were, of course, of all ages. Now it is plain that tlle
    child of tender age merely calls for the ordinary care. Given
    the material means and the competent personnel, this task
    can be, and indeed was, readily met. On the other hand,
    the child of the teen-age presented a truly crucial problem;
    the more so because it was part and parcel of the Czarist
    heritage. Generally speaking, boys and girls upon reaching
    the teen-age are prone to insist that they are able to help
    themselves. Little wonder then that the war waifs brutalized
    as they were by the ravages of the war and by the ensuing
    chaos helped themselves, in the struggle for existence, in
    a way which is known as delinquency.
    We are reminded that the period in question coincided,
    in the S.U., with the beginning of the transition period from
    capitalism to socialism. It was the period of the incipient
    NEP (the New Economic Policy). Delinquency, it will be
    observed, thrives in the soil of disorganized capitalist economy
    when profiteering, black-marketing, and the like, are the
    luring ways to money-making. The teen-age youngsters
    merely imitate these ways of money-grabbing by using the
    method of pickpocketing, petty thievery, etc. Now imagine
    the country overrun with such delinquents who were going
    from bad to worse and you will at once realize the serious-
    ness of the problem and appreciate the following way in
    which it was effectively solved.
    To be brief, Soviet' society declared itself the legitimate
    parent of all the waifs. And throughout the vast land of the
    Soviets there sprang into being the special Institution, at first
    named the Home of the Waif, but later rechristened as the
    Child's Home. This home soon developed into an educational
    center destined to lead its youthful inmates upon "the road
    to life." We shall limit here our narrative to that department
    of this institution which was dedicated to the reformation of
    the "delinuqents."
    It should" be born in mind that the underlying principle
    of Soviet pedagogy is the intrinsic oneness of theory and
    practice. In accordance with this principle the Soviet school
    was from its very inception connected with some production
    unit. In the city, the factory was its "patron"; in the country-
    side, it was the Sovhoz and later the Colhoz. Thus the
    Delinquent's Home, as a school, formed a sort of colony
    within a community of producers (not profiteers). In these