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Nailebn =
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00007530/00004
 Material Information
Title: Nailebn = New life
Parallel title: New life
Added title page title: Naylebn
Physical Description: v. : ill., ports. ; 28 cm.
Language: Yiddish
Creator: Icor
Publisher: Icor, Association for Jewish Colonization in the Soviet Union
Place of Publication: New York
Frequency: monthly (irregular)
monthly
completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Jews -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: Title also in Yiddish and text largely in Yiddish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in May 1928.
Numbering Peculiarities: Volume numbers irregular: Jan.-Oct. 1946 called v. 20, no. 1-10, Nov.-Dec. 1946 called v. 19, no. 11-12; 1947 called also v. 20.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 11, no. 1 (Jan. 1937); title from cover.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 19068832
lccn - 50017200
ocm19068832
Classification: lcc - DS101 .N25
ddc - 296
System ID: AA00007530:00004

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rFHEIAJHoE KOEHCyVibCTSO C.CP.
B HbO HOPMK
-"wso So-C .a. N


CONSULATE OENEAL
OF THE UNION OF SOVIET
SOCIALIST REPUBLICS
I EAST 61tn STREET
NEW YORK I2 N Y


January oB. IgO

leor Aaoetlatlon
Prof. Charles Kuitz. President
Mr. Abran a Jenofaky, National Secretary
I Union Square West
Ne York City
Dr Sir.:
In the nast of Prof. Solomon Mlciosle and
Lieutenant-Colonel It iK aFffer. I take the Liberty
of ending you tar words of singer. gratitude nod
deep npprecitEato for toe prirntin plant irch eaa
so geosrously presented by a amber of your organt-
uatlon Mr. Samuol Lifsealt to Biro Bsdjn.
the Jelish Autononous Soviet Regon.
By ohlping eatively the people of tae
SoLvet Union t(a lcor ABoc*itlon is -lking *a grat
contribution Ls oementing the friendship btwe-en th
Am.rio nnd the Soviet peopl.a waica it no essential
for brlEngisg tnw r to an early and nctorlosa end.
Willing you best suces t1o your splendid
work. I rtai
S,0 r. er yon

C oul B ral.


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THIRD MEETING OF THE REPRESENTATIVES OF JEWISH PEOPLE AND JEWISH ANTI-FASCIST

COMMITTEE OPENS IN MOSCOW, APRIL 2, 1944.


(Cable to Icor)
Moscow, U.S.S.R.
Icor Associtaion, March 5, 1944
One Union Square, W.,
New York City, U.S.A.
Third meeting of representatives of
Jewish people including officers and
men of the Red Army, Partisans, Sta-
khanovites from factories and farms,
scientists, writers, artists, public men
and women and representatives of re-
ligious organizations taking place in
Moscow on second of April, 1944.
On the same day the Third Plenary
Meeting of Jewish Anti-Fascists Com-
mittee opens in U.S.S.R. Agenda: 1.
Report by Shakhno Epstein on work
and tasks in immediate future. 2. Re-
port by Prof. Michoels and Itzik Feffer
on their visit in U.S.A., Canada, Mexico,
Great Britain and 3. Organizational
questions.
(Signed) Jewish Anti-Fascist
Committee in U.S.S.R.
Prof. S. Michoels, Chairman
Shakhno Epstein, Secretary.


March 8, 1944
Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, U.S.S.R.
Professor Solomon Michoels, Chairman
Shakhno Epstein, Secretary
Kropotkina No. 10, Moscow, U.S.S.R.
The National Committee, Icor Associ-
ation sends heartiest greetings to the
Third Plenary Meeting of the Jewish
Anti-Fascist Committee in U.S.S.R.
We appreciate your message received
at our Conference on January 30. At
that gathering we adopted the following
decisions:
1. Icor Association to obtain for pur-
poses of sending relief a designated
region in the liberated area in the
U.S.S.R.
2. A project in Biro-Bidjan to help
settle victims of Fascism.
We are preparing for shipment to
Biro-Bidjan the Printing Plant, donated
in honor of Professor Michoels and Col.
Itzik Feffer.
We are distributing "Heimland," by


Itzik Feffer and illustrated by Mark
Chagall, published by the Icor. Testi-
monial dinner in honor of Feffer and
Chagall will take place on April 23,
1944. Greeting from your committee
and Feffer expected.
We have published and are distribut-
ing Molotov's report in Yiddish on the
Sixteen Republics.
We are organizing celebrations
throughout the United States on the
occasion of the Tenth Anniversary of
Biro-Bidjan-Jewish Autonomous Re-
gion.
Greetings to the heroic Red Army.
Greetings to the Third Plenary Meeting
of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee.
Greetings to the people of Biro-Bidjan.
Wishing you success,

National Executive Committee,
ICOR ASSOCIATION,
Professor Charles Kuntz, Sec'y
Abraham Janofsky, Nat'l Sec'y


TWENTY YEARS "ICOR" MEMBERSHIP & SUBSCRIPTION DRIVE
FEBRUARY 25. TO MARCH 25. 1944


Baltimore, Md.
Baltomore Icor Committee ............... 5
Chicago, Illinois
Chicago Icor Committee .................20
Cincinnati, Ohio
Cincinnati Icor Committee ................16
M rs. Foran ........................................ 3

19
Dallas, Texas
Frank Buckman ................................15
Los Angeles, Cal.
East Side Icor:
Friday Frumkiss ...............................5.
M ollie Drexler ................................. 3
M ax Soifer ....................................... 1
Hollywood Branch:
A Cooper ....................................... 4

13
Philadelphia, Pa.
Broina Stern .................................... ... 6
S. Leon ................................................ 2
Sam Ingber ....................................... .. 1

9
Milwaukee, Wis.
Luba Shapiro ..................................... 6
Trenton, New Jersey
M Seidel .................................... ........ 5


Denver, Colorado
0. Payne .............................. ........ 4
Washington, D. D.
W W einstein ......................................... 2
Sarah Shapiro ..................................... 1
3
Boston, Mass.
S. W einstein .......................................... 1
M. Yellin ....................................... ..... 1
2
Cleveland, Ohio
Dr. W E. Lee ....................................... 1
A Tabeckm an ..................................... 1
2
Kansas City, Utah
J. G ottlieb .......................................... 1
Montreal, Canada
D Shuster ........................................... 1
NEW YORK COMMITTEES
Brownsville
D. Yanishefsky ................................... 3
Chaim Singer ........................................ 2
J. Chaplow itz ....................................... 2
M. L. Olken .......................................... 2
H London ........................................... 2
J. L erner .................................... ........ 1

12


Bronx
Isidore G ennett ................................... 6
Celia Rubin ........................................ 3
Emma Chupack ............................... 1
J A d ler ..................... ..................... 1
H. Wolf ............................................ 1

12
Amalgamated
M rs. B ellinson .................................. ... 5
S. Levine ........................................... 1

6
Brighton-Coney Island
Ethel W einer ....................................... 3
Fannie B ass ....................................... 1

4
Nailebn
Sam ....................... .................... 2
Downtown
Dr. Nina Rosensweig ......................... 1

Total for the Month .........................142
Previously ....................................... 1,239

Total as of March 25, 1944............1,381


April, 1944


NAILEBN







NAILEBN April, 1944


To mix the cement for my home and my
land!
To all of you, all of you, all goes out my
song
Who fear not exertion, whom struggle
makes strong!
To all of you, all of you goes out my
rhyme
Who sing of the needs and the deeds
of my time,
Of the bloom of my land, and the glow
of my sword
And to those who give birth to the joy
of the earth:
To all of you, all of you, goes out my
word!"
The joy of living and the consciousness
of accomplishment surges on through
the new man released from the old
world of evil and oppression, and Feffer
calls out: "Let us Laugh."
In this poem the author goes on to
say: "Sorrow? No, it's not becoming!
Sadness only rends the heart. Tears?
Why, let the enemy be gloomy. Let us
laugh, oh, laugh, my friends!" And he
continues:
"Who before did fair new worlds
Build on ruins of the old?
Let us laugh, we can afford it:
Our laughter hale and bold!
and he concludes:
See
Old worlds crash and crumble
As descends on them the night;
Laugh then, laugh a hearty laughter:
Laughter helps to win the fight!"
This was not meant as a solution for
the war. The poem "Laughter," was
written before the war. It expressed the
strong position and the confidence of
the Soviet Union, a bright star in a dark
night of a gloomy world threatened by
its own disunity. But now that we are
fighting together with our allies, the
cruellest enemy of mankind, Itzik Feffer
joins the Red Army and rises to the rank
of a colonel. And here again we have
the new Jew, the man of action, the
optimist, the soldier, the hero. There is
a Soviet song which carries among
others, the following roughly translated
lines:
"Should the country command: 'Be a
hero'
And anyone will a hero become."
Itzik Feffer joined the call of his land,
of his conscience, to defend the new life
which everyone in the Soviet Union
today has risen to defend. He took up


ITZIK FEFFER


the sword, but did not forsake his pen.
There is a beautiful poem in which
Feffer sings of a feast around a bonfire
after a collective farm harvest in Biro-
bidjan. The poem is entitled "Bonfires."
It tells of a village hidden among tall
mountains and faraway forest; the eve-
ning is cool, and the bonfires merrily
crackle and light up the dark sky. Jews,
Koreans, Chinamen and Amur Cossacks
are gathered around the fires celebrating
the bountiful harvest with song and
dance and drink. Old Jewish songs of
Minsk and Berditchev vie with the new
songs of the youthful republic, and they
all blend together in the festival of a
multitongued gathering, all expressing
one joy, one friendship under the benign
Soviet sky:
"Browned Jews and sons of China
Laugh and drink the potion strong.
Glasses clink with hearty wishes
As they drink in every tongue."
He thus describes the dance of old Jews
and young Cossacks and the whole
merry crowd of collective farmers near
the borders of Manchuria:
"See them dance in ceaseless motion:
Joy and laughter, whirl and song-
How wonderful is dancing
When it's danced in every tongue!"
The book "Homeland" is written in
musical verse, and this imparts added
zest to the scintillating words of bouy-
ancy and optimism and love of living the
socialist life of creative labor and friend-
ship of peoples. Feffer's masterful verse


is a symphonic unity of form and con-
tent, the goal to which every writer
aspires, but which not every writer at-
tains. It will not be detracting from his
huge talent if we add this observation:
this masterful unity of form and content
is facilitating the new energy released
by the Soviet's national policy and so-
cial system.
Feffer is a young man, he is now 45
years old. Yet he has been prominent in
Yiddish Soviet literature for many
years. In 1934, Feffer took part in the
first Congress of Soviet Writers called
at the initiative of Maxim Gorki. At that
congress he has been elected a member
of the governing body of Soviet writers.
It is interesting to quote a few passages
from Feffer's speech at the congress:
"I am happy," he said, "to be able to
state from this responsible historic tri-
bune that Soviet Jewish literature has,
along with the literature of all the peo-
ples of the Soviet Union, opened a new
page of its history. Buoyancy and opti-
mism are the characteristic traits of the
Jewish poetry in the Soviet Union. This
distinguishes it from the Jewish poetry
of pre-October days and from Jewish
poetry in capitalist countries. Also in our
prose we hear new voices, the voices of
new men .... The man of air, so master-
fully depicted by Sholom Aleichem has
disappeared. . Bonze the Silent (the
symbol of Jewish meekness drawn by
J. L. Perez) has now become articulate.
The October Revolution has given him
a voice. The broken, crippled, oppressed
and humiliated types which occupied the
center of Jewish literature in the days
before October, are no longer to be seen
in Soviet literature. The hunchbacks
dropped from our literature, never to
return. . The Soviet Union has lifted
us, the Jewish writers from the forsaken
corners and small towns and has buried
forever the cursed "Jewish question."
The Soviet Union has burned forever
and destroyed the pale of settlement,
that monstrous infamy of the Czarist
regime. To this great Homeland the Jew-
ish writers dedicate their pen, their po-
tentialities, their power."
Colonel Feffer has kept his word: he
is giving as he promised ten years ago.
It is a gift of love and gratitude. And
in giving he is also receiving-his gift
of lyrical expression. This gift is gen-
erously expressed in his book "Home-
land," now published by the Icor.


April, 1944


NAILEBN







April. 1944 NAILEBN


Songs of an Unfettered Soul

(On Itzik Feffer's book of poems, "Homeland")

By N. J. NELSON


"The pen is mightier than the sword."
Whether this war has brought about a
change in the relative importance of
these powerful weapons, I do not know.
It is likely that the sword has been raised
to a point at least of equal value with
the pen. At any rate, Itzik Feffer wields
them both. Colonel Feffer of the Red
Army sways a mighty pen; the Soviet
Jewish poet Feffer effectively handles a
sword. For colonel and poet he is the
new Jew of new Russia.
I have before me a book of Yiddish
poems by Itzik Feffer, published by the
Icor, New York City. It is the most
unique collection of Yiddish poems ever
brought to my attention. It is the rhap-
sody of a people awakened to new life.
The title of the book is "Homeland,"
and it sings the love of the Soviet Jew
for his new home, the Soviet Union and
the autonomous region Birobidjan
which the Jews are building up as their
own province within the Russian Feder-
ated Soviet Socialist Republic. One must
read these poems to understand the full
significance of the magic transformation
wrought upon the Jewish people by the
national policy of the Soviet Union and
its social system which unfettered souls
and released pent-up energies. And so
far as the Jews are concerned, it would
seem that a miraculous elixir had been
administered to a long suffering patient,
and this life-giving substance went surg-
ing through his body in a powerful
stream of new vitality, and his spirit re-
sponded to the stimulus of the quicken-
ing pulsation with the joy of living. And
it is this joy of, living and sturdy
pioneering that is so forcefully expressed
in poetry of scintillating music in Fef-
fer's book.
"Come with me to the field, take a look
at the growth of the corn;
Take a look at the grains pulling down
heavy ears to the earth;
Take a look what became of the waste-
land, the sand and the thorn


As the seed and the soil and my toil
have combined in new birth.
"Come with me to the park when the
sun pours its gold on the treetops;
Take a look at the children, their
games, their alertness and glee,
Sprightly heads, glowing cheeks, light-
ning eyes full of sparkle,
Take a look at tanned bodies caressed
by the sun on his spree."
and he finishes the survey of this bounti-
ful domain with this note of joyful
pride:
"Come with me to my home, take a look
how solid and strong is my body,
Take a look at my house, at my land
which is mine for all time;
For wherever I stride I can say with
all pride.
This is mine."
He knows, as every Jew who partici-
pates in the new life knows, that it is his
toil that brought forth this bounty, and
no one will take it away from him. It is
not the narrow pride of selfish posses-
sion, it is the exhilarating joy of posses-
sing the fruit of one's labor, the labor
which simultaneously enriches the toiler
himself and brings prosperity to his
neighbor-the collective effort for the
mutual benefit of all.
Yes, a complete transformation, I
would say a resurrection has occurred
in the life of the Jews in the Soviet
Union, for the existence of the Jews un-
der the Czar could scarcely be called
life. The poems of Feffer are even more
revealing when contrasted with the plain-
tive poetry of pre-revolutionary Jewish
poets in Russia. At that time there was
no hope for the Jew at all, no prospect
of breaking away from the cursed exist-
ence of hopeless oppression. To be sure,
there were revolutionary poets among
the Jews, who sang of a new world of
justice and equality. But that was a
nebulous vision of a far away ideal, a
distant hope for some miraculous mil-


lenium which was to bring with it a
hazy brotherhood of man. There was
nothing specifically Jewish about those
poets, save the medium of language. The
specifically Jewish poet sang either of
"Sorrow and Wrath," like Bialik, look-
ing to Palestine as his only haven of
refuge; or the poet would sing of sorrow
alone, without even the illusion or hope
of redemption, like Frug and others.
Sang Frug:
"Just tempests and storms and storms
and .tempests,
While flowers are crushed in their
bloom,
And buried lie hopes under heavy grey
tombstones,
And life is immured in the gloom of the
tomb."
Hopeless was their life, hopeless their
prospects, as they poured out their soul
and wept with Frug the melody of de-
jection:
"What sounds are left to my sorrowful
lyre;
What embers still kindle the pain in
my heart-
The mem'ry of lives that long did ex-
pire,
Or dreams of a joy that long did
depart?"
The great October Revolution came
and swept away the old sorrows and
raised new hopes. Gone are the old
Jewish poets with their plaintive, heart
rending melodies and chants. The new
life has called for new poets and new
songs, songs of emancipation and re-
generation. The new life calls for new
work of collective and joyful building,
and Feffer sings this new life and new
joy and new work in his poem, "My
Neighbors":
"My call goes to all of you, all every-
where
Whose hammerbeats stir with new vigor
the air!
To all who are ready with shoulder and
hand


April, 1944


NAILEBN






NAILEBN April, 1944


that accompanied this "evacuation" defy
all description. For four months the
inhabitants of the ghetto lived in a state
of stark terror and bewilderment, which
was fanned by German stratagem.
Realizing that any attempt to carry
out the immediate mass annihilation of
a half million people concentrated in
one spot might result in desperate re-
sistance, the Germans tricked their vic-
tims into death. They created "privi-
lcdged" classes whom they promised to
spare because of the work they were
doing. Always, the group deported on
any given day was to be the last; and
those remaining were to be left in peace.
Broken Pledges
During the entire period that this
process went on, the Jews of the ghetto
had one aim: to obtain work certificates
which would save them from deporta-
tion; only to discover a few days later
that, again, for the thousandth time,
the Germans had broken their pledge.
As for the decimated ranks of Jews,
who still were led each day like cattle by
the shopguard (Werkschutz) to slave in
German workshops, and were quartered
in designated blocks without contact
with their families-these bewildered
and torpid beings finally found them-
selves, too, among the defenseless, teem-
ing crowd at the Umschlagplatz, the
depot to death. Even then they still
refused to grasp the truth, hoping
against hope that they were being sent
to the East to work.
The Germans wanted them to believe
this. The ghetto was flooded with forged
letters from Jews who had ben deported
months before, and now "wrote" that
they were well off and working.
This ruse was so successful that many
Jewish families, who were promised if.
they volunteered for work elsewhere
they would not be separated, collected
their belongings and went to the
Umschlagplatz without awaiting their
turn. Some, who understood what was
in store, took their own lives. Others,
who also knew, called upon the people
to resist. But that summons was not
heeded until much later, when less than
40,000 Jews remained in the Warsaw
Ghetto.
From an eyewitness who had been in
Treblinka B, known throughout Poland
as the "slaughterhouse," has come a de-
tailed account, accompanied by a map.


The camp of Treblinka B, which lies
conveniently close to a railroad siding
that receives transports directly from
Warsaw, is the main extermination cen-
ter where most of the Jews of Warsaw,
and many from other ghettos, have been
murdered. When the victims arrived,
they were told that they were in a quar-
antine distribution center for labor
camps. On this excuse, they were or-
dered to undress for disinfection. Then
they were driven to the death house, a
concrete windowless structure contain-
ing several chambers lined with steam
pipes. Women and children first, the
Germans ordered. The floors are wet,
slippery; the victims fall, and others
pile in on top of them. When the
chambers have been packed to capacity,
they are hermetically sealed, and the hot
steam is released through the pipe-vents.
After some 90 per cent of the inhabi-
tents of the Warsaw Ghetto had thus
been murdered in Treblinka and other
.death camps, those who still remained
half-starved in Warsaw were preparing
for their final act.
In March, 1943, a message smuggled
out of Warsaw to Polish circles in Lon-
don related how, when the Germans
were clearing out a certain block, the
Jews resisted and in the ensuing clash
many Germans were killed. Thereupon
the enraged Nazis brought up machine
guns and mowed down hundreds of
Jews. The message appealed to the


TESTIMONIAL DINNER
given in honor of
Marc Chagal
and
Lieut. Colonel Itzik Feffer
on the occasion of the publication of
"HEIMLAND"
a book of poetry by Itzik Feffer
Illustrated by Marc Chagal

on Sunday, April 30, 1944
6:00 P. M.
At Rosoff's
147 West 43rd St., New York City
S Subscription $2.50
Icor Association One Union Sq. West
New York 3, N. Y.


civilized world for help against the con-
tinuation of the slaughter, and closed
with the following words:
"The responsibility is with you-
rouse the world to action."

The Last Stand

Their fears were well founded. On
April 21, an underground Polish radio
broadcast a frantic appealed for aid. The
last Warsaw Jews were being machine-
gunned. Women and children were de-
fending themselves with their bare hands.
Polish sources shed some light on the
abruptly terminated broadcasts. Ac-
cording to these sources, the remaining
Warsaw Jews were holding off the Ger-
mans with arms supplied by the Polish
underground, and even with homemade
weapons. Some 1,000 Germans were
killed in this battle. After a fight of
several days in barricaded streets, the
ghetto was at last enveloped in silence.
There are no more Jews in the Warsaw
Ghetto. It is believed, however, that
some of them, particularly women and
children, were able to find refuge and a
hiding place among the Polish people.
It must not be forgotten that Warsaw
was only one city with a large Jewish
population. Throughout the cities,
towns and villages of Poland, Jews
struggled desperately for survival under
the heel of German occupation, only to
share the fate of the Jews of Warsaw.


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THE MURDER OF A PEOPLE

Story of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising


From the day of German invasion,
the Jews were faced with an ever-dark-
ening and more menacing future.
Nevertheless, they tried as long as it was
humanly possible to preserve some
framework of existence. They worked
harder than ever in the few occupations
for the moment still open to them. The
Jewish Councils, to meet German labor
requirements, organized carpenter, cap-
maker, tailor, shoe, textile and other
workshops. The Germans gave the Jews
old rags and ordered clothes made out
of them; from waste leather they de-
manded shoes. The Jews were undis-
mayed. Toiling 12 hours a day, re-
ceiving in payment only a few cents and
a plate of soup, they proved their work-
manship.
Vestiges of Life
Nor did the Jews forget their moral
and spiritual responsibilities. They or-
ganized illegal schooling for their chil-
dren, who travelled from place to place.
They issued a newspaper, "Gazeta
Zydowska," which, though strictly cen-
sored, managed to throw some light on
their situation, discussed their prob-
lems, and brought them a little hope.
Their self-organized relief-kitchens
served 120,000 meals daily. As long as
it was possible, they functioned as a
community. The record of their work
ends abruptly in the middle of 1942.
Since that time there has been no word.
As Hitler's extermination policy
reached full swing, even the newly-
forged ghetto way of life changed radi-
cally. By German police orders of Oc-
tober 10th and November 14, 1942, the
Jews were concentrated in 13 ghettos
and 42 so-called "Jewish Quarters,"
from which the Gentile populations had
been removed. Thus they were com-
pletely cut off from the outside world.
All the scientific barbarism and re-


fined cruelty of German rule was
brought into play in carrying out Hit-
ler's extermination policy. Polish
Jewry was destined for death-not a
peaceful death, but one to be earned on
the rack of Nazi violence and evil.
Total war, the campaign of September,
1939, took the first toll. Amongst the
killed and wounded civilians there were
some 45,000 Jewish victims. The num-
ber of Jews who fell in the ranks of the
Polish Army is known to have been
over 30,000. By the end of 1942, liv-
ing conditions under the Germans had
caused the "natural death" of 400,000
Jews. This staggering figure, however,
did not satisfy the Germans. Fischer,
one of the governors of the Warsaw
district stated:
"We will destroy this tribe. They
will disappear due to hunger and
misery."
And the Jews lived in gnawing hun-
ger and abject misery. From the very
beginning, impatient German soldiers
and the Gestapo shot them down in the
street in "reprisal" or without bother-
ing about any pretext. Sometimes Jews
were hanged in the public squares, and
to their limp bodies were attached
placards describing their "crimes."
"Enforcing discipline" through mur-
der was the order of the day in many a
labor camp. Whether it was for leav-
ing the ghetto in search of food, smug-
gling a loaf of bread in, or for display-
ing "hostility toward the German na-
tion" the penalty was death, even for
those under 16. "Poland Fights" of
June 30, 1942, reported that 30 Jewish
children were drowned by the Germans
in clay pits as an "example" to the
population.
New Methods
Hitler's orders for complete exter-
mination required even more effective


methods. German science was brought
into the picture. In Chelm the gas
chamber was introduced; in Belzec elec-
trocution; in Treblinka, death by hot
steam. By July, 1942, the Germans
boasted an impressive record. In addi-
tion to the 400,000 dead of "natural
causes," they had now murdered out-
right some 300,000 Jews. One-fourth
of Polish Jewry in German-occupied
Poland was already dead.
The time had come to "liquidate" the
remaining Polish Jews and the hundreds
of thousands of their brothers from
abroad who had been deported to Po-
land. There is not an occupied country
in Europe from which Jews have not
been sent East. According to German
admissions, the transports were of such
a nature that at least 30 per cent of the
deportees died en route.
In July, 1942, under the cloak of de-
portation, began the wholesale annihila-
tion of large Jewish centers in Poland.
It is known that tens of thousands of
Jews were slaughtered in many Polish
cities, but the most substantial details of
this story of death have come from
Warsaw.
Mass Deportation
From July 22, all Warsaw Jews be-
came subject to deportation to the East.
The number of deportees varied from
6,000 to 10,000 daily. From the out-
set, the deportations were accompanied
by terror and bloodshed. People were
shot at random. The aged and infirm
were led to the cemetery and shot down.
Any one who was not quick enough or
attempted to hide was killed.
To round up prospective deportees,
the Germans threw cordons around cer-
tain streets and drove the inhabitants
into the so-called loading station
(umschlagplatz) adjacent to a railway
track outside the ghetto. The scenes