Archaeological monitoring and salvage at Brown's Complex Mound 4, Pineland Site Complex (8LL1902), Pineland, Florida, Ap...

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Material Information

Title:
Archaeological monitoring and salvage at Brown's Complex Mound 4, Pineland Site Complex (8LL1902), Pineland, Florida, April 2006
Physical Description:
48 leaves : ill. (some col.), maps ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Dietler, John
Publisher:
Randell Research Center
Place of Publication:
Pineland, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Historic sites -- Florida -- Lee County   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Pineland (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 24-27).
Statement of Responsibility:
John Dietler.
General Note:
Report submitted to Chris and Gayle Bundschu by the Randell Research Center.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 759168563
ocn759168563
Classification:
lcc - F317.L3 D53 2007
System ID:
AA00007222:00001

Full Text















ARCHAEOLOGICAL MONITORING AND SALVAGE
AT BROWN'S COMPLEX MOUND 4,
PINELAND SITE COMPLEX (8LL1902),
PINELAND, FLORIDA, APRIL 2006









John Dietler, MA, RPA








Report submitted to Chris and Gayle Bundschu
by the
Randell Research Center
PO Box 608
Pineland, Florida 33945


2007








Co AJ


ARCHAEOLOGICAL MONITORING AND SALVAGE
AT BROWN'S COMPLEX MOUND 4,
PINELAND SITE COMPLEX (8LL1902),
PINELAND, FLORIDA, APRIL 2006









John Dietler, MA, RPA








Report submitted to Chris and Gayle Bundschu
by the
Randell Research Center
PO Box 608
Pineland, Florida 33945


2007


C-Y











INTRODUCTION


Project Overview

This report presents the preliminary field findings of an archaeological monitoring and
salvage project conducted on property owned by Chris and Gayle Bundschu on Pine Island,
Florida between April 2nd and April 7*, 2006. The property is located in an unincorporated
settlement in northwestern Lee County known as Pineland, on the northwest coast of Pine Island
(Figure 1). The Bundschu property encloses the greater part of a rise that is composed entirely of
archaeological deposits, primarily mounded midden materials containing a rich variety of marine
shellfish, animal bone, plant remains, and prehistoric and historic artifacts. This rise has been
designated Brown's Complex Mound 4 (BCM4) and constitutes an important portion of the
Pineland Site Complex (site number 8LL1902). Pineland is a large, multi-component
archaeological site that is listed in the National Register of Historical Places (Figure 2). When it
became clear that the construction of a pile-supported single family home in this location would
involve significant impacts to this resource, the Bundschus agreed to hire the Randell Research
Center (RRC) to conduct a limited archaeological construction monitoring and salvage project


F r0 KM 100


Figure 1. Location of the Pineland Site Complex (from Marquardt and Walker 2008).



























































Figure 2. The Pineland Site Complex. Arrow indicates Bundschu house site on Brown's
Complex Mound 4.


2











The archaeological work described herein represents an ad hoc salvage project, conceived
after the construction of the home had already begun. Because the project was unplanned,
temporally constrained, and limited in budget and personnel, data collection was limited to
surface mapping, stratigraphic profile recording, photographic documentation, artifact collection,
and faunal sample collection. No archaeological excavation was undertaken. The goal of the
project was to recover as much information as possible given the constraints mentioned above.
Neither the salvage project nor the resulting reports) were intended to serve as legal mitigation
for past, present, or future impacts to archaeological resources.

The field portion of the project resulted in the recovery of approximately 750 prehistoric
and 15 historic artifacts, 50 faunal specimens, 15 bulk midden samples, and 8 radiocarbon
samples. Project documentation included 254 digital photographs, 10 stratigraphic profile
drawings, field notes, and one surface sketch map.

Cultural Background

The human occupation of coastal southwest Florida is first visible archaeologically
between 5000 and 4000 B.C., although earlier sites may have been lost to rising sea levels
(Marquardt 2001:160). By the middle of the Archaic period (ca. 3000 B.C.), favorable climatic
conditions permitted increasingly large and sedentary populations to settle the coastal zone
(Russo 1991). Substantial encampments appeared throughout the Caloosahatchee Region's
Charlotte Harbor, Pine Island Sound, San Carlos Bay, and Estero Bay estuarine complex. These
people and their descendants were sophisticated fisher-gatherer-hunters who flourished through
the exploitation of the region's rich estuarine resources.

The southern third of the Florida peninsula lacks stone suitable for making tools (Austin
and Estabrook 2000) but the earliest archaeological sites in the Caloosahatchee Region indicate
that area natives got along well without such implements. Clever south Florida Indians invented
a distinctive shell, wood, and bone technology that they used to obtain food, build massive
midden-mounds, dig an extensive system of canals, and create masterful works of art. A Middle
Archaic period (ca. 2000-1860 B.C.) site on Useppa Island contains evidence of the manufacture
of a variety of hammers and cutting tools using the central columella and outer whorls of large
marine shells (Torrence 1999).

During the Caloosahatchee I period (500 B.C.-A.D. 500), these tool forms were replaced
by tools made from whole gastropods. Thick, sand-tempered pottery took the place of earlier
fiber-tempered varieties. A number of other artifact types appeared in this period as well,
including perforated shark teeth tools, ark shell net weights, bivalve knives, and quahog anvils.
Several local communities were occupied during this period, including Useppa Island, Gait
Island, Mound Key, the Wightman Site, Cabbage Key, Josslyn Island, Hooker Key, and Mason
Island. A new settlement was established at Pineland by about A.D. 50 (Marquardt and Walker
2008).

Growing populations during Caloosahatchee IA (A.D. 500-800) are indicated by
intensive midden accumulation (Marquardt 2001), and extensive deposits from this period appear
to underlie much of Pineland's later features. New, technically superior forms of whole
gastropod cutting-edged tools (Types A and B) appeared at this time, possibly leading to a
florescence in woodworking (Patton 2001).












Communal labor projects abounded during Caloosahatchee IIB (A.D. 800-1200) when
enormous shell and earth mounds and lengthy canals were constructed throughout the region.
Pineland's Randell Mound and Brown's Mound complexes began to accumulate during this
period. The Pine Island Canal was also built at this time, stretching from the Pineland site across
the width of the island (Luer 1989). Mortuary and site size evidence suggests the emergence of
several small chiefdoms during this period as well (Patton 2001). Large portions of south Florida
shared common pottery types for the first time (Widmer 1988), potentially indicating a newfound
cultural, if not political, unification of broad regions. Belle Glade Plain pottery, which first
appeared during Caloosahatchee IIA, dominates local assemblages for the remainder of the
Caloosahatchee sequence (Marquardt and Walker 2008), diminishing only in the Caloosahatchee
IV period.

The Caloosahatchee m (A.D. 1200-1350) period saw little change in technology or
settlement pattern, instead being marked by increased extra-regional interaction, particularly with
agricultural chiefdoms to the north. Several exotic pottery types appeared in the area for the first
time, including St. Johns Check Stamped, Pinellas Plain, and several Weeden Island and Safety
Harbor varieties. The latter is most common in burial contexts. At Pineland, Caloosahatchee I
deposits are best represented by the Brown's Mound Complex (Marquardt and Walker 2008).

During Caloosahatchee IV (A.D. 1350-1500), Caloosahatchee people elaborated their
primary villages and consolidated their influence within south Florida. Large sites such as
Mound Key, Gait Island, Josslyn Island, and Pineland grew into extensive site complexes that
shared a common site layout (Marquardt and Walker 2008). Sizeable frontal mounds or mound
complexes flanked a central canal, low ridges and water courts constituted the village's center,
and tall sand burial mounds occupied the rear. The appearance of Glades Tooled pottery is one of
the few artifactual markers of this period. By the close of Caloosahatchee IV, the powerful
Calusa complex chiefdom had emerged.

The Calusa feature prominently in early historic period (Caloosahatchee V, A.D. 1500-
1763) European accounts of south Florida. These sources (e.g., Fontaneda 1945; Solis de Meris
1964; Zubillaga 1946) depict the Calusa as a "sedentary, politically powerful, centralized,
stratified, tributary fishing-gathering-hunting society" (Marquardt 1988:161) of approximately
20,000 people (Worth 1995:351). Calusa society was divided into two rigid classes: elite and
commoner. The elite included the paramount chief, captain general, high priest, subsidiary
caciques (town chiefs), and "principal Indians," a group that included the chiefs family and
occupational specialists such as soldiers, priests, healers, woodworkers, navigators, and painters.
Elites were not expected to procure their own food, and enjoyed access to elite-only foods and
rituals. The paramount chief was the supreme leader, functioning simultaneously as the head of
state, commander of the military, and religious leader. His inherited authority mediated between
the natural and supernatural worlds and was symbolized physically through special ornaments
and a raised dais. The paramount had the power of life and death over captives and even
subordinate caciques, and his death was accompanied by the sacrifice of family members and
retainers (Marquardt 1988, 2001, 2004). He controlled over 38 towns and caciques from his
capitol at Mound Key (Worth 1995), creating alliances through intermarriage (Goggin and
Sturtevant 1964), extracting tribute from subject towns, and ensuring loyalty with a formidable
standing military force (Marquardt 1988, 2001).











Archaeologically, Caloosahatchee V is identified by the presence of European-derived
artifacts. Historic records and the presence of such artifacts suggest that Calusa people occupied
Pineland until approximately A.D. 1710. Artifacts from this period have been recovered from the
surface of Brown's Mound Complex, the summit of Randell Complex Mound 1, and from Smith
Mound. Pineland's native name was Tampa, and Charlotte Harbor/ Pine Island Sound was
known as the Bay of Tampa. Later cartographers erroneously applied the name to Tocobaga Bay
to the north. Tampa was an important Calusa town, possibly second only to the capital, located at
Mound Key in Estero Bay (Worth 2008).


The Pineland Site Complex

The Pineland Site is both large and complex, and has been greatly modified by post-
Calusa land alterations. It includes several large and many smaller mounds, as well as a host of
low ridges and water-filled depressions. Many archaeologists have taken an interest in the site
over the years, and no fewer than eight site numbers in the Florida Master Site File have been
applied to the site. Extensive work by Marquardt, Walker, Torrence, Luer, and others has done
much to reconstruct the pre-modem appearance of this site. Parts of the Pineland Site Complex
have been listed in the National Register of Historic Places since 1972. In 1996, an updated
nomination with revised boundaries was accepted. This new archaeological district bears the
state site file number 8LL1902 (Marquardt and Walker 2008).

Like the other major Calusa towns mentioned above, Pineland includes frontal mounds, a
central canal, internal ridges and courts, and rear burial mounds (Figure 2). Recent research by
Walker and others (2005), using previously unpublished notes and maps made by Frank
Hamilton Cushing in the 1890s, has greatly improved our understanding of Pineland's frontal
mounds. These mounds (traditionally referred to as site number 8LL33) are the most massive in
the complex and were likely the town's focal point. Once conceptualized as two single mounds,
it is now clear that a pair of mound complexes formed the waterfront gateway to this important
site during Calusa times. The southern Randell Mound Complex (named after late twentieth
century Pineland owners Donald and Patricia Randell) included three or four mounds, two of
which exceeded seven meters in height, and two or more water courts.

The northern Brown's Mound Complex (named after ca. 1850-1870 Pineland owner
Henry Brown) included six mounds and two courts. In Cushing's time, Brown's Mound itself
(BCM1) was approximately 10 m tall, making it the tallest feature at Pineland and one of the
highest mounds in the Caloosahatchee Region. Walker and her associates (2005) speculate that
this was the ruler's mound, raising the house of the cacique high above his common neighbors.

The surrounding mounds (BCM2, 3, and 4) were each about 6 m tall. BCM 3 and 4 were
likely leveled (displaced horizontally) during the twentieth century to make them more suitable
for the construction of modem houses. Two additional mounds (BCM5 and 6) were low and flat.
Brown's Complex Mounds 3 and 4 are prominently positioned within the Pineland Site
Complex. They are adjacent to the waterfront, the site's tallest mound, and the mouth of the
central canal. The canal represents the main entrance to the site, as well as the western end of the
Pine Island Canal. The latter was likely a major transportation and communication artery, and the
occupants of BCM 2, 3, and/or 4 may have been involved in regulating access to it.











Prior to the project reported here, very little archaeological investigation had taken place
at any of Pineland's smaller frontal mounds. A trench and two controlled excavations (Operation
D) were excavated within Brown's Complex Court 1, and controlled excavations were
undertaken in BCM1 (Operations B and E), BCM2 (Operation I), between those mounds
(Operation C), and atop Randell Complex Mound 1 (Operation A). The results of these
investigations are reported in the forthcoming Pineland monograph (Walker and Marquardt
2008). Preliminary results from Operation I include the presence of numerous large post molds,
indicating the presence of one or more large structures on BCM2.

FIELD METHODS

Initial Surface Collection

Prior to the Randell Research Center's involvement, several earthmoving activities were
undertaken on the Bundschu property. The house that formerly occupied the property was
destroyed by Hurricane Charley on August 13, 2004, having been pushed off of its foundation by
150-mph winds. The house and its foundation were demolished and removed, and in mid-March
2006, the property was mechanically cleared and leveled in preparation for the construction of
the Bundschu home. The demolition and leveling activities resulted in three large spoil piles
being placed along the eastern property boundary. The remainder of the property's surface
consisted of exposed, largely intact archaeological deposits. Approximately 32 concrete pilings
were driven into the property in eight locations by a large pile driver.

Following these initial construction activities, the author, Randell Research Center (RRC)
staff members John Worth, Jennifer Jennings, and David Hurst, and RRC volunteer Denege
Patterson inspected the project site and collected cultural materials. Collections were made on
March 15t and 25 2006. During the second site visit, exposed artifacts were collected on a
horizontal grid system that had been laid out using a metric measuring tape for distances and the
marked property boundaries for direction. The property is rectangular (with a truncated northeast
corner), measuring about 60 m east-west and 20 m north-south (Figure 3). It is not aligned along
a true east-west axis (it is closer to northeast-southwest), but was treated as such during the
fieldwork described here for ease of description. The collection grid was laid out using the
southeast corner of the property (where it meets RRC-managed property) as a horizontal datum
point. Artifact locations were recorded in terms of meters west and north of this datum point.
Prior to commencement of the monitoring program described below, square pits, measuring
approximately two meters on a side and one meter deep each, were excavated at four of the
piling locations.

Construction Monitoring

Between April 2nd and April 7*, 2006, Falcon Construction excavated a series of trenches
and pits on the property using a small Bobcat backhoe and hand tools. The trenches outlined the
footprint of the house, which measured 26 by 15 m, and included a number of contiguous cross
trenches (Figures 4 and 5). Each trench was approximately one meter wide, and depths ranged
from 0.6 m to 1.2 m. Eight large pits (including the four mentioned above), measuring
approximately two meters square and one meter deep, were excavated at regular intervals within
the house's footprint, corresponding to the locations of the cement pilings. Eight additional pits
were excavated at intervals within the northern and southern exterior trenches. These were











typically deeper and wider than the trench itself, but smaller than the eight interior pits.
Eventually, steel reinforcing bar frames were built within the pits and trenches and encased in
poured concrete, forming the house's foundation.

With the assistance of experienced RRC volunteers, the author observed the excavation,
documented the exposed archaeological strata, and collected artifacts and other materials (Figure
6). Volunteers included Denege Patterson, David Hurst, Gloria Andrews, Andy Andrews, Jim
Cherfoli, Bill Pretsch, Norma Pretsch, Duncan McTaggart, and Shirley McTaggart. Due to time
constraints and an interest in limiting impacts to the archaeological deposits, no excavations were
undertaken by the archaeological team.

Archaeological materials were collected throughout the excavation process, and every
effort was made to record the horizontal provenience (point of origin) of each item as it was
recovered. In some cases vertical provenience was recorded as well, although this was usually
not possible. Each of the 11 footer trenches was given a field designation (e.g., East trench) and
the 16 rectangular pits that were excavated for the house's cement pilings were numbered (Pit 1
through 16). Spoil piles were created adjacent to the trenches and pits during the excavation
process. Twenty piles were observed, and each was given a letter designation (A through T).
Where possible, the origin of each pile was noted on the field map (Table 1). These piles were
often built in multiple episodes and subsequently flattened and moved by the excavators,
resulting in a mixing of proveniences. Given the short reach of the backhoe, it can be stated with
greater confidence that the materials found in these piles originated within the nearest quadrant
of the house footprint. Volunteers spent a considerable amount of time searching through these
piles for artifacts, carefully picking through them with the aid of shovels and rakes. Artifacts
were bagged by provenience and date.



Table 1. Spoil Piles Origins and Quadrants.


Pile Origin Quadrant
B East trench, center NE
C Mideast trench, north end NE
D Mideast trench, center NE
E South Cross trench SE
F Southeast corer (East, South, Mideast, and SE
North Cross trenches)
G North Cross trench SE
H Pits 4 and 6 S
I South trench, Pit 9 SE
J North Cross trench NE
K Pit 10 SE
L Pits 5 and 7 NW
N Pit 16, South trench, west end SW
O North trench NW
P West and Midwest trenches SW
S Far West trench W






























-u1 II
lundsch I i |
propertyy i---- -

- -..--T- ----i.--- -
7 7
II I I
I i b
I, N -


Figure 3. The Bundschu Property. Property boundaries are superimposed on Randell Research Center master planning map.
The rectangle in the center of the highlighted property represents a previous house, not the larger structure built by the
Bundschus.















I Property Line





Retaining Wall




I












E
I (


Property Une




SE

:rossTrench

9




J 10


South Trench

14




16

zI
sw





0 2.5 5mI


N,
Project N


Figure 4. The Bundschu home foundation.


I _





































Figure 5. Project overview, view to southwest.


Figure 6. Volunteer Gloria Andrews collects artifacts while a worker excavates Pit
5; view to west.











Profile Drawings


During the course of the observed construction, eleven trench segments and sixteen pits
were excavated. The rectilinear nature of the trenches and their impressive resistance to collapse
made them quite amenable to the preparation ofstratigraphic profile drawings. Profile drawings
were made for four trenches and three pits, selected based on integrity (i.e. they had not
collapsed) and size (favoring the longest and deepest). Approximately 65 m of trench were
profiled over the course of seven days by the author, occasionally with the assistance of a
volunteer. These profiles depict major stratigraphic features and large, in situ artifacts. Due to
time constraints, the large number of exposed surfaces, and the characteristically complex nature
of mounded shell midden deposits, recording the general pattern of the deposits was favored over
capturing the smaller details (e.g., banding and changes in shell density) that were evident within
the large strata.

A professional surveyor was hired by the Bundschus to create a local benchmark and
determine its elevation relative to the United States Geological Survey benchmark atop nearby
Brown's Mound (BCM1) using a laser transit. Vertical control for each profile was established
using a laser level, with measured elevations expressed as feet above the National Geodetic
Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD). An NGVD measurement of zero is equivalent to 0.15 m (0.49
ft) below Mean Sea Level (MSL). The Pineland Datum has been used to standardize vertical
measurements in archaeological research at the Pineland Site Complex since the 1980s.
Elevations within the complex are conventionally expressed in terms of meters below the
Pineland Datum, an imaginary control point that exists above the highest local elevation (i.e. the
summit of Brown's Mound). The Pineland Datum is 9.64 m (31.63 ft) above MSL, while a
NGVD measurement of zero is 9.79 m (32.12 ft) below the Pineland Datum (John Worth
personal communication 2006). Measured surface elevations ranged from 2.19 to 3.05 m above
NGVD, which is equivalent to 2.34 to 3.20 m above MSL, or 7.30 to 6.44 m below the Pineland
Datum. This is equivalent to Levels 64-73 in the Pineland Elevation System.

Radiocarbon Samples

Eight radiocarbon samples were taken during the course of the salvage project. Each
consists of a large, unmodified marine shell that was taken directly from an exposed stratigraphic
profile. The sample locations were included in the profile drawings, providing a three
dimensional provenience and stratigraphic association for each.

Bulk Samples

Due to time constraints and the depth (typically around one meter) of the exposed
profiles, bulk midden samples were taken in lieu of traditional column samples. The purpose of
these samples is to allow future quantification of midden constituents, including animal, plant,
and artifactual remains. Each 5-liter sample was taken directly from a freshly cleaned profile and
its location was indicated on the corresponding profile drawing. The samples were extracted
from the centers of clearly defined midden strata and were intended to serve as representative
samples of those strata. A total of 15 bulk samples were taken: four from the South trench, four
from the North trench, two from the East trench, four from Pit 2, and one from Pit 4.











Photographic Documentation


The salvage project included extensive photographic documentation. A total of 254
digital photographs were taken using an automatic Canon PowerShot digital camera.
Photographs include project overviews, images of construction and archaeological personnel at
work, and images of select artifacts and ecofacts. Additionally, all exposed stratigraphic profiles
were documented using a series of overlapping photographs, with a vertical scale and signboard.
These images were intended to serve as a supplement to or substitute for profile drawings where
time did not permit more complete documentation.

Off-site Backdirt Screening

Several truckloads of midden materials were removed from the Bundschu property
following the work described above. After being deposited at the Randell Research Center
headquarters (7450 Pineland Road), RRC staff members and volunteers began screening these
materials and recovering additional artifacts. This process and its results will be described in a
subsequent report.


RESULTS

Stratigraphy

As is typical of shell midden sites, particularly where long-term occupation and mound
building events have taken place, the stratigraphy of BCM4 is extremely complex. The
uppermost continuous stratum is heavily disturbed (Figure 7), likely as a result of the
construction and demolition of the house that formerly occupied this location. A layer of light
brown sand covers the northwest third of the property, probably representing fill soil that was
imported for leveling purposes (Figure 8). Intact soils indicate that the original surface of the
mound sloped steeply down both to the southwest (towards Pine Island Sound) and northwest
(towards Brown's Complex Court 1). The former slope is evident southwest of Pits 13 and 14,
and the latter slope is noticeable in Pits 1 and 3 (and at the intersection of the East and North
Cross trenches), suggesting that these pits are located near the edges of a gently sloping mound
top (see Figure 3).

On a gross level, the mound's intact, native stratification is made up of alternating light
and dark-colored strata (Figure 9). The light strata consist largely of marine shellfish, particularly
medium-sized gastropods, but also include animal bone, charcoal, and fine sand. The shells
found in the light strata are bleached white in some cases and retain their original color in other
locales. The dark strata contain far fewer shells and are visually dominated by dark gray or
brown sand. The latter strata appear to contain the bulk of the larger artifacts, including whole
tools. Both light and dark layers tend to be thick and irregularly shaped, but when a viewing a
long exposure (e.g., Figure 8), one gets the impression that lenses of light shell were deposited
on a contiguous matrix of dark midden, rather than the reverse. Three particularly closely spaced
shell lenses were exposed in Pit 2 (Figures 7 and 9) and the Mideast trench. It is possible that the
dark layers represent primary midden deposition, including occupational surfaces and debris that











accumulated upon them, and that the light strata represent mound-building episodes. If so, at
least three mound-building episodes are evident in the exposed strata.

Other strata include thin layers of oyster shell, much of it crushed and some of it burned.
These were observed in Pit 3, the North trench between Pits 12 and 13, and the South trench west
of Pit 14. These may represent the remains of oyster consumption episodes, possibly seasonal
events. Their thin and level shape suggests another possibility, however: prepared surfaces. An
oyster shell surface would be more even than one made up of bulky gastropod shells, and would
provide more stability during the rainy season than a surface made of soil.

Layers that contain evidence of burning events, including ash and/or burned shell, were
observed in Pits 11, 1, 9, 12, and 4, and at the intersection of the East and North Cross trenches.
The burned lens observed in Pit 9 (Figure 8) was particularly thick and appeared to be especially
heavily burned. These strata may represent in-situ burning or materials removed from hearths
that were located elsewhere.

Approximately seven post molds were visible in the profiles of Pits 2, 9, and 10, all in the
southeast corer of the foundation (Figures 7 and 8). Given the presence of dozens of post molds
in the excavation of BCM2 (Operation I), it is not surprising to find evidence of one or more
structures in the upper, flatter portion of BCM4. Since these were observed in profile and not in
plan view, the shape and dimensions of these structures cannot be estimated.








SE


Legend:



U~


Disturbed: Dark gray sand, broken shell & concrete.

Dense Shell: Many whole shells (lightning whelk, pear whelk,tulip, & crown conch), bone & charcoal,with
fine gray sand and aragonite crystals.

Dark Sand: Very dark grayish brown sand with few small tulip and lightning whelk shells bones, and
broken pen shell.

S Bulk Sample Location Radiocarbon Sample Location


BGP Belle Glade Plain sherd Q Quahog anvil

N Ark Shell Net Weight 0 so50
Vertical Scale shown in m above NGVD 1929


Figure 7. Pit 2, stratigraphic profile.


















Match
Line A

100


2 00
om



March
In B
310-


z ufc0'


1501


Pit 10


Legend: Fill Sand: Light brown sand; Imported fill.


SDisturbed: Dark gray sand.broken shell
concrete.

Dense Shell: Many whole shells (espedally
lightning whelkand tulip),bone & charcoal,with
fine.dark gray sand and crushed oyster.
Dark Sand 1: Very dark grayish brown sand with
aragonte crystals & whole and crushed shell,
occasionally In layers
Crushed Shell: Crushed oyster shell with few
additional whole shells.

Dark Sand 2: Brown to black silty sand with
many bones and few shells.

Burned Shell and Ash: Heavily burned shell
in white.grayor orange-gray ash.


Figure 8. South trench, north profile.


/ Bulk Sample Location

() Radiocarbon SampleLocation

BGP Belle Glade Plain sherd

STP Sand-tempered Plain sherd

H Shell Hammer

P Bone Point

A Type A Shell Tool



0 i nm
Vertical Scale shown in m above NGVD 1929


Match
ine A

3M!


Match
LneB

3.00


r--- I-


2.00



ISO-






























i" "^ ^X




Figure 9. Pit 2, south and west profiles, view toward south.


Artifacts

Seven hundred forty-seven artifacts were recovered from the Bundschu property during
the field phase of the monitoring and salvage project from 63 proveniences. Over 63 percent
(n=475) of the artifacts were recovered during the monitoring process and could be assigned to
the trench or pit from which they originated. About 23 percent (n=171) came from on-site spoil
piles, to which a more general provenience can be attributed. Most of these proveniences can be
assigned to a particular quadrant of the house foundation (Figure 3), simplifying a discussion of
horizontal artifact distribution patterns. The remaining artifacts (n=101, 13.5%) were collected
from the property's surface during the early phases of construction; one quarter of these came
from mapped locations.

These artifacts were hastily recovered from large and disorderly midden piles and
exposed stratigraphic profiles without the aid of screens. As a result, this collection is likely
biased in terms of size and material. Large artifacts and those that stand out from a background
of shell, bone, and soil due to their color or shape (e.g., ceramic and stone objects) were more
likely to be collected than small shell and bone artifacts. Greater numbers of small and less
visually distinct artifacts were likely recovered by the off-site screening phase of the project.
expse statgrahi prfies itoutth ad o srees.As rsul, hiscoletio slkl

biaed n trmsof izeandmatria. Lrgeartfacs ad tosetha stnd ut roma bckgoun









Pottery


Pottery constituted the most numerous class of artifacts, including 579 sherds. Ceramic
artifacts were not sorted by type in the field, but several general observations can be made. As is
the case in most post-Archaic period deposits in the Caloosahatchee area, plain sherds dominate
the assemblage, including both sand-tempered and Belle Glade varieties. Other types that were
provisionally identified include St. Johns Check Stamped, Safety Harbor Incised (Figure 10a),
Little Manatee Zoned Stamped (Figure 10b), Weeden Island (or Papys Bayou) Punctated, and a
second incised ware, possibly Pinellas (Figure 10c). Significantly, no Glades Tooled pottery was
recovered. The presence of these pottery types suggests that the deposit primarily dates to the
Caloosahatchee II period (A.D. 1200-1350), possibly continuing into Caloosahatchee IV (A.D.
1350-1500).


Figure lOa. Safety Harbor Incised.


U


Figure lOb. Little Manatee Zoned Stamped.


Figure lOc. Pinellas Incised.

Shell artifacts
Shell artifacts were also quite common within the BCM4 deposits and 155 examples
were recovered during the field phase of the project (Table 2). The assemblage is typical of those
found within the Caloosahatchee area during later prehistory (Marquardt 1992). Artifacts made
from lightning whelk (Busycon sinistrum) shells dominate the collection. Other utilized species
include ponderous ark (Noetia ponderosa), horse conch (Pleuroploca gigantea), southern quahog


0











(Mercenaria campechensis), surf clam (Spisula solidissima), olive shell (Oliva sayana), and
Atlantic giant-cockle (Dinocardium robustum).

A wide variety of artifact types is present. Artifacts associated with hammering activities,
including lightning whelk and horse conch hammers and quahog anvils, are especially common.
These may have been used for food processing. Much of the use life of the shell hammer is
represented here, including unfinished (also known as "notched gastropod shell handles"), lightly
used (Type D), heavily used (Type C), and exhausted (Type F) examples, along with seven
hammer bits. The production and use of fishnets is indicated by the presence of ponderous ark
shell net weights and a small gauge net-mesh gauge (Figure 1 la) made from the outer whorl of a
lightning whelk. At least twelve cutting-edged tools (Types A and B) were recovered, made from
lightning whelk and horse conch shell, indicating woodworking activities. Three artifacts may
have been used as items of personal adornment, although alternate uses as fishing weights have
been suggested by Marquardt (1992), Walker (2000), and others. These include a perforated
olive shell bead, a perforated cockle (perhaps an ornament or a rattle), and an exquisitely made
lightning whelk plummet (Figure 1 lb). The remaining artifacts were likely used in a number of
everyday tasks, including food gathering, processing, and serving.


Table 2. Shell Artifact Counts


Artifact type Count
Net weight 38
Net Mesh Gauge 1
Quahog anvil 11
Hammer 38
Cutting-edged Tool 12
Hammer or Cutting-edged Tool 8
Dipper/Vessel 13
Clam knife 3
Clam scraper 1
Plummet 1
Perforated cockle 1
Perforated olive shell (bead?) 1
Modified shells 27
TOTAL 155


















U-





a. b.

Figure 11. (a) Lightning whelk net-mesh gauge and (b) plummet from BCM4.
Scales are in centimeters.

Bone artifacts
Four bone artifacts were recovered, including fragments of either bone pins or points. In
the Caloosahatchee area, these items were typically made from the lower leg bones (metapodials)
of white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). They were likely first shaped into long, decorated
pins and recycled into shorter bone points as they broke through use. Pins may have been used to
affix hair ornaments, while points were likely used in a number of different ways, including as
projectile points, fish hooks/gorges, and for sewing and basket weaving (Walker 1992).

Stone artifacts

Nine stones were found on the Bundschu property. All were probably brought to this
location from elsewhere, as hard stone is uncommon in south Florida and this landform is
entirely manmade. These included several small sandstone fragments that may have been used to
grind the edges of shell tools. A single hammerstone was recovered that appeared to have been
made from fossilized bone. Similar examples, made from fossil dugong rib segments, have been
found throughout Florida. The presence of a hammerstone may imply that stone working took
place at BCM4, but it is equally plausible that this tool was used in shell tool manufacturing or
for another use. If flintknapping did take place in this area, flaked stone should be present in the
off-site screened materials or bulk midden samples.











The most interesting artifact recovered during this salvage project was a large,
intentionally shaped sandstone slab, remarkable for its complete condition and uniqueness within
the region (Figure 12). It was found during the backhoe excavation of the western end of the
South trench, near the front end of BCM4. The artifact appeared to have come from the lower
portion of the trench. Oval in outline and concave in cross-section, its approximate
measurements are 24 cm long, 18 cm wide, and 7 cm thick. It appears to have been shaped by
pecking and grinding, and based on surface texture, only the concave surface appears to have
been used. A smaller (8 x 10 x 1 cm) limestone slab (Figure 13) was recovered east end of the
South trench. Although broken, its two intact sides indicate that it was originally rectilinear in
outline.

These slabs are similar in form to the stone metates that were used for pulverizing plants
(particularly grains), animals, and minerals in the southwestern United States and much of Latin
America. They were likely used in conjunction with a mano, or hand stone. The surface of the
larger stone was not cleaned, and may retain residues from the substances that were ground upon
it. Future analysis may reveal the nature of these residues, if present.

Grinding stones are uncommon in south Florida, and rarely found in coastal sites. Willey
(1949:35) reported five thin, bifacially ground specimens made from coquina limestone from the
Belle Glade site (8PB40). Small examples were roughly rectangular and measured 7 by 4 cm on
average, while a larger, fragmentary example measured 21 by 15 cm and was markedly concave.
A sixth, thicker specimen was rectangular and broken, measured 17 by 13.5 by 3 cm, and was
also ground on both sides. Thirty-five grinding stones were found at the Fort Center site
(8GL13), all apparently made from limestone and exhibiting little intentional shaping. The
largest example, a concave slab, measured 20 by 20 cm. While the small stones may have been
used to sharpen shell and bone tools, the large slab was thought to have been used for grinding
vegetable products (Steinen 1982:82).

The Whittaker Site, located on Sarasota Bay and possibly contemporary with BCM4,
yielded a "grindstone of sandy limestone" (Bullen 1953:24-26). The artifact was irregular in
outline, concave in cross-section, and measured about 14 cm on a side and 3 cm thick. Goggin
(n.d.:516) notes additional thin examples from Horr's Island 4 and Snapper Creek Midden.

Only one example has been reported from the Caloosahatchee area. Torrence (1999:63)
recovered a fragmentary sandstone specimen from Middle Archaic period deposits on Useppa
Island (8LL51). Believed to be oval or circular in outline and bowl-shaped in cross-section when
complete, it measured 13 by 16 cm and ranged from 1.2 to 4 cm in thickness.

Based on the above evidence, the large grinding slab found on the Bundschu property is
the largest known example of this artifact type, as well as the only complete ovoid example. It is
also the only post-Archaic example that has been reported from the Caloosahatchee area. The
smaller artifact appears to be quite similar to the thin grinding stones found at the Belle Glade
site, both in form and dimensions.

Given their greater abundance in the Belle Glade area (that is, the Okeechobee Basin) and
the historic period production and export of bread made from a root-based flour that took place










in that region (Fontaneda 1945:27; Laudonniere 1975), it is possible that large grinding slabs
were used to process this root or other food plants. Ethnographic analogy (from California, the
Southwest, and Mexico) provides further support the use of large grinding stones in the
processing of plant foods. Thus it is likely that the two stones found at BCM4 were used to grind
plants into meal. Another potential use is the grinding of the edges of shell tools, although
smaller, hand-held tools would have been capable of performing this function as well.


T Figure 12. Side and top views of
SIlarge sandstone grinding stone.
Scales in centimeters.


CI I I I I































Figure 13. Small grinding stone from BCM4. Scale is in centimeters.


Historic period artifacts

At least 14 artifacts of European or Euro-American manufacture were recovered from the
Bundschu property, particularly from the eastern end of the house foundation. Three sherds of
dark green ("black") bottle glass were recovered from the northeast corer (Pit 1 and Pile J).
Glass of this color was commonly used until the 1860s. Fragments of aqua and "amethyst" glass,
associated with the late nineteenth/early twentieth century, were also recovered. The latter color
occurs when clear glass from that period, which contains nickel or manganese, is exposed to
sunlight. These artifacts post-date the Calusa occupation of Pineland, dating to either the Cuban
Rancho/Seminole period (1763-1880) or the Early American Development period (1850-present)
(Marquardt 1999:4). The Pineland area was populated, although sparsely, throughout much of
this period. Additional glass and ceramic artifacts found at BCM4 likely date to the twentieth
century, a time when visitors and residents of Pineland increased substantially (Marquardt and
Walker 2008).

Artifact distribution

Artifact collection was not systematic in terms of the amount of time and effort spent on
each area. The excavation proceeded from east to west, so the eastern trenches and pits and their
associated spoil piles were available for study for several days, while those on the west were
only examined briefly. The fact that over half of the recovered artifacts (51.5%) were found in
the northeast, east, or southeast portion of the foundation (Table 3) is partly explained by this
fact. The richness of this area is likely also attributable to the fact that the southeast corer











represented the highest and most level portion of the property in prehistoric times. The summit of
BCM4 is a far more likely location for structures and outdoor activity areas than are its sloping
sides. The post molds found in Pits 2, 9, and 10 corroborate this assertion.

Several artifact classes were particularly common in the southeastern portion of the
foundation. All four bone points/pins came from the southeast quadrant. Twenty-six hammers
and anvils were recovered from the southeast, east, and northeast quadrants, representing 74.3
percent of the provenienced hammering artifacts. Twenty-one net weights and the only recovered
net mesh gauge, or 60 percent of the provenienced net-related items, were found in the southeast
and south quadrants. Finally, all of the provenienced historic or modem materials were found in
the southeast and northeast quadrants.

Table 3. Artifact Counts and Percentages by Quadrant


Artifact
Quadrant Count Percentage
NE 109 14.6
E 54 7.2
SE 222 29.7
S 110 14.7
SW 50 5.7
W 15 2.0
NW 29 3.9
N 57 7.6
General Provenlence 101 13.5
Total 747 100.0


CONCLUSIONS

The archaeological deposits associated with Brown's Complex Mound 4 have the
potential to address many important research questions, including basic issues of mound age and
function. BCM4 was prime real estate in Caloosahatchee m and IV times, when Pineland neared
the height of its prominence in the region. With direct access to both Pine Island Sound and the
Pine Island Canal, a canoe launched from BCM4 could rapidly travel to any part of the coastal
Caloosahatchee realm. The front faces of the Randell and Brown's complexes were important
waterfront property at Pineland, likely kept free of mangroves and other vegetation so that
canoes could easily be hauled out of the sound and nets and other fishing gear could be dried and
maintained.

Located on high ground adjacent to the house of the ruler of Tampa, the second largest
Calusa town, this property likely carried with it connotations of elite status as well. It is easy to
imagine that one or more families of principal Indians, a group about which little is known, lived
and worked on BCM4.











The artifacts recovered from BCM4 are primarily domestic in character, and support the
hypotheses that people lived and maintained their fishing gear on the mound. Food procurement
is suggested by the presence of net weights and bone points. Food preparation, storage, and
consumption is evidenced by the presence of hammers, anvils, grinding stones, pottery, and shell
dipper/vessels, not to mention the ubiquitous animal bone and wood charcoal. Equipment
maintenance and craft production are indicated by the presence of unfinished shell tools and
purposely modified shells and a net mesh gauge, as well as shell woodworking tools. The post
molds found in the southeast quadrant of the foundation indicate the presence of structures.
These may have belonged to one or more houses, outbuildings, or drying racks.

Several potentially valued artifacts were recovered, including non-local pottery and shells
that may have been used as jewelry. While these items were not found in sufficient numbers to
unequivocally indicate the presence of elites, it is possible that the off-site screening process will
recover greater quantities of small valuables such as shell beads. This assemblage may prove to
be a valuable data set for the examination of the categories of elite and non-elite by future
archaeologists.

The destruction of any part of BCM4 represents an enormous loss to science. The salvage
project that was conducted in March and April of 2006 represents an attempt to recover
information and artifacts from a badly damaged archaeological resource. Although several
preliminary interpretations can be offered, time, personnel, and budget constraints limited our
ability to address many important research questions. Much of the gathered data has not been
thoroughly analyzed, and it is hoped that future researchers will use these materials and
information to address such questions.

Future research should include the analysis of the cultural materials recovered from this
salvage project and the off-site spoil pile screening. The quantification of the animal and plant
remains and small artifacts found in the bulk samples should be a priority, as this will permit the
estimation of artifact and ecofact volumes and densities for each of the sampled strata. Multiple
radiocarbon dates should be obtained in order to securely place the deposits within the regional
temporal framework. Residue analysis should be conducted on the large sandstone grinding
surface, allowing us to better understand this little-known artifact type. These data should be
used to address important research questions, including those presented above.


REFERENCES CITED


Austin, R J. and R.W. Estabrook
2000 Chert Distribution and Exploitation in Peninsular Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 52(2-3):117-130.

Bullen, Ripley
1953 Tests at the Whittaker Site, Sarasota, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 3(1-
2):21-30.











Fontaneda, H. d'Escalante
1945 Memoir of Do. d'Escalante Fontaneda Respecting Florida Written in Spain,
about the year 1575. Translated by B. Smith. Glades House, Coral Gables,
Florida.

Goggin, J. M.
n.d. The Archaeology of the Glades Area, Southern Florida. Unpublished ms. on file,
Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville.

Goggin, J. M. and W. C. Sturtevant
1964 The Calusa: A Stratified, Nonagricultural Society (With Notes on Sibling
Marriage). In Explorations in Cultural Anthropology: Essays in Honor of George
Peter Murdock, edited by W. H. Goodenough, pp. 179-220. McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York.

Laudonniere, R. de
1975 Three Voyages. Translated by C.E. Bennett. University Presses of Florida,
Gainesville.

Luer, G.
1989 Calusa Canals in Southwestern Florida: Routes of Tribute and Exchange. The
Florida Anthropologist 42(2):89-130.

Marquardt, W. H.
1988 Politics and Production among the Calusa of South Florida. In Hunters and
Gatherers. Volume 1: History, Evolution, and Social Change in Hunting and
Gathering Societies, edited by T. Ingold, D. Riches, and J. Woodbum, pp. 161-
188. Berg Publishers, London.

1992 Shell Artifacts from the Caloosahatchee Area. In Culture and Environment in the
Domain of the Calusa, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 191-228. Institute of
Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1. University of
Florida, Gainesville.

1999 An Introduction to Useppa Island. In The Archaeology of Useppa Island, edited
by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 1-22. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental
Studies, Monograph 3. University of Florida, Gainesville.

2001 The Emergence and Demise of the Calusa. In Societies in Eclipse: Archaeology of
the Eastern Woodlands Indians, A. D. 1400-1700, edited by D. Brose, C. W.
Cowan, and R. Mainfort, pp. 157-171. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington,
D.C.

2004 Calusa. In Handbook ofNorth American Indians, Volume 14: Southeast, edited
by R D. Fogelson, pp. 204-212. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.











Marquardt, W. H. and K. J. Walker
2008 An Introduction to the Pineland Site Complex and its Environmental and Cultural
Contexts. In The Archaeology ofPineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site
Complex, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt. Institute of Archaeology
and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida,
Gainesville. In preparation.

Patton, R. B.
2001 Spatial Structure and Process ofNonagricultural Production: Settlement Patterns
and Political Development in Precolumbian Southwest Florida. Ph.D.
dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Russo, M.
1991 Archaic Sedentism on the Florida Coast: A Case Study from Horr's Island. Ph.D.
dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Solis de Merbs, G.
1964 Pedro Mendndez de Avilds: A Memorial. Translated by J.T. Connor. University
Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

Steinen, K. T.
1982 Other Nonceramic Artifacts. In Fort Center, by W. H. Sears, pp. 68-110.
University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

Torrence, C. McP.
1999 The Archaic Period on Useppa Island: Excavations on Calusa Ridge. In The
Archaeology of Useppa Island, edited by W.H. Marquardt, pp. 23-76. Institute of
Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 3. University of
Florida, Gainesville.

Walker, K. J.
1992 Bone Artifacts from Josslyn Island, Buck Key Shell Midden, and Cash Mound: A
Preliminary Assessment for the Caloosahatchee Area. In Culture and
Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 229-
246. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1.
University of Florida, Gainesville.

2000 The Material Culture of Precolumbian Fishing: Artifacts and Fish Remains from
Coastal Southwest Florida. Southeastern Archaeology 19:24-45.

Walker, K. J. and W. H. Marquardt (editors).
2008 The Archaeology ofPineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex.
Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4.
University of Florida, Gainesville. In preparation.











Walker, K. J., W. H. Marquardt, M.R. Clark, J. LoCastro, D. A. MacMahon, and J. E. Worth
2005 Modeling and Presenting-Sixteenth Century Pineland. Paper presented at the
Florida Anthropological Society Annual Meeting, Gainesville, Florida.


Widmer, R. J.
1988


Willey, G. R.
1949


Worth, J. E.
1995


The Evolution of the Calusa, a Non-Agricultural Chiefdom on the Southwest
Florida Coast. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.


Excavations in Southeast Florida. Yale University Publications in Anthropology
12. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.


Fontaneda Revisited: Five Descriptions of Sixteenth-Century Florida. Florida
Historical Quarterly 73(3):339-352


2008 Pineland during the Spanish Period. In The Archaeology ofPineland: A Coastal
Southwest Florida Site Complex, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt.
Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4.
University of Florida, Gainesville. In preparation.

Zubillaga, F., ed.
1946 Monumenta Antiquae Floridae (1566-1572). Monumenta Missionum Societatis
lesu, vol. 69, no. 3. Rome.





















Appendix A: Artifact inventory













Appendix A. Artifact Inventory


Table A.. Lightnin Whelk and Horse Conch Artifacts



E E






General 1 3 3 3 1 2 1 14
Surface (maed) 2 1 2 1 6
Pile B 1 1
PileC 1 1 2
Pile E -1 1
Pile F 1 1 1 3
Pile G 1 1 2
Pile H 1 1 2
Pile l 3 1 1 5
PileK 1 1 I 3
Pile L 1 1 2 4
PileN 1 1
Pile O_ 1 1
PileP I__
Pit 2 1 1 1 3
Pit3 1 1 2
Pit4 1 1
Pit5 1 1 2
Pit 8 1 1
Pit 9 1 1
Pit 1 14 6
Pit 12 1 1 2
Pit 13 1 3 4
North Trench 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 11
East trench 1 2 3 6
Mideast Trench 1 2 3
Cross Trench S. 1 1
Cross Trench N. 1 1
South Trench 2 1 2 1 3 9
Far West Trench 1 1
TOTAL 13 15 1 7 7 8 7 9 1 2 1 1 1 8 19 100
'CET-cutting-edged tool
Table A.2. Other Prehistoric Artifacts















s as A



Provenience & 1 ~ Total
General 59 3 1 63
Surface (mapped) 17 1 18
Pile B 3 3
Pile C 2 1 3
Pile D 1 2 3
Pile E 6 1 7
Pile F 12 1 1 14
Pile G 7 7
Pile H 19 1 20
Pile I 37 1 1 39
Pile J 6 1 7
Pile K 8 1 1 1 11
Pile L 2 1 3
Pile N 18 2 20
Pile O 4 1 5
Pile P 2 1 3
Pit 1 17 3 1 21
Pit 2 36 3 7 46
Pit 3 25 25
Pit 4 14 14
Pit5 2 2
Pit 6 7 7
Pit 9 2 2
Pit 10 15 1 1 17
Pit 11 17 1 18
Pit 13 6 2 8
Pit 14 14 14
Pit16 2 2
North Trench 49 1 1 1 52
East trench 49 1 4 3 57
Mideast Trench 22 22
Cross Trench North 2 1 3
South Trench 82 3 10 1 96
West trench 14 14
Far West Trench 1 1
TOTAL 579 4 9 38 11 3 1 1 1 647












Table A.3. Historic and Modem Artifacts
Provenience Glass Ceramic
General Amethyst Whitewares, Earthenware flower pot, tile and pipe
Pile F Aqua
Pile I Porcelain
Pile J Black
Pit 1 Black
East trench Opalescent





















Appendix B: Profile drawings









Appendix B. Profile Drawings


--~~~~v a --- --'---


S--
/6 /2 Z bo 22 2Y


Figure B.1. Pit 3, North and east profiles.


Pit 3 Strata:

II Burned and crushed shell in layers, interspersed with
whole, unburned shell. Matrix is ashy white/gray sand.

Ill Dense whole, large shell, including lightning whelk, horse
conch, fighting conch, and pear whelk. Matrix is brownish
gray soil and crushed oyster shell.

IV Dark brownish black very find sand with many whole
shells. Belle Glade Plain sherd visible in east profile.

V Same as Stratum III, but with more bone.


VI Same as Stratum IV, but with crushed pen shell and fewer
whole shells.

Pit 3 Key

H Type F lightning whelk hammer

STP Sand-tempered Plain pottery

W White layer (dominated by whole shell)

B Black layer (dominated by midden soil)


6o



60
IGP >- ,


0 2' '1 o .2


a a2
0e 3 f


-..



































Figure B.2. Pit 4, East profile (left) and south profile (right).




Pit 4 Strata

I Fill sand: light brown, yellow, or white sand; imported fill.

II Disturbed: gray to black sand with oyster and other shell.

Ill Black sand with shell.

IV Loose shell with some black sand.

V Loose shell and bone. Shell retains color, very little soil. Bone quite dense in places.

VI Burned shell in gray and black sand.


'M




a,~~~r -'"*- ^








- tL
N6'Jl]^ ~~~^^ _J "
*>.'\'i' *!.f (\l(
nfc~t>







- 9 ;3 2 /


-- ---"- -. --- -' I ,


- ^- S^:^^Q S. ^
.. ... .... ..-
w -


So'-l-
13 r: f


Figure B.3. East trench, east profile.


~F~








East Trench Strata

Disturbed soil: dark gray, black, and yellow sand with crushed and broken shell and plastic fragments.

I Dense shell, including tulips, lightning whelk, and crown conchs with crushed shell in a white, ashy matrix.

II Very dark gray/black fine sand with few shells, including small whole tulips and whelks.

III Same as Stratum II, but with lighter gray sand and crushed shell.

IV Dense whole shells, dominated by small lightning whelks, with bone and charcoal in a white aragonite crystal and light gray sand matrix.

V Black silt with few whole shells, many coated with reddish-brown material.

VI Dense whole shells, including lightning whelk and horse conch, bone, and Sand-tempered Plain sherds in gray sand and aragonite crystal matrix.

VII Dense whole shells, including surf clam, lightning and pear whelks, and tulips, in aragonite and gray sand.

VIII Same as Stratum VI, but with more bone. Sand-tempered Plain and Belle Glade Plain sherds are present.

IX Gray sand with crushed shell, bone, charcoal, and a few large lightning whelk shells.

X Light gray ash and heavily burned shell, primarily oyster.

XI Same as VI, but with more crushed shell.

XII Same as X, but darker in color.

XIII Same as VI, but nearly all lighting whelk. Small numbers of horse and Florida fighting conch and tulip shells are present.


Fast Trench Key

BULK Bulk sample location W White layer (dominated by whole shell)

BGP Belle Glade Plain pottery B Black layer (dominated by midden soil)

STP Sand-tempered Plain pottery






















so-1 '-^Y


II----_ ii


-. ____ Ic


'8


STVA-fK = 'u V0I 2


Figure B.4. Mideast trench, west profile.




37


'S_~.__._.. -_....Zr;___








Mideast Trench Strata

I Disturbed soil: dark gray fine sand with broken shell and cement fragments.

II Dense whole shell, primarily small whelks and tulips, with bone, charcoal and crown conchs. Matrix is fine gray sand with aragonite crystals.

III Black, very fine sand with few small shells (small lightning whelks and tulips, many intruding from Stratum I) and bone. Roots are present.

IV Same as II, but more pen shell and bone and less aragonite.

V Same as III but more shell and bone.

VI Same as II, but more oyster.

IX Dense whole shell, including large lightning whelk and horse conch, as well as smaller whelks, tulips, and crown conchs, with bone, charcoal,
and little soil.

X Heavily burned shell and calcined bone in gray ash and sand. Banding suggests repeated discard episodes rather than in-situ burning.

XI Same as IX, but less consolidated.


Mideast Trench Key

C14 Radiocarbon sample location (lightning whelk shell) W White layer (dominated by whole shell)

BGP Belle Glade Plain pottery B Black layer (dominated by midden soil)

H Horse conch hammer bit














- --













""' ^- ~ ------ ~>- ^ --- ---












Figure B.5 North trench, south profile, east half.








39

















d.,h v jby~I /-----





*LAw- Z^-
i__io


4-~;. FC *


PR 15


Figure B.6 North trench, south profile, west half.


~o~~c~~'
Ir.


M"


__ 1 -


\\ I- '. I








North Trench Strata

I Fill sand: tan, non-local sand.

II Disturbed soil: dark gray sand with shell, stone, and cement. Mottled with Stratum I.

III Crushed shell, dominated by oyster, broken pen shell, and bone. Matrix is gray sand.

IV Dense whole shell, primarily small/medium lightning whelk but also large tulips, crown conchs, and oysters, as well as fighting conch and pear
whelks. Shells retain color. Moderate amounts of bone and charcoal are present. Very little gray sand between shells.

V Black to very dark gray silt with many whole shells, primarily small lightning and pear whelks and tulips. Gray lenses of heavily burned shell,
especially oyster, and ash are present

VI Same as IV, but more bone.


North Trench Key:

C14 Radiocarbon sample location (lightning whelk or quahog
shell)

BULK Bulk sample location

BGP Belle Glade Plain pottery

STP Sand-tempered Plain pottery


H Lightning whelk hammer

D Lightning whelk vessel

H.C. Horse conch hammer

W White layer (dominated by whole shell)

B Black layer (dominated by midden soil)

































Appendix C. Photograph Descriptions














APPENDIX C. PHOTOGRAPH DESCRIPTIONS


Photo
5545
5545
5545
5548
5571
5572
5573
5574
5575
5576
5577
5578
5579
5580
5581
5582
5583
5584
5585
5586
5587
5588
5589
5590
5591
5592
5593
5594
5595
5596
5597
5598
5599
5600
5601
5602
5603
5604
5605
5606
5607
5608
5609
5610
5611
5612
5613


Date Location
3/31/06 Bundschu property
3/31/06 Bundschu property
3/31/06 Bundschu property
3/31/06 Bundschu property
4/3/06 Bundschu property
4/3/06 SE corer
4/3/06 E trench
4/3/06 E trench
4/3/06 N trench
4/3/06 Pits 11, 1, 2
4/3/06 Pit 11
4/3/06 Pit 1
4/3/06 Pit 1
4/3/06 Pit 1
4/3/06 Pit 1
4/3/06 Pit 2
4/3/06 Pit 2
4/3/06 Pit 2
4/3/06 Pit 3
4/3/06 Pit 3
4/3/06 Pit 3
4/3/06 Pit 3
4/3/06 Pit 2
4/3/06 Pit 4
4/3/06 Pit 4
4/3/06 Pit 4
4/3/06 Pit 4
4/3/06 Pits 4 and 6
4/3/06 Pit 4
4/3/06 NE corer
4/3/06 Pit 2
4/3/06 Bundschu property
4/3/06 Bundschu property
4/3/06 Bundschu property
4/3/06 Trench
4/3/06 S Trench
4/3/06 S Trench
4/3/06 Bundschu property
4/3/06 Bundschu property
4/4/06 E trench
4/4/06 E trench
4/4/06 E trench
4/4/06 E trench
4/4/06 E trench
4/4/06 E trench
4/4/06 E trench
4/4/06 E trench


Subject
Initial excavations
Initial excavations
Initial excavations
Bobcat excavator
Backhoe
Construction laborers
Overview
Laborer
Backhoe
Overview
South profile
East profile
South profile
West profile
North profile
South profile
West profile
North profile
South profile
East profile
North profile
West profile
East profile
East profile
South profile
West profile
North profile
Overview
West profile
Overview
Overview
Gloria Andrews collecting artifacts
Stone grinding slab (large)
Backhoe
Profile
Backhoe
Backhoe
Overview
Overview
West profile, N end
West profile
West profile
West profile
West profile
West profile
West profile
West profile


View*
W
S
s
SW

E
SW
S
S
W
S
S
E
S
W
N
S
W
N
S
E
N
W
E
E
S
W
N
W
W
N
W
NW
Top
Down
Down
E
E
WNW
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W













Photo Date Location Subject View*
5614 4/4/06 E trench West profile W
5615 4/4/06 E trench West profile W
5616 4/4/06 E trench West profile W
5617 4/4/06 E trench West profile, S end W
5618 4/4/06 E trench Detail
5619 4/4/06 E trench East profile, N end E
5620 4/4/06 E trench East profile E
5621 4/4/06 E trench East profile E
5622 4/4/06 E trench East profile E
5623 4/4/06 E trench East profile E
5624 4/4/06 E trench East profile E
5625 4/4/06 E trench East profile E
5626 4/4/06 E trench East profile E
5627 4/4/06 E trench East profile E
5628 4/4/06 E trench East profile E
5629 4/4/06 E trench East profile, S end E
5630 4/4/06 S Trench North profile, E end N
5631 4/4/06 S Trench North profile N
5632 4/4/06 S Trench North profile N
5633 4/4/06 S Trench North profile N
5634 4/4/06 S Trench North profile N
5635 4/4/06 S Trench North profile N
5636 4/4/06 S Trench North profile N
5637 4/4/06 S Trench North profile N
5638 4/4/06 S Trench North profile N
5639 4/4/06 S Trench North profile N
5640 4/4/06 S Trench North profile N
5641 4/4/06 S Trench North profile, W end N
5642 4/4/06 S Trench South profile, W end S
5643 4/4/06 S Trench South profile S
5644 4/4/06 S Trench South profile S
5645 4/4/06 S Trench South profile S
5646 4/4/06 S Trench South profile S
5647 4/4/06 S Trench South profile S
5648 4/4/06 S Trench South profile S
5649 4/4/06 S Trench South profile S
5650 4/4/06 S Trench South profile S
5651 4/4/06 S Trench South profile S
5652 4/4/06 S Trench South profile S
5653 4/4/06 S Trench South profile S
5654 4/4/06 S Trench South profile S
5655 4/4/06 S Trench South profile S
5656 4/4/06 S Trench South profile S
5657 4/4/06 S Trench South profile S
5658 4/4/06 S Trench South profile, E end S
5659 4/4/06 N trench South profile, e end S
5660 4/4/06 N trench South profile S
5661 4/4/06 N trench South profile S
5662 4/4/06 N trench South profile S














Photo
5663
5664
5665
5666
5667
5668
5669
5670
5671
5672
5673
5674
5675
5676
5677
5678
5679
5680
5681
5682
5683
5684
5685
5686
5687
5688
5689
5690
5691
5692
5693
5694
5695
5696
5697
5698
5699
5700
5701
5702
5703
5704
5705
5706
5707
5708
5709
5710
5711


Date Location
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 N trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 Mideast trench
4/4/06 North Cross trench
4/4/06 North Cross trench
4/4/06 South Cross trench
4/4/06 South Cross trench
4/4/06 Pit 3
4/4/06 Pit 3
4/4/06 Pit 3
4/4/06 Pit 3
4/4/06 Pit 3
4/4/06 Pit 4
4/4/06 Pit 4
4/4/06 Pit 4
4/4/06 Pit 4


Subject
South profile
South profile
South profile
South profile
South profile
South profile
South profile, W end
North profile, E end
North profile
North profile
North profile
North profile
North profile
North profile
North profile
North profile
North profile
North profile
North profile, W end
East profile, N end
East profile
East profile
East profile
East profile
East profile
East profile
East profile
East profile, S end
West profile, N end
West profile
West profile
West profile
West profile
West profile
West profile
West profile, S end
South profile
North profile
North profile
South profile
South profile
East profile
East profile
North profile
West profile
North profile
East profile
South profile
West profile


View*
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
S
N
N
S
S
E
E
N
W
N
E

W
W














Photo
5712
5713
5714
5715
5716
5717
5718
5719
5722
5723
5724
5725
5726
5727
5728
5729
5730
5731
5736
5737
5738
5739
5740
5741
5743
5754
5755
5756
5757
5758
5759
5760
5761
5762
5763
5764
5765
5766
5767
5768
5769
5770
5771
5772
5773
5774
5775
5776
5777


Date
4/6/06
4/6/06
4/6/06
4/6/06
4/6/06
4/6/06
4/6/06
4/6/06
4/8/06
4/8/06
4/8/06
4/8/06
4/8/06
4/8/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06
4/9/06


Location
Bundschu property
Bundschu property
Pit 2, W profile
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
Mideast trench
Mideast trench
N trench
Pit 2 and Pit 9
Pit 2
RRC lab
Pit 5
Pit 5
Pit 5
Pit 5
Pit 6
Pit 6
Pit 6
Pit 6
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
RRC lab
Pit 10
Pit 10
Pit 10
Pit 10
Pit 4


Subject
D. Hurst, G. Anderson taking bulk samples
D. Hurst, G. Anderson taking bulk samples
David Hurst taking bulk samples
Deer bone
Deer bone
Deer bone
Deer bone
Pottery: Little Manatee Zoned Stamped
Workmen installing foundation frame
Workmen installing foundation frame
Workmen installing foundation frame
Thin strata and post molds
West wall- thin strata
Lightning whelk plummet
North profile
East profile
South profile
West profile
North profile
East profile
South profile
West profile
Pottery: St. Johns Check-stamped
Pottery: St. Johns Check-stamped
Pottery: Belle Glade Plain
Pottery: Weeden Island Punctated
Pottery Weeden Island Punctated
Stone abrader
Stone abrader
Stone artifact (phallic shape)
Stone artifact (phallic shape)
Pottery: St. Johns Check-stamped
Lightning whelk net mesh gauge
Lightning whelk net mesh gauge
Pottery Little Manatee Zoned Stamped
Pottery: Pinellas Incised
Pottery: Pinellas Incised
Pottery: Safety Harbor Incised
Stone grinding slab (small)
Stone grinding slab (small)
Stone grinding slab (small)
Stone grinding slab (large)
Stone grinding slab (large)
Stone grinding slab (arge)
North profile
North profile
North profile; close-up view of post mold
North profile; close-up view of post mold
South profile


View*
SW
S
SW





Exterior
SE
SW
W
S
W

N
E
S
W
N
E
S
W
Exterior
Exterior

Interior
Exterior





Exterior
Exterior
Interior
Exterior
Exterior
Rim
Exterior
Top
Bottom
Top
Top
Bottom
Side
N
N
N
N
S














Photo
5778
5779
5780
5781
5782
5783
5784
5785
5786
5787
5788
5789
5790
5791
5792
5793
5794
5795
5796
5797
5798
5799
5800
5801
5802
5803
5804
5805
5806
5807
5808
5813
5814
5815
5816
5817
5818
5819
5820
5827
5828
5829
5830
5831
5832
5833
5834
5835
5836


Date Location
4/9/06 Pit 4
4/9/06 Pit 4
4/9/06 Pit 4
4/9/06 Midwest trench
4/9/06 Midwest trench
4/9/06 Midwest trench
4/9/06 Midwest trench
4/9/06 Midwest trench
4/9/06 Midwest trench
4/9/06 Midwest trench
4/9/06 Midwest trench
4/9/06 W trench
4/9/06 W trench
4/9/06 W trench
4/9/06 W trench
4/9/06 W trench
4/9/06 W trench
4/9/06 W trench
4/9/06 W trench
4/9/06 W trench
4/9/06 W trench
4/9/06 W trench
4/9/06 Far west trench
4/9/06 Far west trench
4/9/06 Far west trench
4/9/06 W trench
4/9/06 Bundschu property
4/9/06 S Trench
4/9/06 S Trench
4/9/06 Bundschu property
4/9/06 Bundschu property
4/9/06 N trench
4/9/06 E trench
4/9/06 Bundschu property
4/9/06 Bundschu property
4/9/06 Bundschu property
4/9/06 Far west & W trench
4/10/06 Pit 9
4/10/06 Pit 9
4/10/06 Pit 1
4/10/06 Pit 1
4/10/06 Pit 1
4/10/06 Pit 1
4/10/06 Pit 1
4/10/06 Pit 2
4/10/06 Pit 2
4/10/06 Pit 2
4/10/06 Pit 2
4/10/06 Pit 4


Subject
South profile
South profile; close-up view of post mold
South profile; close-up view of post mold
East profile, N end
East profile
East profile
East profile
East profile
East profile
East profile
East profile, S end
East profile, N end
East profile
East profile
East profile
East profile
East profile
East profile
East profile
East profile
East profile
East profile, S end
East profile, N end
East profile
East profile, S end
Overview
Site overview
Overview
Overview
Site overview
Site overview
Overview
Overview
Site overview, panorama #1
Site overview, panorama #2
Site overview, panorama #3
Overview
South profile
South profile, close-up of post molds
Overview
East profile
North profile
West profile
South profile
South profile
West profile
North profile
East profile
North profile


View*
S
S
S
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
NNE
NE
E
W
W
W
W
SSW
E
SE
SSE
SE
S
S
SE
E
N
W
S
S
W
N
E
N













Photo Date Location Subject View*
5837 4/10/06 Pit 4 East profile E
5838 4/10/06 Pit 4 South profile S
5839 4/10/06 Pit 3 North profile N
5840 4/10/06 Pit 3 East profile E
5841 4/10/06 Pit 3 South profile S
5842 4/10/06 Pit 3 West profile W
5843 4/10/06 Pit 2 West profile WSW
5844 4/10/06 Pit 2 West profile WNW

*View indicated in project directions which are oriented about 45 degrees off of magnetic directions. Project
north, for example, is near magnetic northwest. See Figure 3.