Farming systems research and extension in the 1990s


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Farming systems research and extension in the 1990s critical issues and future directions
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1 v. (unpaged) : ill. ; 28 cm.
Michigan State University -- Institute of International Agriculture
Association for Farming Systems Research/Extension
The Institute of International Agriculture, Michigan State University
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government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
Association for Farming Systems Research/Extension 11th annual symposium October 5-10, 1991.
General Note:
Cover title.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 641628818
lcc - S494.5.S95 F37 1991
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Full Text

Farming Systems Research
and Extension in the 1990s:
Critical Issues and Future Directions

Association for Farming Systems Research-Extension
11th Annual Symposium
October 5-10, 1991

An international society organized to promote the development and dissemination of
methods and results of participatory on-farm systems of research and extension.
MSU is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Institution




In Appreciation

Michigan State University and the Association for Farming
Systems Research/Extension would like to thank the following
organizations for their support of the 11th Annual Symposium.

The Ford Foundation

The Ford Foundation-New Delhi

Inter-American Foundation

*W. K. Kellogg Foundation

Michigan State University sponsors include:

Institute of International Agriculture

African Studies Center

Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies

The Institute of International Agriculture, Michigan State
University, is proud to sponsor the 11th Annual Symposium for the
Association for Farming Systems Research/Extension.

Donald R. Isleib
Associate Dean and Director
Institute of International Agriculture
College ofAgriculture and Natural Resources

Program Co-Chairs

R. James Bingen
Michigan State University

Harold J. McArthur
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Program Staff

Julie McDaniels-Smith
Susan Gibbons
Noel Harshman

Janine Morell
Shari Meister

AMA' &Vb a0 0 1


AFSRIE officially came into existence in October of 1989 during the plenary session of the 9th
annual International Farming Systems Symposium at the University of Arkansas. Its roots,
however, date back to the 1970's to the extensive farming systems work done in Africa, Latin
America and Asia.

Two large projects fostered its emergence and that of the symposium. In 1981 the first FSR/E
symposium was held at Kansas State University. It resulted from a USAID Strengthening Grant.
A group of farming systems practitioners was invited by several Kansas State faculty members to
attend and to address issues in FSR/E. Due to the tremendous response, the symposium became an
annual event and was held at Kansas State its first six years. During those years, Kansas State set up
a documentation library unit for FSR/E materials. The symposium moved to the University of
Arkansas from 1987 through 1989. Then Michigan State University became the host in 1990. The
second source of encouragement for the origin of AFSR/E came from the Farming Systems Support
Project (FSSP), which was a consortium of universities and private development groups. The
consortium was headquartered at the University of Florida and funded by USAID. In 1983, FSSP
bolstered the symposium by helping to finance it and furnishing travel grants. In addition to
financial help, FSSPalso helped strengthen the growing farming systems research (FSR) through
providing technical assistance, training programs, a newsletter, publications of other types, and
through developing the consensus of "theory and practice" of FSR/E.

AFSR/E's official emergence in 1989 was also fostered by two years of work by two ad hoc
committees. The first, established in 1987, was chaired by Steve Kearl. That committee's purpose
was to perpetuate the network established by FSSP. The 1988 ad hoc committee, chaired by George
Axinn, replaced the first. Their goals included serving the needs of worldwide farming systems
practitioners and continuing support to the annual symposium.

AFSR/E's charter members come from diverse backgrounds and include agrarian researchers,
developmental practitioners, government planners, extension personnel, project administrators, and
donor agency representatives from around the world. Their commonality is their dedication to
AFSR/E's overall goal of promoting the international development and dissemination of methods
and results of participatory on-farm systems research and extension.

For its diverse membership, AFSR/E provides an important forum for sharing information, research,
and ideas. Its Journal of Farming Systems Research-Extension and newsletter give worldwide

AFSR/E information iii

publication to myriad research, ideas, professional dialogue and scientific exchange. Each year the
Journal publishes selected papers from those presented at the symposium as well as selected papers
from those sent directly to its offices.

Events such as the annual symposium help AFSR/E attain its ongoing goal of providing a network
for the development and dissemination of methods and the results of participatory on-farm research
and extension. AFSR/E's long range goals are ongoing, ambitious, and require the dedication of its
members in their respective areas of expertise. These goals are threefold: 1) to develop and adopt
improved technologies for the purpose of raising the social, economic, and nutritional quality of life
for men and women farm household members; 2) to provide adequate food supply, feed and fiber
requirements worldwide; 3) to employ world resources in a sustainable and efficient manner.

The AFSRIE board gives leadership through its elected officers and members-at-large. The officers
are president, president-elect, secretary-treasurer, nominations committee chairperson, fund raising
committee chairperson, and eight members-at-large. The rationale for having members-at-large is to
assure the provision of diversity in gender, regional and disciplinary representation in the ranks of
AFSR/E leadership.

In its two years of existence, AFSR/E has attracted about 400 members and is known worldwide. It
is perhaps symptomatic of the increasing interest in AFSR/E and its goals that its mailing list for the
Call for Papers now numbers nearly 4,000.

AFSR/E's future depends upon its membership. Its future is also closely linked with the annual
symposium. As a participant in this year's symposium, we encourage you to take the time to get
acquainted with other AFSR/E members to learn more about the organization. We also encourage
you to take advantage of the full range of learning opportunities and networking opportunities
available which will be valuable to you in your work and which will assure continued interest in the
goals and mission of AFSR/E.

AFSR/E Information iv


Association for Farming Systems Research/Extension
Officers and Board Members for 1990 1991


Harold J. McArthur
University of Hawaii at Manoa

President Elect
John Caldwell
SAID DRSPR Project/Mali

Board of Directors

Past President
Peter Hildebrand
University of Flordia

Cornelia Butler Flora
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Clive Lightfoot

Timothy Finan
University of Arizona

Tim Frankenberger
University of Arizona

Members at Large

Nancy Axinn
Ford Foundation

Nandarajah Sriskandarajah
University of West Sydney-Hawkesbury

Ramiro Ortiz

AFSR/E Information v

^^^^Off^icers &Board ember

Regional Representatives

Jaques Faye
S/C QUA/SAFGRAD/Burkina Faso

Terd Charoenwatana
Khon Kaen University/Thailand

David Gibbon
University of East Anglia/England

Latin America
Eduardo Zaffaroni
Universidade Federal da Paraiba/Brazil

North America
Loma Butler
Washington State University, Pullman/USA

AFSR/E Information vi


AFSR/E Symposium

Sunday, October 6

Registration for the Symposium
The Terrace

12 1:30 pm

Paper, Poster and Panel Facilitator Workshops
University Ballroom, Salons C and D (concurrent workshops)

1:30 3:30 pm

4-5 pm

Orientation for New AFSR/E Members
University Ballroom, Salons C and D

Registration for the Symposium
The Terrace

Welcome Reception
University Ballroom, Salons A and B

Monday, October 7

Registration for the Symposium
The Terrace

4:30 5:30 pm

6 -8 pm

7:30 9:30 am

Continental Breakfast
The Terrace

7:15 8 am

Welcome to MSU and AFSR/E Plenary Meeting
University Ballroom

The Terrace

8:15 9:45 am

9:45 -10 am

Program information la

Keynote Speaker 10 12 noon
University Ballroom
Introduction by Donald R. Isleib, Associate Dean and Director
Institute of International Agriculture
College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Michigan State University

Dr. Simon E. Malo, Director
Zamorano Escuela Agricola Panamericana

Open Lunch 12 2 pm

Concurrent Panel Sessions 2-4 pm
Room assignments listed under each session

Panel 1. Approaches and Methods for Research on Sustainability I
Moderator: Gordon Conway
Great Lakes Room

Gordon Conway The Ford Foundation, India
Sustainability in Agriculture Development: Trade-offs with Productivity, Stability and Equitability.
Larry Harrington CIMMYT, Thailand
Measuring Sustainability: Issues and Alternatives.
Michael Loevinsohn Project Rizicole Du Butare, Rwanda
Group Innovation on Developing Sustainable Farming Systems for Rwandan Valleys.
Lu Lohr Michigan State University, USA
Methodology for Designing and Evaluating Comparative Cropping Systems.

Panel 2. Institutionalization of FSR/E within National Agriculture Research Systems I
Moderator: Nimal Ranaweera
Capitol Room

M. Boughlala/T.E. Gillard-Byers MIAC, Morocco
Institutionalizing FSRE in Morocco.
Virginia R. Cardenas University of the Philippines
Factors Related to the Institutionalization of FSRE: Cases from Two Regions in the Philippines.
Annemarie Matthess-Guerrero Institut Des Science Agronomiques Du Rwanda
The Multiple Roles of Planning Models of Peasant Farming Systems in National Agricultural Research -
Concepts and Initial Experiences from ISAR (Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Rwanda).
Consuelo Quiroz University de Los Andes, Venezuela
Institutionalization of FSRE Programs in Venezuela: Main Obstacles, Constraints and Future Directions.

Panel 3. Rapid Rural Appraisal and Other Diagnostic Methods (Field Methods)
Moderator: Hal McArthur
University Ballroom, Salon A

Program information 2a

M. Z. Abedin ICRAF, Bangladesh
Quick Interviews for Rural Appraisal and Research Planning.
Faustino Ccama AV Universidad, Peru
A Methodology for Qualifying Peasant Farming Systems and to Determine if the Agricultural Policies
Reach Them.
EIcy Corrales Edificio Cahica, Colombia
Research Training with Rural Extensionists: An Experience.
Jean-Pierre Hubert Burundi
Comparing Two Methods for Implementing Farming Systems Surveys in the Imbo Region of Burundi.
Timothy J. Lynam WWF Multispecies Project, Zimbabwe
Contingent Valuation of Multi-Purpose Tree Resources in Smallholder Farming Sector, Zimbabwe.

Panel 4. Farmer Participation in On-Farm Trials (Field Methods)
Moderator: Clive Lightfoot
University Ballroom, Salon B

Sloans Chimatiro ICLARM, Malawi
Farmer's Drawings: A Tool for Modelling Resource Flows on African Smallholder Farms.
Ibrahima Diallo Virginia State University, USA
The Introduction of Row Seeding Techniques in the Traditional Rice Farming System of the Gambia.
D.P. Ghimire IAAS, Nepal
Gender Analysis in a Migrant Community.
Geoffrey Heinrich Department of Agricultural Research, Botswana
Trial Designing & Logistics for Farmer Implemented Technology.
Murshidul Hoque OFRD, Bangladesh
Identification of Problems and Research Program Development for Small Farmers at the FSR Site.
Daniele Perrot-Maitre University of Rhode Island, USA
The Use of Ethnographic Interviews in Understanding Resource Allocation at the Farm Level: An Example
from a Sample of Lowland Farms in Leyte, Philippines.
Anil Subedi Lumle Regional Agricultural Research Center, Nepal
Involving Women Farmers in Technology Generation and Transfer: An Experience of Lumle Regional
Agriculture Research Centre's FSRE Approach in the Western Hills of Nepal.

Panel 5. Assessment of Institutional Factors/Interventions
(Policy and Development Linkages)
Moderator: German Escobar
University Ballroom, Salon C

Samuel Asuming-Brempong University of Ghana
Policy Conflict and Small Farmers Response: The Case of Food Crop Farms in Ghana.
H. Djouara DRSPR, Mali
Management of Natural Resources with Farmers' Participation in a Degrading Environment.
Bill Grigsby University of Idaho, USA
Women, Credit, and Resources in Rural Mali.
Helen K. Henderson University of Arizona, USA
Constraints on Women in Agricultural Education Programs.
Malcolm McPherson University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
Structural Adjustment and Farm-Level Responses in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from the Gambia.
Maztien van Nieuwkoop PATA Irrigation Project, Pakistan
FSR/E Approach: How to Make It Work at the Farmer's Level.

Program information 3a


Panel 6. Measuring Technological Change (Impact Assessment)
Moderator: Richard Bernsten
University Ballroom, Salon D

Samuel DIamini Malkerns Research Station, Swaziland
Analysis of Small Farmers' Incremental Technology Adoption Behavior in Swaziland.
Mulumba Kamuanga Institute of Agronomic Research, Cameroon
Role of Farmers in the Evaluation of An Improved Variety: The Case of S35 Sorghum in Northern Cameroon.
Fanindra Thapa Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Nepal
Trends in Farming Practices Among the Tharus of Chitwan, Nepal.
Mahinda Wijeratne University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka
Evolvement and Adoption of Location Specific Technology: A Farming Systems
Research/Extension Experience in Sri Lanka.

Conducting Interdisciplinary Research in 4-6 pm
Sustainable Agriculture (special panel)
University Ballroom, Salon A

Asia Poster Session 4-6 pm
Campus Room on ground level

Jaswinder Singh Bhatia Punjab Agricultural University, India
Intercropping of Toria (Brassica Campestris) and Gobhi Sarson (B. Napus) Towards a Sustainable
Crop System in North India.
Badri B.S. Dongol IAAS, Nepal
Using Participatory Rapid Rural Appraisal in Selecting FSRE Site: A Case Study.
Alicia Go Visayas State College of Agriculture, Philippines
Sensitivity of Research Methodologies in Determining Women's Roles in Development Programs.
M. Serajul Islam Bangladesh Agricultural University
Impact of Farming Systems Research and Extension on Agricultural Development in Target Areas.
Ou Li Beijing Agricultural University, China
The Operative Model of On-Farm Research and Extension Systems.
K. Venkataranga Naika University of Agricultural Science, India
An Analysis of Farming Systems Profitability and Extent of Adoption of Crop Technology in
Southern Dry Zone of Karnataha, India.
Poonam Smith-Sreen/ John Smith-Sreen Catholic Relief Services, USA
How Can a Farming Systems Approach Help Women Dairy Farmers? Case Studies from India.
Thilak T. Ranasinghe Agricultural Kachcheri Complex, Sri Lanka
Sustainable Homestead: Dowry for Next Generation Lesson from Moneragala.
Abdur Razzaque Agricultural Research Council, Pakistan
Evaluation of Some Agronomic Schemes for an Integrated Crop-Livestock.
Muhammad Shafiq Agricultural Economic Research Unit, Pakistan
Sunflower Production in the Cotton-Based Farming System of the Southern Punjab.
Bhuwon Sthapit Lumle Regional Agricultural Research Centre, Nepal
Better Results from Farmer Based Research System: The Experience of Lumle Regional Agricultural
Research Centre, Nepal.
Han Sun Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
The Reform of Farming Systems in North-Jiangsu Plain, China.

Program information 4a

Open Dinner

Graduate Students in Farming Systems Research
(special roundtable)
University Ballroom, Salons A and B

Tuesday, October 8

Continental Breakfast
The Terrace
Integrated Farming Systems: Area Farms Field Trip
The bus will pick up promptly at the main lobby door for the all-day trip

Conflict Prevention and Resolution in
Achieving Sustainability
(6 hours of workshop modules)
Capitol Room and Great Lakes Room

Training Tools Bazaar
University Ballroom, Salons C and D

The Terrace

7:15 8 am

8:15 am

8:30 11:30 am
1:30 3:30 pm

8 12 noon
1- 5 pm

9:45 10 am

Managing FSR/E Information Resources (special panel)
University Ballroom, Salon A

Training for Participatory Research (special roundtable)
University Ballroom, Salon B

Group Luncheon
University Ballroom, Salons A and B

Current Topics of Design and Analysis (special panel)
Great Lakes Room

9 10:30 am

9 10:30 am

12 -1 pm

1 3 pm

Program information 5a

6 7 pm

7-9 pm


Research and Extension Issues for Minor Crops 1-3 pm
(special roundtable)
Capitol Room
Learning from Traditional Agriculture (special panel) 4-6 pm
Great Lakes Room

The Asian Farming System Association 4 5 pm
(special roundtable)
Capitol Room

Women In Development Reception 4-6 pm
201 Center for International Programs, MSU Campus

Open Dinner 6 7 pm

Review of Area Farms Field Trip 7 9 pm
(special roundtable)
University Ballroom, Salons A and B

Wednesday, October 9

Continental Breakfast 7:15 8 am
The Terrace

Concurrent Panel Sessions 8 10 am
Room assignments listed under each session

Panel 1. Approaches and Methods for Research on Sustainability II
Moderator: Percy Sajise
Great Lakes Room

Dennis Garrity International Rice Research Institute, Philippines
Sustainable Land Use Systems Research Methods to Reverse the Crisis in Asia's Sloping Upland Ecosystems.
Jose Medrano CATIE, Guatemala
Sustainable Agrosilvopastoral Systems in Dry Areas.
Gail E. Updegraff Soil Conservation Service, USA
Sustainable Environmental Programs in Developing Countries.
M.S. Adewole Osunade University of Swaziland, Nigeria
Some Aspects of Indigenous Land Management Techniques.

Program information 6a

Panel 2. Technology Generation and Diffusion: Methods Field Methods
Moderator: Bob Hudgens
Capitol Room

Tim Kelley ICRISAT, India
On-Farm Research as a Component in Overall Evaluation and Assessment of New Cultivar Adoption Potential.
M. Mahbubur Khan OFRD, Bangladesh
Participatory Methodologies in Whole Farm Research Approach.

Rabindra Kumar Shrestha BTCO, Nepal
Gap in Technology Recommendation and Farmers' Adoption: A Case of Potato Planting Methods in the
Eastern Hills of Nepal.
Louise Sperling International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Rwanda
The Dynamics of Improved Bean Varieties in Rwanda.

Panel 3. Trade/Policy Effects on Farming Systems (Policy & Development Linkages)
Moderator: Chris Andrew
University Ballroom, Salon A

Ridwan Derinda Agribusiness Studies in Development Center, Indonesia
Exploring Incentives for Cooperation Between Coconut Smallholder and Integrated Coconut
Processing Unit in Indonesia.
Larry Harrington CIMMYT, Thailand
Beyond On-Farm Trials: The Role of Policy in Explaining Non-Adoption of Fertilizer on
Maize in Thailand.
Mark Lynham University of Arizona, USA
Government Policy Versus Sustainability: The Example of Agricultural Development in the
Senegal River Valley.
Amy Angel Texas A & M University, USA
USA Trade Liberalization and Inducements to Technologiecal Change: The Case of a Mexico
US Trade Agreement

Panel 4. Tree-Based Farming Systems in the Upper Gambia River Watershed: A Case
Study of Sustainability and Gender (combines several categories)
Moderator: Jonathon Landeck
University Ballroom, Salon B

Claire Avril Belgium
Goudussi Diallo Guinea
Bruno Hennquin Belgium
William Roberts USA
Ibrahima Sory Seck Guinea

Panel 5. Institutionalization of FSR/E Within National Agriculture Research Systems II
Moderator: Hilary Feldstein
University Ballroom, Salon C

Jaime Aristotle B. Alip Agriculture Credit Policy Council, Philippines
The Integrated Farming System Development Approach: The Philippines Experience.
T.E. Gillard-Byers MIAC, Morocco
Institutionalization of FSR/E in Sudan, Morocco and Malawi.

Program information 7a

E. Modiakgotla Department of Agricultural Research, Botswana
Establishing a Formal Role and Operating Format for FSRE: A Report on New Developments Within the
Department of Agricultural Research, Botswana.
S.L. Seth Ministry of Agriculture, India
Institutionalizing a Farming Systems Approach A Case Study from India.
Paul Starkey Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa
Animal Traction Networks in Africa: Lessons and Implications.

Break 10 -10:15 am
The Terrace

Africa and Europe Poster Session 10 12 noon
Campus Room on ground level

F. Casabianca INRA/Sad, France
A Proposal for a Functionalist and Typological Approach of FSRE Focusing on Three Targets: Social Actors,
Time and Information
J. Lowenberg-DeBoer INRAN/PRAAN, Niger
Socio-Economic Constraints at the Farm Level on the Intensification of Cowpea Production in the Niger.
K.H. Friedrich AGSP, Italy
Institutionalizing Farming Systems Development (FSD) as a Safeguard for its Sustainability.
T.O. Ogunfiditimi University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Alley Farming Technology Among Peasant Farmers in Nigeria: Prospects and Problems.
Lennart Salomonsson Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden
Nordic Colloquium on the Integration of Ecological Agriculture and Urban Planning.
James Sentz University of Minnesota, USA
Agronomic Technology Transfer: A Challenge to FSRE in West Africa.
Barry I. Shapiro University of Illinois, USA
(1) The Adoption of Sustainable New Technology Practices in the Niamey Region of Niger: Alternative
Investments and Adaptive Farmer Behavior.
(2) New Technology Adoption in Two Agricultural Systems in the Niamey Region of Niger: The Role of
Resource Endowments and Agroclimatic Factors.

Networking for Developing Countries 10:30 -12 noon
(special roundtable)
Great Lakes Room

Institutionalization of FSR/E 10:30 -12 noon
Capitol Room

Group luncheon 12 -1 pm
University Ballroom

Concurrent Panel Sessions 2-4 pm
Room assignments listed under each session

Program information 8a

Panel 1. How Scientists Design and Assess Sustainable Systems I (Sustainability)
Moderator: Michael Gold
University Ballroom, Salon D

Camilo Camacho Plan Sierra, Dominican Republic
Agro-Forestry System (Plantation-Coffee) Model Developed by Plan Sierra in the Central Mountain Range of
the Dominican Republic.
Larry Harrington CIMMYT, Thailand
Sustainable Weed Control for Maize in Mindanao: Dealing with Carryover Effects.
Erik Kristensen National Institute of Animal Science, Denmark
A Methodology for Development of Sustainable Livestock Farming Systems.
Pierre Rosseau Auburn University, USA
Hillside Agroforestry in Haiti: Assessment of Hedgerow Farming.
Tesema Ta'a Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
Sustainable Farming Among the Oromo of Welega, Western Ethiopia.

Panel 2. Gender Analysis: Making it into the Mainstream
Moderator: Hilary Feldstein
Great Lakes Room

Susan Poats Centro Internacional Agricultura Tropical, CIAT
The Introduction of Gender Analysis to an International Agriculture Research Center.
Alistair Sutherland Ministry of Agriculture, Zambia
A Multidisciplinary Approach to Diagnosing Sustainability Problems: Investigating Land Degradation In
Eastern Zambia.
Samnieng Viriyasiri Farming Systems Research Institute, Thailand
Interaction of Women and Gender in FSR/E: Experience from Thailand.

Panel 3. Farmer Participation in Diagnosis (Field Methods)
Moderator: Rosalie Norem
Capitol Room

Stephanie Rittmann Land Stewardship Project, USA
Participatory On-Farm Sustainable Agriculture.
S.BJ. Taonda INERA, Burkina Faso
Farmer Participation in a New FSR Program in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

Panel 4. Technology Generation and Diffusion: Technologies (Field Methods)
Moderator: Sandra Russo
University Ballroom, Salon A

Rudolfo S. Cornelio Philippine Rice Research Institute
Field Evaluation of Rice-Fish Farming System in Guimba, Nueva Ecija, Philippines.
Adeflor G. Garcia University of Southern Mindanao, Philippines
On-Farm Research.
K.C. Nelson/Diego Gomez NICA, USA
Two Prototypical Models for Generating IPM Technologies in Nicaragua.
K. S. Randhawa Punjab Agricultural University, India
Studies on the Efficient Use of Potassium in Potato-Based Cropping Systems in the Punjab.
Klaus Talvela University of Florida
Focused Sondeos to Assess Farmers Technology Evaluation Criteria and Adoption in Nicaragua.

Program information 9a

Panel 5. Methodological Issues in Impact Studies (Impact Assessment)
Moderator: Robert Butler
University Ballroom, Salon B

Akin A. Adesina West Africa Rice Development Association, Cote D'Ivoire
Adaption and Economic Impacts of WARDA Mangrove Rice Varieties in West Africa-Multivariate
logic Analysis in Sierra Leone and Guinea.
L. Chraibi/Gillard-Byers MIAC, Morocco
Monitoring the Impact of Seed Technology Packages Through the Moroccan On-Farm Technology
Evaluation Program.
Cornelia Flora Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA
Impact Assessment of Alternative Development Strategies: U.S. Examples.
Nimal F.C. Ranaweera Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka
Impact of Technology Adoption Through a Farming Systems Perspective Sri Lanka Experience.

The Americas Poster Session 4-6 pm
Campus Room on ground level

Amy Angel Texas A & M University, USA
Farm Level Impacts of Multilateral Trade Liberalization: Case Studies of the United States and France.
Elena Avila INTA-EEA, Argentina
Perceptions of Sustainability: Small Farm Families, Argentina.
Jeffrey Bentley Escuela Agricola Panamericana, Honduras
Farmer Participation, Social Wasps and Sustainable Pest Control in Central America.
Timothy Finan/Julie P. Leones University of Arizona, USA
Integrating Farming Systems and Livelihood Systems: Links Between Farm Based and Household Based
Charles A. Francis -University of Nebraska, USA
Institutionalization of Sustainable Agriculture in Extension, Research and Teaching Programs.
Haider A. Khan University of Missouri, USA
Socio-Cultural Constraints in Working with Farmers in Forestry.
Chansheng He Michigan State University, USA
Use of Simulation Models and Geographic Information Systems in Assessing Sustainability of
Water Resources for Irrigation.
J. King University of Nebraska, USA
Development of a National Curriculum in Sustainable Agriculture for Classroom and In-Service Training,
Time and Information.
Carlos Leite The University Federal de Viscosa, Brazil
Sustainability and Minimum Size of Irrigated Family Farm in Selected Areas in Brazil.
Bruce J. Morrison Michigan State University, USA
Indigenous Knowledge Relating to Silvo-Pastoral Management Systems of Small-Scale Farmers in Jamaica.
John M. Smith The Ohio State University, USA
On-Farm Residue Management Demonstration.
Larry J. Smith University of Wisconsin-Green Bay, USA
Sustainable Community Economic Development: A Minimal Research and Extension Approach.
Scott Witter Michigan State University, USA
The Role of Hillside Farmers in Achieving Sustainable Watershed Management: A Dominican Example.

International Case Study in Sustainable Agriculture 4 6 pm
University Ballroom, Salons A and B


Program information

Open Time

AFSR/E Symposium Party 8 12 midnight
University Ballroom

Thursday, October 10

Continental Breakfast 7:15 8 am
The Terrace

Concurrent Panel Sessions 8 10 am
Room assignments listed under each session

Panel 1. How Scientists Design and Assess Sustainable Systems II
Moderator: Richard Harwood
Great Lakes Room

Amadou M. Diop Rodale Institute, USA
Soil Regeneration in Senegal's Peanut Basin.
Artur Granstedt Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden
Case Studies on Nitrogen Supply in Alternative Farming.
Marian Lennington Michigan State University, USA
Development and Demonstration of Methods Toward Sustainable Apple Production.
Marie-Jeanne Uwera Institut des Sciences Agronomiques Du, Rwanda
Participation Development of Anti-Erosive Technologies in South Rwanda Critical Issues and Future
Directions at ISNAR.
Ashok K. Vaidya Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, Nepal
Survival and Sustainability in the Mid-Western Hills of Nepal.

Panel 2. Mathematical and Other Formal Design Methods (Field Methods)
Moderator: John Caldwell
Capitol Room

Julio Berdegue RIMISP, Chile
Multiple Objective Programming in Design Phase opf FSR/E.
Makan Fofana Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA
Use of Multiple Classification Criteria for Identification of Recommendation and Research Domains
Through Cluster Analysis in Central Mali.
Mputela Mbongolo-Ndundu Southern Illinois University, USA
The Role of Women Farmers in Managing Cassava Production in Bandundu (Zaire).
T. 0. Ogunfiditimi University of Ibadan, Nigeria
An Assessment of the Cost Effectiveness of the Traditional and Recommended Maize Storage Practices
in South Western Nigeria.
Peter Tatian The Urban Institute, USA
The Use of Computers in Field Research: Practical Experience from Niger and Senegal.

6 8 pm


Program information

Panel 3. FSRE Contributions to Policy/Development (Policy and Developement Linkages)
Moderator: James Bingen
University Ballroom, Salon A

K. H. Friedrich AGSP, Italy
Review of Applications of Farming Systems Approach in Agricultural Policy Analysis.
K. C. John The Ford Foundation, India
Farming Systems Research/Extension and Development Planning Linkages A Critical Review of Indian
Experience and Prospects.
F. M. Kelleher University of Western Sydney-Hawkesbury, Australia
Critical Issues and Future Directions for Agricultural Extension.
Janice Jiggins/N. Roling Independent Consultant, The Netherlands
Paradigms and Practice: Creating the Institutional Environment for Sustainable, Low External Input,
Technology Development and Utilization.
Ted Stillwell Development Bank of South Africa
Networking: A Panacea for Agricultural Technical Co-operation in Southern Africa.

Panel 4. Technological Change and Community Impacts (Impact Assessment)
Moderator: George Axinn
University Ballroom, Salon B

Harsharn Singh Grewal -Punjab Agricultural University, India
Integrated Approach to Improve the Socio-Economic Status of Scheduled Caste Farmers in the Punjab.
R. B. Sharma Rajendra Agricultural University, India
Impact Assessment of On-Farm Research Project in the Gandak Command, Bihar, India.

Break 10 10:15 am
The Terrace

AFSR/E Plenary Meeting 10:30 12 noon
University Ballroom

Special Notice

AFSR/E Board Members will meet on:

Sunday, October 6 at 12:30 pm at the home of George Axinn.
Thursday, October 10 at 1 pm in the Holiday Inn University
Ballroom, Salon B.

Advisory members of the AFSR/E Symposium will meet in the Board
Room of the Holiday Inn at the following times:

Sunday, October 6 at 2:30 pm.
Wednesday, October 9 at 10 am.
Wednesday, October 9 at 4 pm.
Thursday, October 10 at 10 am.


Program information




Approaches and Methods for Research on Sustainability I

1. Sustainability in Agricultural Development:
Trade-Offs with Productivity, Stability and Equitability
Gordon R. Conway*

The concept of sustainability has rapidly come to mean all things to all people. But for effective policy and practice we
require a definition that is both rigorous and applicable at all levels, from field to nation. The durability, or the lasting
capacity of agricultural systems, has limited usefulness because it can only be measured post-facto. It is, however, a
function of the ability of agricultural systems to withstand stress and shock -whether physical, biological, social or
economic in nature. This is measurable and observable both in experiments and day to day agricultural practice. It is
not the only indicator of performance, however. Productivity, stability and equitability are equally important, and in
practice there are significant trade-offs in development between these four criteria.

This paper provides precise definitions together with examples of measurement and the assessment of the trade-offs
involved. Examples are drawn from the history of agricultural development and from contemporary situation.

2. Measuring Sustainability: Issues and Alternatives
Larry W. Harrington*

There is little agreement among FSR/E practitioners on appropriate methods for the measurement of "sustainability."
Selection of methods hinges on how that term is conceptualized: safeguarding intergenerational equity; enhancement of
system resilience through diversity; or defending and improving farm productivity and natural resource quality. This
paper focuses on the latter. Conceptual issues in the measurement of sustainability are discussed. Measurement of
sustainability is inherently uncertain because of a need to predict future events. The uncertainty surrounding the future
varies with the time frame needed or analysis. Qualitative and directional methods of assessing sustainability are
discussed, including farmer participatory methods. Finally, quantitative methods are introduced. Limitations in time
series analysis-of yield and production trends are discussed. Alternative approaches are considered, including time series
analysis of per capital production and total factor productivity. Decomposition of total factor productivity trends into
technological change and changes in resource quality is advanced as a promising new method. Examples are given from
ongoing work in the Nepal terai to measure, through farmer monitoring, the sustainability of the rice-wheat pattern.

3. Group Innovation in Developing Sustainable Farming
Systems for Rwandan Valleys
Michael Loevinsohn* and Augustin Nkusi

In the densely populated Rwandan highlands, the sustained intensification of valley bottom agriculture is vital to small
farmers' food security. We describe a participatory approach to farming system improvement adapted to a situation

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where, on the one hand, ecological conditions and farmer concerns vary greatly even over short distances and on the
other, formal research faces important human and financial constraints.

Working with 4 groups of farmers, field neighbors or members of cooperatives, we presented several practices new to
Rwanda, though well known elsewhere, that addressed their dominant concerns of land scarcity and declining soil
fertility. These included planting rice either between their raised beds or in paddies and exploiting local Sesbania species
as short-cycle green manures. We emphasized the range of ways new elements could be employed, options which
farmers could modify as they saw fit. Innovation was further encouraged during "travelling seminars" in which groups
visited each other and the station where research proceeded in parallel.

Farmers have widely adopted rice and, in their third season, harvested over 4 t/ha without external inputs. The groups
rapidly evolved new forms of organization required by rice culture and, stimulated by the seminars, developed generally
efficient water management The emerging cropping patterns involve in most cases a labor-intensive alternation of
raised bed and paddy that avoids a rice monoculture, though after an initial rejection, several groups are also planting
rice between the beds. The preferred rotation, however, differs markedly among nearby groups, reflecting local
hydrology and farmers' market orientation.

The study highlights the economies of scale that facilitate the adoption of a new technology such as rice, for example, in
water management and crop protection; lack of attention to scale may explain the failure of previous efforts to introduce
the crop. But experimentation itself may be encouraged in a more intense social environment. This was particularly
apparent with the more "difficult" technique of green manuring; the rate of experimentation was more that 5 times
greater in cooperatives than in more loosely organized groups of field neighbors. Contact with researchers/extensionists
is also more efficient and productive with farmers organized in "natural" groupings. We are now examining with
Ministry officials how our low-cost research methods might be transformed into extension procedures.

4. Methodology for Designing and Evaluating Comparative Cropping Systems
Lu Lohr*, Oran Hesterman, James Kells and Douglas Landis

The purpose of this paper is demonstrate a methodology for designing and evaluating comparative cropping systems
which focuses on the interactions within the systems rather than on particular components of the systems. A descriptive
approach is used to design four systems, ranging from continuous monocropped corn with heavy reliance on chemical
control to a rotational system incorporating legumes and nonchemical control of weeds and insects. Two intermediate
systems are included to complete the continuum of representative systems.

Each system is evaluated for its economic return. Systems are compared on the basis of nitrogen, weed and insect
management and in terms of total variable costs and returns and net returns. Conclusions are made about the feasibility
of the systems in terms of their sustainability. It is found that the lower chemical use systems are lower cost in terms of
both chemical purchases and equipment and labor costs, due to the assumed interactions among system components in
weed and insect protection, nitrogen management and timing of cropping activities. Though variability in yield for
lower chemical systems may be greater, potential net returns are also higher.

Economic sustainability is critical to successful promotion of reduced chemical systems. A single-component approach
is inappropriate to designing comparative systems, since interactions among inputs means that more than one aspect of a
system may need changing to maintain yields. Attention to the entire system and the interaction effects is critical to
designing realistic systems for comparison.

This paper both develops a method for systems design and explains how systems may be meaningfully compared to
answer questions about economic sustainability.

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Institutionalization of FSR/E Within National Agriculture
Research Systems I

5. Institutionalizing FSR/E in Morocco
M. Boughlala*, T.E. Gillard-Byers, RA. Riddle and L. Chraibi

The Moroccan Dryland Applied Agricultural Research Project was initiated in 1979. In 1987 the first component of an
integrated Farming Systems Research-Extension program was introduced. What occurred during the evolution of the
MIAC/Morocco Project which led to the introduction of this component? What must happen for this component to
function as the catalyst for an effective and productive adaptive research program?

These questions will be answered by, first, briefly reviewing the background information on Morocco in the context of
dryland agricultural research. Researchers', extension's and farmers' interrelationships will be examined to provide an
basis for measuring the successes and setbacks encountered during the conceptualization and implementation of On-
Farm Technology Evaluation program, one component of the Technology Transfer Program. The method in which the
Mid-American International Agricultural Consortium and the Institute National de la Rocharche Agronomique (INRA)
cooperated in providing the administrative support and technical assistance necessary to implement the program will be

Technology Transfer is conceived and implemented on the basis of concomitant interaction between research and
extension in two ways. The first interaction results from a linkage and demonstration function. This function is
currently undertaken by the Services de Recherche et Development. The second research-extension linkage is
undertaken by the On-Farm Technology Evaluation Group. Both of these groups have on-farm activities. A third
activity, that of On-Farm Diagnostic Trials, provide a limited opportunity for researcher managed trials on farmers'
fields. These three components will be discussed and developed utilizing flow charts which depict the historical
development and possible future modifications as the institutionalization process continues.

In order to effectively portray this maturation process it will be necessary to describe and discuss the institutional
infrastructure which exists in Morocco. The authors will discuss the administrative systems which provide inputs to the
FSR/E program operating out of the Morocco Aridoculture Center. This discussion will focus on the interrelationships
of the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform (MARA), INRA and the Moroccan University system.

One of the Program's most important functions is that of linkage development. The linkage activities which have been
promoted during the early years of the FSR/E activity will be examined. They will be discussed in the context of internal
linkages and external linkages. A brief chronology of events will be developed as baseline information. The functional
aspects of the program will be developed by presenting evidence of early program success. This will be augmented
through the elaboration of a process by which research agenda development may be undertaken through consensus
among farmers, researchers and extension. The method through which research agenda development may be undertaken
through which goals are incorporated within research projects will be discussed. The integration of the components of
technology transfer across research, extension and farmers will be examined. The discussion will then be summarized,
focusing on issues involving research agenda development, dissemination of information and impact analysis.

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6. Factors Related to the Institutionalization of FSR/E: Cases from Two Regions
in the Philippines
Virginia R. Cardenas*, Wilfreda Maslog and Felina Sanoy

Executive Order 116, known as the Reorganization Law of the Department of Agriculture in the Philippines, stipulated,
among others, the use of the farming systems approach to research and extension in its various development endeavors.
As early as in 1982, FSR/E was formally recognized in the Philippines. From then on, euphoria, confusion, and finally,
determination to institutionalize it owing to its promise among low resource base farm communities as an alternative
option to development. However, to date, the phenomenon of its institutionalization with the research and extension
system in the country is not clearly understood. It is in this context that this study was conducted in order that it will
shed some light on the different factors affecting its institutionalization within the system. This particular analysis
highlights the role of some selected factors, such as organizational (leadership, financial, manpower policies, and
management processes), environment of crop production, communication variables in the institutionalization process
using the various characteristics of FSR/E as criteria.

7. The Multiple Roles of Planning Models of Peasant Farming Systems in
National Agricultural Research Concepts and Initial Experiences from ISAR
(Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Rwanda)
Annemarie Matthess Guerrero*

Situation at ISAR
* Severe budget limitations.
* Strong disciplinary research without systems perspective.
* Deficient knowledge in the area of economic analysis.
* Lack of basic data for economic analysis
* Lack of data and operational instruments for priority setting in agricultural research.
* Practically no accompanying economic analysis except for the releasing stage in technology development This phase
may be too late to reconceptualize technologies and may put the economist in an uncomfortable position showing
agronomic work not to be as "appropriate" as believed.

Consequences of the above institutionally are:
* exclusion of important adoption criteria and thus increased probability that new technologies are rejected.
* average time for development and cost per released or adopted technology increase.
* ISAR may loose its credibility as national research institution in the relationship with peasants, extensionist and
* consequences are apparent particularly at the governmental level where low quality research has led to budget cuts (in a
vicious cycle) and has thus restricted even more the possibilities to do fine quality research.

General Problems of Planning Models
Frequently, planning models are not operational for the final users, researchers and politicians. Causes for this must be
seen in the fact that planning models are normally designed and validated by one person (normally economists) in
isolation from the peasant and institutional context. One consequence may be that models are far away from the peasant
reality and thus cannot serve as instruments of prognosis concerning adoption potential. A further problem is that they
are frequently rejected by the final users as they are not transparent and not operational. Methodological changes
particularly in the design and validation process of FS-planning models are necessary if they shall serve as more
operational instruments in national agricultural research.

Objectives of Operational Planning Models at ISAR
Given the above problems, the use of planning models may contribute to the following objectives:
* Strengthen interdisciplinary exchange and collaboration.

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* Achieve a holistic view of FS and thus better orientation of research activities towards developmental potentials at
farm-household level.
* Accelerate the development of appropriate technologies.
* Optimize the use of ISAR's limited resources.
* Increase rates of adoption and help to define priorities of research.
* Improve the definition of policy recommendations in the longer run.

Key methodological points in this context are: good skills in essential methods of economic analysis of the final users
(scientists), participatory design and validation of the basic models, user-friendliness and flexibility of the developed

State of Knowledge
Experiences concerning low-cost data collection and its organization, instruments of data analysis, training in economic
methods, first experiences of interdisciplinary working groups and initial work in modelling will be presented.

8. Institutionalization of FSR/E Programs in Venezuela: Main Obstacles,
Constraints and Future Directions
Consuelo Quiroz*

Despite the importance of FSR it seems to have had only a reduced impact on national research systems in developing
countries. One of the reasons often given for this situation is the administrative difficulties in introducing this approach.
In other words, there seems to be general agreement that national research services are the appropriate location for FSR.
Despite this, the very fundamental characteristics of national systems have often limited the introduction and/or
expansion of the FSR/E perspective within the existing research and extension hierarchies. The Venezuelan's situation
has not been an exemption. The FSR approach was introduced in this country at the beginning of the 80's (through the
National Foundation for Agricultural Research FONAIAP) against a background of strong commodity and disciplinary
divisions within and between relevant government institutions. FONAIAP started at that time three projects framed
under the Integrated Development/FSR approach (with CIRAD-France's support). In 1988 a separated Farming Systems
Development Division was created within FONAIAP and by 1991 there were only eight (8) FSR projects in the whole
country. This number of projects is a very small one if we consider the large size of the country and the high number of
resource-poor, small-scale farmers that exists. We find in Venezuela that by 1988 from the total number of production
units (381.276p.u.) 72% (276.072 p.u.) have less than 20 has., most of these farmers are resource-poor and as it happens
in other developing countries, they have usually been relegated from the benefits of the mainstream research programs.

The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the main obstacles and constraints that have limited the
institutionalizing process of FSR/E programs in Venezuela. This information will be discussed in terms of the
experience learned at FONAIAP during almost a decade. The problems will be divided into three groups corresponding
to stages in the implementation of the program, namely: a) Pre-project, b) Initial project and c) Continued project stages.
Finally, the paper addresses some of the possible directions that such institutional development could take and which
may serve to inform future developments.

Rapid Rural Appraisal and Other Diagnostic Methods

9. Quick Interviews for Rural Appraisal and Research Planning
Dr. M.Z. Abedin*

Since at the FSR sites scientists have usually less experience, senior professionals from national level are required to
participate in Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) to identify farmers' problems. In Bangladesh, it is quite difficult to bring
together senior professionals in the field even for a week to conduct RRA. To overcome this problem and to have a

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balance of formal and informal interviews, a methodology was designed and tested at three FSR sites. Fifteen to twenty
national level professionals from different disciplines and institutes in addition to the local research and extension
workers, interviewed farmers in groups of 5-6 each. Benefit similar to that of RRA conducted over a period of 10-12
days was obtained by horizontally spreading the number of farmers contacted by several multidisciplinary groups of
scientists. One or two groups were assigned responsibilities to collect data on special issues. The groups were briefed
on some bio-physical aspects of the recommendation domain. Actual interviews took place for a short period of about
two days. The whole team then participated in guided planning sessions to define the major problems of the farmers and
their causes, and suggest researchable areas, according to priority, to solve the identified problems.

The results were checked against those obtained by the site teams through case studies and surveys conducted over a
much longer period. In three FSR project areas where the methodology was tested, the quick interviews generated
information that fairly agreed with and confirmed most of the findings of such background reports. But depth of analysis
and interpretation was better due to the participation of seniors even for the short period. This method provided
opportunity for field level workers to interact with and benefit from the experience of the multidisciplinary professional
team right in the field. Based on the recommendations of the quick interviews, research project have been initiated at the
three FSR sites. The paper describes the detail procedure followed and examples of results obtained.

10. A Methodology for Quantifying Peasant Farming Systems and to Determine
if the Agricultural Policies Reach Them
Faustino Ccama*

The objective of this study is to present a methodology to describe the socio-economic environment, and quantify the
general characteristics of peasants. The second objective is to perceive the effects and relevance of agricultural polices
from the point of view of them. The third objective is to capture the main problems of peasants farming systems

The proposed methodology is an interview, using a pilot sample, reaching 10 to 30 percent of the families. Using a one
visit interview it is possible to quantify and determine the main variables and interactions among the different
subsystems. Some of the advantages of this approach are: low cost, generation of information and results in short-time.
This procedure if complementary instrument to a first appraisal, and to a dynamic survey.

This study describes the agricultural, livestock and family subsystems. Some of the results are that: the guarantee price
set has not benefitted peasants directly, and did not arrive in proper quantities and time. Some of the peasants are getting
credit for the State Bank; the revolving fund established is serving as credit on inputs and technical assistance.

The main constraint is the limited availability of water, particularly in periods or years of drought; therefore it is to
construct small reservoirs, irrigation channels for complementary irrigation. Another constraint is the limited availability
of seed: therefore the state research station should produce more quantities of basic seed and encourage farmers to
participate in further seed multiplication.

11. Research Training with Rural Extensionists: An Experience
Elcy Corrales*

The experience is based on the belief that it is possible and necessary to train functionaries and peasants on the
investigation of their own reality. This is shown through a number of experiences developed by our Research
Programme, in many different rural areas of Colombia.

Methodologically speaking, we work in the participatory research approach and in the exercise of learning by doing. It
is because of this that the training takes place simultaneously with research. During 6 months, a group of 32
functionaries dedicated to the transfer of technology to the small agricultural producers and 3 researchers (a sociologist
and two agronomists) worked together to achieve the following objectives:

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* To study the socio-economic and socio-politic context in which these extensionists work.

* To investigate, together with functionaries and researchers, the main elements of the dynamics of the local production
and the producers including technological and credit issues* To investigate, together functionaries and researchers, the
main elements of the dynamics of the local production and the producers including technological and credit issues

* To train these functionaries to the better development of their work activities.

During the whole process we had the support of the small farm producers of the area, who supplied us with the
information about their history, their region, their farms, their ways of producing and to face technological problems.

The paper describes the process of theoretical and methodological training of the functionaries as well as the research
practice developed by the group. Finally, the paper will show the most important results of the experience, seeking to
show how the socioeconomic analysis gives very important elements for technological research. Also, it opens new work
perspectives where small farm producers. extensionists and institutions generating technology may work concertedly
around the real necessities of these type of producers. In this way we give answers to a general problem of rural

12. Comparing Two Methods for Implementing Farming Systems Surveys in the
Imbo Region in Burundi
Jean-Pierre Hubert*

During 1989 and 1990, the national institute for agricultural research in Burundi (ISABU) conducted two surveys in the
same region. These surveys were based on two different methods:

1. A diagnostic survey was achieved by the SFSR program which is co-financed by USAID. The method was based on
an informal interview of farmers. About fifty people, mainly from ISABU and the concerned extension project, carried
out the investigations of the farmers, following a canvas which was explained during a meeting. Some results of the
survey were checked and rated later during a meeting where farmers and extension people were invited. The aim of the
diagnostic was mainly to point out constraints and problems encountered in the region, in order to plan research and
extension activities for a new ISABU on farm experiment and technology transfer workshop.

2. A formal survey, involving different interview and measurement forms, was achieved by the socio-economics
program which is co-financed by Belgian bilateral aid. This survey was conducted on a sample of 160 farmers. Four
interviewers working permanently in the program carried out the investigations and measurements at the farm level,
during three months. Afterwards, the numerous data were analyzed with the help of a computer.

Some of the results, mainly the constraints and problems quoted by the farmers along the two methods, can be compared
in order to check their reliability. Advantages and disadvantages of both methods are considered in order to emphasize
compulsory for achieving these surveys successfully.

13. Contingent Valuation of Multi-Purpose Tree Resources in Smallholder
Farming Sector, Zimbabwe
T. Lynam

A survey was conducted to a) identify the value of multipurpose tree resources to smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe and
b) establish the relative importance of the different roles multipurpose tree play in the smallholder farming sector.
Sample selection was based on rainfall, tree and population density and wealth. Respondents allocated a fixed number of
counters among pictorial representations of tree use categories as well as two "anchor points" (a hand borehole and a

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"blair" toilet). More detailed tree use information was obtained using simple yes/no questions. Respondents were asked
how much they would be willing to pay to have a borehole sunk that they would share with four other households. They
were also asked how much they would accept if that shared borehole had to be destroyed for a government construction
project. Validity of value responses were checked by establishing a priority hypotheses of correlation relationships
between demographic variables and monetary values given by respondents.

Preliminary analysis of the results indicate that fuel, building materials and animal feed are the highest value roles of
multipurpose trees. The role trees play in maintaining ecosystem properties, generating cash income and providing food
were less important. The roles trees play in aesthetics, health and social functions were least important.

The results indicate that this methodology may provide useful guidelines for the valuation of common access resources
in rural areas where data are scarce. As such, these results facilitate identification of research priorities for valuation and
agroforestry technology development.

Farmer Participation in On-Farm Trials

14. Farmers' Drawings: A Tool for Modelling Resource Flows on African
Smallholder Farms
Sloans Chimatiro* and Reg Noble

Farmers' drawings are a tool which have been used with some success to understand integrated agriculture-aquaculture
farming systems in Malawi, Central Africa. Farmer drawings enable farmers to visualize their farming systems and
improve integration of their farm enterprises.

Eighty-five percent of the population in Malawi lives in the rural areas and are involved in subsistence farming, which
contributes only 17% to total crop exports. Rural households have insufficient cash income to buy fertilizers for crops,
or feeds for livestock. Many farms are reliant on internal bioresources which are recycled between different enterprises.
Improvement in overall farming efficiency might be achieved by redirecting some of these agricultural residues through
fishponds, thus producing high protein food and an additional cash crop.

Six farmers involved in small-scale aquaculture drew diagrams of resource flows between ponds and other enterprises on
their farms. Drawings illustrated farm enterprises by boxes, and resource flows by arrows between boxes. Resources in
the boxes, and materials flowing along the arrows were then quantified with the help of the farmer.

Diagrams provided information on the level of integration between enterprises on each individual farm. A wide range of
variation was apparent, some farms showing little integration and others very complex links between farming activities,
with fishponds acting as major processors of agricultural residues. The six farms had an average of 34 (range 23-51)
different resource flows; 11 (range 8-18) different agricultural residues were being used as pond inputs.

Quantification of these models enabled farmers and researchers to estimate the likely influence of a pond on overall
efficiency of the farnm'system. Between July and January the six farm had added to the fishponds an average of 55.7 kg,
46.9 kg, 53.8 kg, 39.5 kg, 2.6 kg and 2.1 kg of rice bran, maize bran, chicken manure, termites, waste vegetables, left-
over food, and waste fruits, respectively. These by-products would have otherwise not been used and lost to the farm
system. However, they were utilized for production of fish; and the overall efficiency and productivity of the farm was

Farmers' drawings provided an instant picture of local farming systems and indigenous agro-ecological knowledge.
Therefore, these drawings could be used as an educational tool for knowledge interchange between farmers, as well as
between farmers and researchers.

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15. The Introduction of Row Seeding Techniques in the Traditional Rice Farming
System of the Gambia
Dr. Ibrahima Diallo*

Women are exclusively the traditional rice growers in The Gambia. They till the land using hand hoes, a long and
tedious task which leaves them little energy to perform subsequent refined cultural practices. When seeding time comes,
the women simply broadcast the seeds at random, a practice that is not conducive to good yields when compared to row

The purpose of this paper is to describe two attempts made during the 1989 and 1990 cropping seasons by the Gambian
Research Service to introduce row seeding techniques in the rice farming areas. The use of the super eco seeder pulled
by animal traction is examined and contrasted with the adoption of a simply designed hand-pulled row marker.

On-Farm Trials were conducted to show the advantages of the row seeding techniques. Field demonstrations, farmers'
field days, posters, village field shows were used to teach farmers the use of both the super eco seeder and row marker.
A follow-up survey using individual, structured interviews was conducted to collect farmers opinions and feedback on
the row seeding technique.

The results showed that row seeding had definite advantages over broadcasting by a) allowing early weed control and
reducing weeding time by 30%; b) increasing fertilizer use efficiency and c) leading to higher yields. The results also
indicated that a major constraint to the adoption of the super eco seeder was the lack of ownership by the women of the
animals needed for the traction. Another constraint was the weight of the implements under heavy moisture conditions.
The women appreciated the use of the hand pulled row marker. Adoption of this technique was widespread, limited only
by the availability of a suitable rice ecology. Additional research is needed to reduce the time required to seed rice using
the row marker.

16. Gender Analysis in a Migrant Community
D.P. Ghimire*, R.C. Sharma, N.N. Joshi, P. Sharma, N.P. Joshi and S.N. Tiwary

A Study was undertaken in two newly settled villages in the central development region of Nepal to gather information
on 1) gender issues in agriculture; 2) decision making process; and 3) time allocation to tasks performed by female and
male members of household. The methodology involved a baseline study of the 247 households using a detailed
questionnaire. Data were collected from 62 farm families on time allocation scheduling in different farm and household
activities over a year period. Two visits to the farm families were made for each crop cycle. The results indicated that
cash income obtained from crops, livestock, and other sources was less available to female members compared to male
members of the household. Comparative education levels differ between males and females. A larger percent of the
female population have agriculture as their main occupation. Though joint decisions dominate, women make more
decisions related to household and farm activities where as men make more decisions in areas of marketing of daily use
goods as well as sale and purchase of costly items. Time allocation tasks of men and women for maize and wheat
growing cycles are discussed in the paper. The simple recall method of time allocation survey produced results which
support findings of rather more time consuming frequent observation survey.

17. Trial Designs and Logistics for Farmer Implemented Technology
Assessments, with Large Numbers of Farmers: Some Approaches Used in
G.M. Heinrich* and S. Masikara

Small scale farmers in Botswana require a wide range of technology options from which they can develop production
packages appropriate to a given year, and a given set of production resources. This is due to the large year-to-year

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climatic variations that occur, and the fact that the farming community is quite heterogeneous in their access to
resources. To expand the range of options that could be examined by the on-farm FSR/E team, and to bring farmers
more directly into the technology development process, a farmer managed, farmer implemented trials program was
initiated in 1985. This was done using a group format (ROFG's) in the Francistown Region. In some years, more than
140 farmers participated in the program, implementing over 200 separate trials. Trials of each technology item were
implemented according to a standardized format, to allow for a statistical analysis of grain yields. The specific
approaches that evolved to handle the logistics of trials implementation, while maintaining scientific rigor, are discussed
in the paper.

Maintaining scientific rigor was important, and required a careful balance between farmers' managerial requirements and
skills and researchers scientific requirements. Two types of trials were commonly used and found to be effective and
practical. There were side-by-side two plot comparisons and multi-plot trials involving a single replication per farm.
Both required replication over several farms. Analysis procedures are described in the paper and examples of data
output are presented. An effective implementation system combining both farmer and researcher input was one where
side-by-side comparisons were not generally useful, and an alternative approach was eventually employed.

Results indicated that with this approach, the farming community could implement a large number of trials on a wide
range of technology options with sufficient rigor to permit useful statistical evaluations. The system was based on
regular "group" meetings (involving researchers and farmers), the use of simple trial designs, farmer management of
trials, and the application of strict trials evaluation criteria to assess trial validity.

18. Identification of Problems and Research Program Development for the Small
Farmers at the FSR Site, Palima, Tangail, Bangladesh
Md. Murshidul Hoque*, M.MR. Khan, MZ. Abedin, R.N. Mallick and Md. Ruhul Amin

On-farm research is a subset of Farming Systems Research that can be used to generate new technology appropriate for
representative farmers. Farming Systems Research is a research method designed to understand farmers problem,
priorities, strategies and resource allocation decisions.

The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the new methodology used at Palima, Farming Systems Research site
by the FSR team to directly involve the farmers in the research process through a collaborative mode. Involving farmers
in different steps of research process, defining priorities up to arriving at the realistic work plan based on farmers needs
is an appropriate way to develop the situation. Planning for this process starts right in the target site. The FSR team
goes to the target site and starts the process by holding meetings among the farmers and community leaders and initiating
active discussion on the current situation of the community. Farm problems are identified and possible solutions are
determined. For problem identification, various survey RRA methods village meetings and case studies are also
performed the time of prioritization of the farmers problems and research proposals to solve them. Diagnosis and
solutions to farmers problems tend to remain with the professional agriculturist and researchers. Farmers specially those
in the "middle majority" category should become more involved identifying their own research needs and priorities
through dialogue with scientists.

19. The Use of Ethnographic Interview in Understanding Resource Allocation at
the Farm Level: An Example from a Sample of Lowland Farms in Leyte,
Daniele Perrot-Maitre* and Thomas F. Weaver

In this paper, indigenous resource taxonomies of lowland rice farmers in Leyte, Philippines, are used to develop an
understanding of farmers resource allocation decisions and choice of technology. Ethnographic interviews are used to
obtain primary data which is used in specifying and quantifying a set of production models which describe resource
allocation for two rice crops. This analysis shows that, among other things, farmers have complex taxonomies of soils,


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labor, and varieties, and that a knowledge of these taxonomies is useful in specifying production models and
understanding management. The paper concludes with a discussion of the useful insights gained for motivating change
including farmers' participation and directing research and extension agendas. The extent to which farmers' knowledge
corroborates conventional scientific knowledge and the limitation of the methodology as a research tool is also

20. Involving Women Farmers in Technology Generation and Transfer: An
Experience of Lumle Regional Agricultural Research Centre's FSR/E Approach
in the Western Hills of Nepal
Anil Subedi*

In the extremely complex and diverse farming systems of the hills of Nepal, women play a key role in the whole system.
Their role in the farm activities is important not only because a large number of women farmers are engaged in farming,
but because a wide range of activities are performed and significant farm decisions are made by them. Their huge
contribution in agricultural development, thus, cannot be overlooked.

However, recognizing women as farmers is one thing, involving them in technology generation and reaching them with
agricultural extension services is another. Most extension in agriculture has been run by male staff for male farmers.
Moreover, women are virtually neglected in technology generation and design. This neglect of women farmers can be
costly and inefficient because technology needs are different for different user's groups and the same technology will not
be suitable and appropriate for all the groups. Hence little or no adoption has occurred.

In this respect, Lumle Regional Agricultural Research Centre (LRARC), a multidisciplinary project in the western hills
of Nepal, has been involved in increasing agricultural productivity and income of hill farmers through generation,
verification and dissemination of relevant technology with FSR/E perspectives and is focusing more on women farmers
in technology generation and transfer.

This paper will contain how women farmers are being involved in identifying and diagnosing problems and priorities,
testing and verification of technologies and transfer of recommended technologies through women groups, locally
employed mature extension workers, women agricultural assistants, farmer to farmer training and other methods of
extension in its command areas. Examples will be given with case studies of how development objectives have been
achieved through the institutionalization of the FSR/E approach by involving women farmers in research and extension.

Assessment of Institutional Factors/Interventions

21. Policy 'Conflict' and Small Farmer Response: The Case
of Food Crop Farmers in Ghana
Samuel Asuming-Brempong* and Alfred Asante

Ghana's food crop sector is mainly subsistence and dominated by small holders with low productive base and limited
access to credit. Successive governments have sought to improve farmer productivity through the introduction of new
technologies, and by improving research-extension farmer linkages.

The structural adjustment program (SAP) in Ghana has emphasized small farmer productivity. Improved technologies
such as the use of improved seed varieties, fertilizers, and improved cultural practices have been recommended. The
Ministry of Agriculture's Extension Service is being strengthened to effectively assist farmers. Other programs such as


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Global 2000 which have emphasized the Farming Systems Research and Extension approach have also been promoted in
this direction.

On the other hand, a major element of the SAP in Ghana is food crop market liberation. This implies removal of both
subsidies on farm inputs and price controls on outputs, among others. The resultant high cost of farm inputs and
therefore high production cost using improved technologies has almost derailed the progress made towards changing the
traditional orientation of the small farmer.

An assessment of the impact of the seemingly conflicting policies in relation to the small scale food crop farmer under
the SAP has been made. A strengthening of institutional factors such as facilitating land ownership, strengthening on
farm research, improving access to credit, and encouraging membership in cooperative organizations has been

22. Management of Natural Resources with Farmers' Participation in a
Degrading Environment
H. Djouara*, E.J. Jager and M.L.M. Kooijman

This paper describes experiences in a test zone in south Mali, where extension, administrative and research services,
together with farmers are experimenting in an approach to manage natural resources. The experiment started several
years ago as an erosion control activity but gradually developed into the broader concern of natural resources
management. The paper addresses the following issues:

- a description of the current approach and its evolution over time,
- major bottlenecks that have so far been encountered or are likely to be encountered,
- results of experiments with potential solutions to constraints.

Specific attention will be given to the mix of technical, economical and political measures and interventions at the
regional, village, farm and field level in order to achieve the intended goal of a sustainable agriculture. Under the current
economic conditions, it is evident that this goal cannot be achieved when applying a criteria of positive net economic
benefit. Thus, a combination of economic incentives and strict enforcement of protective measures appears necessary,
whereby enforcement will have to be executed by the farmer community itself.

23. Women, Credit and Resource Use in Rural Mali
Bill Grigsby*, Jo Ellen Force

The importance of rural women to development in the Third World is diminished by the "statistical invisibility" of their
contributions. This, in turn, masks women's true potential, which has often led intervening agencies to underestimate
their capacity and relegate them to minor roles in rural development. Many recent attempts to redress this situation have
focused on expanding rural women's access to formal credit, ostensibly to finance income-generating activities.

However land and labor could be as limiting to income generation as access to credit is assumed to be, which would
greatly restrict the range of economic opportunities that financing might spur among rural women. This descriptive
study examines existing village organization of land, labor and financial capital as they relate to resource-related
investment. It also looks at the hypothetical introduction of formal credit (through bank lending) and its possible effects
on the stability of women's forest use within bush fallow agriculture.

The face-to-face survey was chosen as the tool of inquiry. Seventy-three respondents from three villages in the Upper
Niger Valley region of Mali were interviewed. Forest use was represented by two dominant resource practices (Firey
1960)--fuelwood and shea nut (from the fruit of Vitellaria paradox) use. Their stability is assessed using Firey's
concepts of resource complex and congeries.


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Results suggest that much of women's informal borrowing, lending and saving depends on forest and agricultural
products, and that forest use is tied to the bush fallow system of rotation. However reported resource-related investment
among respondents was minimal, and did not increase with the hypothetical introduction of a formal source of credit.
This suggests that other productive factors, particularly land, whose allocation rests with the patriarchal clan, are more
limiting to resource-related investment among women than is investment capital.

24. Constraints on Women in Agricultural Education Programs
Helen K. Henderson*, Barbara S. Hutchinson and Mark B. Lynham

Increasing the number of women receiving agricultural education is necessary if government services are to reach the
majority of farmers in developing countries. There is a strong need for more women professionals to work as planners,
technicians, researchers and extensionists, and to be responsible for continuing to integrate strategic gender issues into
developing country national planning. By integrating gender-specific materials into the agricultural curriculum a cadre
of professionals will be generated who can promote the goals of "women in development" for agricultural sustainability
and ecosystem protection. An initial step in achieving this goal is to assess the current situation in agricultural education
regarding the training of women professionals and the relevance of this training to the needs of small-hold farmers.

During the late 1980's project personnel in Mauritania, Botswana, Nepal and Kenya collected data on the participation of
women in agricultural education programs. These projects looked at a number of variables including: 1) Enrollment
levels; 2) educational curriculum; 3) professional goals; 4) resources available; and 5) job opportunities. In analyzing
these variables limitations on women agricultural students were identified. This paper will discuss the attitudinal,
familial, educational, logistical, and institutional constraints faced by women in these agricultural programs.

25. Structural Adjustment and Farm-Level Responses in Sub-Saharan Africa:
Lessons From The Gambia
Malcolm McPherson* and Joshua Posner

A key element in the ultimate success of the structural adjustment programs currently being implemented in Sub-Saharan
Africa is the response of the agricultural sector. Once the major price distortions have been removed and the budget and
balance of payments deficits decline, The principal challenge is to raise agricultural productivity. It is unclear, however,
whether farmers will decide that it is in their best interests to make the necessary investment in agriculture to produce a
sustained increase in output.

In the past, calls for increased agricultural productivity were typically met by further government intervention. With
governments now under severe budget pressure; public support for agriculture has fallen. Production risks are being
shifted increasingly to farmers. Furthermore, structural adjustment programs have produced mixed signals. Product
prices are higher, but so too are the costs of inputs. Price instability has tended to increase as well. The uncertainty has
reduced the incentive for farmers to expand investment. The cuts in public funding have also affected workers in
agricultural research and extension. To respond constructively, they will have to learn to do more, faster, and with fewer

This article examines the circumstances in The Gambia during the period 1985 to 1990 during which the country was
implementing a broad-based structural adjustment program. The improved macroeconomic policies provided a generally
positive setting for agriculture. The investment response by farmers, however, has been timid. We discuss the main
factors involved and indicate ways the agricultural research system can respond to induce sustained improvements in
agricultural productivity.

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26. FSR/E Approach: How to Make it Work at the Farmers' Level
Maztien van Nieuwkoop*, Toon Defoez and Sayed Sajiclin Hussein

Extension in Malakand Division (NWFP), Pakistan used to be top-down. Free inputs were provided and
recommendations were based on standard research findings not adapted to local needs. Consequently, real problems of
farmers were not solved. Moreover, extension only addressed relatively wealthy farmers.

In 1989 the PATA Project introduced an FSRE approach in the extension service and the agricultural research system in
selected areas of NWFP. The approach is bottom-up and links FSR and extension in one single agricultural development
program (ADP).

The paper gives a detailed description of the functional setup of the ADP. It indicates how research and extension are
integrated and how other national institutes can participate. Moreover, it is outlined how seasonal action plans for
agricultural development are formulated, implemented and how the planning process is institutionalized.

Research deals with problem identification, synthesis, technology design and experimentation, resulting in the
formulation of system adapted recommendations. Rapid rural appraisal is one of the techniques used at the initial stages.
Extension assesses farmers' interest and formulates training packages based on the system adapted recommendations.
Farmers are organized in seasonal farmer interest groups (FIGs) to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the
extension service.

The remarkable results of the approach are illustrated by two examples: introduction of potatoes as a cash crop in the
Buner District and the improvement of agricultural practices in the cultivation of onions in Swat District. The success of
the approach is noticed at the provincial level. The methodology will be incorporated in the curricula of the training
institute for extension agents. This assures gradual adoption of the approach in other divisions of the NWFP.

The paper concludes that the present application of the FSRE approach is more efficient in formulating new
recommendations as compared to the traditional extension approach, while extension activities are more relevant to
farmers' problems.

Measuring Technological Change

27. Analysis of Small-Farmers' Incremental Technology Adoption Behavior in
Samuel M. Dlamini*

The main objective of this study is to investigate the factors with the adoption of production increasing technologies by
Swazi Nation Land (SNL) farmers. The main focus is on individual technologies aimed at increasing maize production.
On Swazi Nation Land, production is mainly for subsistence with maize as the major crop. The main objective of the
Swaziland's Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives is to formulate policies and programs to encourage Swazi farmers
to adopt the recommended farming practices and thus increase food production. The recommended farming practices
and the factors associated with their adoption and the measures of each factor are discussed. Economic theory and
previous studies on adoption of agricultural technologies are reviewed.

Data collection procedures are described. Logistic regression is the statistical technique used to investigate why Swazi
Nation Land farmers adopted or failed to adopt improved agricultural technologies.

This study identified seven factors significant in explaining why SNL farmers adopted improved agricultural
technologies. Recommended agricultural policies and programs that the Swaziland Government can use to encourage
Swazi farmers to adopt recommended farming practices are discussed.

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28. Role of Farmers in the Evaluation of an Improved Variety: The Case of S35
Sorghum in Northern Cameroon
M. Kamuanga* and Martin Fobasso

Efforts to develop high yielding, stable, and early-maturing grain sorghum varieties in the Extreme North Province of
Cameroon produced an apparent resounding success with the first on-farm tests of the variety S35 in 1984 and its release
in 1986. In 1984, an extreme drought year, S35 consistently out yielded traditional varieties. These results caused great
excitement and led to S35 being recommended to the regional extension agency.

Following three subsequent years of on-farm testing under more favorable rainfall conditions, it became apparent that the
variety while indeed stable and high yielding had serious problems including susceptibility to grain mold, bird
damages and lodging, and unfamiliar dates of planting. An acceptability survey was conducted in 1987 to assess the
extent of adoption of S35 among farmers who participated in early on-farm tests. In 1988 and 1989 not only socio-
economic constraints to adoption but also some farmer-initiated strategies for incorporating S35 into their traditional
mixed cropping systems.

In 1990 a formal adoption survey of more than 1000 farmers was run to provide facts and reliable data about the variety.
Results indicate that 13% of farmers planted S35 in 1990; these are frequently early adopters of 3-5 years ago now
allocating over 40% of their sorghum field to S35; they use more of other improved practices for sorghum than non-
adopters and are located in drought prone zones. Reasons for adoption and non-adoption, together with these results now
form the basis for revising breeding objectives in order to better respond to farmers' needs.

29. Trends in Farming Practices Among the Tharus of Chitwan, Nepal
Fanindra Thapa* and Dibya Timsina

The Tharus account for nearly 3.6 percent of the total population of Nepal, and belong to one of the most disadvantaged
aboriginal ethnic community inhabiting on the plains of the country. After malaria eradication in 1954, they were
displaced from their land by large scale immigration of hill people relegating them to a low status in the Nepalese
societies. They sustain their living by following primitive style of farming which is diverse and complex in nature.
However, over the recent past the socio-economic status of the Chitwan Tharus have considerably been improved by use
of improved seeds, onfarm tree plantation and better management practices. This study suggests that a particular
farming model should be developed for the special benefit of this community.

30. Evolvement and Adoption of Location Specific Technology: A Farming
Systems Research/Extension Experience in Sri Lanka
Mahinda Wijeratne*

A Scheme designed and implemented to protect an area subjected to frequent flooding has subsequently resulted adverse
effects on rice cultivation. After completion of the scheme, farmers were confronted with series of problems such as
acidic condition, salinity, iron toxicity, water logging and water stress. The intensity of such problems varies to a high
degree. However, almost all the farmers in the area could not receive a reasonable new farm return during the past
seasons and further, some farmers were forced out of agriculture as their small plots did not provide sufficient new
returns to sustain their families. A Farming Systems Research /Extension (FSRE) programme was launched in this area
to identify the existing problems in farmers' fields and to offer practical solutions. Efforts were taken to screen tolerant
rice varieties for the adverse soil conditions since 1987. Experimental plots and on-farm trials were conducted and
further, agronomic and economic evaluations were undertaken. Among the rice varieties tested, two rice varieties, BW.
273-2 and At. 85-1 have given satisfactory results. Therefore, subsequently, extension efforts too, were taken to
disseminate this low-cost innovation. This paper attempts to demonstrate the procedure taken to evolve a technology to
provide a solution to an adverse soil condition experienced in a specific farming environment and to make an assessment
of the technology adoption.

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Approaches and Methods for Research on Sustainability II

31. Sustainable Land Use Systems Research Methods to Reverse the Crisis in
Asia's Sloping Upland Ecosystem
Dennis P. Garrity*

Recent assessments of land use systems in the Asian region identify the sloping uplands as paramount among
ecosystems in crisis. Dense subsistence cultivation on the ecologically fragile sloping lands, insecure land tenure,
accelerating land degradation, massive soil loss, impending loss of primary tropical hardwood forest, and the failure
of reforestation, are some of the interconnected elements of a crisis that has proven largely intractable. More
productive and sustainable land use systems must be developed under conditions of severe social and economic

Current efforts and organizational structures to address the problems are seriously inadequate. In the uplands it is at
the interface between forestry and farming that the dominant research and development challenges are encountered.
For upland farming populations to become effective partners with government in conserving, managing, and replanting
forests, while meeting their needs for subsistence food production and great farm income, comprehensive understanding
of the complex, interrelated constraints is essential. Only teamwork will generate truly workable solutions.

Farming systems research methods will make the greatest impact upon the problems by further evolving into a
sustainable land use systems research methodology, capable of bringing together widely separated disciplines in
agriculture and forestry in effective teams, with a common and explicit systems analysis framework to guide them.
This paper reviews the conceptual basis, and current research developments, that are leading to superior methods to
investigate sustainable land use systems for the Asian sloping uplands. Particular emphasis is given to methodology
applications in the area of conservation farming systems for sloping lands.

Finally, a strategy for applying systems analysis to the land use constraints of the upland ecosystem is discussed,
composed of three over-arching elements: Tenure, Technology, and Delivery. Tenure encompasses populations and
their relationship to the land. Technology covers the technical solutions, and the institutional capabilities to develop
them. Delivery involves the mechanisms which government institutions and the private sector employ to deliver
policy and infrastructural support to guide the change process. The systems research directions for each of the three
elements, and their interactions, are analyzed.

32. Sustainable Agrosilvopastoral Systems in Dry Areas
Ing. Juan Ernesto Celada, Ruben Roca and Jose Medrano*

El Proyecto Sistemas Agrosilvopastoriles Sostenibles para Pequeflos Productores del Tropico Seco de Centro
America ha sido formulado por el CATIE -, en respuesta a la necesidad de buscar estrategias integradas inmediatas,
para solucionar las causes y efectos de la pobreza rural y reducir el impact asociado sobre el deterioro de los
recursos naturales.

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Su filosofia se sustenta en el concept de sostenibilidad de los recursos, en funci6n de un aumento de la productividad y
la producci6n agropecuaria con el fin de mejorar el nivel de vida de la poblacion rural. El trabajo se desarrolla bajo el
enfoque de sistomas integrados de producci6n, aplicando su metodologia general y desarrollando nuevas, dada la poca
experiencia mundial de aplicar este enfoque y otros a sistemas completes.

La unidad base de intervenci6n es la finca, como un sistema, dentro del entorno de la comunidad y la region, con los
subsistemas principles que son los cultivos, la ganaderia, agroforeteria y el hogar. Por naturaleza es un proyecto
integrado tanto interdisciplinario como interinstitucional, participando organismos nacionales y regionales de
investigaci6n, trasferencia y educaci6n superior.

Se parti6 de un diagn6stico y caracterizaci6n, que ha permitido disefiar opciones mejoradas en Sistemas
Agrosilvopastoriles quemanejan los propios productores coejecutores. Caracteristicas:

1. Es un proyecto participation de validaci6n de tecnologia, sin descartar la investigaci6n adaptativa.

2. Orientado a productores de escasos recursos en areas de ladera y que dediquen una significativa proporci6n a
ganaderia de double prop6sito.

3. Integra e interacciona cultivos, ganaderia, agroforesteria, suelos y agua y resalta el papel de la mujer en las actividades

En su primer afio de se ha logrado iniciar validaci6n de tecnologias agrosilvopastoriles en 25 fincas, con 40 families
nucleares y 19 comunidades de Jutiapa, Guatemala, desarrollado una estrategia y una metodologia que ha logrado la
integraci6n real de coejecutores y equipos multidisciplinarios e interinstitucionales.

33. Sustainable Environmental Programs in Developing Countries
Gail E. Updegraff* and Douglas J. Lawrence

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the benefits achieved and costs incurred for The Gambian Soil and Water
Management Project. Initiated in fiscal year 1978, the project goal was to establish a Soil and Water Management Unit
(SWMU) in The Gambia. The financial and technical assistance for this project has been a joint venture of The Gambian
government, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the Soil Conservation Service (SCS),
and the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (Deutsche Gesallschaft Fur Techische Zusammenarbeit, GTZ).

The paper investigates the sustainability of the SWMU. That is, once the donor support is withdrawn will the SWMU be
self-sustaining and will there be sufficient incentive for the villages to maintain or expand their conservation
achievements. This appears to be the case in The Gambia. One major reason for The Gambia's success in this endeavor
is that the project operates within the labor and capital constraints of The Gambian farmers and rural communities.
Another reason for the project's sustainability is the enduring changes in agricultural practices that improved agricultural
productivity while conserving resources.

The economic, social, and environmental analyses indicate that the SWMU Project does indeed increase production of
food while protecting the natural resources. This is true both from the perspective of the contributing agencies and from
the perspective of continuing support by The Gambian government. However, the economic analysis supports
concentrating the assistance by USAID and GTZ over a shorter period of time. As such, if this program is applied in
other African states, measures to ensure timely transfer of the program to the local government would be desirable.

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34. Some Aspects of Indigenous Land Management
Techniques in Southwestern Nigeria
MA. Adewole Osunade*

This study investigates the knowledge of indigenous land management techniques possessed by small farmers of
southwestern Nigeria. A total of 445 farmers aged between 30 and 60 years were interviewed from 32 villages of three
local government areas of Ondo and Oyo State of Nigeria.

The small farmers possess adequate knowledge of problems created by land utilization and make efforts to proffer
solutions. Some of the techniques are quite popular and some are localized to certain communities and families. There
is more to reality than what we can observe as some of the techniques are unique and shrouded in mystery, yet their
effectiveness cannot be contested. For example, control of termites and grasshoppers and the water immobilization from
yam leaves back to the tubers in the Ikale area.

The survival of some of these mystified techniques is being threatened with the passing away of old people. No efforts
should be spared to get to the roots of these techniques. In recent years, the medical practitioners have intensified their
efforts to integrate traditional medicines into the health care delivery of the nation. The agricultural extensionists should
embark on a similar drive to understand and integrate the farmers management techniques into the nation's farming

Technology Generation and Diffusion: Methods

35. On Farm Research as a Component in Overall Evaluation and Assessment of
New Cultivar Adoption Potential
T.G. Kelley*, T.S. Walker

On-station results at ICRISAT centre have consistently demonstrated the superior yield potential of new short-duration
pigeonpea (SDP) cultivars over traditional, medium-duration pigeonpea types. In 1987, on-farm research was initiated to
evaluate the production and economic potential of SDP at the farm level within three agroclimatic zones of peninsular
India. Results from on-farm trials conducted in 1987 and subsequent observation and monitoring studies in 1988 and
1989 indicated that SDP under rainfed conditions had fair yield potential at only one of three sites. In contrast, the
potential for expansion of SDP into areas having access to limited irrigation, or into areas with uncertain supplies of
irrigation water, appeared good. With lower mean input costs, SDP is an attractive alternative to high-input, high-return
paddy cultivation. As water supplies diminish, or where budgetary restrictions at the farm level become relevant, SDP's
comparative advantage would be greater.

Demonstrated superior yield and economic performance at the farm level is a necessary but not sufficient condition for
farmer acceptance of new technology. Follow-up discussions with farmers at the study sites revealed that preference for
very low-management input crop technology (under rainfed conditions), static expectations based on last year's
performance, perceived risks associated with insect attack, relatively higher profit variability, and general uncertainty
about prices and markets, were reasons why acceptance of SDP cultivars is constrained, even where SDP field
performance was encouraging. These aspects are often overlooked in simple on-farm trial assessments of new
technology. That on-farm research results are, of themselves, insufficient for speculating about the adoption potential of
new technology is further corroborated by other methods of assessment. The first SDP cultivar was released in 1985.
Based on reports from state and district level TV agricultural offices, rural reconnaissance surveys, and data on seed
sales and distribution, adoption of SDP cultivars in peninsular India has yet to "take off"/ SDP adoption in the states of
Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh is still less than $5, though slowly increasing: while in other states (Andhra Pradesh,
Karnataka, Tamil Nadu) adoption is still negligible. Results of this macro-level diagnostic analysis suggests that further

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expansion of SDP cultivars critically depends of finding an effective and economic means of controlling insect pests.
TV staff and farmers consider this to be the single most important production problem in SDP cultivation. Renewed
efforts to incorporate greater tolerance to insect pests in SDP genotypes through various mechanisms is now being given
top priority in the further development of SDP technology at ICRISAT.

36. Participatory Methodologies in Whole Farm Research Approach
MMR. Khan*

Different research approaches have been practiced at the Farming Systems Research (FSR) site in Palima, Bangladesh
from initiation to now. Included are the component study, (research & farmer managed trials) superimposed trials,
cropping systems study, whole farm research study, etc. Farmer's participation was ensured at different stages such as
problem or prospect identification, prioritization, planning, implementation, evaluation and diffusion. But evaluation
indicated that few technologies sustain in the systems after withdrawal of inputs. The farmers become interested in
getting more and more input To overcome the identified problem, a whole farm research approach has been initiated
with resource poor farmers (landless & marginal) which represent 70% of the farming community. The objectives were
to increase income and livelihood and find ways of sustainability. The total resource, yearly income, expenditure, cost of
living and financial position of the 24 farmers were determined, out of them twelve were cooperators, the test twelve
control. All income generating sectors (i.e. crops, livestock, fishery) were improved by intervening with modem
technologies. The cooperator farmers' received full technical and 50% input support. The input help was withdrawn
step-wise. The results indicated that 75% of technologies sustain in the systems with those where input investment was
little and availability of input was ensured. On the other hand the integrated approach help in risk adjustment and
cumulative effects of intervention led them to improve their income. This approach seems to be a promising one, so
farmers become interested in following up the integrated approach. This approach could be tried on a national basis for
wider adoption of technologies in the clustered village program of the country.

37. Gap in Technology Recommendation and Farmers' Adoption: A Case of
Potato Planting Methods in the Eastern Hills of Nepal
R.K. Shrestha*, RJ. Khadka and D.P. Gibbon

In the eastern hills of Nepal, farmers use cut or eye pieces of Potato as the planting material and eat the remnant tuber.
The national recommendation, however, is to plant egg sized whole tubers. This recommendation is not followed by
farmers, however, for a variety of reasons.

To understand why farmers did not adopt the recommendation, Pakhribas Agricultural Centre (PAC), the Eastern
Region, Regional Research Centre, conducted a series of whole tuber and cut/eye piece planting experiments in the
farmers' fields and collected both technical and socio-economic information on potato production systems. The results
revealed that cut/eye piece planting was as good as whole tuber planting in terms of tuber yield. Moreover, because of
socio-economic considerations, cut/eye piece planting was more suited.

There are other recommendations which have failed due to the lack of a good understanding of farmers' problems,
practices and traditions which are highlighted in the paper. Our experience has shown that farmers technologies can be
superior in many aspects that can't be understood simply by asking questions. For example, farmers simply say that a
practice is being followed because it is a tradition. The paper emphasizes that there is a need to research first into
farmers' practices before technology development and recommendation to farmers and discusses, with examples, how
farmers' methods can be researched and how only simple modifications and improvements in farmers' technology can
enhance its adoption. Finally, the prospects and limitations of research on farmers' practices are discussed.

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38. The Dynamics of Improved Bean Varieties in Rwanda
Dr. Louise Sperling*, Dr. Michael Loevinsohn

In Rwanda, the primary channel of diffusion of new varieties is through farmer-to-farmer distribution. Studies at the
Institute des Sciences Agronomiques du Rwanda (ISAR) assessed the rate of such diffusion for 4 varieties that had been
tested on-farm in 3 regions. It was found that the small average farm size (ca. 0.7 ha) influences the rate of multiplication
by those initial recipients: 2 or more seasons are needed until sufficient quantities are available for sale or exchange.
Further, the initial small quantities and widespread poverty make farmers particularly vulnerable to losing even
appreciated varieties during these first seasons: out of necessity, seed may be consumed, ill-health may prevent a farmer
from harvesting, etc. Distribution tends to be socially-restricted and many farmers are reluctant to circulate varieties at

The diffusion of new varieties and its speed can be understood as the resultant of two processes: "natality" (the rate at
which new users are created through distribution after the initial period of multiplication) and "mortality" (the rate of
disappearance of a variety from individual farms). Borrowing techniques from demography, it was found that the "life
expectancy" the mean longevity of a variety in farmers' fields and the mean number of secondary recipients of the
variety per season are correlated both with each other and with independent measures of farmer appreciation of the
varieties. The doubling time of appreciated varieties ranges from 3 to 5 seasons.

The study has several implications: 1) It suggests that the process of diffusion may be qualitatively different for small than
large farmers; precisely those who most need improved cultivars may have the greatest difficulty keeping them. 2) It
presents a useful model for measuring expansion which realistically incorporates varietal loss as well as adoption. 3) It
outlines a strategy for improving the access to new varieties by small farmers in areas where central seed distribution
services are weak.

Trade/Policy Effects on Farming Systems

39. Exploring Incentives for Cooperation Between Coconut Smallholders and
Integrated Coconut Processing Unit in Indonesia
Ridwan Dereinda*, C.PA. Bennett and Triana Saputro

Coconut is an important estate crop for Indonesia as a source of edible oil for domestic consumption and as a source of
income for around 2 million farmers. In 1989, the total area of coconut plantations was around 3.3 million hectares =
97% of the area was owned by smallholders. In the last five years, the price of the coconut has been low and continues to
decrease due to the competition with palm oil. This condition decreases farmers' income, making coconut cultivation less
and less attractive.

The economic value of coconut could be increased by implementing horizontal and vertical diversification. Horizontal
diversification can be done by introducing intercrops in coconut growing areas such as food, horticultural, spice and other
estate crops, which can increase farmers' income. The vertical diversification can be carried out by developing integrated
coconut processing units producing other products besides cooking oil. Until now, however, vertical diversification has
been little developed.

Developing cooperation between integrated coconut processing industry and coconut farmers is considered a suitable
means of promoting diversification. Such cooperation gives some advantages to coconut farmers, i.e. higher coconut
prices and better marketing systems which finally lead to higher farmers' income. On the industry side, cooperation with
coconut farmers gives a number of incentives, such as availability of sufficient raw material, share of risk with farmers
and some processing activities that can be done by farmers more economically. To support cooperation, there are some
incentives that should be given by government, i.e. abolishing the negative list for processing coconut, providing credit,
and creating other tax incentives.

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40. Beyond On-Farm Trials: The Role of Policy in Explaining Non-Adoption of
Fertilizer on Maize in Thailand
Larry Harrington*, Sarun Wattanutchariya, Michael Read, Supot Faungfupong, Charas
Kitbamroong and Somsak Suriyo

There is an abundance of published data in Thailand from many years on the yield response of maize to fertilizer. Most
of this data was generated in on-farm trials conducted by Kasetsart University and the Department of Agriculture. In
general, the data (which appears to be of reasonably good quality) indicates a strong maize yield response to the
application of nitrogen on most soils, and a moderate yield response to the application of phosphate on a restricted set of
soil types. Moreover, the Department of Agricultural Extension has for many years conducted large numbers of on-farm
fertilizer demonstrations.

Nonetheless, Thai maize farmers use substantially lower levels of fertilizer than maize farmers in other Asian countries.
Analysis of fertilizer import, distribution and pricing policy, in conjunction with farm survey data, suggests that the farm
-level price of nitrogen compared to the price of maize has been notably high in Thailand compared to neighboring
countries. Inexpensive sources of nitrogen have been scarce whereas more expensive compound fertilizer to maize has
been unprofitable given price relationships that have prevailed in recent years.

Expansion of fertilizer use on maize will likely depend more on policy change than on further efforts in on-farm

41. Government Policy Versus Sustainability: The Example of Agricultural
Development in the Senegal River Valley
Barbara S. Hutchinson, Mark B. Lynham* and Timothy R. Frankenberger

In the mid-1980's two USAID projects tried to address the disparity between local farming practices and government
policy in the Senegal River Valley. Realizing the potential long-term benefits of enhancing traditional agricultural
practices, the Dirol Plain project served to develop sustainable recessional agriculture through the more effective use of
available resources, by identifying appropriate research strategies, and Mauritani Agricultural Research Project II
attempted to redirect national research strategy by reducing emphasis on irrigated agriculture towards the development of
traditional agricultural practices. Both these projects attempted to change the perceptions of the Mauritanian government
and major donors towards the importance of traditional farming systems and their significance in achieving the
government's goals of rural stability and food self-sufficiency.

Despite these important efforts, promotion of sustainable agriculture is still not obtainable given the current policy
environment. First, land tenure policy biases do not favor farmers stable access to traditional lands. Second,
infrastructure development in the country has been favored in the north, inhibiting marketing of agricultural inputs and
outputs in the south. Third, policies associated with the utilization of dams constructed along the Senegal River have not
been conducive to supporting traditional agricultural practices in the region.

This paper demonstrates that sustainable development, despite the good intentions of well-designed projects, is not likely
to be achieved unless the policy environment is in tune with these development efforts. Such policy considerations
encompass much more than receptive policies in the Ministry of Agriculture. They may also involve policies related to
tenure and regional infrastructure.

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42. Trade Liberalization and Inducements to Technological Change: The Case of
a Mexico-U.S. Free Trade Agreement
Amy Angel* and C. Parr Rosson, III

Agriculture in developing countries is often poised on the brink of technological improvement, awaiting only necessary
capital, less expensive inputs, or technical assistance. Trade liberalization is seen as one way to open the door to not
only free trade to act as a catalyst for economic growth, but also to foreign investment, more export opportunities, and
more competitively priced inputs. With the arrival of foreign capital and investment reform, however, issues of national
sovereignty are raised. Furthermore, the removal of input subsidies, often a subject of trade negotiations, may
overwhelm savings from less expensive foreign inputs. The proposed free trade agreement between Mexico and the
United States presents an opportunity to examine the issues involved in free trade between economically dissimilar
nations, with particular emphasis on agricultural infrastructure and technology, and also the disposition of input subsidies
and compensation for injured producers. These issues are important in all trade negotiations, but when a developing
country such as Mexico is involved, they become particularly sensitive due to the importance of agriculture to the overall
developing economy.

Tree-Based Farming Systems in the Upper Gambia River
Watershed: A Case Study of Sustainability and Gender

43. Tree Based Farming Systems in the Upper Gambia River Watershed: A Case
Study of Sustainability and Gender
Goudussi Diallo, Ibrahima Sory Seck, Claire Avril, Bruno Hennquin, Andree Wynkoop, William
Roberts, Jonathon Landeck

The upper Gambia River watershed takes its source in the Fuuta Jalon highlands of Guinea, a region from which the
Senegal and Niger rivers also originate. The traditional farming system in Fuuta Jalon is low in soil erosion potential
and moderately productive. To replenish soil fertility for cereal production, this traditional system is dependent upon
tree leaves, burnt or as mulch. In this system, men farmers clear forest and grass regrowth and cultivate upland rice,
fonio (Digitaria exilis), sorghum, and peanuts across the sloping landscape for two to three years, followed by a seven
to ten year fallow. Women farmers, in their annually cropped household fields, plant corn, taro, sweet potatoes, and
manioc mulched with leaves that are cut from the surrounding forest. Until recently, this farming system has
demonstrated its resilience to disintegration in the face of agronomic, social, economic, religious, political, historical and
geographic pressures. But today, on sloped lands in the upper watershed, the sustainabilty of this farming system for
grain and other crop production is increasingly precarious because of certain ecological changes. These changes include
increased population, shortened fallow periods, localized deforestation, and diminished rainfall. In the future, due to
inadequate yields of upland rice and fonio, plus the migration of men to urban centers for work and cash, the food
subsistence work load is liable to shift significantly and inequitably to women and corn production. According to this
scenario, the central issues are economic (labor and capital), social (health and nutrition), agronomic (organic matter and
weed control),'and political (land tenure and land rights). Appropriate technology, education, organization, and public
law ought to address all of these issues in the near future. With reference to four recent, independent field studies in
distinct locales in the upper Gambia River watershed, the panel will highlight the features of the traditional Fuuta Jalon
farming system as they relate to the various ecological issues noted above. Worst and best case scenarios for the next
twenty years into the early 21st century will be outlined by the panel members with particular respect to soil
productivity, agricultural energy inputs, environmental quality, and gender. Each panel member will speak succinctly
about one of the issues noted above as they relate to the sustainability of the Fuuta Jalon farming system. Discussion
will focus upon the necessity to integrate such mutually influential components of farming systems when evaluating any
particular system's sustainability.

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Fuuta Jalon Located in the Middle West of Guinea is a Watershed in Western Africa. The Upper Basin or Gambia River
spread in Labe, Koubia and Mali Prefectures on high plateaux with valleys and depressions. The soils, ferrallibic in
general, have mostly eroded, due to rough relief, deforestation and rainfall (1600-1700mm). Typical soils are bowal,
ndantrai, hansanghere, parawal, dunkire and hollande. Demographic pressure (rural density often-50 hab/km2) and
pastoral surcharge can be observed in this are of dispersed villages with grove landscape. The agricultural activity is a
traditional farming system of food subsistence with few trade products. In the intensive SUNTURE fields fertilized with
dung, ashes, tree leaves and domestic debris, women farmers helped by children produce corn, millet, manioc, sweet
potatoes, taro, yam, beans, peanut and different vegetables. In the extensive NGESA fields outside villages, men farmers
cut the trees, burn, and enclose the terrain. The whole family provides the tilling and sowing (fonio, rice, peanut,
sorghum), sometimes with the help of age classes and mutual assistance associations (KILE). The children watch over
the fields, the women weed on while everybody participates in the harvest. The need of more land for cultivation and
grazing, as well as the environment worsening have reduced fallow periods. The products are mainly useful for food
subsistence but some ones are intensively traded in like potatoes, onions, tomatoes and fruit.

The Fuuta Jalon is a land of farmers. The farming is done by the whole family known as "bjeygguray". The work is
done traditionally by first burning the land; the agricultural calendar is divided into periods; the "Setto" or beginning (3
months). The whole family tills the land, but around 4:00 pm the children go back home to take care of the goats, sheep,
and chicken.

In the "Ndungu" or full rainy season (3 months) women and girls do handicraft while male children are less busy. In the
"Dabbunday" or harvest period (3 months), women and girls do the harvesting while male children cut thatch for the
whole roof and wood for the fire. In the "tyedu" or dry season women and girls till the yard land and do gardening while
male children repair the fence. This is also a period of migration to the cities.

The farming is intensive in the yard where different crops are associated (cassava, potatoes, corn, folio, cotton, beans,
cocoa yam, yam, lady finger, etc...) are extensive outside.

In addition market-gardening is practiced. We should note that rotation is practiced where farm land is practiced. Age
(15-35) plays different roles in the process of production. Mutual help is organized by peer groups in different forms:
"keelay", ballal", and "katti".

It is the shortage of farmland rather than class relations (master-slave) that brings and would bring about land
management problems. Therefore the decrease in agricultural yielding in the Fuuta Jalon (particularly in the upper
Gambia River Watershed) depends upon the interaction of various factors: the production systems, the natural eco-
systems and the socio-demographic systems.

Institutionalization of FSR/E Within
National Agriculture Research Systems II

44. The Integrated Farming System Development Approach:
The Philippine Experience
Jaime Aristotle B. Alip*

The priority of the present government is to improve the national economy through agricultural productivity and family
income of the small farmers in support of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP). The Land Bank of the
Philippines (LBP) has been authorized to play a key role in the program through the expansion of its credit operations.
Thus, the LBP has initiated the Integrated Farming System Approach and the Integrated Estate Development Programme
to assist the small farmer in their problems of farm management and decision-making.

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The Integrated Farming System Approach was initiated in June 1987 to improve the lending and collection performance
of the Land Bank of the Philippines. The approach regards the whole farm as a business unit and seeks to maximize
farm probability by integrating farm and non-farm resources and activities. In effect, constraints to farm development
are minimized, lending risks reduced and higher repayment on both production credit and land amortization assured.

Among the more significant features of the Integrated Farming System Approach are the following: (i) it places heavy
emphasis on community organizations whereby the value and attitudes of farmers are transformed; (ii) its
implementation requires a team whose members are specialists in particular fields and (iii) it requires the active
participation of farmers through their organization in decision-making, project planning and implementation.

Results in the three pilot sites of the Integrated Farming System Approach situated in Integrated Estate Development
Programme areas in the provinces of Tarlac, Pamplona and Nueva Ecija indicate that the project implementation was
successful. In fact, farmers' organizations were strengthened and community organization framework for farm
organizations was developed. Following the successful pilot testing of the IFSA, the LBP has adopted this approach to
small farmer development as a matter of policy and has likewise adopted the community organization as a major
component in strengthening the farmers' organization. The farmer-leaders trained under the project are now being
tapped as community organizers/trainers in other Land Bank IEDP areas.

45. Institutionalization of FSR/E in Sudan, Morocco and Malawi
T.E. Gillard-Byers*, R.A. Riddle, M. Boughlala and L. Chraibi

Several models of FSR/E have been introduced and subsequently adapted to the perceived needs of host countries. The
institutionalization of FSR/E models in three countries, Morocco, Sudan and Malawi, will be compared and contrasted in
this presentation. In the cases of Sudan and Malawi the World Bank has provided funding via, or in collaboration with,
U.S. universities for the development of a FSR/E capability. The practical applications of the methodology has been
strongly influenced through interaction with CIMMYT in Malawi while in Sudan the IARC system provided limited
training and less in-country services. Morocco's program of Technology Transfer has been influenced mainly through
U.S. technical advisors with funding support provided through USAID as part of broader project objectives. How have
these different systems evolved and what level of institutionalization has occurred as a result of the interaction among
donors, non-governmental organization (NGO's), host country governments, private entrepreneurs and the IARCs?
Answering this question will provide insight to the expected benefits and costs associated with separate topologies which
have been introduced and adapted in these three countries. Adapted methodologies diverge, a discussion of the reasons
for this will be provided.

A primary focus of the presentation will pertain to linkage characteristics. In Malawi these linkages were simultaneously
promoted through the interaction of research, extension and farmers, CIMMYT and the Rockfeller Foundation during the
Informal Survey (e.g. Sondeo, RRs, etc.) process. In contrast, interaction with producers in Morocco and Sudan were
emphasized during the On-Farm trial activities. Linkage among host country government agencies, NGOs and bilateral
agencies will be discussed in the context of each program. Secondly, costs associated with the programs will be
discussed using actual budgetary figures allocated to the programs. This part of the presentation will emphasize the
relationship between level of funding and productivity measured by output. Expectations pertaining to the immediate
payoff from FSR/E activities will be explored in the context of the implementation chronology of the FSR-E
methodology, technologies transferred, information generated, management for program coordination and the timely use
and dissemination of information. Each of these issues diverges across one or more of the countries. The third point will
deal with efforts made on behalf of each country to coordinate programs which bridge governmental agencies, private
entrepreneurs and NGOs. Administrative barriers which exist prevent the flow of information and subsequently the
coordination of research activities. This provides a basis for support of the FSR/E methodologies which are impacted by
the top down influence of policy makers but also allow the farmer to become a policy maker in the context of research
agenda development. The hypothesis that barriers to government policy making across institutions has led to the
promotion of the FSR/E programs in these countries will be examined.

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The closing foci of the presentation will emphasize the targets of analyses undertaken within the programs of Malawi,
Sudan and Morocco. This will be accomplished through identifying research activities which have been generated on
the basis of three perceived demands. First, those activities which have been undertaken to remove or reduce constraints
faced by producers will be compared. This will be supplemented by those which have been undertaken as a result of
policy makers' and scientists' demands. The third type of research activity will be those which have been undertaken
to maintain the disciplinary tools of the participating researchers. The continued monitoring of the evolution of the
methodologies in these three countries will provide guidance for FSR-E efforts as they are implemented elsewhere.

46. Establishing a Formal Role and Operating Format for FSR/E: A Report on
New Developments within the Department of Agricultural Research, Botswana
E. Modiakgotla*, G. Heinrich andL. Mazhani

Purpose: This paper presents the new structure of the Arable Research division of the Department of Agricultural
Research (DAR) Botswana. The department has been reorganized into multidisciplinary groups focused on six primary
study areas, including both commodities and special topics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the
reorganization formalizes (for the first time) the relationship between all diverse on-farm FSR/E programs in Botswana
and strengthens their interaction with station-based research programs.

Method: The restructuring of the Arable Research division was the response of DAR officials to an ISNAR review that
they commissioned. One of the new groups is the Production Systems Committee (PSC). This is composed of
representatives of all on-farm FSR/E programs in Botswana, plus the Chief Arable Research Officer. In addition to
linking all on-farm FSR/E programs, the PSC provides a formal channel of communication between the on-farm and
station based research teams. Three agreed-upon activities of the PSC include: 1) On-farm testing of new technologies
developed by both station-based and on-farm research, 2) Feedback of quantitative results, farmer assessments and spin-
off issues to station-based research teams, and 3) Establishing linkages with on-station research (through commodity
committees) and with farmers, extensionists and NGOs at the regional level.

Results and Conclusions: The creation of the PSC overcomes earlier difficulties of the lack of: 1) Formal ties between
on-farm FSR/E programs nationally, 2) A formal role for FSR/E within the national research structure and 3) A Formal
channel of communication between on-farm and station-based research. It is expected that the creation of PSC will also
assist with establishing formal linkages with extension and NGOs at both the national and regional levels. The creation
of multidisciplinary research groups and the PSC will greatly enhance the capacity of on-farm research teams in
Botswana to contribute to the work of the DAR and development at the regional level.

47. Institutionalizing a Farming Systems Approach A Case from India
SJL. Seth* and George H. Axinn

Systems approaches to development of rural India are not a new phenomenon. India has taken initiative and
accumulated experiences starting from the Intensive Area Development Programme to Integrated Rural Development to
Farming Systems Research. Unfortunately, implementation tends to either lag behind or be abandoned. With a large
array of administrative, scientific and educational organizations, all of them divided into ever-more-narrow
specializations, the systems approach has been difficult to institutionalize.

The "Green Revolution" developed irrigated areas. But as experience accumulated, it became increasingly evident that
the "standard package of technology approach", disseminated by specialists in a few disciplines, would not measure up
to the diversified and complex production environment of rain dependent areas, which account for 70% of the crop land.
These require multidisciplinary and flexible approaches in generation and dissemination of technology. The
Government of India, therefore, constituted a Rainfed Farming Systems Cell in the Ministry of Agriculture in June 1987
to tie the various agencies more closely together. The national strategy is to achieve sustainable farming systems
development in rainfed areas with a watershed base. A "Task-Force" approach is being followed to facilitate

Wednesday panel abstracts


convergence of development departments, research institutions, NGOs, and the watershed community in analysis of the
problems, choice of treatments, project formulation, implementation, and post project management in an
institutionalized manner.

This paper traces the evolution and implementation of that strategy of institution building in terms of the following
variables: doctrine, leadership, organizational structure, resources (including personnel and finance), program and the
linkages -involved.

48. Animal Traction Networks in Africa: Lessons and Implications
Paul H. Starkey*

Animal traction is increasingly used in the farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa. In most countries animal traction is
now recognized as an appropriate affordable, and sustainable technology. Adoption of draft animals can lead to
increases in crop production, reduction of drudgery and the many social and economic benefits of cart transportation

The West Africa Animal Traction network was formed in 1985, with initial support from the Farming Systems Support
Project (FSSP). For six years it has been an open, informal and active network with a farming systems perspective.
Multidisciplinary network workshops have been attended by over 200 people from 30 countries. During workshops,
small-group discussions in villages with farmers have been educative and very popular. Over 140 papers concerning
animal traction have been circulated and/or published. There have been improvements information exchange relating to
farming systems research, development, extension, training, implement production and policy issues. Practical
collaboration between national animal traction programs in West Africa has increased.

Research and development workers from other regions of Africa have also participated in the activities of the West
Africa Animal Traction Network. In November 1990, they launched an Eastern and Southern Africa Animal Traction
Network, building on the experience of the West Africa Network.

This paper reviews the background, establishment and organization of these animal traction networks. Lessons derived
from the problems and the successes of the West Africa network are discussed. Continuity of this network has been
assisted by flexible communication channels and multi-donor support. The network has benefitted from member
enthusiasm and diversity. It has not been dominated by any one country, international organization, aid agency,
discipline or work-related interest-group (researchers, extensionists, manufacturers). The network has flourished despite
the absence of a permanent secretariat The institutionalization of the network has been a controversial issue.
Institutional support has been offered by an international center and by another network. Close association with either
of these should lead to improved coordination, but might also reduce the autonomy and independence of the Network.

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How Scientists Design and Assess Sustainable Systems I

49. Agro-Forestry System (Plantation Coffee) Model Developed by Plan Sierra
in the Central Mountain Range of the Dominican Republic
Camilo Camacho*

A detailed description of a production model of an Agroforestry System (Plantation-Coffee) and its area of influence in
the Central mountain range of the Dominican Republic is presented. During the ten years of experience in developing
this system, data has been obtained which indicates its relevance from an ecological and economic point of view. The
Agroforestry System is based on the development of coffee plantations (Coffee arabica) as a main component integrated
with other short-cycle crops which are designed to produce income and food for the family until the coffee is ready to be
marketed. The coffee is also combined with banana coffee which is ready to be marketed (Mussa sapientura) and guama
(Inga vera) to provide provisional and permanent shade. Respectively, the Corazon de Paloma (Colubrina arborescens)
is planted in order to use vertical space to produce poles and posts. This system also includes a permanent plantation.
Once the coffee trees are developed a mixed garden is set up with various fruit trees and vegetable plants for the
families. There is also an animal component made up of a cow a pig and chicks. The minimum area for the
development of the system for an average family of six members is 3.5 hectares.

50. Sustainable Weed Control for Maize in Mindanao:
Dealing with Carryover Effects
Larry Harrington*, N. Burgos, L. Oliva, F. Duldulao, N. Bandoy and S. Mate

In Southern Mindanao, the weed Rottboellia cochinchinensis is a major problem in rainfed maize-based systems.
On-farm research conducted by the Southern Mindanao Agricultural Research Center, of the University of Southern
Mindanao, has focused on alternative solutions for this problem. Possible solutions that have been explored include
chemical weed control, zero tillage, and the use of legume intercrops to smother weed growth.

Planning and analysis of weed-control research is complicated by a need to explicitly take account of carryover effects
from one cycle to another. Carryover effects include weed seed production and changes in weed germination rates as
well as dynamical shifts in weed species. Likely long-term system-wide carryover effects are introduced, e.g., effects on
soil fertility and nutrient mining, and soil moisture conditions caused by the introduction of successful weed control

Trial design and the statistical and economic assessment of trial results need to take explicit account of carryover effects.
Selected analyses of carryover effects are given using the USM OFR data, including discounted measures of net benefits
earned from different treatments. Approaches to the quantification of these long-term system-wide effects including
flux diagrams and other modeling approaches, and programs of farmer monitoring are reviewed. The value of farmer
participatory approaches as opposed to formal modeling is discussed.


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51. A Methodology for Development of
Sustainable Livestock Farming Systems
Erik Steen Kristensen* and Jan Tind Sorensen

The role of agriculture solely as a food supplier has diminished relatively in the Western World during the last decade.
Aspects such as: pollution, animal welfare, conservation of natural resources and rural areas are now equally important
In a development towards a sustainable agriculture all these "agricultural values" needs to be taken into consideration.

At the National Institute of Animal Science in Denmark our group has worked with on-farm research and modelling for
20 years. During the last four years we have developed a research methodology called systemic modelling in order to
develop sustainable livestock farming systems. Knowledge is gained by on-farm research "case studies" and
development of simulation models. A farm is seen as a cybernetic system where planning becomes a problem of

At present this methodology is evaluated in the project Organic Livestock Systems". This project which was initiated
in 1988, is based on detailed recordings (fortnightly visits) in 18 commercial organic farms. In each farm the flow of
nutrients, energy and money through the farm is recorded. These results are continuously evaluated and discussed in
cooperation with the individual farmers. If necessary, management is changed or other management strategies are
implemented in order to improve the overall purpose with the farming systems. Since the farms are organic,
sustainability has a high influence on the overall purpose. The state and development of the individual farms are
published in yearly reports. Hypothesis and knowledge gained in the project are formulated and evaluated in appropriate
simulation models which are developed parallel with accumulation of records from the farms. These models are used to
direct recording schemes on farms, a tool to describe results and stimulate discussion, and a major part of the final results
and conclusions from the project.

52. Hillside Agroforestry in Haiti: Assessment of Hedgerow Farming
Pierre Rousseau*, Arthur Gene Hunter and Greg L. Somers

Small hillside farmers in Haiti have successfully been introduced to hedgerows. The data presented illustrates that
Haitian farmers, who are generally practicing mixed cropping, can achieve a sustainable output and reliable income
using agroforestry as a vehicle to stabilize agricultural production, while preserving the environment. Traditional
Haitian hill-side agriculture, where clearing of forest to provide fuel for a growing population, together with the decline
of the duration of fallow, is contributing to severe, accelerated erosion.

On selected sites, hedgerow technology is being evaluated in farmer's fields, to determine its impact on crop production
as well as soil fertility and conservation. Hedgerows were fully characterized and their performance in terms of soil
conservation and controlling soil erosion evaluated. To evaluate crop performance, the farmer's field was stratified
according to the position of the sample plot in relation to the hedgerow. Soil samples were taken in the sample plots to
measure soil moisture as well as soil nutrients.

Crop yields significantly increased in portion of the field, especially immediately above the hedgerow. As a result, this
study has shown that on steep hillside fields, while some of the farmer's field is excluded from crop production,
hedgerows provide the means for stabilizing production through local improvement in soil fertility, thus positively
affecting average crop yields.

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53. Trees for Sustaining Productivity of FSR Programs in Smallholder Systems -
A Case Study in Sri Lanka
U.R. Sangakkara*

Rainfed farming systems practiced by smallholders in the dry regions of the tropics vary from annual cropping to stable
agroforestry systems. However, the impact of these systems on the sustainability of these lands has not been evaluated
under comparative conditions. Thus, a field study evaluated the different types of farming systems adopted by
smallholder units in one location of the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Productivity patterns of open farming systems and those
with perennial trees were monitored over a period of two years to correspond to two wet and two dry agricultural seasons
of the region. Three categories, classified according to the number of perennial trees in their allotments were developed
for the study.

A structured questionnaire was developed to identify the farming and productivity patterns of the systems. In addition,
the success of crops, and the environmental parameters were monitored by the researcher periodically.

The open farming system had little resiliency in producing acceptable yields under the subsistence farming practices
adopted by the farmers, while production was high in the wet season, crop growth was not possible in the dry season,
thus depriving the farmers of a potential income for most parts of the year. The presence of trees, enabled the
maintenance of productivity of a short term food or cash crop in the dry season. The sustaining ability of the farming
unit increased with the presence of trees, due to the provision of a more conducive environment. The trees too produced
a saleable or food commodity in most instances. The, yields in the wet season were also relatively high. Thus, the
presence of trees enhanced the intensity of land use, increased potential incomes and utilized labor optimally throughout
the year. Most importantly, the system was sustainable.

The study identified the usefulness of trees in developing sustainable rainfed smallholder farming systems for dry
regions. The potential use of the techniques for productivity and sustainability of smallholder farming units, FSRE
programs and for the ecological balance of these regions which produce a major part of food requirements of developing
countries are presented.

54. Sustainable Farming Among the Oromo of Welega, Western Ethiopia
Tesema Taa*

Oral and written sources indicate that the Macha Oromo had settled in today's Welega, Western Ethiopia about three and
a half centuries ago, following the 16th century mass migration from south-central Ethiopia. Prior to their permanent
settlement in the region the macha Oromo were predominantly pastoralists.

After their settlement, however, the Oromo became sedentary agriculturalists practicing mixed-farming. They began
cultivation of varieties of grain crops and root crops for food and fiber as well as coffee for cash economy, without
necessarily abandoning cattle breeding. Strictly speaking the qualitative and quantitative increase in the production of
coffee in the area took place at the beginning of this century with its own impact on food crop cultivation.

The Oromo ofWelega continued to use traditional farming methods and exercised organic farming for many years. The
objective of this paper is to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional farming systems in order to
understand and assess sustainability by clearly explicating the factors that have contributed to its growth and
development It will also discuss the introduction of modem systems of farming into the region with their immediate
effects on agricultural productivity.

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Gender Analysis: Making it Into the Mainstream

55. Gender Analysis in Farming Systems Research in Indonesia
Sri Suharni Siwi*

Several case studies concerning the role or rural women in rural development have been done in Indonesia during the
past ten years. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between men's and women's time allocation for all activities,
in farm, off-farm and non-farm, household income and expenditure, decision making, energy supply and use, nutrition
and other welfare indicators in rural areas. However, a micro study on a socio-economic variable to analyze roles,
responsibilities, constraints and opportunities of small farmers for both men and women involved in FSR has been done
recently. The study on the role of women in farm, off-farm and non-farm has been integrated in six sites of on going
farming systems research project of CRIFC and UACP-FSR.

The objectives are to identify gender specific roles within the households in farming systems production activities,
problems and constraints and the needs of farm women to enable them to participate in technology development and to
derive benefits from technology innovation.

Highlight on a general insight in the situation of women farmers in Indonesia has been obtained. However, gender
analysis is only a tool for assessing differential roles between male and female members of affected households in FSR.
These programs should be followed by technical know-how and guidance for integrating women's concern in a practical
manner. Some action research is needed to develop and disseminate technology tailored to the needs of women in order
to increase productivity, income and reduce drudgery. Recent rural studies have shown that there were two principal
obstacles to diversification of the hamlet economy beyond subsistence agriculture viz.:

* A lack of working capital.

* Knowledge of how to manage such capital as well as a weak village and sub-regional markets for traditional off-farm
and non-farm production.

Therefore, the action-research activities will focus on these two problems.

56. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Diagnosing Sustainability Problems:
Investigating Land Degradation in Eastern Zambia
Alistair Sutherland* and Lingston P. Singogo

The Zambian farming systems programme has, since 1982, relied mainly on the CIMMYT methods of problem
diagnosis. These methods have worked quite well for identifying interventions for increasing productivity and other
benefits in the short term. However, sustainability issues, and the importance of the longer-term perspective, has
remained a special challenge to problem diagnosis in Zambia's farming systems programmes. Moreover, this challenge
has arisen at a time of re-organization of the national research structure, involving the absorption of semi-autonomous
farming systems teams into larger task-based research team drawing on a wider range of disciplines. The challenge is
therefore twofold; methodological on the one hand and managerial on the other. Using a case study of diagnosing land
degradation problems in Eastern Zambia, the paper illustrates processes of methodological and managerial adjustment
in the national farming systmes programme.

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57. Interaction of Women and Gender in FSR/E: Experience from Thailand
Samnieng Viriyasiri*

As about half or more of the agricultural labor force in Thailand are women, special attention is justified and desirable.
In 1987, the Farming Systems Research Institute, Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and cooperatives
initiated a research and development project on female participation in Crop/Livestock Integrated Farming Systems in
cooperation with Social Scientists from Khon Kaen University. In 1988, more applied research has been carried out on
implements and tolls that are compatible with gender and appropriateness for women. Cooperating agencies include
Chiang Mai University in the north, Khon Kaen University in the northeast, Kasetsart University in the central region
and Prince of Sonkhia University in the south. Up until now the research results should be translated into agricultural
extension and development plans and programs. The challenge is to use this information as the basis for the future
technology generation and transfer as well as providing women training.

Farmer Participation in Diagnosis

58. Participatory On-Farm Sustainable Agricultural Research
Stephanie Rittmann* and Richard Ness

The Land Stewardship Project (LSP) uses participatory research methodologies in it's work with farmers doing on-farm
research into sustainable agricultural technologies. The focus of the farmer's on-farm research is improvement of their
financial condition while protecting the environment The participatory process seeks to balance empowerment of farm
families with appropriate scientific rigor. Farmers are encouraged to consider the documentation they need for their
decision making when considering innovations for research. Research topic priorities and data collection needs are
developed first by individual farmers and then by groups of farmers interested in the same subject The group meetings
are also important in planning how the entire group can gain greater knowledge by coordinating their research activities.
Scientists with expertise in the specific subject are used to advisors in experimental design and data collection. Their
role is one of advisors only, they are not allowed to dominate discussions or set research agendas. The incentives for the
participating scientists is in access to farmers seriously examining innovations within their fields of studies. And they
have the right to gather data on the farms if there is something they want information on that the farmers haven't listed as
a priority. LSP believes this process of merging farmers' and scientists' interests could be used by more non-profits and

59. On Farm Technology of FSR/E A Comparative Analysis of the Usefulness of
Farmer Participation
U.R. Sangakkara* and ER. Piyadasa

The success of-FSRE programs are primarily based on the conviction of farmer of the usefulness and adoption of the
proposed methodology. This process is best formulated by carrying out research on farmer fields, which brings a close
interaction between the researcher and farmer.

The use of legumes as a catch crop in between seasons is a proven method of increasing production, intensifying land
use and maintaining sustainability of rice culture. However, the adoption of this process is marginal in most developing
countries. Thus a case study evaluated the effectiveness of this technology on selected farmer fields using different
levels of farmer participation. The principal objective of the program was to test the basis of success of this program by
farmers on their fields and evaluate keenness and participation.

The same experiment was conducted on farmer fields as researcher designed and implemented, researcher designed and
farmer implemented, farmer designed and implemented and farmer designed and researcher implemented programs.

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The procedure adopted in all fields was planting of rice in the first season, followed by beans (vegetable or sunhemp
(green manure). A second rice crop was planted after the legumes.

Data was gathered by structured questionnaires on the yields of rice and legumes and the interactive effects. Farmer
involvement, costs and farmer attitudes of the overall benefits were elucidated. A final observation was made after three
seasons (18-20 months) of the same farmers, to identify the adoption of this technology. The use of different levels of
farmer participation was evident from the yields of rice and legumes. The variation between yields of researcher
managed and implemented and farmer managed and implemented programs were in the range of 25-35%. However, all
programs indicated the usefulness of the methodology, and the impact of the beneficial effects were clear in the systems
with greater farmer participation both in design and implementation. This was most evident in the examination of rice
systems after a period of time, where the farmers who designed and implemented the program were continuing the
practice using the land in between the rice crop. This is attributed to their better understanding of the concept and actual

The principal limitation of greater farmer participation was the non adoption of proper experimental procedures, which
posed problems in statistical analysis. However, as the principal objective of the program was farmer participation, this
was not considered a major obstacle. In terms of overall success, the exercise illustrated the usefulness of farmer
participation in FSRE programs. However, increased farmer participation is dependent on the degree of sophistication
required in the project planning and implementation. The application of these methods to FSRE programme
methodology in general is presented in the paper, based on the experiences of this study.

60. Farmer Participation in a New FSR Program in Burkina Faso
S.B.J. Taonda*, Edward Robins, W.W. Fiebig and Robert Devson

The purpose of this paper is to present the methodologies implemented by the FSR program (RSP) to address production
constraints in Burkina Faso. On-farm agronomic trials were conducted in three village research sites in the Central Zone
of Burkina Faso, during the 1990 growing season. Data were collected from varietal trials on sorghum, millet, maize,
cowpea, and groundnut at different levels of fertilization and at different management methods in field preparation using
flat cultivation, and simple and tied-ridging. Intercropping systems were also evaluated using a sorghum/cowpea
association. Traditional production systems were characterized. Data were analyzed within each site using Mstat-C for
analysis of variance and results were presented using 3-D graphics. Opinion surveys were conducted by RSP about the
various trials which they observed. Training of project field technicians was essential to this process to assure reliable
results. Site visits were conducted to discuss trial and survey results with farmers to prepare a plan of research trials for
the coming growing season. Given the insufficient and poorly distributed rainfall during the 1990 growing season, local
varieties out-performed improved varieties, yet farmers preferred to continue to test the early maturing improved
varieties. This approach of farmer-partners in the research process to identify technology(ies) which are suitable or
unsuitable for further consideration in the technology transfer process. Results from this on-farm research process were
provided to the plant breeders for consideration in their respective crop development strategies.

Technology Generation and Diffusion: Technologies

61. Evaluation of Rice-Fish Farming System in Guimba, Nueva Ecija, Philippines
Rodolfo S. Cornelio*, Cornelia C. Estabillo, Jose N. Torres and Tito S. Cornelio

This study was conducted with the aim in view of identifying, verify and develop farming system technologies that are
appropriate to specific locations, economically feasible and with greater acceptance to farmers. Likewise, to evaluate the
profitability of the system (trench refuge system and pond refuge system) as compared to rice monoculture.

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Results of the study, revealed that pond refuge system appeared to be a better system, giving the highest new income,
compared to trench refuge and rice monoculture. On the other hand, pond refuge system was found to be a better system
than the trench refuge due to; ease in land preparation, ease in harvesting and better fish growth.

62. On-Farm Research
Adeflor G. Garcia*, Lydia P. Oliva and Celso C. Evangelista

The on-farm research program in Southern Philippines was first initiated in 1984 at Bagumbayan, Sultan Kudarat, a
major corn producing province in the south. After four years of enriching experience, the program was expanded to
other maize-based cropping system in the provinces of Cotabato, Davao del Sur, and South Cotabato.

The program adopts the on-farm research approach with farming system perspective in finding solutions to farmers'
problems namely: a) diagnosis b) research planning and design c) assessment and d) dissemination are participated by
the farmers.

Nitrogen deficiency was one of major problems identified causing low production in maize-based cropping system. This
paper will focus its presentation on this aspect of the on-farm research program. Causes of the nitrogen deficiency
problem were identified through diagnostic surveys; e.g. by interviews and field observations. The major causes
identified were; low dose of nitrogen applied by farmers, the farmers practice of applying nitrogen late, competition from
weeds and the practice of monocropping. Farmers were found to be using higher rate of fertilization for hybrid maize
than the open-pollinated varieties. The discrepancy is due to credit program for hybrid corn production extended by the
government. The package of technology followed has set the rate of fertilizers and chemicals the farmer has to apply.

The levels of fertilizer were tested with the farmer's practice and also the rate of the package of technology (POT) was
included as base treatments.

The most profitable rate for all the study areas was found to be very much less than the rate recommended by the POT
and more than the farmers' practice of fertilization. In Bagumbayan, Sultan Kurata, 69 kg/ha nitrogen was most
profitable. However, the basal application of urea (farmers' practice) caused plant stand problems due to "burned
seeds". The application has to be modified'to time with the first cultivation at 15 days after planting. In Cotabato,
Davao del Sur and South Cotabato provinces, the use of 60-20-0 kg NPK/ha was most profitable. The use of compound
fertilizer as basel treatment avoided the low plant population.

The farmers exposure to the research activities increased their awareness of alternative low cost technology they could

63. Two Prototypical Models for Generating IPM Technologies in Nicaragua
Kristen C. Nelson* and Diego Gomez

The breach between integrated pest management (IPM) technologies available in research centers and the technologies
currently used by producers suggests that we need to investigate the mechanisms for the generation and transfer of IPM
technologies. Two contrasting option which emerge from the literature can be called the Classical Model and the Farmer
First Model. Generally, in the Classical Model the technology is first generated by scientists, then the farmers are taught
the technology. In the Farmer First Model the technologies are generated by the scientists and farmers together within
the context of the farm.

CATIE/MIP Nicaragua initiated a comparative study of the two prototypic models with tomato farmers in the Valle de
Sebaco, October 1990 through April 1991. Each model was represented by three different communities.
Interdisciplinary teams focused on the: 1) generation process 2) forms of participation by farmers and scientists 3) cost/
benefit analysis 4) influence on IPM technologies and farmer opinion of IPM, and 5) evaluation of the experiments of


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various IPM technologies and their control of the priority pests. The investigation methodology consisted of community
level interviews, intensive pre and post-program interviews of the participants, participant observation techniques in
group dynamics, and statistical evaluation of production and insect variables related to the experiments
In a preliminary analysis of the data, extreme differences were found between the forms and levels of farmer
participation, as well as the number of farmers involved in actual experimentation. In the generation process the two
models resulted in selection of different priority pests, different criteria for selecting technologies, and different
technologies under experimentation. The institutional costs between the Classical Model and the Farmer First Model
differed by two percent. The investigation has generated further discussions between the IPM team and Nicaraguan
counterparts as to how to institutionalize the lessons from this study for improved generation and transfer of IPM

64. Studies on the Efficient Use of Potassium in Potato-Based Cropping Systems
in Punjab (India)
K.S. Randhawa*, A.S. Dhutt and G. Dev

The paper presents detailed information and rationale of potato-based cropping system involving new potato genotypes
as affected by varying levels of potassium fertilization on the sandy loam soil of Punjab (India). It was further aimed at
demonstrating the yield potential and new potato genotypes along with qualitative attributes for processing, thus
attaining improved profitability by farmers during the glut period. Three varieties were evaluated under the varying
levels of potassium during 1989-90 and 1990-91. Potato-based cropping systems were also studied which proved useful
in identifying vegetable crops enterprise combination which gave maximum net returns per unit area and time under the
efficient use of potassium fertilization. Cropping systems i.e. potato (var. JH 222), tomato (var. Punjab Chhuhara) -
green manuring and potato (var. JH 222) -radish (seed crop) -bittergourd gave remunerative returns as compared to other
cropping sequences without impairing soil health. Varieties Punjab Chhuhara and JH 222 proved superior for the
preparation of tomato ketchup and potato chips respectively and are in great demand by the processing industry and the
Pepsi project recently established in Punjab for processing vegetables, thus it would help in uplifting the economy of
potato and tomato farmers. The yield data also revealed that JH 222 (a new variety released in 1989) gave maximum
yield (255 q/ha) followed by Kufri Badshah and Kufri Chandramukhi. The dry matter and starch contents were higher in
JH 222 and Kufri Chandramukhi. Because of these quality attributes the processing factories purchased the tubers of
these two varieties for manufacturing potato chips, thus minimizing gluts and crashing of prices during the peak season.
The tuber yield, dry matter and starch contents were also increased significantly with increase of potassium levels up to
125 and 150 kg/ha.

65. Focused Sondeos to Assess Farmers' Technology Evaluation Criteria
and Adoption in Nicaragua
Klaus Talvela*, L.V. Crowder Jr., F.C. French, P.E. Hildebrand and CA. Parera

This paper describes "focused sondeos" as part of an FSRE shortcourse for Ministry of Agriculture (MAG) technicians
in Nicaragua. During the- three-week course, two sondeos were conducted for the purpose of technical training and
agricultural production improvement. The two focused sondeos built on a general sondeo conducted a year earlier
(March, 1990) as part of an initial FSRE course conducted by the University of Florida with the FINNIDA/MAG
Agricultural Extension project.

The first sondeo became the basis for design of 1990-91 on-farm trials. The second course (March 3-23, 1991)
emphasized analysis and interpretation of 1990 trial data and farmers' adoption of technologies that MAG had worked
with during the past three years. Focused sondeos were used to gather specific information on farmers' evaluation
criteria for use with modified stability analysis (MSA) of trial data and to calculate indices of acceptability for the
technologies that had been validated and promoted by the project.

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The paper discusses methodological issues of focused sondeos to gather information on farmers' evaluation criteria and
adoption/modification of technologies on individual farms and cooperative farms. Examples of the use of evaluation
criteria in the analysis and interpretation of data are provided as well as the types of questions utilized to assess farmers'
adoption behavior. Results were used to refine recommendation domains and identify diffusion domains for planned
dissemination efforts.

Methodological Issues in Impact Studies

66. Adoption and Economic Impacts of WARDA Mangrove Rice Varieties in
West Africa: Multivariate Logit Analysis in Sierra Leone and Guinea
Akin A. Adesina*, Moses M. Zinnah and Peter J. Matlon

Rice is an important crop in West Africa where over the last decade it has been increasingly substituting for the more
traditional staples. However, the region faces substantial constraints in rice production, with yield increases averaging
only 0.3 percent since 1970. The result has been large domestic deficits and rising imports. To improve rice production
in the region, the West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA) conducts rice research in three main ecologies,
namely : upland/inland rice continuum, mangrove rice and the irrigated rice environments. The mangrove rice ecology
stretches about 1.2 million hectares in the region, out of which over 200,000 hectares are under cultivation in Guinea-
Bissau, Gambia, Guinea, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Nigeria.

WARDA's varietal development efforts for the mangrove rice ecology started in 1976 in Sierra Leone. Over 3000
varieties and lines have been screened and 17 high yielding varieties have been recommended to farmers. However, no
information exists on the rate, pattern of adoption and the farm-level or sectorial impacts of these new varieties in West
Africa. Such information is however important for rice research planning in West Africa.

The specific objective of this study therefore is to determine the factors affecting the adoption of the WARDA mangrove
cultivars and the economic impacts of these varieties at the farm-level in Sierra-Leone and Guinea. The paper is based
upon an extensive 8-month field-survey in Sierra Leone and Guinea conducted from September 1990 to April 1991. An
original theoretical model for looking at adoption behavior of farmers within a consumer-utility framework is developed
and the model was estimated using Logit maximum-likelihood estimation procedures. Farm-level impacts are measured
using indices of the cumulative percentages changes in total rice area planted to improved mangrove rice varieties, and
the changes in income shares of improved mangrove rice varieties since the initial period of varietal introduction.

The paper shows that farmer perceptions of the varietal specific attributes of the WARDA cultivars have been more
important in determining adoption behavior as opposed to farmer-specific socio-economic factors often argued in the
adoption-diffusion literature. The estimated indices of economic impacts provide strong evidence
that mangrove rice-research investments by WARDA has contributed significantly to the incomes of rice farmers in
Sierra Leone and Guinea.

67. Monitoring the Impact of Seed Technology Packages Through the Moroccan
On-Farm Technology Evaluation Program
L. Chraibi*, T.E. Gillard-Byers, M. Boughlala and RA. Riddle

The Moroccan On-Farm Technology Evaluation program has for the first time developed a method for assessing impact
and diffusion of a seed variety technology. This technique will be utilized to better understand the limits of the
recommendation domain for which this technology is appropriate. Early work undertaken by the sociology section of the

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Morocco Dryland Applied Agricultural Project provided the basis for development of a technique utilizing a transect of
three regions combined with information from seed sales and a diffusion/impact questionnaire.
The combination of these three sources of information are expected to provide evidence of acceptance and rejection of
the seed technology in specific areas of the research domain for the center. The transect, which was introduced by the
sociology section as a method for disseminating two varieties of seed, will now be utilized as a method to assess the size
of the recommendation domain for the hessian fly resistant wheat variety, Saada. In the future, this transect and others,
may form an integral part of diffusion/impact work undertaken by the Aridoculture Center and the Extension Service.
The second component of the impact/diffusion monitoring endeavor is composed of two complimentary activities.
These are the collection of information on the sale of Saada through the national seed multiplication and distribution
program and collection of information from private entrepreneurs on their Saada multiplication, sale and utilization
activities. One of the entrepreneurs multiplied 15 kg. of Saada, provided via the Centre into over 7,000 kg. during the
period 1987-1990. A comparison of the potential impact associated with governmental seed multiplication efforts of
Saada and that of the entrepreneurs receiving seed from the Center or other private sources will be discussed. The third
component for the collection of information and analysis of impact will be the producers participating in the On-farm
Technology Evaluation trials. It is known that in one area where these trials are undertaken Saada is not well received
while in another area it is being multiplied and disseminated effectively through private initiatives and governmental
sources. The reasons for this divergence will be discussed in the context of the mandate of the OFTE program and in the
broader terms of costs associated with dissemination of seed technology across inappropriate recommendation domains.

These three components will then be combined to present a method for assessing the impact and diffusion characteristics
which ultimately may determine the success or failure of the OFTE program. A discussion of potential for future
implementation of an adapted model for measuring impact/diffusion of more complex technologies will precede a
summarization of findings.

68. Impact Assessment of Alternative Development Strategies: U.S. Examples
Cornelia Flora* and Jan L. Flora

FSR/E and more conventional methods of assessing the impact of alternative agricultural practices on the farm family,
agricultural structure, and the environment are assessed, drawing on research in progress in Minnesota, based on farm-
designed and executed on-farm trials, and North Carolina, based on an EPA-designed study to monitoring environmental
impacts of farming. The variety of indicators used under the different conditions indicate farm family well-being, the
structure of agriculture, and environmental impact are compared and discussed. Moving beyond profitability per hectare
in impact assessment, with its built-in short term impact horizon, is discussed and the alternative attempts to implement a
longer-term, multi-variable set of impact analyzed.

70. Impact of Technology Adoption through a Farming Systems
Perspective: Sri Lanka Experience
Nimal F.C. Ranaweera*

The methodologies to assess impact of technologies developed under whole farm approach or FSR is still emerging.
Many of the definitional issues of adopters (partial, total or partial) have not been resolved. Moreover the analytical
approaches using standard econometric or other quantitative methods also tend to confuse the emergence and adoption of
technologies as being Farming Systems or no Farming Systems.

Furthermore, in dealing with parameters that quantify benefit to society and to quality of life, the real effects of these
adopting or non adopting the technology is further ambiguous.

The paper will address the above issues in detail and drew on a 3 year research study conducted in Sri Lanka which
illustrates the difficulties in conducting impact studies as well as show that the definitional issues of Farming Systems
itself tends to show the benefits of the new technology differently.

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Even though farmers are satisfied with the benefits of the new technology, the absence of inputs and other institutional
facilities affect the adoption of the technology. This in turn motivates farmers to the use of traditional technology.

The three year study concludes that what is required is not only agronomic/biological technologies but that these
technologies must be supported with institutional back-stopping and more amenable to the social, cultural, economic and
more importantly to the environmental aspects of the farmer and farm community.

71. Agronomic Technology Transfer A Challenge to FSR/E in West Africa
James C. Sentz*

During 1990 observations in 12 West African countries, the author found agronomic technologies available to the
National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) are not effectively flowing to farmers. Primary constraints to
technology delivery are identified as 1) limited human capital, and 2) lack of operational resources. These are further
manifest in several secondary constraints: a) inadequate On Farm Adaptive Research (OFAR) Extension linkages, b)
lack of seed/planting materials, c) absence of impact-potential assessments, and d) inefficient research methodologies.

To bring appropriated technologies to African farmers, FSRE scientists will need to effectively address these constraints
at three levels: the farmer/family, markets, and NARS management. The family is generally a traditional system,
oriented toward survival, and relatively resistant to supply pushed technology. Given improved technologies the farmer
is dependent upon market organization to provide both production inputs and produce outlets requiring credit,
transportation, storage, etc. The NARS, with few exceptions, require strengthening and particularly in their Research -
Extension linkages to promote appropriate technologies.

During the 1980's, African food production increased at a slower rate than population growth resulting in further deficit
food production in the region. However, some recent successes in on farm adaptation and verification of improved
technologies have demonstrated the potential to reverse this trend during the 1990's. We must learn from these
experiences and focus upon strengthening OFAR-Extension operational linkages to provide the African farmer viable
and economic alternatives for increasing productivity.

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How Scientists Design and Assess Sustainable Systems II

72. Soil Regeneration in Senegal's Peanut Basin
AM. Diop*, JM. Diop, F. Gueye and M.W. Sands

Throughout the Sahelian countries, soil degradation has reached crisis levels. Soil erosion often aggravates both poor
soil structure and soil fertility. Singular strategies such as increased chemical fertilizer have had limited impact.
Working in 11 villages in conjunction with village organizations, NGOs, ISRA, and extensionists, we have developed an
integrated model for soil regeneration that includes soil erosion control, compost and manure management, integration
of crops and livestock and legume/cereal intercrops. Significant responses to low levels (2MT/Ha) of animal manure
and compost at the village level are being documented.

Through a program of on farm research and demonstrations, farmers are adapting components of the model to their
specific situations. As they go, they add additional technologies as they feel appropriate. The program draws upon
continued collaboration between ISRA, the national agricultural research organization and participating
nongovernmental organizations.

73. Case Studies on Nitrogen Supply in Alternative Farming
Artur Granstedt*

Case studies examining nitrogen supply dynamics were carried out on two biodynamic farms in Sormland (for 7 years
on one farm and 3 years on the other) and on one biodynamic farm in Skane (for 3 years). Each of the farm locations had
a different set of climatic and soil conditions. Two conventional farms, one with and one without livestock, served as
references in each of the two areas. Changes in soil mineral nitrogen, nitrogen uptake by the crop and productivity were
studied in relation to previous crops, crop rotations, and nitrogen fixation. For a farm to meet its nitrogen needs without
resorting to the use of artificial fertilizers requires that nitrogen be effectively recirculated within the farm, that nitrogen-
fixing crops be cultivated, and that the mobilization and immobilization of soil nitrogen be regulated. Effective
recirculation can only be attained if the intensity of livestock management is adjusted on the basis of the farm's feed
production capacity.

74. Development and Demonstration of Methods Toward
Sustainable Apple Production
Marian Lennington* and Stuart Gage

This project demonstrates potential for significant reduction in chemical load in apples. Examined are pest control
strategies and market options to optimize the land resource in small orchards so that small or part-time farmers might
obtain value in the integration of other crops and animals in orchard ecosystems.

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Development toward sustainable apple production was initiated at the Kellogg Biological Station orchard and at the
VaNewenhizen's mixed fruit farm near Benton Harbor, Michigan. Observations and data collected include the following
components related to low chemical pest reduction systems: the introduction of chickens as pest control agents and weed
foragers: the adoption of pheromone disruption as an alternative technique for codling moth control: monitoring of
predatory insect diversity and density, and a farmer's market survey of the acceptability of disease-resistant fresh apples
and dried apple products to consumers.

Several benefits are forthcoming from this project First, the benefits of including animals in the form of chickens into
orchard ecosystems are several including: weed and pest control agents; provision of additional fertilizer; and potential
as an additional source of revenue for a grower. Second, the evaluation of pheromone disruption and Bacillus
thuringiensis as an alternative to insecticides for control for codling moth. Third, increased publicity regarding the
substantial reductions in fungicide sprays that are possible with disease-resistant apple varieties, and in addition, the
marketability of these varieties to consumers. Finally, the potential of inter-crops as additional revenue.

This project helps to substantiate that studying only single components of a system as complex as an apple orchard will
not yield information to enable practical implementation. The multifaceted systems approach taken in this project will
provide growers with new ideas, unique strategies and quantitative information to enable them to undertake a sustainable
approach to orchard systems using low inputs.

75. Participative Development of Anti-Erosive Technologies in South Rwanda:
Critical Issues and Future Directions at ISAR (Institut Des Sciences
Agronomiques du Rwanda)
Marie Jeanne Uwera*

I. Introduction Rwanda is a densely populated country with a range of 230-700 inhabitants per square kilometer.
Ninety-five percent of the population lives entirely from agriculture and increasing demographic pressure is leading to
ever-exploitation of land. As farm size decreases (the median size in the center-south of Rwanda is 0.6 ha), more
marginal lands are brought into cultivation. These reserves of land are now almost exhausted. Thus soil fertility is
declining and erosion is increasing.

II. Research Obiectives Given the above, the emphasis of the production systems program at ISAR is on the
development of sustainable soil management strategies and the appropriate use of low-cost inputs.

Our on-farm experimentation has been aimed towards specifically:
* Identifying the factors limiting production.
* Involving farmers more actively in the process of technology development.
* Developing low input cropping techniques for soil and water conservation in order to stabilize the nutritional balance
of soils.

III. Methodology In order to achieve these objectives, an approach of on-farm experimentation has been developed.
A key element is the mobilization of peasant feed-back. Trials are conducted in three agro-ecological zones in South
Rwanda. Cultural practices comprising agro-forestry elements and ridges are tested to diminish erosion in the plots
located between the existing contour lines. Farmers participate at all stages of the experiment (diagnostic, conception,
evaluation and future planning). Field research has been complemented by first socio-economic studies on farmers'
perception of soil-related constraints and farmers' decision-making concerning the adoption of the developed techniques.
Regular field meetings and follow-up interviews help for a better understanding in this context.

IV. Results. Critical Issues and Future Directions The associated technologies developed on farmers' fields have proven
to be efficient on slopes up to 45% when the infiltration rate is high. In fact, the farmers modified the original design
and several started autonomous experiments or adapted the trial design on their own plots.

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The critical issues are:

* The cultural practices in concern demand high labor input.
* Farmers expect high productivity gains in a short period.
* Economic viability of the complementary use of external inputs in order to valorize the investment of labor force.
* Financial constraints at the level of the research institution.
* Methodological discrepancy between the applied approach of OFR and the approach of official extension.

Future research objectives are:

* Better understanding of specific production constraints experienced by farmers during the process of experimentation.
* Improved profitability of the developed soil conservation practices.
* Institutionalization of the methodological procedures.
* Strengthening of the peasants' conscience as informants and as deciding persona in the process of technology
* Integration of extension services.

V. Methodological perspectives for the future:

* Utilization of planning models of farming systems.
* Testing the impact of the complementary use of external inputs.
* Perfection of instruments for data collection and analysis.
* Diffusion of the methodology and results by multiple media use.

76. Survival and Sustainability in the Mid Western Hills of Nepal
Ashok K. Vaidya* and David Gibbon

The paper presents a case study of adaptation and change in strongly interactive and interlinked farming systems which
characterize the hills of Nepal and tries to draw some general lessons on sustainability arising from the experiences of a
well-established research and extension program. The research program has worked for some years on the process of
adaptation and adjustment to disturbance and interventions.

Research and development activities in this area have also focused on the issue of soil fertility in relation to the complex
set of factors necessary to ensure maintenance of soil life and productivity. Complementary activities have included the
incorporation of farmers into the research design, implementation and evaluation procedures and the establishment of
appropriate institutions at a local level.

This paper considers the impact of past interventions, the perceptions of farmers in relation to instability and mechanisms
for coping with it, the importance of valuing indigenous technologies alongside exotic alternatives, the role of farmer
development committees and the dynamic linkages with station-based research.

The paper concludes that low external input farming systems in these environments can be both sustainable and highly
productive given the right conditions of local control in decision making over the management of resources and that
research and extension agencies play an appropriately supportive role.

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Mathematical and Other Formal Design Methods

77. Multiple Objective Programming in the Design Phase of FSRE
Julio A. Berdegue*, E. Ramirez, R. Cazanga and L. Mora

Classical linear programming is a technique that yields the optimum solution to a problem defined by the maximization
or minimization of one objective function, subject to a set of constraints. Multiple Objective Programming (MOP)
extends this concept to situations where the decision-maker (e.g. a farmer) has several objectives, some of which may be
contradictory among themselves (e.g. the farmer wants to maximize net returns and minimize economic risk). MOP
yields not an optimum solution, but a set of efficient solutions.

MOP was applied to the problem of analyzing a set of agricultural development options at the whole-farm level, during
the design phase of an FSRE project in Chile. The objectives of the farmer were to maximize gross margin, to minimize
economic risk and to adjust seasonal labor use with respect to the available family labor. The farmer confronted
restrictions of land, labor, cash, minimum requirement of certain crops for family use and crop rotation. The possible
activities were: production of wheat, lentils and oats and sheep raising. The development options were: a) to make basic
agronomic adjustments in each crop; b) to do (a) but including credit to ease the cash constraints; c) to introduce a new
sheep-raising system without credit; d) to make agronomic changes and include a sheep-raising system, with credit

First, MOP provided a trade-off matrix between objectives in each of the four scenarios; this increased the understanding
of the relationships between the different objectives of the farmer, and how an increment in one objective might result in
lowering the impact on another one. Second, MOP provided a set of solutions for each scenario, with the corresponding
impact on the farmer's plan of activities, objectives and constraints; this allowed the FSR/E team to understand the
interactions among activities, the relationship between them and the constraints faced by the farmer, and the specific
interaction between each activity and the set of objectives of the farmer. Third, the results allowed the comparison of the
four alternative development options. It was concluded that if credit was available, the best option was to design a new
sheep-raising system and simultaneously introduce specific agronomic innovations. The impact of implementing
specific agronomic innovations only. is similar with or without credit because new constraints soon come into play and
prevent the system from taking advantage of the added resources. If credit is not available, it is not feasible to introduce
a new sheep-raising system. Thus, options a) and d) are the best ones for this system, depending on the access to credit

78. Use of Multiple Classification Criteria for Identification of Recommendation
and Research Domains through Cluster Analysis in Central Mali
Anthony Yeboah, John Caldwell, Makan Fofana* and Tagalifi Maiga

A topology survey-was done of 263 farmers from 5 representative villages in the Zone of the Operation Haute Vallee
(OHV Zone), Central Mali. Farmers were classified into 3 principal recommendation domains and 19 principal crop
research domains using 4 types of criteria: number of livestock owned, ownership and use of agricultural equipment and
draft animals, and constraints and their relative severity as perceived by farmers for 7 types of crops (sorghum, millet,
rice, maize, cowpea, groundnut, and horticultural crops) and 3 types of animals (cattle, sheep, and goats). Farmers in the
4 recommendation domains differed in level of ability to take risk and perform animal traction activities: farmers with a
high level (4%) had average herds of 44 Tropical Livestock Units (TLU), 8 heads of draft animals, and 2 plows; and
farmers with a low level (75%) had averages of 3 TLU, 1 head of draft animals, and 0.6 of a plow. Six principal
constraints were identified among the 7 crops: weeds, water, fertilization, plant protection, equipment, and draft animals.
Research domains for each crop were mutually exclusive, but farmers belonged to as many research domains as the
number of crops for which they had constraints. Farmers with constraints of less severity (weeds, and water on sorghum,

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weeds on maize) were in research domains of larger number (71% of sorghum and 57% of maize farmers) spread across
villages. Farmers with constraints of greater severity (water on rice and maize, fertilization and equipment on maize;
plant protection on millet) were in research domains of smaller numbers (25% of rice farmers, 20% respectively of maize
farmers, 11% of millet farmers) concentrated in a particular village. Three principal constraints were identified for
animal production: feeding, water, and health.

79. The Role of Women Farmers in Managing Cassava Production
in Bandundu (Zaire)
Mputela Mbongolo-Ndundu* and Steven E. Kraft

Women farmers contribute more than 60 percent of the resources in many farm operations directed toward the
production of food crops. Consequently, in countries such as Zaire, it is important to analyze the contributions of women
and relate it to national policies of food security.

To enhance the productivity capability of women farmers, it is necessary to provide them with information that they can
use in making better allocative decisions. These decisions relate to the use of land, labor, and capital. In addition, there
are decisions related to credit, market access, and the use of "improved inputs" like fertilizers and seed. Data derived
from a farm-level survey of women farmers in Bandundu are useful in assessing what women farmers are doing now and
for making recommendations for the future.

In this study, a Cobb-Douglas production function is estimated based on cross sectional data collected from women
farmers in three regions of Bandundu during the summer of 1990. The production of cassava is analyzed using data on
eight variable inputs along with information on the women's use of credit and extension training. Female labor, seed,
and training are statistically significant and positive in two locations, while fertilizer, tools, market access and male labor
are positive and significant in the third location.

Results are interpreted in terms of their meaning for micro-level managerial decision making and macro-policy.

80. An Assessment of the Cost Effectiveness of the Traditional and
Recommended Maize Storage Practices in South-Western Nigeria
T.O. Ogunfiditimi*, J.A. Ekpere and O.C. Anyim

It has often been alleged that farmers' traditional storage practices are not cost-effective and that the recommended
practices are better. This study therefore took a cursory look at the cost-effectiveness of these two practices.

Two hundred (200) farmers participating in IITA maize project in the South-Western part of Nigeria were selected.
Structured pre-tested questionnaires were administered. Both Multiple Regression and Discriminant Analysis were
employed and the SAS computer sub-programmes was used for data analysis.

Results show that the traditional practices are effective for small-scale producers while the recommended practice is
more profitable for large-scale producers.

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FSR/E Contributions to Policy/Development

81. Review of Applications of the Farming Systems Approach
in Agricultural Policy Analysis
John M. Dixon and K.H. Friedrich*

Inappropriate agricultural policies represent one major impediment to sustainable agricultural development (because of
the complementary role of policy in technology adoption) which could, at least in theory, be alleviated comparatively
quickly. Ex ante impact assessment of agricultural policy options is severely constrained by a lack of a sound knowledge
base of farm-household system and agricultural sector responsiveness to the policy environment (monitoring of policy
impact faces similar difficulties).

This paper presents a broad-ranging review of the experience with farming systems approaches in agricultural policy
analysis, drawn from country case studies in Asia, Near East and Africa. Such farming system applications constitute a
small but potentially important part of the wider field of microanalytical methods in policy analysis work. The review of
farming system applications is organized in three parts: overall policy context and institutional framework; availability of
farming systems information and farming systems analytical methods.

It is argued that appropriately-designed farming systems analysis can improve agricultural policy formulation. The
refinement of farming systems methodologies required for this purpose is discussed. The constraints to greater use, both
indirectly of existing farming systems information, and of farming systems analyses commissioned directly for policy
purposes, are analyzed, and some priority areas for action identified.

82. Farming Systems Research/Extension and Development Planning Linkages :
A Critical Review of Indian Experience and Prospects
K. C. John*

India has perhaps the distinction of experimenting with the largest options of development planning. In the process, an
array of economic activities has been identified which call for planning and action at the central level, as indeed another
set of activities which call for planning and implementation at disaggregated levels. Understandably, a great deal of
excitement is visible for decentralized planning. The concern for decentralized planning, though, is as old as planning

The Planning Commission has carried out significant exercises on decentralization of development planning and
implementation in the state and at the sub-state levels, i.e., agro-climatic regions, district, block and village levels.
During the formulation of the Eighth Five Year Plan, the idea of decentralized planning at the agro-climatic regions and
at the district level has received vigorous attention.

Although the idea of decentralized planning has been there, in one form or another, right from the beginning of
development planning experiment, several contradictions in the concept of planning from below in the given political
economy framework have received inadequate attention. Democratic centralism vs. decentralization; apex triggered
decentralized planning vs. absence of pressure for effective decentralization in planning at the micro-level; politicisation
of local level governance vs participatory movements; elitist orientation vs. neglect of disadvantaged regions and people;
formal vs. informal policy analysis; market failures vs. community initiatives; tangible outcomes vs. intangible
processes, are some of the illustrations of contradictions.

Previous experiences suggest that 60-70 percent of outlay is still planned and allocated at the state level for various
infrastructural items. Besides, as much 80-90 percent of outlays on district level programs are accounted by the


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expenditure for ongoing schemes with very little left for formulation of new initiatives. At best the decentralized
planning has been done at the state level and at worst in the central level by employing data of debatable quality. In this
context, prospects of FSR/E approaches are examined to make decentralized planning effective. Besides data generation,
its role in enviromentation characterization, situation analysis formulation of relevant programs and projects,
identification of policy-induced constraints and shifts in policy-focus are highlighted. The paper also emphasizes how
best inherent contradictions mentioned above can be resolved through adoption of FSR/E methodologies.

83. Critical Issues and Future Directions for Agricultural Extension
FM. Kelleher*, RA. Woog and A.S. Turner

Research into extension effectiveness in the dairy and wheat industries has shown that the transfer of technology from
research programmes to farming practice is characterized by a number of paradoxes. These paradoxes often become
critical issues limiting the effectiveness of agricultural extensions services. The major paradoxes found can be
summarized as:

* farming is characterized by complexity. Extension aims at the management of complexity through technological
* farmers, however, believer the complexity of their situation is the major barrier to the adoption of technology;
* changes or developments seen as "good" for an industry are not necessarily also "good" for the individual farmer
within it;
* production systems which are highly productive in conventional terms are frequently unstable and non-sustainable in
ecological terms.

To cope with these critical issues, the theoretical basis of extension needs to change from one of technology transfer with
a communication focus to one embracing the theories of Appreciative Systems and Action Research. Both enable a
focus on the critical theses of Learning, Participation, and Emancipation of individuals and have the farmer rather than
the technology as their central focus in the development of new approaches to extension.

The paper outlines the development of Systemic Action Research as a new methodology which addresses the above
constraints on extension and presents data from research into the effectiveness of a major extension campaign in the
wheat industry which highlights the deficiencies of the traditional technology transfer approach.

84. Paradigms and Practice: Creating the Institutional Environment for
Sustainable, Low External Input, Technology Development and Utilization
Janice Jiggins* and Niels Roling

1) The authors explore the relationship between the nature of institutional arrangements, the type of knowledge process,
the nature of technological output, and innovation in agricultural research, development and extension.

2) They argue that major paradigm shifts and methodological developments are occurring, in both tropical Lei
agriculture and industrialized agriculture. There are an expanding range of options in the arrangement of institutions and
in knowledge management. Work on gender analysis is converging with other methodological developments and
paradigm shifts such as FSR/E, PTD, design-driven research, and second order science.

3) The challenge of sustainability in the face of population growth, and environmental uncertainty arising from global
warming, is forcing adoption of soft systems methodologies and empowerment strategies, within a knowledge system
framework for the management of multiple sources of innovation.

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The authors present case studies from tropical and industrial practice to illustrate points 1-3 above, drawing on Roling's
work with ISNAR and Jiggins' work with gender analysis and development programs.

85. Networking: A Panacea for Agricultural Technical Cooperation
in Southern Africa
Ted Stilwell* and Johan van Rooyen

The green revolution has passed almost unnoticed over Africa. The inability of Africa to feed itself amid vast amounts
of unused land and high levels of foreign aid is, on the surface, one of the major paradoxes of Third World development.
Evidence exists that this may be partially attributed to inappropriate exogenous technologies promoted by aid agencies.
Recent political events in Southern Africa have opened up the opportunity for greater regional cooperation of all
countries within the economic sphere of Southern Africa. There appears to be a practical possibility of a number of
opportunities to provide agricultural technology and technical aid in order to stimulate economic growth and purchasing
power of South Africa's neighbors. The latter is also necessary to promote markets for South African exports necessary
for growth. South Africa has a plethora of local research knowledge and "on-the-shelf" technology appropriate to semi-
arid farming conditions, much of which is vested in a strong private sector. What needs to be done is to bridge the gap
by taking South African technology and adapting it through Farming Systems Research and Extension to local resource-
poor circumstances facing smallholder farmers in development settings. A further requirement would be to involve the
public and private sector in a comprehensive technology delivery system through structuring appropriate farmer support
programs. In South Africa, a large number of organizations exist that have particular areas of competency eg. the
Agricultural Research Council, Commodity Research Institutes, Universities, the Fertilizer Society of South Africa, the
South African National Seed Organization, the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemical Society of South Africa and many
more. In neighboring countries, public sector research has received substantial attention and is supported by
international centers such as CIMMYT and ISNAR as well as donor agencies eg. USAID. These latter activities have
also achieved particular levels of competency. What is proposed is that organizations focus on their particular areas of
competency but enter into a dynamic network where knowledge and materials are exchanged freely to the mutual benefit
of all the stakeholders in agriculture.

Technological Change and Community Impacts

86. Integrated Approach to Improve the Socio-Economic Status of Scheduled
Caste Farmers in the Punjab
Harsharn Singh Grewal*, J.S. Kolar, R.S. Narang, G.S. Gill and Jugraj Singh

The demographic scenarios of India reveal that a sizeable section of the people are below the poverty line. Among the
different castes and creeds in India, scheduled castes are known for their social, educational and economic
backwardness. To improve the socio-economic status of this weaker section of the society, a development oriented
holistic approach was used in the Punjab. Three hundred scheduled caste families in ten villages in three clusters were
selected, after analysis of data taken during reconnaissance, informal and formal surveys. Analysis of farming systems
being followed by the target group indicated that small land holdings, fragile soils, poor purchasing power and lack of
technical know-how were the major constraints of low productivity of crops, livestock and other allied enterprises.
Farmers were ignorant about the proper management of natural resources. Keeping these constraints and people's
professional background in view, the programme of upliftment was initiated with agriculture, animal husbandry,
homestead vocations and income generating activities for women folk as main planks. To attain the desirable results
from various activities undertaken, a multidisciplinary team approach was used to transfer the economically viable,
socially acceptable and technically feasible production technology to the target group. Various methods to transfer the
technology included on-the-spot guidance, individual/group contacts, conducting demonstrations at farmers' fields, and
organizing training camps. field days and workshops with the farmers. Consequently, wheat yield of target group
increased from 3.2 t/ha in 1986 to 5.2 t/ha in 1990. Similarly, rice yield increased from 3.9 t/ha to 7.7 t/ha. Milk yield of

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milch animals increased by 10 to 34%. Income generating enterprises like vegetable growing, dairying, poultry, piggery,
basket making, leather tanning, handloom etc. being advocated by providing training and arranging credit on loan basis,
were adopted by the target group and greatly helped them to supplement their income. Women folk were found to have
played a pivotal role in enhancing the income of their families by being involved in vegetable growing, dairying and
handloom sector. Farmers got awareness about the efficient management of natural resources; on-the spot-guidance was
found to be the best approach followed by demonstrations and training camps to inculcate the farmers about the new
innovations. Studies thus revealed that development oriented holistic approach can be very effective in improving the
socio-economic status of small farmers.

87. Impact Assessment of On-Farm Research Project in the
Gandak Command, Bihar, India
R B. Sharma* and S.S. Singh

Impact assessment of an on-farm research project two years after its inception in 1988-89 at 2.7 Km long Jian minor, at
the tail end of the Tirhut main canal,with 18 outlets having a command area of 234 Ha has shown that: a) Pyrites is being
increasingly used by the farmers for reclaiming calcareous alkaline soils; b) long duration local rice varieties yielding 15
to 20 q/ha have been replaced in about 40% area by the medium duration improved variety (Rajshree) yielding up to 35
q/ha and making fields available for timely planting of winter season crops. Consequently cropping pattern is fast
changing from rice-summer moong to rice-rapeseed-summer moong and rice-wheat; c) twenty eight fold increase in the
number of farmers and 60 fold in the area has been recorded for adoption of improved technology for rapeseed raising
average yield from about 6 to 18 q/ha. Similarly area under wheat have increased by 20 fold raising average yield from
7 to 30 q/ha; d) economic returns of the farmers adopting improved technology have increased by 2.5 to 3 fold; e)
greater social awareness has resulted in the formation of water users cooperative enabling timely water supply rather
than water being released at the convenience of canal authorities.

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Asia Session

88. Intercropping of Toria (Brassica Campestris) and Gobhi Sarson (B. Napus)
Towards a Sustainable Crop System in North India
Jaswinder Singh Bhatia*
Brassica crops grown in northern India during winter are susceptible to frost and lodging. A dual purpose (grain and
leafy vegetable) newly developed brassica cultivar, gobhi season (Brassica napus) having slow initial growth escapes
frost injury, its plants being stout do not lodge easily. Normally toria (B. Campestris) occupies field from early
September to mid December whereas gobhi sarson from mid October to the end of March. Researchers, by adjusting
sowing time and method of planting have shown that Igria and gobhi sarson can be sown simultaneously in mid
September either in alternate rows, 22.5cm apart or sowing toria by broadcast and gobhi sarson in lines 45cm apart using
normal seedrate for each crop. Toria is harvested in mid December when gobhi sarson plants are still short but pick up
growth with rise in temperature in mid February and harvested in the end of March. The system enables better
utilization of farm labor during slack periods and growing of a following leguminous crop short season green gram
ensuring sustainability of productivity of the system.

89. Using Participatory Rapid Rural Appraisal in Selecting FSR/E Site:
A Case Study
BB.S. Dongol*, N.P. Joshi, F.P. Neupane, R.C. Sharma, G.K. Shrestha
and J. Timsina

Site selection is an initial step in any farming system research/extension (FSR/E) program. Participatory Rapid Rural
Appraisal (PRRA) techniques were used in selecting FSR/E site for farmers' participatory research in Kabilas Village
Development Committee (KVDC) in Chitwan district, Nepal, representing the foot to midhills as its recommendation
domain. KVDC has diverse ethnic settlements with the dominance of Gurung community. Several villages within
KVDC were surveyed using "Samuhik Bhraman" (Group visit) technique. Farmers fully participated in discussing the
objectives of the research project. They drew social maps, natural resource maps, and broad transects of several villages
which enabled the researchers in site selection to initiate a FSR/E program. Farmers drawn maps and deduced site
selection criteria are discussed through posters.

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90. Sensitivity of Research Methodologies in Determining Women's Roles in
Development Programs
Alicia S. Go* and Samuel S. Go

Focus of the study lies on the methodologies of determining women's roles through:
1) conceptual roles by way of checklisting categorized roles.
2) farm and nonfarm project inventory of women's tasks as practiced.
3) gender interaction analysis in income-generating activities and related social interchanges.
4) a case study of representative households.
5) research review of women's roles in four developing countries.

Sensitivity of the methodologies is evaluated from the viewpoint of receptiveness to participative research, verifiable
information, comprehensiveness of women's roles and rapid appraisal techniques. The study expects to enrich grassroot
studies on women in development and generate studies on women occupying leadership and managerial roles. It further
pools strengths of the methodologies towards the evolvement of the most reliable and valid design in determining
women in development roles.

Providing data source to determine women's roles in development programs are:
1) five rural communities at village level, adjacent to an agricultural state college with research and extension centers,
which have currently responded in some ways to development programs; and 2) five urban agricultural/aquatic based
communities bordering the coastline benefiting from business as well as marketing services.

A total of 100 households, purposively chosen based on preset criteria serve as the sample from which women's roles
would be inventoried, classified and later verified by a larger sample.

91. Impact of Farming System Research and Extension on Agricultural
Development in Target Areas
M. Serajul Islam*, SM. Altaf Hossain and A.B.M. Mahbubul Alam

This study was conducted to examine the changes of Farming System (FS) with the introduction of technologies
generated through Farming System Research and Development Programme (FSRDP) and its impact on changing the
production performance and economic returns from crops, livestock and poultry, and fishery. For this purpose
continuous monitoring was conducted in two villages namely Kizirshimla and Noagaon from 1986 to 1990. In each
year, all the households of two villages were surveyed during June-July through interview schedule to collect
information on changing cropping pattern and yield/ha of crops and pond fish, and production of livestock and poultry
birds. Due to various socioeconomic reasons and migration total number of households of these two villages was
changed from 393 to 527 in different years of study period.

After adopting and changing technologies through FSRDP, cropping intensity increased by 56 percent and 98 percent in
respective villages and total yield of different crops also increased. Considering the limitations of grazing land and
animal feed, special importance was given for the development of small animal and poultry birds. It was found that
average number of poultry birds increased more than 200 percent in both the villages compared to 1986. Due to
topographical and resources endowment difference between two villages, pond fishery development programme for
Kazirshimla and beef fattening programme in Noagaon were under taken and both these locationwise individual
development programme had shown the significant impact on increasing farm income. However, from such study, the
future direction of FSR may have guide to adopt or change the technologies within the farmers resources endowed to
increase farm production and income.

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92. An Analysis of Farming Systems? Profitability and Extent of Adoption of
Crop Technology in Southern Dry Zone of Karnataka, India
K. Venkataranga Naika* and B.S. Siddharamaiah

The Farming Systems Research (FSR) approach in India started with the introduction of National Agricultural Research
Project (NARP) in 1979. This is a new approach which makes provision for location specific and need based research
on multidisciplinary basis. Based on certain agro-climatic features, the entire country is divided into 126 agricultural
zones, of which 10 zones are in the state of Karnataka. The present investigation is an attempt to analyze the farming
systems followed by the farmers, profitability of different systems, extent of adoption of crop technology and the
extension gaps in one of these zones. The southern dry zone of Karnataka was selected because of its typical
characteristics and resemblance to the entire state. Two talks: Mandya, representing irrigated farming & Nagamangala
a typical of rainfed farming, were selected and five villages from each taluk were chosen on random basis. In all 300
farmers were interviewed for the present investigation. The data obtained were grouped under three systems: 1) Irrigated
system; 2) rainfed system; 3) partially rainfed and partially irrigated system. The results revealed that the majority of the
farmers under the three systems were following crop production plus animal husbandry enterprises. However, the
maximum net returns were obtained by the farmers practicing crop production plus majority of the respondents used
improved seeds, recommended seed rate, and optimum spacing. Besides, the study pointed out certain extension gaps in
treatment of seeds soils etc. To conclude, the investigation has pointed out the need for reorienting the research activities
based on the specific local needs, productivity potential and the Extension gaps to strengthen the missing links, in FSR
approach in the zone.

93. The Operative Model of On-Farm Research & Extension Systems
Li Ou*, Jian Xiaoying, Li Xiaoyun, Zhang Jichen, Pei Yonggui, Liu Guomin, Yie Jingzhong and
Geng Xingyuan

In the traditional on-station research systems of Chinese universities, the local governmental extension agencies as well
as the farmers should, in the first place, do the part of work to help accomplishing the research task of the professors, and
then extend them after the positive results are acquired. Such way of separating research from extension as two
independent processes leads to agencies and farmers to alternate their objectives frequently and fail to participate in the
relevant activities practically. As the theory, the on-farm research and extension systems have got a better solution to
such problem. In practice, however, how to make the universities' professors, local extensioners and farmers integrated
organically as a group, bring themselves under the common objectives into full play respectively and accelerate the
technological transference remains an urgent problem for us to solve. For this purpose, we made extensive exploration
in some counties of Hebei Province in recent two years and found out a set of operative model for on-farm research &
extension systems.

The paper described the fundamental framework of the systems, explained the characters of the technology-concentrated
area, demonstration area and diffusion area of the systems, and expounded their operative mechanism. The results of the
system working showed this model effectively bridged the gaps between the research and extension, and accelerated the
scientific and technological transference in rural areas.

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94. Sustainable Homestead: Dowry for Next Generation-Lesson from
Thilak T. Ranasinghe*

The rapid growth of population leads to create a problem of greater demand of food requirements. So, people tend to
grow each and every inch of fertile soil. However, in this process farmer or gardener does not worry about the natural
soil fertility in his farm or homestead respectively. This in turn causes high risk in farming, heavy changes in agro-
ecological situations and the problem of soil degradation.

In order to address these problems, the Homestead Development Programme was introduced in the Moneragala District,
Sri Lanka with a greater community involvement in 1986/87. The following components were included in this

a) Soil and moisture conservation strategies,
b) Crop rotation and use of organic manure,
c) Introduction of timber and leguminous trees to the homestead,
d) Introduction of low cost and integrated management techniques,
e) Introduction of family nutrition and health protecture activities,
f) Introduction of additional income generation activities.

The following steps were taken in reaching total number of 58,172 families having 52,024 homesteads in the districts.

a) Awareness Creation actions,
b) Training of trainers and leaders,
c) Competitions and special action projects Adult/Youth/School children,
d) Demonstrations, field tours, field days and dialogues,
e) Research extension field clinics

Finally, 59% of the homesteads were included in the first year showing community contribution in this programme.
Moreover, financial agencies accepted to provide assistance for soil & water conservation strategies and conservation
farming attempts along the objective of sustainable agriculture for future farmers.

95. Evaluation of Some Agronomic Schemes for an Integrated Crop-Livestock
Md. Abdur Razzaque* and Elipidio L. Rosario

Four field experiments were conducted at the Central Experiment Station, University of the Philippines at Los Banos,
Laguna, Philippines, to evaluate several ways of integrating livestock/forage production into maize, mungbean and
sugarcane production through overseeding, intercropping, leaf defoliation and detopping results indicated a considerable
potential of producing maize fodder without affecting its normal yield. Planting maize at 100,000 to 300,000 plants hal
and gradually reducing it to a normal population of 50,000 plants ha -1 increased maize fodder yield from 1.76 to 8.29 t
ha-i dry matter basis. Yield of intercropped mungbean significantly decreased with increased maize population. Double
row planting of maize at an interval distance of 1.5 2.0 improved mungbean growth and gave higher seed yield.

Intercropping mungbean with sugarcane was found to be an efficient method for food and forage production. It gave
additional amounts of high quality herbage. An intercrop population of 800,000 ha -1, thinned down to 200,000 gave
sufficient fodder yield without adversely affecting either the sugar or the mungbean grain yield. High crude protein
percentage, crude protein yield, and in vitro dry matter digestibility were attained when thinning was done at 35 DAS,
suggesting that this is the best stage to harvest the mungbean fodder.

Increased degree of leaf defoliation in sugarcane resulted in more fresh fodder and high dry matter yield. Complete or
75% defoliation significantly decreased sugar yield tonnage yield, and yield components.

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Sugar and tonnage yield and their components were not affected by the detopping treatments. Detopped forage yield
(2.9 t ha -1) did not vary with detopping date. Detopped fodder can support 3.27 ruminant animals for 120 days.

96. Sunflower Production in the Cotton-Based Farming System of the Southern
Muhammad Shafiq*

Paper examines the economic performance of the sunflower cultivation vis-a-vis late wheat in the cotton-wheat farming
system of Pakistan's Southern Punjab. It also discusses effects of sunflower crop on the following cotton crop. Crop
data for two consecutive years (1988 and 1989) were collected by using interviewer procedures, crop cuts were also done
during this year. A profitability comparison among competing crops showed that sunflower fields were giving about 129
percent higher net returns than the late wheat, even after deducting its effect on following cotton. Higher cost of seed,
problems in sunflower harvesting, delays in cotton planting, application of extra fertilizer to cotton to compensate
sowing delays, greater expenditure on cotton pest management and reduction in the cotton yields sown on sunflower
fields were the major factors responsible for limiting widely adoption of sunflower even with its higher profitability.
The study concludes that sunflower is the best alternative to late wheat with higher profitability. Its timely sowing and
earlier maturity will be helpful in reducing its effect on cotton.

97. How Can a Farming Systems Approach Help Women Dairy Farmers?: Case
Studies from India
Poonam Smith-Sreen* and John Smith-Sreen

Pu se: This paper identifies major constraints which Indian women face in dairying and proposes a farming systems
approach for overcoming the problems.

Methods: Data was collected through indepth interviews with sixty-four women dairy farmers in the States of Bihar,
Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu in India and from project documents, discussions with staff, and personal observations.

Results: Analysis of the data reveals certain trends and commonalities shared by women milk producers. The major
constraints identified are interrelated and stem from physical, social, economic, and political factors. They include poor
health, nutrition, and productivity of mulch animals; limited training opportunities; and inadequate institutional support.

Conclusions: The lack of a systems approach has resulted in limited benefits to women farmers. Constraints women face
in dairying cannot be viewed in isolation from other aspects of their lives. Specific strategies have been suggested to
help overcome constraints, which will have implications on both research and extension. Certain strategies address
technical issues, others focus on training, while still other propose institutional changes. Taken as a whole, the strategies
promote a more comprehensive approach to dairy implemented through a collaboration of government agencies,
agricultural universities, extension services, and other non-government organizations. This will allow for more efficient
use of resources and expertise, and proved a more holistic approach to solving problems in the dairy sector.

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98. Better Results from Farmer Based Research System: The Experience of
Lumle Regional Agricultural Research Centre (LRARC), Nepal
Bhuwon Ratna Sthapit* and Anil Subedi

The complexity and diversity of highly integrated hill farming systems of Nepal requires innovative farmer participatory
research approaches to provide relevant and sustainable technologies for farmers.

Nepalese hill farming system is characterized by the extreme socio-economic and agro-ecological differences: the
altitudes within which agricultural production takes place range from 300m to 4000m asl, rainfall from below 1000mm
to over 5000mm per annum, the peoples are of both Indo-Aryan and Tibeto-Burmese stock with different customs and
languages, and access to markets ranges from non-existent to good.

The development of five farming system research methodologies (such as Samuhik Bhraman, interdisciplinary Research
Thrust, Informal Research and Development, Research Outreach and Farmers Preference Ranking) at a research station
in the hills of Nepal is described. The paper attempts to demonstrate the value of such an approach, in terms of better
research results. Some of the general obstacles in farmer based research methods are highlighted and the paper con-
cludes by describing through some case studies, some of the accomplishments of farmer participatory research methods
at Lumle.

99. The Reform of Farming Systems in North-Jiangsu Plain, China
Han Sun*

The area discussed is situated in the northern part of Jiangsu provinces, an alluvial plain of Huanghe and Huaihe Rivers.
Its rural area is 36,000 km2. Climatically warm-temperate. In the past, natural disasters of flood and drought have
occurred seriously. Saline and alkali and other poor soils made up about one half in the arable lands. The agricultural
production level was very low. Since the early 50s of this century, a large number of funds was provided by the
governments and the local farmers threw in a great quantity of labors for the comprehensive reclamation of the
ecological environment. Meanwhile, reform of cropping systems were carrying on. Now, it has oil-bearing crops. The
total food output was raised from 220,000 t in the 50s to 1,100,000 t in the 80s. This area is regarded as a very
successful example and its basic experiences can be used by the vast eastern plain areas in China for reference. These
are: 1) Comprehensive reclamation of ecological environment--large reservoirs were built for retaining the mountain
flood; irrigation-drainage systems; development of green manure crops; soil amelioration. 2) Reform of cropping
systems--shift the depressed upland which made up one third of the cropland into irrigated wetland to refrain the multiple
cropping index, improve the three cropping of upland. 3) Over-all development of rural economics--resources were
exploited in line with the local conditions. Cash crops--cotton, oil-bearing crops, mulberry tree; animals--pig and
poultries; fruit trees and trees for wood use; fish culture in reservoirs. Rural industries also have been developed
progressively to provide more employment. The farmers income has risen greatly. 4) Reform of rural economic system
and policy--household contract responsibility system; cooperation of households based on family-management;
socialized service systems; regulation of purchase and cost policies for agricultural products.

Monday poster abstracts 52b

Monday poster abstracts




100. A Proposal for a Functionalist and Typological Approach of FSR/E Focus-
sing Three Targets: Social Actors, Time and Information
C. Albaladejo and F. Casabianca*

Numerous attempts have been made to assess FSR/E projects. Yet no consensus have been reached so far. The mainly
quantitative impact evaluation on production is often criticized because it cannot be used for monitoring since this is an
aposteriori evaluation (currently 10 years after the beginning of the project). Analysis of the institutional impact of a
project can be done at earlier stages but they imply a simple institutional framework (one institution only if possible), an
univocal objective and comparability between the contexts and means of the projects studied. These conditions are
seldom met in most FSR/E projects.
In this paper, we assume a preliminary stage to be lacking prior to these evaluations: i.e. characterizing the type of
FSR/E being dealt with. What kind of conceptual framework is needed to better evaluate the function of FSR/E taking
into account the context of the research?

A three component analysis is proposed:

* Analysis of the actors of development. Identification of social actors and their strategies when involved in a project in
which research is taking part.
* Analysis of the time component of development. Past history, present time and anticipations. One is dealing here
with non-linear time; in so far as the research is involved in the transformations of the system studied, time is then no
longer seen as a simple duration but as an itinerary with "bifurcations" that represent more or less negotiated choices.

* Analysis of the progression and "work" of information. How does information flow? What is its nature? Where is it
stocked and what is its social meaning? This third dimension (information) combined with the analysis of actors
provides entry to the study of institutions and combined with time it allows studying decisions and negotiations.

This theoretical framework has been applied to two research situations in France and in Argentina by INRA/SAD.

The purpose of this characterization is far wider than to provide simple assessment tool; it aims at contributing to
understand to what extent an experience, whether successful or not, may be useful in different situations and in other
historical-institutional contexts.

Wednsdaypostr abtracs 53

Wednesday poster abstracts


101. Socio-Economic Constraints at the Farm Level on the Intensification of
Cowpea Production in Niger
Tahirou Abdoulaye, J. Lowenberg-DeBoer*, Philip Abbott and K.C. Reddy

The intensification of cowpea production is proposed as a way to increase the income and dietary balance of Nigerien
farmers, while at the same time combating the degradation of the soil that threatens the sustainability of agriculture.
Generally in Niger cowpeas are intercropped with millet or sorghum, but with the development of improved cowpea
varieties, like the TN-5-78, pure crop cowpea is becoming more common. Agonomically, cowpeas have many advan-
tages, but there are farm level economic constraints. Increasing cowpea production increases the demand for labor and
require a certain amount of capital. The objective of this analysis is to identify production approaches which could
reduce these problems. The framework for the analysis is a whole farm linear programming model based on data
collected in surveys and on farm trials in the Fillingue arrondissement in the west central part of Niger.

The results indicate that labor availability at the first weeding is a key constraint for both the millet-cowpea intercrop and
the millet/cowpea rotation. Planting time is a constraint, but less so than the first weeding. Harvest time increases in
proportion to the yield increases, but harvest labor availability does not appear to be a constraint.

The millet-cowpea intercrop using the TN-5-78 at increased density required less capital than the millet/cowpea rotation,
because it can increase productivity even without phosphate fertilizer or insecticides. A problem with the higher density
intercrop is that in low rainfall years the cowpeas can dominate the millet and reduce yields below those of traditional
fields, thus threatening the farm family's food security.

The millet/cowpea rotation could be used on small areas, especially if the cowpea planting is delayed for several weeks
after millet planting. This allows cowpea weeding to be delayed until much of the millet is weeded. For the farmer with
access to animal traction the labor bottleneck might be reduced by shallow tillage of the cowpea fields before planting.
This allows cowpea weeding to be delayed until millet weeding is finished.

102. Institutionalizing Farming Systems Development (FSD) as a Safeguard for
its Sustainability
K.H. Friedrich*

Any comprehensive development approach can only be as sustainable as one succeeds in institutionalizing it in existing
government structures. This also applies to "Farming Systems Development" (FSD), an approach developed and
promoted by FAO, which specifically emphasizes farming systems analysis, planning, monitoring and evaluation for
policy formulation, programme adjustments and project analysis.

For institutionalizing FSD, in a first step, an ideal model is developed and the criteria are elaborated which make this
model desirable. Secondly, the process of institutionalization of FSR is reviewed in order to learn from this experience.

In a third stage, real world institutional structures are reviewed, ways and means proposed for how FSD could best be
institutionalized for achieving long-term benefits of this approach in agricultural development.

Wednesday poster abstracts 54b

Wednesday poster abstracts


103. Alley Farming Technology Among Peasant Farmers in Nigeria: Prospects
and Problems
T.O. Ogunfiditimi* and OA. Adekunle

There is an urgent need to meet the ever-increasing demand for food in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the
developing countries.

* To sustain food security, several technologies have been offered to the peasant farmers. The Alley Farming Technol-
ogy represents one of such innovations recently introduced to peasant farmers in Nigeria by the International Institute of
Tropical Agriculture (IITA).

* To assess the rate of adoption and significance of this technology, one hundred peasant farmers involved in IITA
Plantain Alley Farming Project were selected and interviewed. Data was collected through pre-tested structured ques-
tionnaires and later subjected to Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) of SAS Computer programmes.

Our findings show that the prospects of Alley Farming Technology lies in the ability of the peasant farmers to correctly
incorporate multipurpose trees which can enhance soil fertility into the cropped land to boost high sustainable food
production. Unfolding circumstances such as land tenure constraints, landlessness, culture-specific and gender-specific
issues, however, attempt to accentuate the threat to the overall adoption and utilization of Alley Farming Technology in

104. Nordic Colloquium on the Integration of Ecological Agriculture and Urban
Lennart Salomonsson*

Development of sustainable system for agriculture and urban development has attracted growing interest among re-
searchers as well as technologists. Ecological crises related, among other things, to the exploitation of limited resources,
environmental pollution, exponential growth of the human population, and massive greenhouse gas emissions, has
focused attention on sustainability. Unfortunately, researchers and technologists have largely been working indepen-
dently of each other in approaching sustainability problems, when, in fact, an interdisciplinary approach is needed. To
initiate interdisciplinary research was aimed at integrating ecological agriculture and urban development under Nordic
conditions a colloquium is to be held at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in May 1991. The purpose of
the colloquium is to describe ongoing research project and to develop priorities for future interdisciplinary research
work. The poster describes the results from the colloquium.

105. Agronomic Technology Transfer A Challenge to FSR/E in West Africa
James C. Sentz*

During 1990 observations in 12 West African countries, the author found agronomic technologies available to the
National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) are not effectively flowing to farmers. Primary constraints to technol-
ogy delivery are identified as 1) limited human capital, and 2) lack of operational resources. These are further manifest
in several secondary constraints: a) inadequate On Farm Adaptive Research (OFAR) Extension linkages, b) lack of
seed/planting materials, c) absence of impact-potential assessments, and d) inefficient research methodologies.

To bring appropriate technologies to African farmers, FSRE scientists will need to effectively address these constraints
at three levels: the farmer/family, markets, and NARS management. The family is generally a traditional system,
oriented toward survival, and relatively resistant to supply pushed technology. Given improved technologies the farmer
is dependent upon market organization to provide both production inputs and produce outlets requiring credit, transporta-
tion, storage, etc. The NARS, with few exceptions, require strengthening and particularly in their Research Extension
linkages to promote appropriate technologies.

Wednesday poster abstracts


During the 1980's, African food production increased at a slower rate than population growth resulting in further deficit
food production in the region. However, some recent successes in on farm adaptation and verification of improved
technologies have demonstrated the potential to reverse this trend during the 1990's. We must learn from these experi-
ences and focus upon strengthening OFAR-Extension operational linkages to provide the African farmer viable and
economic alternatives for increasing productivity.

106. New Technology Adoption in Two Agricultural Systems in the Niamey
Region of Niger: The Role of Resource Endowments and Agroclimatic Factors
Barry I. Shapiro* and John H. Sanders

Comparisons in the adoption potential of improved cultivars and fertilizer between two region specific farming systems
are made. Income and income variability results from whole farm modeling for the two sites, as well as a decomposition
of the regional differences in incomes are considered. The roles of availability of land and labor, rainfall and soils, and
price differences due to access to an urban market are investigated. The adoption potential in the two regions is shown to
conform to relative land-labor ratos. To identify specific constraints to adoption and strategies to overcome the con-
straints, however, a closer investigation of relevant factors is needed. The technical factor, rainfall, is shown to be more
important than price. Region specific research strategies are called for that include efforts to improve livestock and
livestock-crop integration in drier, more land elastic areas.

107. The Adoption of Sustainable New Technology Practices in the Niamey Re-
gion of Niger: Alternative Investments and Adaptive Farmer Behavior
Barry I. Shapiro* and John H. Sanders

This paper addresses why seemingly viable new crop technologies are sometimes not adopted. It proposes extension and
research strategies to encourage adoption of more sustainable production practices. Technology evaluation results from
on-farm trials and field surveys carried out in this Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Niger are reported. Alternative investments
in small ruminants, usually left out of whole farm technology evaluations, can explain non-adoption of chemical fertil-
izer. Taking into consideration the adaptive, sequential nature of farmer decision making assists in devising a step-wise
adoption strategy for extension and a new breeding strategy that may lead to the adoption of a more sustainable system
including fertilizer. Whole farm modelling using discrete stochastic sequential programming captures the adaptive
behavior of farmers.

Wednsdaypostr abtracs 5I


Wednesday poster abstracts


The Americas Session

108. Farm Level Impacts of Multilateral Trade Liberalization, Case Studies of
the United States and France
Christain Mainguy, C. Parr Rosson, III, Amy Angel* and Johnny Jordan

The objectives of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) multilateral trade
negotiations are to reduce import barriers, eliminate domestic and export subsidies, and minimize unnecessary health
and sanitary regulations which affect trade. Many studies have been done to predict and measure the welfare effects of
such changes on U.S. and European agriculture on a sectoral basis. Few have dealt with the specific farm level effects of
these changes. A firm level, recursive, simulation (FLIPSIMV) was used to estimate the financial impacts of
multilateral trade liberalization on selected case farms in the United States and France. Results indicate that all farms
experience substantial declines in net cash farm income, loss of equity in the operations, and a decline in returns above
variable costs. These changes cause major shifts in competitive advantages. Such data are important to policy-makers
in bringing aggregate changes down to a more tangible, individual farm perspective so that governments can better
prepare for the changes in agriculture which will follow multilateral trade liberalization. Although this study involves
U.S. and French farms, similar analyses could be done for other countries and regions of the United States.

109. Perceptions of Sustainability: Small Farm Families, Argentina
Elena Avila*

People in families play an essential role in sustainable development. The research focus is on perceptions of sustainable
development of members of small farm families in three rural communities of San Juan Province, Argentina, located at
different distances from and levels of integration with the city. Within a human ecological framework, an interpretative
paradigm and a qualitative method (in-depth interviews) were used. Emerging categories and properties of the concept
contributed toward the development of a grounded theory of sustainable development. The ways in which these small
farm families had been affected by a severe earthquake in 1977 were revealed in all the responses about sustainability.
Individual and human group attributes like resilience, self-confidence and self-esteem emerged as key properties
involved in adaptation to change. Computer generated diagrams demonstrate the major categories of change, values,
and human attributes with their similar and distinct properties in the perceptions of the men, women, and youth in each
of the three locations. The insights will be used in the author's extension activities in her home country.

Wednesday poster abstracts 57b

Wednesday poster abstracts


110. Farmer Participation, Social Wasps and Sustainable Pest Control in
Central America
Jeffery W. Bentley* and Ronald D. Cave

Honduran farmers have a complex taxonomy for describing native social wasps, including names for many individual
biological species. Campesinos are aware of the environments where wasps are found, the painfulness of the sting of
each species, what times of year they are active and which ones produce honey. Farmers do not know that wasps eat
soft-bodied insects, including many agricultural pests.

While we learn about wasps from farmers, we explain wasp predation on insects to them. They find the topic interesting,
and often learn more about it by their own observations. Long-term research includes learning to move wasp nests with
farmers, documenting the distribution of species geographically, and learning the local wasp taxonomies and indigenous
technical knowledge--often very different from one place to another.

Because farmers are not aware that wasps are natural enemies of many insect pests, wasps are often destroyed
intentionally or while applying insecticides. Farmers often use a conspiracy theory to explain the rise in pest population
after starting to use chemical insect control: companies seed agrochemicals with new pests to get farmers hooked on
more chemicals. Explaining the predator role of wasps to farmers is easy, gives them a more accurate explanation for
increased pest attacks with more insecticide use, and enhances their ability to manipulate their environment and
experiment with native, biological, sustainable pest control.

111. Integrating Farming Systems and Livelihood Systems: Links Between Farm
Based and Household Based Analysis
Julie P. Leones and Timothy Finan*

Many farm families in developing and developed countries are involved in work both on and off the farm. To develop
useful technologies and management strategies for the farm, the off-farm opportunity costs of labor, the constraints that
off-farm employment may place on farm operations, and the opportunities off-farm income and employment create need
to be incorporated into future models of farming systems.

Failure to examine non-farm livelihood activities may lead to misunderstanding about the roles played by household
members in their overall livelihood system as well as the farming system. Failure to examine non-farm activity may also
lead to distorted perception of a region's economic base and to limited understanding of the effects of labor migration.

Data from a Philippine case study are used to illustrate how off-farm activity and migration affect local farming systems
and consequently the opportunities for increasing income through modifications in farm management or technology.

112. Institutionalization of Sustainable Agriculture in Extension, Research and
Teaching Programs
CA. Francis*, D.H. Vanderholm, E. Dickey, G. Hergert and J. Brandle

Incorporation of the theories and practices of a sustainable agriculture has been institutionalized at University of
Nebraska through the formation of a Center for Sustainable Agricultural Systems. Born through a long process of task
force meetings and consultation with department heads and district directors, the Center now has a broad ownership and
mandate for action throughout the university system. Conceptually, this Center does not consist of bricks and mortar nor
large assigned staff, but rather operates on the principle that sustainability is a philosophy that should pervade all of our
research, teaching, and extension efforts. The major goals of the Center are to enhance the productivity and profit in
farming and ranching, to maximize efficiency of resource use and minimize the off-farm effects of practices, and to

Wednesday poster abstracts


promote an environmentally sound and socially viable agriculture in Nebraska. To this end, faculty and staff on campus
work with non-profit groups, farmers, other government agencies, environmental organizations, and industry. What we
seek is a sustainable agriculture that places primary emphasis on renewable resource use and the long-term viability of
production. Diversity and value added products help to reduce biological and economics risk. Our goal is to infuse this
philosophy into university programs, and not to develop an independent activity or department This is our concept of
long-term institutionalization of sustainable agriculture in Nebraska.

113. Use of Simulation Models and Geographic Information Systems in Assessing
Sustainability of Water Resources for Irrigation
Chansheng He* and Thomas C. Edens

This study uses crop growth simulation models and geographic information systems to estimate irrigation water demands
and to examine the sustainability of streamflow for irrigation in the Cass River watershed of Michigan.

Crop growth simulation models, including CERES-MAIZE for maize, SOYGRO for soybeans, and BEANGRO for dry
beans, are used for estimating irrigation water demands and crop yields. These models use a minimum of readily
available weather, soil, management, and variety-specific genetic inputs to simulate dry matter growth, leaf area indices,
crop development, evapotranspiration, and final crop yields. In this study, sets of soil, weather, and management data
are used in the simulation models to estimate yields and irrigation water demands for corn, soybeans, and dry beans on a
30-year basis. Geographic information systems are used to provide soil inputs to the models. The simulation results
indicate that seasonal irrigation demand for corn averaged 163.1 mm (6.42 inches) for June through August, with 75.1
mm (2.96 inches) in July and 49 mm (1.93 inches) in August. With the addition of 163.1 mm of irrigation water from
June through August, irrigation may increase corn yield by 75 percent over non-irrigated corn in the study area.

U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic data from 3 stations on the Cass River were used to calculate the amount of
streamflow available for irrigation. Assuming instream flow available for irrigation withdrawal is the amount of flow
above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) 95% exceedence flow limit, the maximum
irrigation acreage the streamflow can sustain at 75% exceedence level is 7,800 acres in the entire watershed, which only
accounts for 2.3 percent of total agricultural land. Irrigation expansion beyond the maximum acreage limit could lead to
streamflow depletion and damage to the fisheries habitat

114. Socio-Cultural Constraints in Working with Farmers in Forestry
Haider A. Khan* and William B. Kurtz

In Malakand Agency, Pakistan, the land tenure system has a substantial influence on forestry adoption. Landowners and
tenants alike depend on the hillside for grazing cattle and collecting firewood.

A survey of five villages in Malakand indicated that land tenure, literacy, income, group interaction, incentives and
product markets affect forestry decisions. Tenants and owners of small parcels want to use hillsides for grazing and
firewood collection while owners of large parcels prefer planting the hillsides with trees, preferably fruit trees, and
reserving some of the area for grazing. The intent of each group is to maximize near future returns while protecting their
respective legal rights. The Forestry Department needs to develop methods to involve all sections of society through its
social forestry program to enable these various groups to reach compromise in attaining their respective goals.

Wednesday poster abstracts


115. Development of a National Curriculum in Sustainable Agriculture for
Classroom and In-Service Training
J. King*, C. Francis and D. Vanderholm

There is a growing national awareness in colleges and universities of the need for both classroom teaching activities and
in-service training in extension in sustainable agriculture. To date, there are few courses, and even fewer sites with an
organized curriculum in this emerging area. Limited people and resources have been invested by any one institution;
experts are scattered across the country. The time appropriate to coordinate scarce resources and expertise into one
coordinated effort to establish a curriculum that could be accessed by people throughout the system. Using the concept
of developing a series of modules in key subject matter areas, the available experts are being used to develop lectures,
visuals, and written materials for specific courses. These are being captured on video and will be made available through
satellite transmission across the country. Each course will be divided into a series of sub-modules that can be used in
whole or in part as the material is adapted to other states and farming/ranching conditions. Written materials are being
organized and stored where they will be most easily accessible, at National Agricultural Library, ATTRA, and the
Regional Educational Materials Centers. An individual who wants to plan a class, a seminar, or an in-service training
session can access materials from this project to design an activity that is specific to the audience, location, time frame,
and local conditions. Materials generated in these local applications will be added to the total storehouse of visual and
written materials available. Although this will be funded initially through grant funds, the system is designed to be self-
sustaining within a short period of time. The national curriculum project will have been initiated by the time of the
AFSRE symposium in October.

116. Sustainability and Minimum Size of Irrigated Family Farm in Selected
Areas in Brazil
Sonia Coelho De Alvarenga and Carlos AM. Leite*

One of the main concerns of the Brazilian Government is to increase the food production through irrigated agriculture.
Heavy investments and many projects are on the way but an important question still remains: what should be the size of
the irrigated family farm of these projects? This study was funded by the Ministry of Irrigation and deals with this
question. Its main objective was to estimate the minimum size of an irrigated family-farm which could supply the
household with basic needs such as food, shelter, clothing, health care, etc.

Linear programming was used to determine that size considering several situations. Among them was considered
different annual and perennial crops, models that included and excluded return to productive capital and the possibility of
off-farm income.

The results indicated that the size of the irrigated area depends on the combination of the crops and on the level of the
technology used in the production process. The inclusion of perennial crops, as was the case of bananas, decreases the
size of the irrigated area considerably. On the other hand, the combination of annual crops with low level of technology,
as is the case of traditional agriculture of the project areas, indicates a bigger size of the future irrigated family-farm.

117. Indigenous Knowledge Relating to Silvo-Pastoral Management Systems of
Small-Scale Farmers in Jamaica
Bruce J. Morrison* and Michael A. Gold

Between April and July 1990, a Michigan State University researcher lived in Green Park, Trelawny, Jamaica, gathering
quantitative and qualitative information pertaining to activities and technologies of 40 small-scale cattle farmers. The
objectives of the study were to 1) explore small farmers' indigenous knowledge relating to silvo-pastoral management
systems in a tropical dry climate, 2) conduct a preliminary investigation of the social/cultural environment of the

Wednesday poster abstracts


proposed target area, and 3) examine pastoral land-use systems and technologies in current use. Methods included
participant observation, informal topic-focused interviewing, and snowball sampling. Data gathered included farmers'
ages, means of transportation, farm-related tasks, acreage, number of cattle, selling prices, reasons for raising cattle, trees
used as alternative fodder resources, risks involved with raising animals, and socio-economic constraints to development
in the area. One fodder tree species (Brosimum alicastrum, breadnut), also valued as an important charcoal source, is on
the verge of localized extinction; the conflict over this diminishing species and possible solutions are discussed.
Potential innovations of the silvo-pastoral management system are addressed, including increasing the production of
indigenous fodder tree species, introducing improved tree fodder species, and planting improved grazing grasses at the
same time as cash trees.

118. On-Farm Residue Management Demonstration
Randall K. Wood, Larry C. Brown and John M. Smith*

Managing crop residues for soil and water conservation benefits is an important practice for farmers interested in
maintaining soil productivity. A post-harvest demonstration research project was established to reinforce that residue
management begins at harvest. Thirty combinations of primary and secondary tillage were demonstrated in adjacent
corn and soybean residue plots on a western Ohio farm in the Fall of 1989. The location was ideal for this type of a
study because the site included adjacent corn and soybean variety plots in the same field. The plots were laid out with
six different primary tillage treatments following the lows in each crop and five secondary tillage treatments that
occurred at ninety degrees to the primary tillage. Videotape footage and slide photography captured the dynamics of the
soil-tool-residue interactions and the amount of surface residue cover before and after each tillage operation. Also, the
line-transect method was used before and after each tillage operation to determine the percent residue cover.

The mean post-harvest residue cover was 91% in soybean residue and 96% in corn. The corn shucks and stalks had
more mass and were not as easily disturbed as the soybean stubble. One pass of the offset disk left 48% cover in the
corn residue compared to 13% in soybeans. Following the offset disk with a secondary tandem disk pass at 90% to the
offset disk left only 6% cover in soybean residue compared to 49% in corn. The fragility of soybean residue makes it
difficult to do any tillage and still maintain an acceptable level of cover.

Residue counts were repeated in late March to document the weathering effect on surface cover. The results indicate the
high degree of variability associated with residue cover measurements.

119. Sustainable Community Economic Development: A Minimal Research and
Extension Approach
Larry J. Smith*

A participatory process is proposed for utilizing existing knowledge to develop useful generalizations based on
community-level experience. The process focuses on ecological, cultural, and institutional contexts as factors to be
considered in designing research or extension efforts. Appropriate concern for such considerations in hierarchical
context is required to adjust expectations and realistically seek to improve results of efforts to enhance sustainable
agricultural potential and, ultimately, human welfare. One example of an area in which a hierarchical perspective for
sustainability has received too little attention in much of the literature concerns attending to the distinction between
either projects or individual experimenting farmers and the communities and larger social and ecological contexts in
which either must fiction. The proposed method uses a minimal, network-based, interactive research strategy focused on
study of communities cultural and ecologically controlled context. Existing information and perspectives on the
communities studied are utilized even if available information must be accepted in ordinal rather than equal interval units
of measure and required adaptations are made in analytical techniques. More detailed and expensive data collection and
analysis are left for future iterations which can be informed by results of the proposed process.

Wednesday poster abstracts 61b


Wednesday poster abstracts

120. The Role of Hillside Farmers in Achieving Sustainable Watershed
Management: A Dominican Example
Scott G. Witter* and Domingo A. Carrasco

Watershed management is a critical aspect of natural resource management in the Dominican Republic. For decades the
process of slash and bum agriculture combined with periodic hurricanes have greatly increased already significant hill-
side erosion and deforestation problems (CRIES, 1982; Witter, et al., 1985; and Carrasco, 1991). The resulting erosion
has greatly reduced the life expectancy of major dams, their electrical generating capacity, and greatly increased nutrient
loading in lake and rivers (Southgate, 1985).

In an attempt to limit erosion and stabilize hillside farming practices and increase farmer income, USAID with the
Dominican Secretary of Agriculture implemented the Natural Resource Management Project (NARMA) in 1982. The
NARMA project was first implemented in the Ocoa watershed with technical assistance for farm management,
agronomy, credit systems, erosion abatement, social services, agricultural zoning and forestry. In 1985, almost 90% of
the farmers in the watershed were participating in NARMA's programs greatly reducing hillside erosion rates (Carrasco,
1991 and Witter, et al., 1985). USAID funding for technical assistance and many of the related programs ended in 1986.

During the summer of 1990, 150 hillside farmers from 22 communities within the Ocoa watershed were interviewed
using a structured questionnaire to measure the acceptance and sustainability of NARMA's programs. Additionally,
twenty officials from the Dominican government and local funding agencies were interviewed to evaluate the success
and long-term sustainability of the NARMA project. Positive correlations at the .05 significance level were recorded for
the adoption of conservation practices and use of credit, extension agent visits, and farmers requesting additional
extension services. Conversely, the study has identified that 62% of the farmers who adopted conservation practices,
because of the NARMA project, have since discontinued them and returned to highly erosive farming practices. This
study documents what happened and possible alternative management approaches, which may provide a more
sustainable future for watershed management in the Dominican Republic and elsewhere.

Wednesday poster abstracts 62b


Wednesday poster abstracts




Abbott, Philip .....54b
Abdoulaye, Tahirou ....54b
Abedin, M.Z. .....5b, 10b
Adekunle, O.A. .....55b
Adesina, Akin A. ......35b
Alam, A.B.M. Mahbubul .....48b
Albaladejo, C. .....53b
Alip, Jaime Aristotle B. .....23b
Amin, Md. Ruhul .....10b
Angel, Amy .....22b, 57b
Anyim, O.C. .....42b
Asante, Alfred .....llb
Asuming-Brempong, Samuel .....lib
Avila, Elena .....57b
Avril, Claire .....22b
Axinn, George H. .....25b


Bandoy, N. .....27b
Bennett, C.P.A. .....20b
Bentley, Jeffery W. ....58b
Berdegue, Julio A. ......41b
Bhatia, Jaswinder Singh .....47b
Boughlala, Mohamed .....3b, 24b, 35b
Brandle, J. .....58b
Brown, Larry C. .....61b
Burgos, N. .....27b


Caldwell, John S. .....41b
Camacho, Camilo A. ..... 27b
Cardenas, Virginia R. .....4b
Carrasco, Domingo A. ......62b
Casabianca, F. .....53b
Cave, Ronald D......58b
Cazanga, Rodrigo .....41b
Ccama, Faustino .......6b
Celada, Ing. Juan Ernesto .....16b
Chimatiro, Sloans .....8b
Chraibi, Lofti .....3b, 24b, 35b
Conway, Gordon R.
Cornelio, Rodolfo S. .....32b

Cornelio, Tito S. .....32b
Corrales, Elcy .....6b
Crowder Jr., L.V. .....34b


De Alvarenga, Sonia Coelho .....60b
DeFoer, Toon .....14b
Dereinda, Ridwan .....20b
Dev, G. .....34b
Devson, Robert .....32b
Dhutt, A.S. .....34b
Diallo, Goudussi .....22b
Diallo, Ibrahima .....9b
Dickey, E. .....58b
Diop, Amadou .....38b
Diop, Jean Marie .....38b
Dixon, John M. .....43b
Djouara, H. .....12b
Dlamini, Samuel M. .....14b
Dongol, B.B.S .....47b
Duldulao, F. .....27b


Edens, Thomas C. .....59b
Ekpere, J.A. .....42b
Estabillo, Cornelia C. ....32b
Evangelista, Celso .....33b


Faungfupong, Supot .....21b
Fiebig, William W. .....32b
Finan, Timothy.....58b
Flora, Jan .....36b
Flora, Cornelia .....36b
Fobasso, Martin .....15b
Fofana, Makan .....41b
Force, Jo Ellen .....12b
Francis, Charles A. .....58b, 60b
Frankenberger, Timothy R. .....21b
French, F.C. .....34b
Friedrich, K.H. .....43b, 54b

Gage, Stuart H. .....38b
Garcia, Adeflor Grant ....33b
Garrity, Dennis P. .....16b
Ghimire, Devi P. .....9b
Gibbon, D.P. .....19b, 40b
Gill, G.S. .....45b
Gillard-Byers, Thomas E. ...3b, 24b, 35b
Go, Alicia Saavedra .....48b
Go, Samual S. .....48b
Gold, Michael .....60b
Gomez, Diego ....33b
Grandstedt, Artur .....38b
Grewal, Harsharn Singh .....45b
Grigsby, Bill .....12b
Gueye, F. .....38b
Guomin, Liu .....49b


Harrington, Larry W., 21b, 27b
He, Chansheng .....59b
Heinrich, G.M. .....9b, 25b
Henderson, Helen K. .....13b
Hennquin, Bruno .....22b
Hergert, G. .....58b
Hesterman, Oran .....2b
Hildebrand, P.E. .....34b
Hoque, Md. Murshidul .....10b
Hossain, S.M. Altaf .....48b
Hubert, Jean-Pierre .....7b
Hunter, Gene A. .....28b
Hussein, Sayed Sajiclin .....14b
Hutchinson, Barbara S. .....13b, 21b


Islam, M. Serajul .....48b


Jager, EJ. .....12b
Jichen, Zhang .....49b
Jiggins, Janice .....44b
Jingzhong, Yie .....49b

John, K.C. .....43b
Jordon, Johnny.....57b
Joshi, N.N. .....9b
Joshi, N.P. .....9b, 47b


Kamuanga, Mulumba .....15b
Kelleher, F.M. .....44b
Kelley, Tim .....18b
Kells, James ......2b
Khadka, RJ. .....19b
Khan, M.M.R. .....10b, 19b
Khan, Haider A. ......59b
King, J.....60b
Kitbamroong, Charas .....21b
Kolar, Jaspinder Singh .....45b
Kooijman, M.LM. .....12b
Kraft, Steven E. .....42b
Kristensen, Erik Steen .....28b
Kurtz, William B......59b


Landeck, Jonathon .....22b
Landis, Douglas .....2b
Lawrence, Douglas J. .....17b
Leite, Carlos A.M. .....60b
Lennington, Marian .....38b
Leones, Julie P. .....58b
Loevinsohn, Michael, 20b
Lohr, Lu .....2b
Lowenberg-DeBoer, J. .....54b
Lynam, Timothy Jan .....7b
Lynham, Mark B. .....13b, 21b

Maiga, Tagalifi .....41b
Mainguy, Christain.....57b
Mallick, RN .....10b
Masikara, S. .....9b
Maslog, Wilfreda .....4b
Mate, S. .....27b

Matlon, Peter J. .....35b
Matthess-Guerrero, Annemarie .....4b
Mazhani, L .....25b
Mbongolo-Ndundu, Mputela .....42b
McPherson, Malcolm .....13b
Medrano, Jose .....16b
Modiakgotla, E. ..... 25b
Mora, Luis .....41b
Morrison, Bruce J. .....60b


Naika, K. Venkataranga .....49b
Narang, R.S. .....45b
Nelson, Kristen C. .....33b
Ness, Richard .....31b
Neupane, F.P. .....47b
Nieuwkoop, Maztien Van .....14b
Nkusi, Augustin
Noble, Reg P. .....8b


Ogunfiditimi, T.O. .....42b, 55b
Oliva, Lydia P. .....27b, 33b
Osunade, M.A. Adewole .....18b
Ou, Li .....49b


Parera, CA. ......34b
Perrot-Maitre, Daniele .....10b
Piyadasa, E.R .....31b
Posner, Joshua L .....13b


Quiroz, Consuelo .....5b


Ramirez, Eduardo .....41b
Ranasinghe, Thilak T. ....50b
Ranaweera, Nimal F.C. .....36b
Randhawa, K.S. .....34b
Razzaque, Md. Abdur .....50b

Read, Michael .....21b
Reddy, K.C. .....54b
Riddle, Richard A. ....3b, 24b, 35b
Rittmann, Stephanie ....31b
Roberts, William .....22b
Robins, Edward .....32b
Roca, Ruben .....16b
Roling, Niels .....44b
Rosario, Elpidio L .....50b
Rousseau, Pierre .....28b
Rosson III, C. Parr .....22b, 57b


Salomonsson, Lennart .....55b
Sanders, John H. .....56b
Sands, M.W. .....38b
Sangakkara, U.R. .....29b, 31b
Sanoy, Felina .....4b
Saputro, Triana .....20b
Seek, Ibrahima S. .....22b
Sentz, James C. .....55b
Seth, S.L .....25b
Shafiq, Muhammad .....51b
Shapiro, Barry I.....56b
Sharma, P. .....9b
Sharma, R.C. .....9b, 47b
Sharma, R.B. .....46b
Shrestha, G.K. .....47b
Shrestha, Rabindra Kumar .....19b
Siddharamaiah, B.S. .....49b
Singh, Jugraj .....45b
Singh, S.S. .....37b, 46b
Singogo, Lingston P. ....30b
Siwi, Sri Suharni .....30b
Smith, John M. .....61b
Smith, Larry J. .....61b
Smith-Sreen, John ...51b,see add.1
Smith-Sreen, Poonam ..51b,see add.1
Somers, Greg L .....28b
Sorensen, Jan Tind .....28b
Sperling, Louise .....20b
Starkey, Paul .....26b
Sthapit, Bhuwon Ratna .....52b
Stilwell, Ted WJ. .....45b
Subedi, Anil .....llb, 52b

Sun, Han .....52b
Suriyo, Somsak .....21b
Sutherland, Alistair .....30b


Taa, Tesema .....29b
Talvela, K. .....34b
Taonda, SJ.B. ....32b
Tatian, Peter .....see addendum 1
Thapa, Fanindra .....15b
Timsina, J. .....47b
Timsina, Dibya .....15b
Tiwary, S.N. .....9b
Torres, Jose N. ....32b
Turner, A.S. .....44b


Yeboah, Anthony .....41b
Yonggui, Pei .....49b


Zinnah, Moses M. .....35b

Updegraff, Gail E. .....17b
Uwera, Marie Jeanne ....39b


Vaidya, A.K. .....40b
Van Rooyen, Johan CJ. ......45b
Vanderholm, D.H. .....58b, 60b
Viriyasiri, Samnieng .....31b


Walker, T.S. .....18b
Wattanutchariya, Sarun .....21b
Weaver, Thomas F. .....lOb
Wijeratne, Mahinda .....15b
Witter, Scott G. ......62b
Wood, Randall K. .....61b
Woog, RA. .....44b
Wynkoop, Andree .....22b


Xiaoying, Jian .....49b
Xiaoyun, Li .....49b
Xingyuan, Geng .....49b

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