Future international program involvement of the Food and Resource Economics Department


Material Information

Future international program involvement of the Food and Resource Economics Department
Physical Description:
1 v. (unpaged) : ; 28 x 22 cm.
University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Study and teaching -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Food and Resource Economics Department.
General Note:
"May 1, 1980"

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 731677371
lcc - HD9000.5 .F87 1980
System ID:

Full Text





APARTMENT May 1I, '1980

(904) 392-1826


Dr. Hugh Popenoe, Director
International Programs
3028 McCart~y Hall

Dear Hugh:

Enclosed is our report, "Future International Programs
Involvement of the Food and Resource Economics Department," which
is being submitted in response to the call for a revised statement
of philosophy and International Program needs of the various IFAS
units. Our Departmental International Workgroup under the leader-
ship of Professor Carlton G. Davis is to be commended for preparing
the bulk of this report on a rather short time basis.

Please feel free to contact me or Dr. Davis regarding any
specific questions generated from reading this report.

Sin erey,

LBo Polopolus



K. R. Tefertiller
W. W. McPherson
P. E. Hildebrand ^
Emilio Pagoulatos
P. J. van Blokland
C. G. Davis


cc: Dr.








Guiding Principles for International lnvolvem~ent in the 1980s

International involvement of our faculty is essential in fulfilling

our education and research responsibilities. Such involvement is essential

as a me~ans to fulfilling our dame~stic responsibilities, whether or not the

department is engaged in any direct contractual obligations with foreign

countries. During the 1960s the Com~mittee on the College and World Affairs

selected three major historical thrusts to demonstrate the new dimernsions

and strategies of learning that will be~ required within our educational

system: (a) the shift in relationships that has moved the United States,

along with very few other nations, into the center of world affairs, (b)

the eme~rgence of new nations and the vast increase in the world importance

of their cultures, and (c) the new c-omp~lexities as well as the new opp~or-

tunities that have been introduced into the process of people as well as

officials in this process. Th~e comn~ittee3 \eote:

It is trite to observe, two decades after the beginnings of
this shift, that both, power and responsibility came to the
United States before either the government or the people were
prepared for it. Th~ey had neither the knowledge, the outlook,
the skills, nor the understand-ing required. Unfortunately,
this condition still persists even after twenty years. It is
this continuing lack of preparation forlworld leadership that
poses a serious challenge to education.

Today we can safely say that this condition still persists. B3y

tradition, the University of Florida as a Land Grant University is both

a center of learning and of service with a public purpose. The renewed

interest and commaritenult to international work by Land Grant Institutions

Import of the Cormnittee on the College and World Affairs, Education
and World Affairs, Inc., N1.Y. 1964, pp.? 3-4.

under the organizational fram~ework of Title XII of the Foreign Assistance

Act of 1975 (Famine Prevention and Freedom from H-unger) has been echoed by

our highest level of administration at the University. In the "Proposal

for a Title XII University Formula Strengthening Grant" President M3arston

state :

We at the University of Florida take pride in our international
programs and believe that our role in international trade and
development is significant both for Florida and developing
countries. Due to the tropical nature of our State, there are
many similarities in our rural and urban development and our
agricultural production needs to those of various tropical
countries. In this regard, Florida is a gateway to the tropics
for U.S. research and technical assistance work.

Similarlyr, Vice President Tefertiller stressed the point when he

wrote in the same proposal:

Present and future~ production, resource use and rural development
problems in the tropics and subtropics readily lend themselves to
joint program efforts. These needs and opportunities, acccampanied
by the long-term cormmitment of IFAS to technical assistance, are
the basis for our present comrmi~tment to strengthening international
programs at the University of Florida.

This commnitment to international studies has been welcome by most

faculty in IFAS, particularly those who are development oriented and have

invested part of their career in this type of activity. We are already

seeing some of the benefits in the Food and Resource Economics Department

(FPED) ; an increasing numbrJ of faculty members have continued to enrich

their international expertise adding new geographical dimensions to it.

While most of our experience used to be in Latin America we are now~ be~-

com~ing more familiar with Africa; political and economic considerations

have dictated this broadening of horizens. U.S. Government agencies as

well as foreign Govemrennts and international institutions are increasingly

recognizing the expertise and good will that we have and this has reflected

in an increasing number of requests for work in international dlevelopmrent.

Over the years, the faculty of FR~ED has arrived at a consensus with

respect to a well defined philosophy regarding our international involve-


-Our international, programs should be comnplimenstary with our domestic pro-

grams by providing professional. enrichme~nt for our faculty and students,

and by providing research opportunities in support of our graduate program.

-Th2ey should be aimed towicard long-term, continuous verk with respect to the

foreign country in terms of enhancing its economic research, educational

and admtiinistrative capabilities.

-The~y should be directed toward situations where we are in a position to

provide effective leadership or where we are in a position to readily de-

velop? a leadership role, and

- In terms of geographic areas, priorities should be given to the tropical

and subtropical areas of the world.

In regard to specific programs we feel that we should:

First, establish and maintain a long-term arrangement with one or

more institutions : in a foreign country or countries. The particular

program should be developed in direct cooperation with the institution (s)

concerned .

Second, establish and maintain an arrangement to support graduate

students' research in foreign countries, including faculty travel for

supervision; there should be flexibility with regard to countries and

subject matter of projects; both U.S. and foreign students should be


It is our considered opinion that commpitment to international involve-

mrent is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for a successful inter-

national program. Successful programs cone when comnitmeunt is opera-

~tionalized into pragmatic working mechanisms that elicit maximum interna-

tional involvement on the part of interested faculty members. In this

regard, a number of important issues must be resolved as to the benefit

and cost of faculty participation in international. programs.

One such issue is the recruiting and screening of international

faculty. It is our opinion that when recruiting professional staff for

international work, we must use the same criteria and standards that we

use when we recruit staff for domestic work. We must use the same process

of faculty interviewing and seminars so that every member of our faculty

feels that he had an input in the acceptance or rejection of a potential

candidate. Prospective staff should be considered potentially permanent

and not themporary. This means that their cr-edentials must be evaluated

in terms of a particular job, as well as the long term needs of the de-


Involvemednt by the faculty, hcw~ever, should not be limited to the

recruiting process. As many faculty members as possible should be involved

in the initial stages of planning new programs or extending existing ones.

We have already taken a step to assure that this is the case by inviting

interested faculty and students to form part of an International Develop-

ment Work Groupi. This group will actively evaluate our role in existing

and new programs and explore opportunities for increased international

involvement by our faculty and graduate students. The mopre interested

persons that get involved in the early stages of the decision making

process, the better are our chances to succeed.

A 1976 survey of FRED faculty indicated a strong interest in inter-

national work. Faculty mreubters w~ith? international exerience indicated

strYong interest in both short-term and long-term international assignments.

TIhose who did not have direct international experience indicated interest

primarily in sh~ort-term assignments that would involve their specific areas

of competence. Since being well informed is the key to success, w~e believe

that a's many faculty members as it is feasible should be given this oppor-

tunity, and their contributions in this field be taken into account in

their annual evaluation, which brings us to the next issue, the one regarding

the criteria used for tenure, promotion, and salary adjustment for faculty

involved in international work.

It is imperative for a successful international program that excellnce

in international work, whether it be on a campus or overseas, be considered

as a valid criterion for faculty evaluation. PromoQtion and tenure of faculty

involved in overseas assignments sh~ouldl be based on performance an their job

description and not on the lizalited standards that apply to domestic research,

teaching or extension. Specifically, the heavy weights assigned to scholarly

publications in national referred journals, as a basis for tenure and pro-

no~tion, might be to the disadvantage of the international faculty. In many

instances, the particular work assignment requires a product quite different

from that of traditional journal articles. In such instances, peer and

administrative evaluation should use appropriate and officially recognized

evaluation criteria for awardingT tenure and promotion to such faculty members.

The same should be the case for salary adjustments. Formal evaluation

criteria for professional advancement for international faculty should be

given high priority by ~FRED, IFAS and University administrators. Concurrent

with the establishment of such criteria, administrative action should be taken

to insure that internationally oriented faculty is well represented: on peer

review committees at the departmental, IFAS, and University levels.

It should also be the responsibility of the administrators to assure

that there are opportunities available to the faculty involved in long-

term overseas assignments to cone back to the Department, integrate fully,

and keep? professionally up to date. Periods of one to twyo years between

long-termn foreign assignments would be beneficial for the individual aLnd

for the Departmrent by the faculty member sharing his experience through

research or teaching. Given the size of our Department, the size of IFAS

and the many opportunities for international work on the horizon, it should

not be difficult to maintain some~ rotating lines for this purpose.

Finally, we would like to relate our development work to one of our

most important resources, that is graduate students. The major role of

our international programs is to train students to carry out research and

development activities in foreign tropical and subtropical environments.

This role implies the continuous reassessme-6nt of our teaching programs to

suit changing needs, as well as the identification of suitable opportunities

for the students to carry out their thesis and dissertation work. Quite

often we are faced with. cases of domestic students that are interested in

foreign development work but are unable to obtain the necessary financial

assistance for it. Having a greater number of faculty involved in the

different aspeccts of tropical agriculture should facilitate the identifica-

tion and exploitation of the many opportunities .for grants and assistant-

ship that are available in the various national and international institutions

and regional research centers outside the U.S.

Departmental Progams ContributingJ to IFAS
Int~ernational Programs

President Teaching Program


A. Undergraduate

1. AEB 4164 Mahnagemeunt of Farms in Tropical Areas, 5 credits
2. AEB3 4434 Land and Water Economics, 4 credits
3. AFEB 4672 International and Interregional Trade in Agriculture,
3 credits

4. AEB 4726 Income and ~Employmetnt of Rural People, 5 credits

B. Graduate

66 34


Foreign Agricultural Development Planning, 5 credits
Foundations of Agricultural Policies, 3 credits
Agricultural Developme~nt Adm~inistration, 4 credits
Economic Developmrent and Agriculture, 5 credits
Agriculture's Role in the Grow~th of Latin American
Nations, 4 credits
International Agricultural Policy and Trade, 5 credits
Strategies for Developing the Agricultural Sector
(Special Topics) 9 credits
Farm System Refsearda Methodology (Special Topics) 4 credits



8. AEB 6933

Each of th1e above courses has significant international content.

Foreign students, as well as domestic students, take our basic theory and

quantitative m~eth~ods courses that formal the cores for our graduate degree

programs. A growing numbJer of undergraduate and graduate students from

outside our department are taking somed of these courses to broaden their

international background. For example, over one-half of the enrollmnuyt

in both AEIB 4164 and AEB~ 6933 (Farm Sys~t-ems) nowJ comes fromn graduates and

undergraduates outside FRED.

AEB 4164, AEB 5612, AEB 6634, AEB 6651, and AEB 6933 we designed

especially for foreign students and for U.S. students who are planning a

career in the international area. AEB 69333 (Strategies for Developing the

Agricultural Sector) was designed and offered at the request of UjSDA Foreign

Training Division and AID.

Since January 1975, 48 foreign students have earned graduate degrees

with a major in Food and Resource Economics:

Master of Agriculture Mlanagement and Resource Developn~ent 2 8
Master of Science 9
Doctor of Philosophy 11
TOTL 4 8

Currently, there are 34 foreign students enrolled in graduate degree

programs in Food and R~esource Ecolnoics:

INlster of Agriculture Manageme3nt and Resource Developmrent 13
Master of Science 10
Doctor of Philosophy 11


Since January 1975, 3 domestic students have earned graduate dcegrees
with the thesis or diissertation written on some~ aspect of international

agriculture in Food and Resource Economics:

Master of Science 2
Doctor of Philosophy 1


Currently, there are 5 domestic students working on graduate degrees

with the thesis or dissertation pertaining to international agriculture in

Food and Resource Economnics:

Master of Science 3
Doctor of Philosophy 2
'ITL 5

Research Program

A. Dep~artmental Re~search~ Projects Related to Tropical Agriculture, Lorw

Energy Technology and International Trade.

Exp~~erkt~ Station
















Description Researcher (s)

Economic Analysis of Citrus Integrated
Pest Program Murraro

Application of Water to Citrus to Dis-
cover Optirmun Investme~nt Levels for
Irrigation Equipmrtent and Scheduling of
Application Lynne

Economnic Analysis of IPM in Celery Alvarez

Firm and Enterprise Analysis for S~mall
Farmers Colette

Economics of IPM in Vegetdoles Boggess

Economic Input into I'PM Boggess

Optimal Riules for Sugarcane Stubble
Re~placemant Spreen

Minimum Tillage Energy Use and ~Environ- Gunter,
mental Quality Boggess

Foreign Comrpetition Facing Florida's
Agriculture Pagoulatos

Feasability of Soybean Crushing Plant Pagoulatos

Economics of Legume Production in South
Florida Alvarez

Miulticropp~-ing Systems in Forage Production
in South Florida Prevatt

Estimation of Grass and Grass-clover
Response to Fertilizer and W~ater and
Economic Evaluation of Weather Risk
and Irrigation M~elton

Energy Use in Ccam~ercial Agriculture Langham,

LET Funded Projects and Areas, 1979-80













Economics of Appropriate En~ergy~

International Trade Developmrent for Florida

Transportation fNbdel for Harvesting

Energy Use and Conservation in Agriculture

Energy Cost of Ground and Aerial Spraying
for Pest Control

Effect of Borrowing and Debt Servicing
on Developing Country Cosmcitr~ents

Energy Costs of Mbsquito E~nvironme~ntal

Effects of Income and Energy Prices on
Household Consumrption

Economic Benefits of Poverty Programs

Nutritional Status and Food Intake
Patterns of Lowi Incomeu Households

Socioeconomic and N~utritional Status of






van Blakland






Production Econ. Farm Systems Lab

Resource Econ. Economics of Alternative Energy Sources

Community Dev. CommuTnity and Regional Impact Mlodel

aelton, et al.

Kik~er, Milon

aihlkey, Gordon

LET Projects and A~reas, 1980-81

Emerson, Covey,


Production Econ.

Production Econ.

Production Econ.

Energy Use & Labor Displacement

Economics of Firm Level Adoption of Lowi
Energy Tedknology

Econcanics of Producing and Feeding H-igh
Moisture Grain


Title XII Strengthening
Grant Projects


Production Econl.




Reducingf Energy Use in Florida's Beef

ITp~act of Freight Rates on N~arketing
Feeder Cattle

Eocxnamics of Transportation for Florida

Alternative Energy Technology Assessment

Energy and Water Use in Citrus

Economric Efficiency and Energy Use
Impacts of Wra~ter Quality Standards

Identifing Researdb Nleeds and Adopting
Innovations for Small Farmes




Kiker, M~ilon





Farming Syst1-ems
and Small Farm

van Blokland,
Gilbert ,

B. New Projects Related to Tropical Agriculture, Low~ Energy Tedhnology

and International Trade.


Researcher (s)

Farm,Re~source Allocation in West Province,
Cameroon: Impact of Pricing Policies and
Small Holder A~sse-ts on Food and Export
Crop Production

Economnic Analysis of Livestock Systemrs
in Kenya

A Decision PNaking Appiroadb to the Adoption
of Small Farm~ Production Innovation,

Davis, Morgan

McPherson, Simpson,
Fillo (Dissertation)

van Blokland,
Dodson ,

Other Projects


Researcher (s)

The economic Feasibility of Certified M~aize
Seed Production in the Seven Reions of

van Bl0kland,

C. N~ew International/Dam8~1estic Research and Teaching Program

Farm~ing Systems R9esearch and Extension (FSR/E)

The Food and Resource Economics De~partment is playing a lead role


Pricing Changes Associated with ~larketing
Fresh Flowers and Vegetables fromn Labor
Intensive Colombian Farms to the U.S.
Consumers .

Estimatinlg Production Function for Labor
Intensive Vegetable in Selected Regions of
El Salvador

Agricultural Diversification and Rural
Incom~e Distribution in Ivory Coast

Evaluation of Food Aid and Alternatives
in Andean Countries

Economnics as an Approach to Setting Priorities
for Re~search Organization in Developing

Winter Vegetable Trade: M3exio and the

Agricultural Policy: A Linear Programming
Application to Guatamala

Alcohol Production for Alternative Energy
Use in H-onduras

Establishing a Formal Domestic Mlarket for
Brassica Vegetables in Equador

Economnic Conparison of Selected Vegetable
Production in Mexico and Florida

Impact of the Supervised C~edit System on
the Adoption of MJodern Agricultural Practices:
The case of Corn in Gua~amala

Eco~namic Analysis of Livestock System~s in

An Economnic World Trade Mo~del of Orange

van Blokland,

van Blakland,

Davis, Adama

M~cPherson ,


McPherson .

.McPherson ,

van Blokland
Alvaradio (Thesis)

van Blokland
Mu~noz .(Thesis)

Ward, Jaurequi

MlcPherson ,

Simpson, MI'Pia

Tilley, Irias


in the establishment of an FSR/E Program in the University involving many

different d~epartne~nts and comprising several components. Included in the

p~rogram~ will be:

A. Dam~estic FSRI/E Program

This program will consist of one or more operating FSR/E teams

in Research Centers of the Univesity working on problems of small farmers

and on the emerging problems related to energy, water and other scarce

resource use on larger commercial farms as well.

B. International FSR/E Center located at Gainesville involving:

1. A supporting resear ch and graduate training component with a

limited nunib~er of FSR/E courses and other suggested core courses for

students wishing to specialize in FSR/E: methods, but who maintain depart-

m~ental and disciplinary identification.

2. Short courses for the training of U.S. and foreign adm-inistrative

and program planning personnel in the techniques and use of FSR/E~

3. Consultancy services involving University of Florida faculty with

experience in Fannming Systems to assist i) agricultural research institutions

at the national, regional and international level establish and improve

FSRI/E type programs; and ii) government departments, funding agencies and

project authorities in utilizing FSR/E as part of project identification,

design, nonitoring and evaluation activities.

C. International Projects Involving:

a. Operational FSR/E projects in several countries utilizing faculty

and graduate students and in support of local as well as regional or inter-

national research and extension institutions and including a participant

training component.


b. A network of courses related to FSR/E taught in several locations

throughout Latin Anerica and Africa either as short courses or for graduate

or undergraduate credit. These courses would be taught in collaboration

with other institutions and in the language of the country in which they

are taught.

Support Needed for Planned WJork in International
Programs; Over the Next ?Twuo Years

1%sident Teaching Program

We do not anticipate the need for many additional courses. However,

we need at least one faculty mauniber with the training and experience to

develop and offer AEB 5612 (Foreign Agriculture Developmnent Planning) and

AEB3 6634 (Agricultural D~evelopment Administration) To date tLhese two

courses have not been taught. With increased involvement of the depart-

me~nt in technical assistance and training pro jects (Cam~eroon, Malawi, etc) ,

we anticipate an expanded demand for these courses.

Research Program

A. Farming SystemDs Research and Extension (FSR/E) Program

Support of the FSR/ Program over the next ~two years will require

several faculty positions plus assistantships, career service, equipment

and supplies. Because the FSR/E Program is Imultidisciplinal~ry, this support

will be spread over several departments. Needs for the next tw~o years are

for three line faculty~ positions in FRE (two in the International Cent-er

Component stationed in Gainesville and one at a Re3search Center in the

Domrestic FSR/E Program) and one each in Veg Crops, Anim~al Science,


Agronomy and Anthropology to complete the Team at the Research Center.

(It may be necessary to appoint the Anthropology position in FRED to keep

it in IFAS.) In addition there should be at least one assistantship for

each of the disciplines included (5) ; one career service position for the

Regional Center (only part should be charged to FRED) ; and one Career

Service position for Gainesville (probably nopstly charged to other units.

Office space, equipment and supplies will also be needed to support the

additional staff .

B Technical Assistance Program

Support for two recently awarded technical assistance contracts (Ik11awi

and Cam~eroon) will be needed over the next ~two years. Immrediate need is

for a Production Economist to complete the six-man research team for the

Malaw~i Agricultural Research Project. W~e highly recommnendl that a line-item

tenure accruing position be allocated to this position. As the Cameroon

Higher Education contract needs develop, w~e anticipate a need for at least

one agricultural economist to service this contract, plus backstop support in

the department. In additional, a numbnler of research assistantships willlbe needed.

Recent contact with USAID and Panamanian governmental officials indicate

that they are favorably impressed with the research capabilities of IFAS.

In light of this impression, we anticipate a request in the near future to

participate in a Farming Systems Research project with IDIAP in Panama.

If this contract materializes we will need an agriculture economiistt to

service this project, plus backstop supp~ort.

C. International Trade Program

A major research area currently under investigation is the analysis of

the competitive position of Florida agriculture in international markets.


The research activity is divided into -two major areas: (1) import Gampeti-

tion evaluating the effects of competing imports on the state's economy;

and (2) export market developme~nt-identifying and analyzing opportunities

for expanding commeurcial sales of Florida agricultural products in foreign

markets .

A number of agricultural industries in Florida have been under severe

ecaonoic pressures from rapidly-increasing imports for the past several

years. The comro~dities mo~st affected from foreign competition are tomatoes

and other fresh winter vegetables, cut flowers, limes and avacados, and

beef. Support is needed for the position of an Economnic Analyst to assist

in thlis work. This position and a research assistantship would be assigned.

to the dep~artme~nt's Agricultural Imarket Research Center.

Suumary of Support Needed for Work
Over the Next ?Two Years

The above statements regarding program needs in international activities

in Food and Retsource Economics can be summarized as follows:

Category Sulpport Level

A. Resident Teaching Program

Faculty Position 1.0 F.T.E.
Career Service Secretarial Position 1.0 F.T.E.

B. Research Program

Faculty Positions for Gainesville based
International FSR/E Center 2.0 FTE
Faculty Positions for Domnestic FSP/E Program at
Live Oak 1.0 F.T.E.

Contingency or floating lines

Thne Food &L Re~source Economics Departm~ent is commcnitted to an active

and effective involvement in international programs. Any future involve-

nent, however, is based upon the benefits that are expected to accrue to

the Department, IEAS, the University of Florida, and the State of Florida

over timre.


Graduate Re~search Assistantships
Computer Programer
Travel Fuznds
Space Allocation
Career Service Secretarial Position

2 (1/3 time)

1.0 F.T.E.

II. Technical Assistance Programs

Faculty Position for MJalawi Contract
Faculty Position for Came~roan Contract
Faculty Position for IDIAP Panama Contract
Graduate Research Assistantships
Travel Funds
Computer Programmning

III. International Trade Program

Economic Analyst Career Service Position
Graduate Research Assistantship
Travel Funds

1.0 F.T.E.
1.0 F.T.E.*
1.0 F.T.E.*
6 (1/3 tim~e)

1 (1/3 time3)