A Gameplan for a regional farming systems research development program in the West and Central African regions


Material Information

A Gameplan for a regional farming systems research development program in the West and Central African regions an internal strategy paper
Physical Description:
21 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
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Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Research -- Africa, West   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research -- Africa, Central   ( lcsh )
Agricultural systems -- Africa, West   ( lcsh )
Agricultural systems -- Africa, Central   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by the Farming Systems Programme of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, June 1982.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 637042805
lcc - S542.A35 .G36 1984
System ID:

Full Text



An internal strategy paper, prepared by the

Farming Systems Programme of the

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture

Ibadan, June 1982


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This provisional document is intended as a "game plan" for
discussion both internally and in contacts with donors and agencies
interested in the development of new agricultural research strategies
for Africa. The paper.lays out general principles for a regional
program of farming systems research development in the countries of
West- and Central Africa, in which the International Institute of
Tropical Agriculture will play a coordinating and catalytic role
through methods and systems development, training and networking on
both regional and national bases. The concept of this program
proposal is based on research that has taken place in a number of
international centerk.Fson improved and more realistic approaches farming
systems development, which rely on direct ties and feedback systems
with farmers' production systems in different ecological and socio-
economic settings. The framework for the program will mean a
substantial change in the methods and focus of agricultural research
and of the transfer of effective and acceptable technologies to the
oft complex farming systems encountered amongst the small-scale
farmers of these regions. The program proposal contemplates the
development of organizational structures that will bridge the existing
gap between traditional central experiment station research and its
clTent warmer by the introduction of an adaptive research components
ae-t e farm level t and diagnoze production bottlenecks and
o. test tecnoTloqical or system options to solve such constraints.
Central to the whole approach will be the creation of a system that
allows for the continuous flow of information on farm systems and
their performance to the central research and planning bodies of the
administration. As a result both development and research policies
will be much more accurately tuned to the conditions of farmers'
productionsystemsand the needs of rural development and socio-economic
betterment of this population sector.


Over the last 20 years it is becoming more and more evident that
the traditional concepts of technology generation and transfer in the
agricultural food production systems of the developing world have been
ineffective and have not resulted in the improvement of the main farming
systems in those countries, which traditionally have very limited
production outputs to supply national markets. Compared to total
research expenditure the limited amounts assigned to agricultural
research are mostly spend on experiment satins. From these significant
increases in agricultural productivities are being reported buth new
tiechnoTo es and production systems .aarently stay within tne cohftins
Sthese research establishments, with the exception of some the
more spectacular new crop varieties that answer the demand for single
factor.solutions of limited impact.


This lack of transferability of new materials and knowledge to
the farmers has been blamed by a number of scientists and research
institutions on a large number of interacting factors. The principal
constraint on technology transfer from researcher to farmer appears
to e the lack of relevance o- tlhe proposed innovations to the farmers'
conaditons. Irrelevant technologies may arise whenever an effective
two-way communication between the researcher on the one hand and the
farmer or extension agent on the other hand is lacking. New
technologies may be irrelevant for several reasons:
a) New technologies may have profound side-effects on the overall
performance of the farmers production system, oft ignored by the
researcher, and such technologies are frequently unacceptable to
the producer because these subsidiary effects are negative relative
to the farmer's perceived needs.

b) The limited knowledge of the farming systems as such, and of the
constraints that hold down productivity, often result in research
management setting the wrong priorities, irrelevant to the real

c) On-station agricultural research is often done under completely
dffferent ecological and management conditions than those encountered
on the farms for which the research should be done. New technologies
wh'icT sow promising results under station conditions are often found
to lose their advantages when tried under farmers conditions.

The limitations of conventional, agricultural research have led
to the development of a number of new approaches. These have been on
the one hand based on multidisciplinary scientific work, where socio-
economicinvestiaions on farming systems also contribute to
determine priorities for technical options to be developed in research
institutions, and on te other hand by adaptive research techniques
where the field level constraints are included in the research that
takes place under actual farming conditions. IITA's Farming Systems
Program over the past 10 years is an example of the conventional approach,
whereas CIMMYT's and IRRI's farm level research, economic and agronomic,
are examples of the so-called downstream approach.

Recent contacts between some of the CGIAR centers and various
interested donors have resulted in a consensus on the complementarity of
these forms of research, as well as an improved focus on the way these
approaches can be forged into a more comprehensive system of research.
Essential to developing such research systems are the elements mentioned
earlier, i.e. the development of a two-tiered on-farm farming systems
research programs which diagnose problems in existing farming systems and
test technological options for solving these problems at the farm level
and the development of multi-disciplinary station research, generating
fundamental' components for farming systems development.

Fundamental to the upstream/downstream system of agricultural
research is: (a) that the objectives of such programs include a
holistic view of the-farm enterprise, and (b) that the programming
and priorities are set by a thorough evaluation of identified major
factors influencing the farm operations. This identification takes
place against the totality of the farming system and is bound to
improve the suitability and acceptability of the technologies
produced. This can also be the basis for decision makers at the
national research or development level to work out more appropriate
and effective policies for increasing food production.

These considerations have led IITA to initiate, first on a pilot
scale, but now in a more ample frame, a program that aims at developing
and coordinating this broadbased on-farm farming systems research
"k capability in the national research structures.

The objectives of this;cooperative program will be the following:

a) To assist in developing an agronomic and socio-economic survey
capability in agricultural research, directed towards the
_: ~evaluation and analysis of constraints and development
alternatives in existing farming systems.

b) To assist in establishing effective adaptive research programs
at the farm level, capable of converting research information
and materials into viable and acceptable components in farming
systems, to be utilized in agricultural development areas
by projects and national agencies.

c) To develop and test methodologies for the previous objectives,
and to train researchers and technicians in the many aspects
of on-farm systems research.

d) To assist in developing efficient and continuous feedback systems
from the farm level to national research institutions and'
decision makers in order to improve the focus and content of
ongoing basic and applied research, and make national research
management and its policies more responsive to farmers' real

e) To promote and support an African Farming Systems Research
Network for the regular exchange of information on research
results, new methods, and technology transfers for farming
systems in the region.


Assuming that the trend towards increasing awareness of the value
of Farming Systems Research continues, and all indications are that
this is the case, the organization of a cooperative program for FSR
development in West- and Central Africa would have high priority and
fill an urgent need. It can be expected to find substantive backing
by African nations as/ 1ll as by the many donor agencies involved in
agricultural, and especially food production development for this
critical region of the world. The first indications of this interest
are certainly promising with inquiries for cooperative activities
from Nigeria, Cameroons, Ivory Coast, Ghana, and Togo, and with
substantive support for specific farming systems development projects
with national agencies promised by such donors as Ford Foundation and
-The veryzconcrete need for this downstream farming systems
research within the national research and development structures, and
the interest shown by national governments and donors has induced IITA
to plan a major outreach effort to develop simultaneously the necessary
methodologies and organization, and the required training programs
at national and regional level. The projected regional program is
expected to parallel the efforts in East and Southern Africa, where
CIMMYT, USAID and IITA have recently joined forces for the expansion
of the East African Economics (Farming Systems) program started some
years ago by CIMMYT under the leadership of Dr. M. Collinson.

The proposed programme hinges on developing close cooperation
with a number of national research institutions and development bodies,
who will have to be willing and able to establish specific national
projects aimed at creating farming systems research capabilities
(within the context of this paper's definition of FSR) in their own
national government structures. The cooperative effort should result
in a viable and effective new direction of agricultural research and
development in the region. It would also result in an increased rate
of generation of technologies adapted to the environments and taylored
to the farmer's needs.

The following elements are considered essential and fundamental
for the development of this regional program:

a. The existence of dynamic, component research activities of a
multi-disciplinary nature which can backstop the farming systems
research at farm level, and are responsive to the need for a
better understanding of the real priorities farmers choose and
of production constraints of different types of farmers.

b, The development of appropriate methods for diagnostic (analytical)
farming systems research at the actual farm and community level.

c. The development of appropriate systems for on-farm experimental
research (adaptive) including analytical techniques of a
biometric and economic nature.

d. The development of multi-level training programs and the generation
of appropriate training materials to (efficiently) create FSR
capabilities within national institutions.

e. The development and testing of effective feedback systems between
farmers, field workers, researchers, and managers, and policy

f. The development of management criteria and organizational structures
for FSR programs in participating countries and institutions.

g. The promotion of networks at national, subregional and regional
levels between the various key researchers and developers involved
in the country programs.

Institutional linkages.

IITA has developed over the past half year pilot projects in
cooperation with so-called agricultural development projects (ADPs)
in Nigeria and elsewhere, and has found that these projects are short
of appropriate technologies to develop the agricultural productions
systems in their respective areas of influence, and are therefore
both anxious to participate in the adaptive and diagnostic activities
of FSR. At the same time initial efforts have been made to involve
the national research institutions .in .the back-stopping of field
level agricultural development projects, using the FSR approach.

The proposed IITA outreach program will therefore look for very
close linkages both with national research structures and scientists,
and with field level projects that are involved in the transfer of
technologies that still have to be adapted from national research
findings. Figure 1 shows this form of linkage in a diagrammatic way,
indicating the various activities involved and the contributions of
the 3 participating bodies.
As stated there appears to be an acute need on the part of field
level development projects for assistance from research organizations
in the development of adapted technologies that can improve the local
farming systems, and will help these projects in achieving their basic
objectives. Their aims and locations also reflect the country's
development priorities and needs, and they thus appear to be most
suited for research organizations to channel their FSR programs and

---> I---




--e- -

Fig. 1-. Inter-institutional linkages and information flow.


ADAPT- ---



establish their linkages with farmers within defined geographical areas.
In other areas such linkages may also be possible with regional or
national extension organizations that do not operate as regional
development projects.

The initial experience with research institutions has been less
exciting, in part because the concepts of On-Farm Farming Systems
Research are not yet too well understood and little has been published
in the form of results. At present most scientific research as still
the tendency to result in isolated approaches and results in which
connexions with actual development needs and with decisions on develop-
ment policies are often marginal. This in itself reflects the need
for FSR, since this situation is very much a product of a defective
system of communications between the farmer client and the agricultural
research scientist.

In the context of this regional program the development of
institutional linkages will be a first priority for the formulation of
individual projects within areas or countries. It is likely that
major attention will have to be given to the national crops research
organizations. It is proposed therefore that this strategy will be
introduced through the convocation, jointly with national and regional
organizations, or series of workshops and seminars where the
participants will be exposed to specific proposals and results of the
FSR approach in research. These workshops would be short, and should
include policy makers, scientists, and developers.


A fairly substantial body of information exists on the various
components of on-farm farming systems research, and much of it is
applicable to the proposed regional program of IITA. This includes
the early work done by FAO in its Fertilizer Programme, the work of
IRRI in Constraints Analys-is and Cropping Systems Research, and the
work of CIMMYT in Farming Systems Research (mainly diagnostic research).
These approaches and findings were recently summarized by Dr. D. Norman
in a document prepared for a USAID Regional Meeting in Ibadan. Much of
it was also discussed and evaluated in the June 1982 Workshop on
"On-Farm Experimentation in Farming Systems Research" at IITA, and a
healthy consensus was reached on the best approaches for the various
phases of this type of adaptive field research.

In what David Norman calls the descriptive/diagnostic phase the
methodologies developed in CIMMYT's East African Economics program
appear to be most suitable. They can be used in the initial stages
of the IITA program, while recognizing that much of it is area
specific and has been developed in farming systems that are dominated
by one major crop. The humid tropics of West- and Central Africa have
generally-very complex systems where mixed- and inter-cropping of many
varieties are common. It should therefore be foreseen that the

descriptive/diagnostic methods will have to be adapted in the medium
term to requirements for this region,

The planning and experimentation phases certainly can use the
IRRI Cropping Systems Research approach as an initial basis for the actual
on-farm activities for testing and adapting technologies, but this should
be modified to the extent needed in order to accommodate the information
gathered in the diagnostic stage. An initial blend of these systems
has been utilized by the Ford Foundation in Pakistan, and in some of
IITA's pilot work, but adaptation to national and regional requirements
will have to be done in the first few years of the program.

The extension phase of FSR has received less systematic
attention, and it is also more subject to Tocal exigencies of development
and extension agencies. It does not lend itself so easily to the
development of standardized methods. The recent workshop at IITA
included a full discussion on the linkages and methods for extension
and farmers' involvement, and, reached agreement on a basic typology
for the different levels of-experimentation and demonstrations in
on-farm FSR. Experience indicates that a progressive simplification
of experimental layouts with increasing extension farmer participation,
coupled with continuous evaluation feedback, will lead to a better focus
on future research information needed, as well as to an earlier
adaptation of technology alternatives.

The IITA program will have to develop guidelines for the extension
phase at an early stage. These can be provisional and can be fine-
tune as more experience is gained.

Training at different levels

The overall development of the regional program will obviously
require a major emphasis on training, both in the initial stages as
well as recurrently during the execution of the projects in the various
countries. As mentioned some of these activities will hinge on the-
establishment of linkages between institutions, and on the actual
operational aspects within certain areas. Annual workshops will be
required for refresher training, updating of methodologies and
organizations, and for exchange of information on results of both the
diagnostic and the experimental research of the previous season.

Apart from these operational workshops, the program will require
a large training capability for serving institutions and projects, not
only those included within the programme, but also for creating FSR
capability in projects and programmes of other organizations that are
interested in developing this approach. Ties with other international
organizations should be developed to tap the full potential for such a
training program. Thus the training will have to take place at
different,levels of competence or involvement, and it is estimated
that the major requirements will be met by the following typology:

a) Workshops for Policy Makers and Research Managers:

These workshops would be aimed primarily at two aspects:

i) to orient these categories of officials and professionals
in their decisions on appropriate research organizations and
structures, their staffing, focus, budgets, and operational
priorities, and the required inter-institutional linkages within
the national research and development systems.

ii) to create awareness of the benefits that on-farm FSR
can bring to the research and development management, and to train
these professionals how to utilize the output of their FSR research
priorities, development input needs, and government organization.

b) .Operational workshops: At the national and individual station level
regular workshops are called for, initially in .order to outline
on-farm FSR methodology and to plan operations for the different
areas. Later these would develop into evaluation and updating
sessions, geared to the specific results and problems of the
respective areas. In the early stages these workshops will have
to be led by the central coordinating staff, but gradually the
leadership functions will pass over into the hands of the national
scientists with the coordinating program staff giving necessary
backstopping and specialist support.

c) Specialist training courses: for trained scientific staff in
national research establishments, as well as for trained technical
staff in charge of supervising and managing field projects of on-
farm FSR. This type of training would be of the hands-on type,
involving periods of formal classroom course work interspersed
with applied field studies un'er supervision of national and
international scientific staff. It is expected that these courses
would require from 3 to 4 months, and that the demand for this would
range from 20 to 40 persons per year, depending on the development
of the programme in terms of countries and participating
institutions and projects.

d) In-Service Training, possibly degree related: where the trainees
would spend extended periods at one institution working in actual
on-farm FSR activities, and maybe using their research within
their theses for advanced degrees. Linkages with academic
institutions will have to be expanded to this type of training.
Some of this training is already underway sponsored by IITA and a
few universities.

e) -Short courses: On specific subcomponents of the on-farm FSR
approach, designed for technical research and development staff
whenever new techniques and methodologies have been worked out,
on when in-depth reviews of the programs is needed. They can in
many cases be combined with the operational workshops mentioned

under (b), that the initial demand for this type of training will
be for 60 persons per year, through in-country courses, interspersed
with workshops at IITA. As the program expands this total may build
up to about 20 per year and per country. The workshops at IITA
would be aimed at specific subjects within the general program
framework, and would partially have a refresher course orientation.

f) Overseas fellowships: should be included selectively, for
outstanding trainees who need further specialization. It is well
known that most of the countries of the region suffer an acute
shortage of highly trained agricultural and socio-economic
scientists to provide the technical leadership for this new
avenue in developmental research. In part this type of training
can of course be developed through linkages with donor development
programs on a case-by-case basis, but support should be sought for
untied fellowships that could be complementary to the degree
related in-service training mentioned previously under (c).
Development of training materials

At an early stage the development of training materials in both
English and French will have to be taken in hand. Although this would
involve mostly the production of manuals and field guides in the early
stages, required for the initial training course, it is to be expected
that within the first years a heavy demand will exist for simple
training materials that can be used in the training of large numbers
of field workers, with limited educational backgrounds. It is likely
that the most efficient and suitable way for training these people,
and this includes farmer-cooperators will be some form of audiovisual
methodology, along the lines developed and tested in some Latin
American countries.

The development of regular publications and newsletters, giving
results and reviewing problems, will also- ave to be taken in hand as
part of the overall training activities, but also as part of the
proposed network on farming systems research in West and Central Africa.

Backstopping of Field Programs

Even though the development of individual country or zonal programs
with national institutions will be subject to variations due to
specific requirements in each area and ecosystem, it is foreseen that
there will be a need for a broad backstopping capability in scientific
and technical problems. Most research institutions, and IITA is no
exception, limit their involvement in research to a number of
specific fields which do not cover by any means the disciplines and
specialties faced by the small and medium farmers of these regions.
Examples are the lack of livestock research and plantation tree crops
research at IITA and many other institutions. At the same time these
components figure as important elements in most of the farming systems
of the humid and sub-humid tropics of West- and Central Africa.

Similar lacunae occur in such subjects as marketing, credit, labour,
cooperatives, etc.

It will be important to establish ties with organizations which
posess capabilities that can complement the required multi-disciplinary
capacity for backstopping FSR activities, and advise on development
options that involve such specialties.


An essential strategy for the development of on-farm FSR
capabilities in national research organizations will be the development
of networks between scientists and developers, managers and policy
makers, at all levels. These networks will be key elements in the
development of methodologies and strategies, as well as increasing
substantially the knowledge of development technologies and options
within specific farming systems or recommendation domains.

Within the West African region such networking can well be done
on broad zonifications of climate and soils, using benchmark sites
for specific adaptive research of more fundamental nature, and
compatible and comparable recommendation domains for actual on-farm
testing. This type of networking is already done on a more limited
scale by a number of regional crop improvement programs with multi-
and bi-lateral support (e.g. SAFGRAD, WARDA, EEC Regional multi-
locational Testing Programme, etc.).

In the case of this regional program it is planned that, apart
from the regular exchange of information through training and review
workshops, coupled with regional seminars on selected FSR topics,
the networks at the national level will operate through planning
meetings, publications (newsletters, etc.) and interchanges at field
events (regional field days, agricultural shows, etc.). At the
regional level linkages with training activities should be promoted,
but regular workshops will also attempt to create a more formal
structure of the association between scientists and development workers
in the various countries. At an early stage an attempt will be made to
establish some form of documentation service at a central location in
the region, which would not only gather published material from within'
and from outside the region, but would also classify, store and retrieve
such information for the benefit of the members of the network.


The overall program would fundamentally consist of a number of
parallel projects, one of which would be the central coordinating
project based at IITA, while the others would be country-based within
the national research organization of each participant country. The
actual structure and organization of each country project would depend
on the specific focus and linkages with development and field activities
of the government in question, but effective and suitable ties would

have to be established righ from the start between the country
activities and projects and the central support and coordination
project. It is however to be foreseen that in the medium term the
country projects will slowly be integrated into their national research
structures on a permanent basis, and that the country activities will
not require continuous regional coordination and backstopping. The
relevant networks on zonal and regional bases should take over the
exchange of information function at such a time.

Effective linkages of the national projects with the central
coordinating wiTl be the responsibility of full-time liaison scientists,
trained in FSR, who will be stationed within the national research
organizations. These scientists will head up the national project
activities, where possible, or will provide leadership when national
activities are developed in several areas and institutions at the same
time. They will have direct links with the central project staff,
and will be able to call on their services when required. They will
also participate in regional and national planning meetings for
activities like training courses, seminars, regional support systems,
and network conferences.

The central program coordinating unit at IITA will have to
consist initially of four (4) full-time scientists, together with
support staff and facilities for training, communications equipment
and audiovisual labs, and transport for staff and students. Two of
the staff, a farming systems agronomist and an agricultural economist
are already under recruitment under a grant of the Ford Foundation.

Funding will have to be sought for the two other staff members
who will have major responsibilities for the development of the
training components of the program. These tentatively are though to
be: (a) a communications specialist with good experience in training
and in the preparation of training materials, and (b) a farm
management economist with a good agronomic background.

The central project will .function as a sub-program within the IITA
Farming Systems Program under the general supervision of the program
leader, and with direct ties to the other sub-programs in the overall
framework. It is expected that the multi-disciplinary research staff
available at IITA in general and in the Farming Systems Program
specifically, will provide immediate technical backstopping when
required, and will also provide the necessary resource persons for the
more specific aspects of the training program. Even though the
national projects in the various countries are expected to rely in
the first instance on their own specialist corps within their
national organization, the Farming Systems Program scientists can
be made available for backstopping national efforts on an ad-hoc basis.

The projects with national research entities in the participant
countries will be under the general supervision of the directors of
research or equivalent professionals within the government. A small
national steering committee should be formed under this overall
directorate, consisting of experienced national scientists with

with professional links to the project's disciplines including the
national coordinator together with a representative of the central
project at IITA, and where applicable and suitable, with the
participation of a representative of the donor who is financing the
national effort.

The principal task of the steering committees would be the review
of national proposals for on-farm FSR and their financing when
acceptable, and the review of results generated and their bearing on
future research policies and development priorities. The committees
would also have direct linkages with the central project and its
management, and would participate in the evaluation of the progress
and results of this part of the overall program. The national
steering committees would also have a role to play in the organization
and scheduling of national training activities and the selection of
participants for national and regional training in priority subjects
within the needs of their own national programs. Ultimately the
national committees can be expected to become the main active
components of a regional network. IITA on the other hand would
restrict itself to a role that would be principally of service through
a permanent training facility for Farming Systems Research in Africa.
The institute would also use the feedback from the system for
generating new fundamental knowledge for ultimate use by the national
research establishments in developing technologies for their national
agricultural production systems. The development of improved research
methodologies would clearly be a joint responsibility that would
continue within the cooperative framework that is being established
in the program.

Figure 2 gives a tentative diagram of the structure of the
regional program and its interrelations at the national level, together
with indications of information flows within the network.


The following projections of the time requirements for the
execution of the regional program are based on the assumption that the
present indications of interest for participation will be substantiated
in the future. It is also assumed that the financial donor agencies
will continue their concern with the serious situation in the Western
and Central African regions, and will convert this concern about the
fundamentally critical food and agricultural situation into an increased
willingness to finance projects within the context of a regional and
multidonor approach to agricultural development. An honest estimate
of the chances for this program, based on contacts with research
organizations in the various zones and countries, indicates that a good
potential exists for developing the required on-farm FSR capability in
10 countries of the region, at this time and under the present conditions.
These countries are, alphabetically; Cameroons, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Mali,
Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Togo, Zaire. Concrete

Fig 2c Organizational Structure for Farming System On-Farm
Adaptive Research

IITA Farming System Program

S Central Coordinating

FSR Country




FSR Country





FSR Country




Institutions '




-> Research

,f Network


Famers Recommendations









1 _

possibilities through linkages with other international agencies also
exist in Upper Volta and Niger.

The following phasing of activities is considered in various
program elements in each phase:

Phase 1: Preparatory phase May 1982 December 1983

1) Central staff recruitment and development May 1982-May 198

2) Initial workshops for policy makers, research
managers, key scientists in Nigeria, Ivory
Coast, and Camerrons. July 1982-Decemb(

3) Recruitment of liaison officers for Nigeria,
Ivory Coast, Camerrons; formulation country
projects, identification donors, formation of
steering committees. July 1982-April 1

4) Training workshops for liaison officers,
key research staff, development
project managers. July 1982-April 1

5) Area based training workshops for field
supervisors and experiment station staff
and development project staff. January 1982-Apri

6) First season cooperative field program
execution in Nigeria, Ivory Coast, and
hopefully Cameroons. April 1982-Decemt

7) Initial in-depth trainee and/or post-
graduate training selection, formulation of
medium term training program and start -
training materials development. June 1982-Oct., 1

8) Initial network meetings at regional level,
and initial exchange of information
activities. Nov. 1982-Decembe

Phase 2: Program Execution Phase December 1983-December 1985

1) Continued training at various levels ,
in-country and regional. Dec. '83-July 198

2) Steering committees operational. Continuous semi

3) Review and adjustments of methods and
strategies through review workshops at
country and regional level.


ir 1982



i '83

ier '83


.r '83



yearly per country
and region.

4) Development of first in-depth training
programs and post-graduate activities

5) Additional orientation workshops for
interested countries (viz. Phase I, No. 2

6) Same as Phase I, Nos. 3,4,5 for new
associated programs.

7) Continued development of training materials
based on actual field research experiences
for use in continued training and refresher

8) Review of results with steering committees,
testing of new approaches and research

9) Continued activities to promote network
systems at various levels, and exchanges
of information at the international

10) Feedback of results to national and
international research organizations and
decision makers.

1984 and

Late 1983 onwards.

Late 1983 onwards

Starting during 1983
season and continuous

As of end of 1983
on periodic basis.

July 1984 onwards

Starting December 1983.

Phase 3: Program Evaluation Phase December 1985 onwards

1) Independent review of progress and results
by donors and participating institutions.

2) Progressive withdrawal of active participation
by international agencies and institutions,
and review of future international
research backup needs.

3) Continued training on an institutional basis,
orientation of fundamental research needs
in regional scientific organizations.

4) Evaluation of effects of program on the
transfer of technologies in typical areas
of the region; publication of appropriate
research results on on-farm FSR.

5) Tentative extension of key program elements,
conditional on recommendations by review

Dec. '85-Jan. '86

Starting Dec. 1985

1985 onwards.

1986 onwards.

1986 onwards.


In view of the tentative nature of the regional expansion of the
program few statements can be made of total requirements for technical
program staff required. However, a clear definition of the requirements
for the central project can be given, although a too rapid expansion of
demand for backstopping may put a strain on time available for the
various activities projected for execution by the central team at

The basic needs for the IITA based team are two-fold: (a) in
technical methodology development and field backstopping, and (bT
in the crucial aspect of training and the preparation of training
materials. The first will require two scientists with thorough
experience-in tropical agriculture and farming systems, and solid
scientific credentials in either agronomy or agricultural production
economics. Whichever specialty they have, they should also have a
good grasp of the other aspect, and a sensitivity for the problems
of rural peoples in developing countries. They will be working as
a team in the actual development of the field research programs with
associated institutions and projects in the participant countries, and
should be able to manage the methodological aspects of the program,
both for the descriptive/diagnostic research and for the on-farm
experimental and adaptive research. They should have a thorough
knowledge of current tropical agricultural research information, and
both must have proven leadership qualities. Preferably they should
have a good command of English and French.

The second team of the central project will have to include an
expert in communications, and a scientist trained in both agricultural
economics and agricultural production agronomicc) aspects. They will
also be required to work as a team in developing training courses and
producing training materials, as well as backstopping in-country training
programs generated by associated projects and organizations; The
communication scientist will have to be knowledgeable of the requirements
for training at different levels, and must have experience in training
programs in developing countries and rural situations. It will be
essential that he possess up-to-date knowledge of the most recent
systems for the development and preparation of informal educational
materials and methods.

The second man on the'training team must have a thorough knowledge
of technical aspects of the projected research programs, as well as
experience in informal training of research and development workers.
His knowledge of farming systems in developing countries must be solid.

-The central team will require the usual support staff for such
regional programs secretarial, transport, etc. Since the central
project will be housed and functional at IITA, this center will provide
administrative backstopping, and will integrate the project within-

the multidisciplinary Farming Systems Program, which will provide
technical backstopping on a case by case basis.

The national programs require, in the first place, the financing
and assignment of national farming systems research coordinators, who
will be responsible to the Directors of Research or equivalent, as well
as being guided and counseled by the national steering committees.
These liaison scientists preferably should be crop production specialists
or agricultural economists. They should, if possible, have experience
in farm level research and coordination of development activities.
They will need the usual support services and transport, and at the
same time funds should be provided for training activities at the
national level and some seed money for generating relevant research
activities within participating national research bodies.

It is suggested that the development of the national projects may
take different courses;depending on the actual structure of the research
and development organizations in each country. Shaffing requirements
will vary accordingly. Projections of these requirements are therefore
done on an average basis of known requirements in cooperative research


The principal demands for infrastructural improvements for the
overall program will be related to accommodations for stff.and trainees,
together with some special training facilities. The addition of 4
new staff members to the overall program staff will require the
addition of at least 2 houses and 2 large apartments, since the present
capacity of the Institure is fully occupied. A temporary arrangement
whereby the Ford Foundation has lent the Institute two houses on the
University of Ibadan campus cannot be expected to solve this problem
for very long and is in any case of a very tenuous nature because of
university pressure to take over the housing.

Training facilities at IITA now include two main classrooms (each
equipped with simultaneous translation), a large work and storage room,
and field plots shared with the research programs. Staff offices and
space for secretaries exists, but are fully occupied. The training
facilities are at present fully used during the year, with a range of
12 to 15 training courses per year, several of which overlap, and
stretching the capacity of the training facilities to their utmost.
The combined demands of the IITA Conference Centre and its Training
program for dormitory space make it nearly impossible to expand the
throughput of students with the present dormitory and classroom

A master plan has been worked out for the expansion of overall
training facilities at IITA, which would cover also the needs of the
other research programmes for expanded training, both by short courses
and by degree related training (theses research). This latter type of
training has reached its maximum intake capacity with the existing

For the specific needs of this regional FSR training program
the direct requirements are for the construction of a trained
hostel with a capacity of 30 to 40 persons, together with one additional
classroom/seminar room and additional office space as well as space for
the production of training aids and audiovisual material.

The overall masterplan for expanding the training capacity at
IITA has been submitted informally to bilateral donors, but as yet none
have indicated their willingness and/or capacity to handly the financing.
The total is in the order of US $8.7 million over a 5 year period. It
is most probable that the size of the overall proposal is too large
for one donor to handle, and that it should be managed on a multi-
donor or consortium basis. The proposals for the regional FSR program
are more modest, and could possibly be the initial phase of the overall
expansion in training capacity sought by IITA.


Below are budget estimates for (a) The Central IITA Farming Systems
Research Co-ordinating Program,(b) The National "On-Farm" Farming
Systems Research Program, and (c) The Capital costs of expansion of
the IITA training facilities.

BUDGET I Central (IITA) Farming Systems Research Co-ordinating Program

Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total
A. Salaries International Staff

1. F.S. Agronomist $80,000 88,000 96,800 106,480 117,128 488,408

2. F.S. Agro-Economist $80,000 88,000 96,800 106,480 117,128 488,408

3. F.S. Trainer/Communi- $80,000 88,000 96,800 106,480 117,128 488,408
cations Specialist.
4. F.S. Trainer/Agro- $80,000 88,000 96,800 106,480 117,128 488,408

320,000 352,000 387,200 425,920 468,512 1,953632

5 Total

B. Salaries Local Staff

(PG V) Secretaries x (2)
Technicians x (4)
Drivers x (2)

C. Travel

D. Operational Expenses

E. Training
Workshops, Seminars etc.

F. Training materials

G. Equipment
(transport, training,
interpretation, audio-

TOTAL Budget I







66,000 72,600 79,860 87,846 96,630 402,936

$30,000 33,000 36,300 39,930 43,923 183,153

$50,000 55,000 60,500 66,550 73,205 305,255

$50,000 55,000 60,500 66,550 73,205 305,255

$20,000 30,000 35,000 20,000 20,000 125,660

$75,000 25,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 145,000

225,000 198,000 207,300 208,030 225,353 1,063,663

611,000 622,600 674,100 721,700 790,400 3,419,800

BUDGET II National "On-Farm" Farming Systems Research Project

Year 1

5 Total

A. Liaison Scientist
Salaries & Allowances

B. Research Funds and
Operating Expenses

C. Training Programs

Totals Budget II

$50,000 55,000 60,600 66,550 73,205 305,255

$30,000 33,000 30,300 39,930 43,923 183,153

$20,000 22,000 24,200 26,620 29,282 132,102

100,000 110,000 121,000 133,100 146,410 610,510



Year 1

BUDGET III Training Infrastructure Expansion at IITA
Item Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total
A. Student Hostel 375,000 375,000 750,000
(Capacity 40 persons)
B. Housing Staff 150,000 150,000 300,000
C. Seminar/Cears room
and office space 200,000 200,000 400,000

Grand Totals Budget 725,000 725,000 1,450,000

The following estimate is based on the phased entry of 8 countries
into the program during the first 4 years, and country programs
incorporating into their own national budget structure after 2-3 years

(in 000 US $).
PROJECT Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total

countries) 1 5 6 6 4

Central IITA Project 611 623 674 722 790 3,420

Country Projects 200 550 726 798 586 2,860
Capital 725 725 1,450

TOTAL REQUIREMENTS 1,536 1,898 1,400 1,520 1,376 7,730