Soil management for sustained food production in the humid tropics


Material Information

Soil management for sustained food production in the humid tropics a proposal for participation in the Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program
Physical Description:
iii, 155 p. : ; 28 cm.
Uehara, Goro
United States -- Agency for International Development
University of Hawaii at Manoa -- College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii
Place of Publication:
Honolulu, Hawaii
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Soil management -- Indonesia   ( lcsh )
Food crops -- Soils -- Indonesia   ( lcsh )
Soil management -- Tropics   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility:
submitted to the Agency for International Development by the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii ; Goro Uehara, principal investigator.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"August 1980."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 695987191
lcc - S599.6.I5 S65 1980
System ID:

This item is only available as the following downloads:

Full Text

Goro Uehara
Principal Investigator
Department of Agronomy ~
and Soil Science

Peter P. Rotar
Department Chairperson
Department of Agronony
and Soil Science

N. P. Kefford
Interim Dean
College of Tropical Agriculture
and Human Resources

Research and Training
Office of Researchi Administration




to the
Agency for International Development

by the

College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
University of Hawaii .
Honolulu, Hawaii

Au gus t 1980i~

(L ~cV





Statistical Summary ...................................... ........., ii

Narrative Summary. ................... ................... ............. iii

Introduction........................................... 1

The Humid Tropics. ................... ................... ............ 4

Critical Assumptions and Premises.................................. 6

Goal and Objectives........................... ....,....,, ........., 7

Justification.......................................... 8

P ro ject D esi gn. .................. ................... ....,............ 12

Outputs/Activities/Inputs.......................................... 14

Tree legumes for fuelwood..................................... 14

Soil erosion control.......................... ..................... 15

Increased yields of better quality food crops...................... 15

Energy-efficient farming systems.................................. 17

Training of new host-country scientists........................... 18

Increased farmer adoption of yield-increasing

soil-management outputs......................,............... 18

Reduced yield gaps between researchers' plots and

farmers' fields................................ ................ 20

Transfer of CRSP principles, concepts, and results to

other regions in the humid tropics............................ 20

Campus Support,.................****.................,..... 22

Staff Requirement................................................ 23

Budget by Items..... ............................................. 24

Budget by Outputs...........................................2

Appendix 1. Agrotechnology Transfer Wdorkshop Program. ............. 26

Appendix 2. The University of Hawaii................................ 32

Appendix 3. Staff Qualifications............................... 38

University of Hawaii
College of Tropical Agriculture and Human
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

Responsible University of Hawaii Administrator

Philip Helfrich
Associate Dean, Research and Training
Office of Research Administration
University of Hawaii
2540 Maile Way
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

Principal Investigator


Project Title

Soil Management for Sustained Food Production in the Humid Tropics



Goro Uehara
Department of Agronomy and
University of Hawaii
3190 Maile Way
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

Soil Science

Total Estimated Costs










Univ. of Hawaii 160,000
AID 480,000
Total 640,000

Staff Requirements






Univ. of Hawaii 4.05
AID 6.25
Total 10.30


21. 15




The University of Hawaii proposes to serve as the lead institution for the

humid tropics component of the Soil Management Collaborative Research Support

Program. It will mobilize a mu~ltidisciplinary research team to work

collaboratively with Indonesian scientists on a five-year transmigration project

designed to move 500,000 families from Java and Bali to the sparsely populated

regions of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Irian Jaya. This collaborative

effort will be conducted on four transmigration project test farms. The

Indonesian government plans to develop 40 such test farms in the next 20 years.

This CRSP is output- and utiliz ation-oriented. It will produce five

soil-management-oriented and three utilization-oriented outputs. The

soil-management outputs are (1) tree legumes for fuelwood, (2) soil erosion

control, (3) increased yields of better quality food crops, (4) energy-efficient

farming systems, and (5) training of new host-country scientists; the

utilization outputs are (1) increased farmer adoption of yield-increasing

soil-management practices, (2) reduced yield gaps between researchers' plots and

farmers' fields; and (3) transfer of CRSP principles, concepts, and results to

other regions of the humid tropics.

The CRSP's multidisciplinary objectives are based on the assumption that

(1) there is an adequate amount of soil management technology available for

immediate application in the humid tropics and (2) utilization of technically

and environmentally sound soil-management practices is hindered by economic,

social, and administrative constraints.

Increased utilization of soil-management technology will be achieved by

matching the requirements of the innovation to the socioeconomic characteristics

of the farmer.




In a paper presented at the SymIposium on Food Situation and Potential in

the Asian and Pacific Regions held in Taiwan, April 24-29, 1980, Rusli Hakim,

Director of the Central Research Institute for Agriculture (CRIA) of Indonesia,

and Hidayat Natsatmadja, Senior Agricultural Economist also of CRIA, said:

The goal of Indonesia's economic development effort is a great and

prosperous society. The strategy employed to achieve that goal is the

development of a balanced economy in which industry is supported by a sound

agricultural sector. The government has launched Five-Year Development

Programs called 'tEPELITAS" as a mechanism to attain the national goal at a

realistic rate and in an orderly manner. The third Repelita, which began

in April 1979, is guided by a Development Trilogy, namely (1) equal

distribution of income, (2) a reasonable rate of economic growth and

(3) maintaining national stability.

Utilizing the available resources and working within the policy

guidelines, the agricultural development effort is directed toward the

solution of the following critical problems:

1. Increasing both the quantity and the quality of food produced

2. Increasing farm income

3. Increasing employment opportunities

4. Reducing the importation of agricultural commodities

5. Supporting industries processing agricultural products

6. Ensuring productive, sustainable use of natural resources

7. Improving the quality of rural life.

The authors dedicated their paper to the 14 million farmers who doubled

Indonesia's rice production in 15 years, the researchers who provided technology

and guidance, and the policy makers who provided the political will and

financial support.

Any U.S. institution that enters into collaborative agricultural research

with Indonesia mu~st be aware of the excellence of the Indonesian agricultural

research institutes and the goals and objectives to which they are committed.

If there is a weakness in the system, it is that so few scientists are

being asked to do so mu~ch. Indonesia's Repelitas are immense undertakings that

would strain the scientific capability of the largest and most technically

advanced countries of the world. What is surprising is that the Indonesians

have done so much with so little. In doing so, they have added measurably to

the storehouse of knowledge on management and wise use of humid tropics land.

The Indonesians have a responsibility to share this knowledge with other

countries in the humid tropics. This CRSP enables scientists from the

University of Hawaii and the Indonesian agricultural research institutes to join

forces to learn to more effectively utilize the soils of all the humid tropics

for sustained food production.

The University of Hawaii proposes to serve as the lead U.S. institution for

the humid tropics component of the Soil Management Collaborative Research

Support Program. It will mount a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort with

Indonesian agencies that will result in a timely and effective attainment of

project objectives.

The multidisciplinary, multiagency effort is based on the premise that soil

management is a means to an end. The end is to improve and sustain the health

and welfare of the small farmer, raise the national economy, and secure world

order. The project focuses on soil management, but it is designed to exploit

the full developmental capability of the University to ensure that pro ject

products and outputs are adopted and utilized to fulfill the objectives of the

Collaborative Research Support Program and the goals of the Indonesian

gove rnment.


The humid tropics are mainly confined to the region paralleling and

extending 150 north and south of the equator. This agroecological zone covers

large portions of such countries as Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Brazil,

Bolivia, Surinam, Guyana, Panama, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras,

and Guatamala in the Americas; Liberia, the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin,

Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, the Central African Republic, Angola, the Congo,

Zaire, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, and Kenya in Africa; and Sri Lanka, Indonesia,

Thailand, Malaysia, Kampuchea, Vietnam, the Philippines, and New Guinea in Asia

and the Pacific.

Even in countries such as Australia and Brazil that employ advanced

agricultural technology, the level of agricultural development diminishes with

increasing proximity to the equator. One reason for the low productivity of the

humid tropics is the poor and fragile quality of the land.

For geologically brief periods, soils developed from freshly deposited

pyroclastic materials or river sediments are rich in nutrients and can support a

diverse plant and animal community. But the nutrient supply is not limitless,

and with prolonged weathering under warm and humid conditions, the soluble

nutrients find their way to rivers and eventually to the sea. What remains on

the landscape is an insoluble residue of highly weathered materials stripped of

the capacity to supply life-sustaining nutrients. These are the extensive,

impoverished lands of the humid tropics. Unless there is a reversal in current

population trends, the nations that own these lands aust eventually learn to use


Statistics indicate that the tropics are blessed with extensive,

underutilized, potentially arable lands, but that they occur some distance from

the population centers. Two notable efforts to move people from populated to

underutilized areas were the establishment of the Federal District in Central

Brazil and Indonesia's transmigration program. There is little doubt that these

efforts would have experienced greater initial successes had the soils upon

which the pioneer farmer found himself been more fertile. A poor farmer can

become rich on fertile land, and a rich farmer can make infertile lands

productive, but a poor farmer on infertile land has little chance of extricating

himself from property's grip. There is at this moment a disproportionate number

of resource-poor farmers enduring marginal lives on the infertile lands of the

humid tropics.

What are these infertile lands like? Is there something fundamentally

different about them? What are their soil management problems and what can one

do to rectify them? In short, is there sufficient knowledge about these soils

and their management requirements to mount an effective program that will enable

governments to satisfy the rising expectations of the people who live on them?

In Indonesia these questions are academic, for the government has launched a

5-year program to move 500,000 families from the densely populated islands of

Java and Bali to the sparsely populated regions of Sumatra, Kalimantan,

Sulawesi, and Irian Jaya. For many countries of the humid tropics, the luxury

of time and idle speculation has run out.


The objectives of this proposal are based on the following assumptions and



1. There is adequate soil-management knowledge and technology ready for

immediate application in the humid tropics.

2. Utilization of technically and environmentally sound soil-management

practices is hindered by economic, social, and administrative con-


P remises:

1. The Soil Management CRSP will be administered as a part of a

m~ultiagency, mu~ltidisciplinary effort performed and conducted in the

context of a farming system.

2. The goals and objectives of the CRSP will measurably contribute to the

attainment of host-country goals and objectives.

3. The products and outputs of the collaborative effort will be mutually

beneficial to Hawaii and Indonesia.

4. The collaborative effort will produce principles, concepts, and results

that will be generally applicable and transferable to other regions of

the humid tropics.



To extricate resource-poor farmers from a lifestyle of subsistence

agriculture so that they can contribute substantially to the national economy.


1. To use land for fuelwood production.

2. To improve and sustain the quality of farmland through conservation

measu res.

3. To increase the quantity and quality of farm products.

4. To develop a farmer-manageable, energy-efficient farming system.

5. To enlarge the host country's capability to manage lands of the humid


6. To accelerate the adoption rate of yield-increasing soil-management


7. To reduce the yield gap between researchers' plots and farmers' fields.

8. To test the transferability of CRSP outputs from Indonesia to other

countries of the humid tropics.


Crop performance depends on the goodness of fit between crop requirements

and land characteristics. Agronomy is the science of matching crop requirements

to land characteristics to achieve acceptable crop performances. When a mismatch

occurs, scientists either elect to choose plants or alter plant genetics to fit

the plant to a given set of land characteristics. They may also choose to

manipulate the land to meet the crop's needs. Soil management is the purposeful

alteration of land to improve and sustain the goodness of fit between crop

requirements and land characteristics.

A land quality is a complex attribute of soil and climate. A land quality

generally defies direct measurement; it is usually derived from the synthesis of

a number of soil and climate characteristics and their interactions. Land

erodibility, for example, is a land quality that results from interactions of

slope angle, slope length, soil permeability, soil texture and structure, crop

cover, rainfall duration and intensity, and other land characteristics. Because

it is the aggregate of such interactions that determines a land quality, it is

preferable to develop a soil-management strategy on the basis of land qualities

rather than in tenms of individual land characteristics.

About 20 land qualities related to agricultural land use are recognized,

but, in general, four to six key qualities are sufficient to make

soil-management decisions for any land type. Examples of land qualities are:

1. Energy-supplying capacity of land associated with duration and

intensity of daily solar radiation and with temperature

2. Water-supplying capacity of land associated with amount and

distribution of rainfall and with soil-water storage capacity

3. Nutrient-supplying capacity

4. Oxygen-supplying capacity in the root zone

5. Foothold

6. Trafficability

7. Accessibility

8. Susceptibility to salinization

9. Erodibility

10. Climatic and pest hazards

Because land qualities associated with climate are not readily altered by

man, crops adapted to a particular agroclimatic zone are first selected to

minimize mismatches between crop and land.

In the humid tropics, mismatches in the root zone toxicitiess, acidity,

nutrient deficiencies) severely restrict crop performance. Although mismatches

may be minimized by judicious plant selection, few plants of economic importance

do well without human intervention. The decision to intervene hinges on

knowledge of cause-and-effect relationships between land manipulation and crop

performance. Knowledge of these relationships implies that one can either

measure land parameters to predict mismatches or diagnose crop indices to

identify land constraints. Although there are still knowledge gaps, a great

deal is known about the management of humid-tropic soils. The problem is not

lack of knowledge, but the failure of soil scientists to seek the help that

would enable their discoveries to be used in an effective way.

All mlismatches are manifested in plants as stresses. Insects, weeds, and

pathogens add to plant stress so that the cause-and-effect relationships between

soil constraints and crop performance are clouded by a host of other variables

unrelated to soil. Insects, weeds, and plant pathogens, however, like the crop

they affect, perform best in well-defined agroecological zones. Downy mildew of

maize, for example, is a serious pest in the warm and humid lowlands of Sumatra,

but is virtually nonexistent in the cool uplands of Java.

The key to soil management is the stratification of agroenvironments into

land units with a predictable and manageable number of soil constraints. This

stratification of agroenvironments serves to organize the accumulated knowledge

of the cause-and-effect relations between soil constraint and crop performance.

It renders problem identification easier and contributes to economy of thought

and action.

An orderly stratification of soil-management information by land type and

by agroecology is essential for training of new scientists, for delivery of

appropriate corrective measures to each site, and for discovery of new

relationships between land and crop performance. In addition, such

stratifications both minindze trial-and-error methods to find causes of

mismatches and add to the transferability of proven practices to other regions

with similar land qualities.

If soil-management practices must relate to land qualities and crop

requirements, they must also relate to the resource characteristics of the

farmer. It is in this latter area that the Soil Management CRSP can untke its

greatest contribution. In order for soil scientists to succeed where they have

failed, they must solicit the help of scientists whose primary interests lie in

the cultural and resource characteristics of the small farmer. A multi-

disciplinary effort is essential for increasing the adoption rate of soil-

management recommendations and for reducing the yield gap between the

researchers' plot and farmers' fields. A key role of the social scientists is

to assess the factors that influence adoption of innovations and to analyze the

causes of yield gaps. Scientists at the International Rice Research Institute

and the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics conduct

"gap analysis" to obtain estimates of the economically recoverable yield gap.

Gap analysis also serves as a feedback mechanism to alert scientists to ways of

rendering soil and crop management innovation more acceptable to the small


The University of Hawaii will employ multidisciplinary gap analyses to

foster communication between the developer and users of soil-management

technology. It hopes to minimize scientific tunnel vision through a system of

checks and balances arising from honest, interdisciplinar~I. diff~erences_0ff

opinion. The expectation is that a CRSP based on gap analysis will foster

goal-oriented research.


The University is aware that poorly designed CRSP projects can disrupt and

burden existing host-country programs. To avoid these pitfalls, the University

proposes to perform its CRSP activities within existing host-country programs.

Subject to approval by the Indonesian government, the University proposes to

work collaboratively with Indonesian scientists in four test farms; planned for

initiation in 1980 under a new 5-year transmigration program (Pelita III,

1979-1984). The number of test farms is expected to reach 40 in the next 20

years. It is expected that by conducting CRSP work on existing research sites,

the start-up time will be shortened and program continuation at the end of the

CRSP will be assured.

Between June 24 and July 11, 1980, Indonesia's Soil Research Institute and

the University of Hawaii's Benchmark Soils Project conducted a joint training

workshop on Soil Taxonomry and Agrotechnology Transfer in Bogor.* At that tinie,

representatives of the Soil Research Institute and the University of Hawaii met

to identify Soil Management CRSP activities.

The Indonesian representatives requested that the following activities be

included in the Soil Management CRSP, and the University identified the

following participating scientists:

1. Biological nitrogen fixation

a. Crop aspect (Jake Halliday)

b. Soil aspect (Ben Bohlool)

2. Biomass productivity of tropical legume trees for fuelwood

(James Brewbaker)

3. Control of rainfall erosion (Samir E1-Swaify)

4. Green manures (Russell Yost)

5. In-country agrotechnology transfer (Jamies Silva)

*See Appendix 1 for workshop program.

6. Mycorrhiza (Russell Yost)

7. Soil fertility evaluation (Robert Fox)

A brief description of ongoing University of Hawaii efforts on each of the

above topics is provided in Appendix 2, and curriculum vitae of participating

scientists are given in Appendix 3.

On July 18, 1980, the Dean of the College convened a meeting of University

scientists to finalize the University's CRSP. At this meeting, the group

recommended that the Soil Management CRSP be supplemented with supporting

activities that would ensure full utilization of CRSP outputs. The followJing

supporting activities and participating scientists were identified:

1. Cropping systems research (Jerry McIntosh*)

2. Food crops and human nutrition (Robert Van Reen)

3. Integrated pest management (Wallace Mitchell)

4. Assessment and control of insect-borne human diseases in transmigration

areas (Elmo H~ardy)

5. Resource systems analysis for small farms (Jaw-Kai Wang)

6. Social science and human resources (Joe O'Reilly)

7. Economics of small farm operations (Shelley Mlark)

The University therefore sees the CRSP as consisting of two interrelated

parts. The first part consists of scientists who are responsible for designing

and installing soil-management experiments to demonstrate that it is technically

possible to use the lands of the humid tropics for intensive food and fuel

production in a manner thlat is environmentally safe. A second group will work

to ensure that what is technically possible and environmentally sound is also

socially desirable and economically feasible.

*Dr. Jerry M~clntosh is an IRRI cropping systems research scientist assigned
to Indonesia and is currently on a one-year leave at the University of Hlawaii.


The Indonesia-Hawaii Soil Management CRSP is designed to generate eight

outputs. They are:

1. Tree legumes for fuelwood

2. Soil erosion control

3. Increased yields of better quality food crops

4. Energy-efficient farming systems

5. Training of new host-country scientists

6. Increased farmer adoption of vield-increasing soil-management practices

7. Reduced yield gaps between researchers' plots and farmers' fields

8. Transfer of CRSP principles, concepts, and results to other regions

in the humid tropics.

Inputs and activities corresponding to each output are described below.

1. Tree legunies for fuelwood.

Fuelwood and charcoal, the principal energy sources of many small farmers,

have become increasingly scarce and expensive. Assessment of soil and climatic

requirements of fast-growing tree legume~s--notably species of Acacia, Albigia,

Calliandra, Leucaena, and Sesbania--will be conducted. They will be evaluated

for fuelwood productivity, space requirements, growth rates, and wood properties

(density, moisture content, combustion value). They will also be evaluated for

leaf biomass and nitrogen content for use as forage or green manure. The trees

will also be an integral part of the soil erosion work.

This effort is related to an SEA/USDA-financed Tropical Legume Tree project

(outgrowth of McIntyre-Stennis Project 803). Collaborative international

Leucaena trials now include a network of sites in H~awaii, Taiwan, Thailand, Sri

Lanka, and Malaysia (Sabah). Similar materials and experimental trials are used

in all sites. This network can be readily extended to Indonesia's humid tropics

and the work will focus on Acacia mangium and Calliandra callothyrsus--species

more suited to the humid tropics.

Inputs for this activity include salaries for senior scientists (.50) and

junior scientists (1.00), travel and per diem, and supplies for installing and

monitoring field experiments.

2. Soil erosion control.

A recently completed state-of-the-art study* on soil erosion in the tropics

indicates that rainfall erosivity in Indonesia's humid tropics may be as high as

eight times that of the highest erosivity value in the continental United States

In this CRSP effort, catchment, subcatchment, and runoff plots will be

selected, surveyed, and instrumented with raingauges, runoff waterstages, and

sediment-sampling and -storag~e devices. Two sets of plots will be required--one

for standard tests of causative erosion parameters and the other for imposing

land and crop-management treatments. The erosion-control treatments will be

integrated with the fuelwood and green manure cover-crop experiments.

This CRSP effort is related to an ongoing University of Hawaii soil erosion

project (Project 165) entitled, "Conservation-effective small farms on tropical


Inputs for this activity include salaries for senior scientists (.50) and

junior scientists (1.00), travel and per diem, computer tinie for data storage

and analysis, and instrumentation.

3. Increased yields of better quality food crops.

Hligh yields of nutritious food crops can be obtained in the humid tropics,

but the input requirements are often too high and inappropriate for the

resource-poor farmer. In the impoverished soils of the humid tropics, some

input is unavoidable. The high costs of these inputs, however, are avoidable.

H~igh costs can be avoided by reducing input losses through soil erosion control,

xtReport (423 pages) submitted to AID as output of a 211-d grant on Trop~icarl
Soils awarded to the University of Hawaii.

increasing soil nitrogen levels through biological nitrogen fixation and green

manures, substituting low-cost phosphate rock for costly superphosphates,

increasing phosphorus utilization with mycorrhiza, judicious selection of

adapted, palatable crops, and minimizing crop losses through a program of

integrated pest management. All these activities must be conducted in harmony

with a cropping system and in the context of a farming system. The cropping

system nmust exploit, to the fullest, seasonal changes in light, water, and

nutrient supply. The products of the cropping system must be palatable,

nutritious, and/or marketable. In the context of a farming system, the farm

products must serve not only as food, but as fiber, fuel, fodder for draft

animals, poultry, fish, and small ruminants, building materials, and income.

The farmer may never learn the role of mycorrhiza or rhizobia in agriculture,

but these components mu~st be built into a farmer-manageable farming system.

This CRSP effort will consist of two parts. The first part involves the

testing of the components of the cropping systems (e.g., the testing of a new

rice or cowpea cultivar, or the testing of a new phosphate-rock formulation).

The second part involves the inclusion of the component into the cropping


Related activities include integrated pest management, soil and tissue

testing for plant-nutrient availability, assessment of food composition and

bio-availability, and monitoring of weather to account for pests, crop

performance, and food quality.

Inputs needed for this effort are salaries for senior scientists (.50) and

junior scientists (1.00), travel and per diem, soil and tissue analysis, studies

of food composition and bio-availability, and weather-monitoring instruments

(solar radiation, pan evaporation, air and temperature, relative humidity, wind

direction and speed, and rainfall).

4. Energy-efficient farming systems.

As an OPEC country, Indonesia can produce urea in large amounts. The

resource-poor farmers in remote transmigration areas, however, do not have

access to this nitrogen supply. Even if the situation were to change, the

resource-poor farmer would be better off to exploit biological nitrogen fixation

than to spend his limited income on urea. Legumes are valued components of

Indonesian farming systems, with soybean, peanut, mungbean, and cowpea being

important crops.

The primary emphasis of this CRSP effort will be the establishment of

effective nitrogen-fixing symbioses in legumes by rhizobia that are adapted to

soil acidity, competitive against less-effective native rhizobia, and persistent

in the soil to which they are introduced. The need for inoculation can be

judged by testing for response to urea and the extent to which an effective

symbiosis with Rhizobium can substitute for nitrogen fertilizer.

The nitrogen economy from effective symbiosis affects the energy budget of

the farming system through leguminous fuelwood trees that also serve to control

erosion, through cover crops that serve as green manures and fodder for animals,

and through grain legumes that are consumed by the farm family.

This CRSP effort is related to a major ongoing University program on

Nitrogen Fixation by Tropical Agricultural Legumes (NifTrlL Project). Other

related activities are conducted under projects on m~ycorrhiza and green manures.

Inputs for this effort include salaries for senior scientists (.50) and

junior scientists (1.00), travel and per diem, equipment for a pilot inoculant

plant for Indonesia, and supplies and analytical services for assessing rhizobia

in soils.

5. Training of new host-country scientists.

Each CRSP output will have a training component. The junior scientist

positions allocated to each CRSP output will be filled by graduate students who

will complete their academic work at the University of Hawaii under the

supervision of senior scientists assigned to the CRSP. All field work will be

conducted in Indonesia.

Two-thirds of the junior positions will be filled by Indonesians and the

remaining positions will be assigned to American students and foreign students

from countries in the humid tropics.

All non-Indonesian students will be required to take Indonesian language

courses offered in the Department of Indo-Pacific Languages. While in Indonesia

the junior scientists will work to achieve CRSP objectives under the supervision

of senior scientists assigned to Indonesia.

Inputs for this CRSP effort include language trainers (English as a second

language, Indonesian), workshops, training materials, training officers (.25),

and on-campus graduate training.

6. Increased farmer adoption of yield-increasing soil-management practices.

It is very likely that a number of suitable tree species for fuelwood

will be identified, that measures for erosion control will be developed, that

higher yielding, nutritious and palatable crops will be identified, and that an

energy-efficient farming system will .emerge from this CRSP. But the true

measure of success will hinge on the adoption of CRSP outputs by the farmer.

During the course of the CRSP, every effort will be made to assess the likes,

dislikes, needs, and resource characteristics of the farmer. This will enable

the researcher to tailor his outputs to the farmer's needs and capabilities. If

a resJearch output ~ris reectdbyth farmer, the researcher must find the reason

for the rejection. For example, will the odor of a particular fuelwood reduce

its usefulness and acceptability as a cooking fuel? Will the drudgery of

monitoring a complex cropping system be sufficient cause for a farmer to

reject an otherwise technically sound design? By the same token, can a rejected

soil-management practice be rendered acceptable by modifying the farmer's

implements to match the management requirements? Who will live among the

farmers to sense their needs? And who will respond to the challenge of

fabricating the appropriate implement that will set the CRSP right?

The CRSP canl achieve its objectives by mixing graduate student idealism

with faculty experience. This CRSP effort requires the commitment not only of a

University administration but also of its students and faculty. It is this

combined commitment that the University of Hlawaii offers to the Soil Mlanagement

CRSP. It does so with the full appreciation that the principles and concepts of

this CRSP will apply equally well in the humid tropics of Indonesia or Hawaii.

In this CRSP) effort, University of Hawaii social scientists will work with

indigenous social scientists to assess the needs of the farmer, the farm family,

and the community. The social scientists' task has been made easier by the fact

that the transmigration program makes every effort to keep people of similar

cultural background together and to locate them in familiar agroenvironments. A

major role of the social scientists will be to measure the farmers' capacity to /i

absorb farming innovations. Another important function of the social scientist

will be to relay farmer reactions to the soil management specialists.

Inputs for this CRSP effort include salaries for senior scientists (.50)

and junior scientists (1.00), travel and per diem, computer time, and supplies

for conducting farm surveys.

7. Reduced yield gaps between researchers' plots and farmers' fields.

Mismatches)between the recEiquirements' of an innovation and the socioeconomic

characteristics obf a farmer result in yield gaps between researcher plots and

farmer fields. Gap analysis, a systematic study of this discrepancy, provides a

means to assess the economically recoverable gap and serves as a feedback

mechanism to warn researchers of defects in their innovations.

Yield gaps may also arise from poor community health, which may be related

to inadequate nutrition or widespread insect-borne diseases such as malaria,

dengnue haemorrhagic fever, filariasis, and scrub typhus. For example,

shistosomiasis is hyperendemic and out of control in the Lindu Valley of

Sulawesi. The health of the draft animal is also crucial to the success of a

farm. Surra is the major devastating disease of large animals in Indonesia.

The interdependence of farm operations demands that gap analysis be conducted in

the context of a farming system.

This CRSP effort will utilize systems analysis to optimize farm operations

and to identify bottlenecks. If the overall farm operation is constrained by

availability of credit, size of farm, transportation, markets, or public health,

each constraint must be evaluated so that the contributions of soil-management

inputs may be measured.

Inputs for this CRSP effort include salaries for senior scientists (.50)

and junior scientists (1.00), travel and per diem, computer time, and supplies

for farm surveys.

8. Transfer of CRSP principles, concepts, and results to other regions

in the humid tropics.

The. returns on research investment can be greatly increased by designing a

CRSP that produces principles, concepts, and results that apply not only in

Indonesia but also to the humid tropics in general. The Soil Research Institute

of Indonesia is currently involved in testing the degree to which agrotechnology

may be transferred among widely separated locations having similar soils and

climate. In order to transfer agrotechnology to sites with slightly different

soils or climate, the cause-and-effect relationships between crop performance

and land qualities need to be established.

Under this CRSP effort, selected outputs will be introduced to Hawaii from

Indonesia to test the transferability of CRSP outputs. The transfer will be

made on the basis of similar land qualities and knowledge of the dependence of

crop performance on land qualities.

The University of H-awaii will provide experimental space in the Kohala

District of the Island of H~awaii for this CRSP effort. Other inputs include

salaries for senior scientists (1.00) and junior scientists (1.00), interisland

travel and per diem, supplies for conducting agronomic trials, and instruments

for monitoring weather.


The Principal Investigator will have overall responsibility for the proper

conduct of the project. Both the Dean of the College of Tropical Agriculture

and Human Resources and the Director of the Hawaii Institute of Tropical

Agriculture and H~uman Resources and their staffs will provide administrative

support to facilitate project activities. The project will have access to the

full research capability of the University and will seek assistance from

relevant disciplines through scholarly exchange of ideas without fee.

The day-to-day project operations will be assigned to a Project Manager,

who will be assisted by a Project Accountant and a Project Secretary. Part-time

student help will be used to accommodate periods of heavy workloads. The

Project Manager (.50), Accountant (.50), and Secretary (1.00) will be salaried

members of the Project.

The University will provide office, storage, and laboratory space. The

project will be located in Krauss Hall on the University of Hiawaii campus in

Manoa. A computer terminal links the office to the main University computer and

a telecopier provides ready documentary communication with the continental

United States.

The University will provide space on an existing experimental site* in the

Kohala district of the Island of Hawaii. This space will be used to test the

transferability of CRSP outputs from Indonesia to other regions of the humid

tropics. This will also enable promising technologies developed in Indonesia to

be assimilated into Hawaii's farming systems.

*The temperature regime of this site is isohyperthermic, the no~isture regime
is udic, and the soil is a Humitropept.

1981 1982 1983 1984/1985


OUTPUTSSenior Junior Senior Junior Senior Junior Senior Junior Senior Junior Senior Junior Senior Junior Senior Junior
Scien. Scien. Scien. Scien. Scien. Scien. Sclen. Scien. Scien. Scien. Scien. Scien. Scien. Scien. Scien. Scien.


Tree legumes for fuelwood

Soil erosion control

Increased yields of
better quality food crops

farming systems

Training of new host-
country scientists

Increased farmer
.adoption of soil-management

Reduced yield gaps

Transfer experiments

Campus Support

Principal Investigator

Project Manager

































.80 .25 .50 1.20 .50 1.00

1.20 .50 1.00 1.25 .50 1.00

1.10 .25 1.25 .25

1.30 .50 1.00 1.30 .50 1.00

.50 -

.25 -

-.25 -

S.25 .50

.30 -.25 .50 1.20


- .25

.50 -60












.20 -- -

.20 -- -

.20 -- -

.20 --

- -.50 -- -.50

- -.50 1.00

- -.25 -- -.50

- .50

- 1.00

- .50

- -.50

- -1.00

- -.50

TOTAL 4.05 -3.25 3.00

7.10 -5.25 5.50

7.90 -6.25 7.00

8.45 -6.75 7.00

160 480 320 960 370 1,110 410 1,230 450 1,350

Budget by Items
(In thousands US $)

1981 1982 .1983 1984 1985

136 145 271 262 314 360 347 417 381 459

24 29 49 52 56 72 63 84 69 92

59 84 112 124 136

65 120 130 145 150





Travel and

Equipment, and
Other Costs



Budget by Outputs
(In Thousand US 8


CRSP Efforts in Indonesia
Tree legumes for fuelwood

Soil erosion control

Increased yields of better quality
food crops

Energy-efficient farming systems

Training of new host-country

Increased farmer adoption of
soil-management innovations

Reduced yield gaps

CRSP Efforts in Hawaii
Campus support/administyration

Transfer of CRSP outputs
















10 45 40 125

10 45 40 125

45 135

45 135

50 170

50 170

55 190

55 190




















160 480

320 960


370 1,110


410 1,230


450 1,350



Grand Total




C/PA YUNG. JUNE 23 to JUL Y 11 1980



W 0R K SH 0P

CIPAYUNG, JUNE 23 to JULY 11 1980


A. Workshop on Soil Taxonomy

0800O 10oo


Opening Ceremony

Purpose of soil classifi-
Introduction to soil
Introduction to soil

- SC / OC
- Co Principal Investigator
BSP (Dr H. Ikawa)
- Head of AARD
(Mr M. Sadikin S.)
Dr W.H. Hudnall, H. Ikawa





- 15oo



OEco 1000
1000 1030
100 -1230
130 -330

1330 1500

24 1980
Di agnos tic horizons i
Diagnostic horizons 1
Lun ch
Agrocl imati c class i fi cati on Dr L.R. 01deman
of rice growing areas in In-
done sia
A~gro climatic classification ,
of rice growing areas in In-


oo o


08 10

Physiography and geology
of Indonesia
Diagnostic horizons
Diagnostic horizons
Diagnostic horizons

Dr Chambers / Dr U. Syafei

Dr W.H. Huduall, H. Ikawa







k08 1000 Soil moisture regime

100 p30 Break
103- 123 Soil moisture regime
7230 1330 Lunch
133 150 Soil temperature regime
1500 1530 Break
153 170 Soil temperature regime

Dr W.H. Hudnall, H. Ikaw~a


0800 _100

030 -130

1230 1330
330 -500
7500 7530
1530 1700

27 1980

Dr' W.H. Hudnall, H. Ikawa



of soil Taxonomy

of soil Taxonomy




08.O Field trip

Dr W.H.

Hudnall, H. Ikawa,

MOW0)AV, JTUNE 30 1980

080 100 Key to i

100 p30 Break
103- 123 Key to t
123- 133 Lunch
133 150 Key to t
150 153 Break
/530 1700 Key to t

the orders

Dr W.H. Hudnall, H. Ikawa

the suborders



:he great groups

;he great groups

7 1980

Key to the Subgroups
Key to the Subgroups
Family differential particle
size classes and control
Family differential particle
size classes and control


0800 7000
1000 1030
1030 1230
230 -330

330 7500

Dr W.H. Hudnall, H. Ikawa

Dr W.H. Huduall, H. Ikawa


- 530


0800 l00 Phases of the soil family
10 103 Break
130 ~36 ~~
10 2 Phases of the soil family
123 133 Lunch
7j3 75 Relationshiph of soil Taxol
and FAO legend
150 753 Break
753 -';0 77 Relationship of soil Taxol
and FAO legend






Dr W.H. Hudnall, H. Ikawa

08" 10 Examination
700 00 Break
100 23 Soil classification exercises
using soil Taxonomy
1230 -330 Luc

1330 Soil classification exercises
using soil Taxonomy
150 53 Break
7530 100 Soil classification exercises
using soil Taxonomy

.FRIDAY to SuWOIAY, JULY 4-6 1980
Field trip to Lampung

Dr J.A.Silva, Dr W.H.Hludnall,
H. Ikawa, Ismangun

Object Sites : 1. Tanjung Iman
2. Nakau
3. Kelapa T~ujuh
4. Bukit Kemuning
5. Pekalongan



0800 oo Ia

7 1980

Soil classification for
agrotechnology transfer:
Principles and concepts
Soil inventory and mapping
program in Indonesia
Group work sessions
Group work sessions

Dr G. Uehara

Dr D. Muljadi



- 1030



100 -1030
030 -130

1230 1330
1330 1500
15 -1530
1530 1700

8 1980

Soil interpretation for
agrotechnology transfer:
Principles and concepts
Cropping system and soil
classification for Agro-
technology development and
Group work sessions
Group work sessions

Dr G. Uehara

Dr J.A. Silva,
Dr Mclntosh

00 n

08" 09" An ovrervriew of the rationale
policies and supports of
agrotechnology transfer
in Indonesia
090 00 Optimizing the use of avail-
able resources and infor-
mation as the basis for agro-
1000O 1030 Break
100 123 Government policies and
legislative reforms: Their
role in agrotechnology
123- 130 Lunch

Ir Sardjono

Drs Iman Nazeni M1Sc.

Dr A.T. Birowo

7330 7500
1500 1530
7530 00 a

Group discussions
Broup discussion

00 i

80 1 0

1. Critical factors and
issues of agrotechnology
transfer in Indonesia
2. Vertical transfer of
agrotechnology: The case
of the BIMAS program
1. The case of the estate
crops: A corporate
approach to agrotech -
nology transfer
2. Agrotechnology transfer
in the transmigration
areas: Requirement and
possibilities for research
and development

Dr S. Baharsyah

Ir Dudung Abdulmadjid

Dr Rachmat

M. Soepraptohardjo

000 -030
1030 1230



Group discussions
Group discussions

77 1980

Groups presentation of
Bre ak
1. Principles and concepts
of land evaluation for
landuse planning
2. Summary of the workshop
1. Closing address
2. Awarding of certificates


008 10300

30 -O30
700 1230

Dr H. Ikawa

Dr G. Uehara

Dr D. Muljadi



- 1330



The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM)

The University of Hiawaii is a nrulticampus system of higher education
serving the State of Hawaii. It includes the University of Hlawaii at Manloaa (the
major campus with undergraduate and graduate instructional programs, major
research institutes and programs, and organized, public-service programs), Hilo
College and West Oahu College (each with four-year bachelor's degree programs),
and seven two-year community colleges (four on the island of Oabu and one each
on the islands of Maui, Kauai, and H~awaii). Total enrollment on all campuses of
the system approaches 43,000 with approximately 21,000 on the Mlanoa Campus.

The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHIM) includes six colleges and six;
schools: the School of Architecture; the College of Arts and Sciences; the
College of Business Administration; the College of Education; the College of
Engineering; the College of Health Sciences and Social Welfare (which includes
the School of Medicine, the School of Nursing, the School of Public Health, and
thte School of Social Work); the School of Law; and the College of Tropical
Agriculture and Hluman Resources (CTARR). The Manoa Campus is both a Land Grant
and a Sea Grant institution.

The College of Tropical Agricul~ture and Human Resources (CTAHRK)

The College of Tropical A~griculture and Human Resources (CTA~R\) at the
University of Hlawaii at Manoa is the only United States Land Grant College of
Agriculture located in the tropics. The College consists of approximately 215
members in academic departments and in extension. There are 14 academic
departments: Agricultural Biochemistry, Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural
and Resource Economics, Agronomy and Soil Science, Animal Sciences, Botany,
Entomology, Fashion Design, H~om~e Economics, Horticulture, Hluman Developm~ent,
Plant Pathology, Food and Nutritional Scielnce, and Food Science and Technology.
(Reorganization of the Human Resoulrces and Food Science programs is currently
underwny. ) The College offers the Bachelor of Science in Tropical Agricullture
and in Human Resources Development; the M~aster of Science in Agricultural
Economics, Agricultural Engineering, Agronom~y and Soil Sciecce, Anima~l Sciences,
Entomology, Food Science, H~orticulture, and Nutrition; and the Ph.D. in
Agricultural Economics, Agronomy and Soil Science, Entomology, Hlorticul~ture, and
Food Science and Hluman Nutrition. Presently, the College has 1424 students,
1156 undergraduates and 268 graduate students. Of UHMI graduate students,
representing 36 countries, 41l% are studying agriculture. Of foreign students in
CTAllR (138), 80% come from Asian and Pacific countries.

The Haw\Yaii Institute of' Tropical Algricul~ture and Hluman R~esources (RIITAHR-1)

CTAHR~'s research arm, the Hawaii Institute. of Tropical Ag~riculture and
HIuanc Resour~ces (IllTt~llR), has been developed through the Land-G;rant Collcige
system! and is supported by federal and state funds. Figure 1 indicates thec
location of branch experiment stations on four of the major islands in the

State, with 18 field sites scattered across the island chain (Appendix A
summarizes the climatic and research problem areas covered at each station).
Due to the diversity of environmental conditions, HITAHR can research both
temperate and tropical crops and farming practices. The Institute has the
capability and professional expertise to conduct basic, applied, and
mission-oriented research in the many fields of tropical and subtropical
agriculture. The field research programs are also utilized to train
undergraduates and graduate students, Peace Corps volunteers, and visiting
specialists in Tropical Agriculture.

HITAHR also runs the College's Agricultural Technical Services Center, a
support program for basic research and extension for faculty, graduate students,
and commercial agricultural enterprises. To reduce crop losses, center
personnel are available for consulting on agricultural problems, collection of
analytical data, and soil, insect and disease diagnosis. On-the-job training
opportunities in applied research are offered at all the center units.

With its primary focus on improvement of tropical agriculture and thle
enhancement of quality of life in the Pacific Region, HITAHIR sponsors a wide
range of research projects with particular relevance to tropical crops such as
taro, papaya, banana, tropical pastures, tropical animal production, tropical
fruits and vegetables, and related pests and diseases. A listing of selected
ongoing research project focusing on tropical crops and pests is available upon

The Hawaii State Cooperative Extension Services (CES)j

In addition to HITAHR~'s experiment stations and Manoa research facilities,
CTAHR boasts an exceptionally strong and effective outreach program in the
Hawaii State Cooperative Extension Service (CES). Inis program has proven to be
effective in Hawaii's multicultural, multi-island tropical community. It is a
unique education process in which citizen input into -programming decisions is
highly visible. It is "grassroot" oriented and responds readily to local
community needs and to state and national needs. The staffing pattern of
subject-matter specialists, county extension agents, home economists, and
program assistants reflects a system capable of interacting with clientele and
public agencies at various programmning levels.

Currently, CES program objectives focus upon the areas of agriculture,
natural resources, home economics, food and nutrition, youth development, and
community resource development. The prograns are implemented through various
individual and group teaching methods and are designed to reach socioeconomiic
groups throughout Hlawaii's multicultural commnity. In-service training
capabilities are an important component of the CES program. CES links with the.
USDA and the Land Grant System are important, particularly as they relate to
international activities.

CTAIHR's International Agricultural Training Program

The International Agricultural Training Program, established in 1971,
provides seminars, field training, and in-service field training i17n agriculture
f or qualii fied f ore ign nt i onals of agri cul tu ral middle-ma nagement level, t o
promote thle general. interests of international exchange. The program
encompasses training in agricultural production and marketing to provide the

tools of experience, self-confidence, and innovative skills in order to upgrade
agricultural lifestyles and to contribute to the development of a firmer
industrial base to strengthen the visitor's national economy. The program is
sponsored by CTAHIR in cooperation with local host farmers, the U.S. Department
of State, the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the Department of
Labor of the Philippines, and other international agencies.

The training program has developed an extremely workable structure for
handling 40 trainees per year working with host farmer volunteers and CTAHTR
extension agents. Through this program, CTAHR staff have obtained a wealth of
experience with foreign agriculturalists, and the College has established a
network of graduates throughout the Pacific Basin.

Additional research and training programs are sponsored by CTAHR's Off ice
of International Agricultural Programs. These programs can be designed to neet
the special requirements of recipient countries, drawing upon the research,
teaching, and extension expertise of CTAlHR and other UHMT units. Programs have
been conducted in Hawaii and in recipient countries, working with in-country and
international agricultural research and financial institutions, agribusiness,
and entrepreneurs. CTAHR has conducted programs with collaborating countries in
most of Asia and the islands of the Pacific Basin, as well as in Europe, Africa,
and Latin and South America. The following list covers collaborative countries
from 1971 to 1979:

Australia Bangladesh Brazil
Canary Islands El Salvador England
Fiji France Ghana
Guam India Indonesia
Japan Korea Laos
Malaysia M~exico New Guinea
Newr Zealand Nigeria Okinawa
Philippines South Africa South Vietnam
Sri Lanka Sweden Tahiti
Taiwan Thailand Tonga
Trust Territories WJestern Samnoa
of thle Pacific

CTAR-R International Experineces

CTAHIR faculty have an impressive record of international, experience. Table
1 provides an- incomplete listing of faculty international travel since 1960, by
country, number of separate visits listings~s, and total muonths spent in the
country by CTAIIR personnel. The 52 countries have been grouped into eight
geographical regions; as can be noted, CTAH~R profressional activities are
generally oriented around the Pacific Islands, Southeast Asia, and East Asia.
CTAHR administrators and faculty have traveled, conducted research and training
program, consulted and participated in seminars and professional society
meetings in Asia and thle Pacific Islands, and worked closely with the
International A agricultural Research Centers--particu larly IRRI, AVRDC, and
ICRISAT. ther College has provided directors an1-d nu~trition1 consultants toi
numerous national and international organizations for assignmecnt to the Pacific
A~rea. Recenltly, CTAHRI staff hacve worked with the World Bank, The Asia
Development Bank, USAID, ISEC, SPC, UNDP, the Thai, Indonesian, and Philippine

governments, and numerous foundations and institutes. The College has
participated in numerous international agricultural development programs. Table
2 summarizes some of the more recent progranls. Of these, perhaps the most
noteworthy are the Benchmark Soils Project, NifTAL, the Kasetsart University
Program, the Hlawaii-G~uam extension program, and the new University of the South
Pacific Project.

Benchmark Soils Project: CTAHR, through its Benchmark Soils Project (BSP), is
involved in major international research on soil management and resource
planning of tropical soils, with 23 experimental sites located in Brazil,
Camneroon, Hawaii, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico, which are managed
and operated by people of various ethnic groups and nationalities. BSP aims to
determine scientifically the transferability of agroproduction technology among
tropical and subtropical countries based on the soil family classification; to
assist tropical countries in assessing the potential of upland areas for
intensive soil management; and to demonstrate the value of soil and land
classification in formu~lating agricultural development plans in selective

The Benchmark Project has suggested that land use and soil management are
similar for similar levels of crop production on these soils, indicating that
data available in CTAHR files may be applied to soils found in similar
agroclimatic zones. The governments of Indonesi~a and the Philippines have
indicated support for the Project's concepts and have initiated soil
classification based on Soil Taxonomy to facilitate the transfer of research
results to farmers' fields. A model of a computerized soil and crop data bank
is being developed by the Project, which later will assist Asian and Pacific
Island countries who may want information on a similar system of storage and
ret rieval.

NifTAL: As part of a major effort in understanding soil management in the
tropics, CTAHR's project on "Nitrogen Fixation in Tropical Agricultural Legumes"
(NifTAL) is coordinating the establishment of an international network of
legume-inoculant trials. Since tropical soils in general are deficient in
nitrogen, the inability of the LDC farmer to provide adequate nitrogen to his
crops has been found to be one of the major causes of low productivity. NifTAL
seeks to assist the LDC farmer by increasing nitrogen availability while
reducing the need for expensive oil-based nitrogen fertilizers.

Kasetsart University Program: In the Kasetsart-CTAHR program, 17 college
faculty worked in Thailand providing technical and advisory assistance in the
following areas: agricultural economics, agrononiy and soils, animal science,
entomology, fishecries, horticulture, university administration, veterinary
science, extension methods, food processing, forestry, home economics, plant
pathology, and poultry science. The program did ~uich to strengthen a
professional bond between Thailand and UHMi~, which has been continued through
programs with CTAHR's Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, and UHM's
School of MEldicine, among others.

RANWAII-G~UAM Extension Program: The H~awlil-Guam E~xtension Service relationship
has been in operation~ since 1863; H~awati extension staff has carried out
training programs for Guam gents and farmers since that: time. Some of thle
topics covered were: small tractors and spraying: equipment, poultry, swine, and
vegetable production; macrketing and distribution; plant and animal disease

identification and control; farmer cooperatives; and program and staff
development for extension education. The close relationship between the two
institutions through the years has resulted in continuing informal contacts
between Guam faculty and their counter-parts in Hlawaii.

The University of the South Pacific REE Project: In July of 1980, the
University of the South Pacific (USP), CTAZHR, and the United States Agency for
International Development (USAID) signed a $3.5 million, 5-year, renewable
agreement: to improve research, education, and extension capabilities in the 11
countries of the South Pacific region. CTAHR and other US collaborators will
provide technical assistance to USP's school of agriculture at Alafua, Western
Samoa, as well as program support for regional diagnostic services and extension
training throughout the South Pacific Islands. USAID is also financing
scholarships and fellowships to expand the region's pool of trained
agriculturalists and is encouraging thle development of satellite-linked
education activities.

Other CTAHR Projects: CTAHR researchers have amassed considerable information
on the proper management of nitrogen in tropical soils including the need for
specific types of nitrogen fetilizers, method of application, placement,
frequency of application, relative efficiency of application, and thie relative
cost and return from the use of different nitrogen fertilizers and nanagement

An active soil- and tissue-testing program conducted at CTAHR relates the
fertility status of the soil with the management needs of crops grown on these
soils. This program has been very effective in determining the soil fertility
management needs of soils in H-awaii and several different Pacific nations. In
addition, CTAHR researchers investigating specific nuvtrient needs in soil
management have found that initial, relatively high~ requirements for fertilizer
application depends more upon the soil than the crop.

The water-holding capacity, the ability of the soil to supply water to
plants, and the consumptive use of water for various crops on different tropical
soils have been determined by CTAHIR researchers. These data in turn indicate
the need for irrigation and the amount and frequency of application of water.
Experimlents1 data area also available on the efficiency of irrigation methods on
different tropical soils, which is particularly important for water-shiort islan-d
envi ronmnents.

The erodibility of different soil orders under differing intensities and
duration of rainfall has been determined by CTAHR investig-ators, which increases
the chance of protecting fragile island topsoils from devastating erosion. A
list of plants suitable for soil protection under different cropping systems has
been and is being further developed at this time.

Management information regarding the selection, establishment, and
maintenance of windbreaks or barriers for the protection of soil, crops, humans,
and animals has been developed by CTAHRK staff for tropical conditions.

Mlanageme~ntt information for specific crops is available i~n the area of
sugar-cane, pincnapple, corn, swoot corn, frorag:e and feed crop~s, root
crops--esp~ecially taro and sweet potatoes, legumecs, green mannure and cover
crops, crop~s for fuclwJood, vegetable crops, fruit and not crops, folinge and

flower crops, ornamentals, and many miscellaneous crops.

Cultural Understanding of Pacific Basin Communities

Hawaii is unique in the cultural diversity of its residents. The rich
cross section of ethnic groups, with their varied sociocultural needs and
behavioral styles provides an exceptionally valuable environment for social
researchers and serves as an excellent training ground for developing cross
cultural awareness. Additionally, the presence in Hawaii of large numbers of
Asian and Pacific Island immigrants, as well as the historical significance of
the Japanese, Chinese, and indigeneous H-awaiian people, provides a degree of
comfort and familiarity with non-WJestern customs, practices, and foods that
cannot be matched anywhere else in the United States.

HawJaii's geographic, climatic, and soil conditions augment the cultural,
lifestyle, land use, and family structure similarities between Hawaii and thle
other Pacific Basin countries. In many ways Hawaii shares the conditions of
most developing countries, including transportation and management concerns,
pocket markets, culturally and geographically isolated communities, small-scale
food processors and diversified farms, and even large-scale plantations and
processing plants (sugarcane and pineapple). Considerable research in these
areas by agricultural economists, ecologists, and human resources development
specialists has been supported by HIITAHR. Studies of small farming systems,
home economics, decision making, youth group development, family parenting
needs, and women entrepreneurs are among those accomplished within the local

Through the numerous research and training programs sponsored by CTAH-R's
International Office, faculty have had exposure to a broad range of foreign
nationals. Simple farmers and conglomerate managers have worked with their
Hawaii counterparts and advisors on training and consulting programs. A steady
stream of visiting colleagues and dignitaries expose CTAHIR faculty to the
latest issues in international affairs and agricultural issues. Coupling this
rich exposure with the familiarity of working side by side with Pacific Island
and Asian students, visiting colleagues and staff in the College have provided
an environment for the development of cultural awareness unmatched by any other
U.S. University. Also, several UHMT research units which are engaged in
sociocultural research and the development of imiproved cultural understanding of
Pacific Island communities work closely with CTAHR:'s staff of applied social
scientists. Th-ese units include CTAHRR's Hluman Resources Development Research
Laboratory, the Social Science Research Institute, the Curriculum Research and
Development Group, and the Institutes of the East-Wdest Center.



Information on Participating Faculty
from the University of Hawaii*

Participating Faculty

James L. Brewbaker

Samir A. E1-Swaify

Robert L. Fox
WJallace C. Mitchell
Robert Van Reen

John Halliday
Russell S. Yost
B. Ben Bohlool

(All faculty)

Joseph P. O'Reilly
A. Terry R~ambo

Jaw-K~ai Wang
Shelley M. Mark
D. Elmo Hardy

James A. Silva

Project Outputs

1. Tree legumes for fuelwood

2. Soil erosion control

3. Increased yields of better
quality food crops

4. Energy-efficient farming

5. Training of new host-country

6. Increased farmer adoption of
yield-increasing soil-management

7. Reduced yield gaps between
researchers' plots and farmers'

8. Transfer of CRSP principles,
concepts, and results to other
regions in the humid tropics

Principal Investigator

Coro Uehara

*Collaborating scientists from Indonesia will be identified at a later date by
the appropriate agencies.


James L. Brewbaker

1. Name, Title, Institution, and Education:

Brewbaker, James Lynn; Professor of Horticulture and Genetics, University of
Hawaii (affiliate Professor in Department of Agronomny and Soil Science).
University of Colorado 1944; Southern Methodist University 1945; Texas
University 1945-46; University of Colorado 1946-48; B.A. cum laude 1948
(Major Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology); Cornell University 1948-52,
Ph.D. 1952, Department of Plant Breeding.

2. Experience

1952-1953 National Science Foundation .(USA) post-doctoral fellowship, University
of Lund, Sweden
1953-1955 Asst. Professor of Agronomy, University of the Philippines, Los Banos
1956-1961 Assoc. Geneticist, Biology Dept., Brookhaven National Lab, U.S. Atomic
Energy Conmmission
1961-1964 Assoc. Professor, Horticulture Dept., University of Hawaii
1964- Professor, Horticulture Dept., University of Hawaii
1967-1968 Field Staff Geneticist, Rockefeller Foundation, B3angkok, Thailand
1970 Consultant, International Atomic Energy Commission, Philippines
1978 Visiting Scientist, Centro Internacional Agric. Tropical, Cali, Colombia

3. Research Interests
Breeding field and vegetable corn hybrids, improvement and silviculture of
tropical tree legumes, leucaena breeding, corn biochemical genetics.

4. Professional Societies and Honors
Amer. Soc. Agronomiy, Genetics Soc. America, Amer. Soc. Horticultural Science,
Hawaiian Botanical Soc. (President, 1965-66), Hawaiian Academiy of Science (President,
1978-79), Hawaii Crop Improvement Assn. (Executive Secretary, 1969- ). Sigma Xi,
Phi Kappa Phi, Pi Mu Epsilon, Phi Eta Sigma, Phi Sigma, Gammra Sigma Delta, W~ho's
Who in the West 1967- Personalities of the West and Midwest 1969, Dictionary
of International Biography 1969, Who's Who in Amer-ican Higher Education 1971,
Men of Achievement 1973, Elected Fellow of American Society of Agronomy 1975,
Community Leaders and Noteworthy Americans 1976, Outstanding Researcher of Univ.
Hawaii 1980.

Publications and Research Awards
Textbook "Agricultural Genetics", Prentice-Hall, 1964 (translated to 7 languages)
plus 125 scientific publications. Research awards from U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
(1962-70), National Science Foundation (1962-67, 1977- ), U.S. Dept. of Agric.
Plant Exploration (1967, 1978), U.S. Forest Service (1972-75), SEA/USDA (1980- ),
Diverse private grants.

5. Professional Activities
Resea l~;~;~-;Fc Inplani~` Eeing and tropical agriculture; consultant in tropical
agriculture, India (1959-60), Egypt (1960), Thailand (1967-68), Philippines (1970,
1976), Cameroons (1976), Nigeria and Tanzanian (1977), Korea (1976, 77, 78, 79),
Nicaragua (1978); Editorial Comimittees of Crop Scienc~e (1973-76), Allortonia
(1 978- ), National Acaddemy of Science (1977, 19578~-71 Eitor,, L eucaena -New;slett er
(1980- ). Teacher of Experimental Design statistics (1961- `), Radiadtio~n Bi`~-,o~lo
(1961-70), Plant Biochemiical Genetics (1970- ). Chairman, Graduate thesis
committees of 15 Ph.D. and 16 M.S. candidates, University of Hawaii.

(Excluding Abstracts)

James LI Brewbaker, Professor of Horticulture
University of Hawaii

1. Weber, W. A. and J. L. Brewbaker. 1950. Physaria vitulifera, a tetraploid
species of Cruciferae. Univ. of Colo. Studies, Ser. Biot. 1:24-28.

2. Brewbaker, J. L. 1952. Incompatibility investigations in diploids and auto-
tetraploids of Trifolium species. Doctoral thesis, Dept. of Plant BreediLng,
Cornell U., Ithaca, N. Y. 85 pp., 49 tables.

3. Brewbaker, J. L. and S. S. Atwood. 1952. Incompatibility Alleles in Polyploids,
Proc. 6th Internatt. Grasslands Congr. 1: 267-272.

4. Brewbaker, J. L. 1952. Colchicine induction of tetraploids in Trifolium spp.
J. Amer. Soc. Agron. 44 (11): 592-594.

5. Atwood, S. S. and J. L. Brewbaker, 1953. Incompatibility in autoploid white
clover. N. Y. State Col. Agric. (Cornell Univ.) Memoir No. 319: 52 pp.

6. Brewbaker, J. L. 1953. Oppositional allelism in diploid and autotetraploid
Tri~foliu~m bybridum L. Genetics 38: 444-455.

7. Brewbaker, J. L. and Wayne F. Keim. 1953. A fertile interspecific hybrid in
Trifolium (4n T. repent x 4n T. nigreecens Viv.). American Naturalist 87:

8. Brewbaker, J. L. 1954. Incompatibility in autotetraploid Trifolium relpens L.
I. Competition sad self-compatibility. Genetics 39: 307-316,

9. Brewbaker, J. ]L. 1955. Incompatibility in autotetraploid white clover. II.
Dominance and double reduction. Genetics 40: 138-152.

10. Brewhaker, J. L. 1955. Oppositional allelism in Trifolium negreecens
Hereditas 41: 367-375.

11. Brewbaker, J. L. 1955. V-leaf markings of white clover. J. Heredity 46:

12. Brewbakcer, J. ]L. and D. L. Umali. 1956. Classificatilon of Philippine Musae I.
The genera Musa L. and Ensete Horan. Philippine Agric. 60: 231-241.

13. Brewbak~er, J. L., D. D. Gorrez and D. L. U~mali. 1956. Classification of
Philippine Mlusne II. Canton and Minay, putative hybrid forms of Musa
textilis Nee and Musa balbisiana Colla. Philippine Agric. 60: 242-257,

14. Brewbaker, J. L. and D. D. Gorrez. 1956. Classification of Philippine Musae
III. (a) Saguing matching (Mus Banksii F.v.MI.), (b) A2linsanay, a putative
hybrid of M. textilis and _M. Banksit, Philippine Agric. 60: 258-268.

15. kanali, D. L., and J. L. Brewbaker. 1956. Abaca and its improvement,
Philippine Agri~c. 60: 213-230.


16. Brewbaker, J. L. and ET. L. Carnahan. 1956. Leaf marking alleles in white
clover. Uniform Nomenclature. J. Heredity 47(2): 103-104.

17. Brewbaker, J. L. 1957. Pollen cytology and self-incompatibility systems in
plants. J. Hered. 48: 271-277.

18. Brewbaker, J. L, 1958. Self-compatibility in tetraploid strains of Trifolium
hybridum. H~ereditas 44: 547-553.

19. Brewbaker, J. L. 1959. Biology of the angiosperm pollen grain. Indian J.
Genetics and Plant Breeding 19: 121-133.

20.~ Brewbaker, J. L. and S. K. Majumder. 1959. Incompatibility and the pollen
grain. Recent Advances in Botany, pp. 1503-1508.

21. Brewbaker, J. L. and N, Shapiro. 1959. Homozygosity and S gene mutation.
Nature 183: 1209-1210.

22. Brewbak~er, J. L. andA. T. Natarajan. 1960. Centric fragments and polleupart
mutation of incompatibility alleles in petunia. Genetics 45: 699-704.

23, Brewbaker, J. L. and M. S. Swaominathan. 1960. The design and use of a Co60
irradiation unit in the United States Exhibit, World Agricultural Fair.
Current Science 29(8): 298-301.

24. Brewbaker, J. L. 1960. Induced mutations of incompatibility alleles and the
structure of the gene. J. Ag~ric. & H~ort. 35(10): 109-113. (in Japanese)

25. Brewbaker, J. L. and S. K. Majumder. 1961. Cultural studies of the pollen
population effect and the self-incomp4atibility inhibition. haoer, J. Bot.
47: 457-464.

26. Brewbaker, J. L. and George C. Emery, 1961. Pollen radiobotany. Radiation
Botany 1:(2) : 101-154.

27. BrewJbaker, J. L. 1962. Cyanidin-red white clover, a duplicate recessive
mutant in Trifoliun repens L. J. Heredity 53:163-167.

28. Brewbaker, J. L. and B. H. Hwack. 1963. The essential role of calcium ion
in pollen germination anid pollen tube growth. Amer. J. Bot. 50:859-865.

29. Brewbaker, J. ]L. and B. HI. Kwack. 1963. The calcium ion and substances in-
fluencing pollen growth. In Pollen Physiology~ and Fertilization, Univ.
Netherlands. pp. 143-151.

30. Beckman, L., J. G. Scandalios and J. L. Brewbaker. 1964. Genetics of leucine
aminopeptidase isozymes in maize. Genetics. 50:899-904.

31. Majumder, S. R., K. R. Kerns, J. L. Brewbaker and G. A. Johannessen. 1964.
Assessing self-incompatibility in pineapple by a pollen fluorescence
technique. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 84: 217-223.

32. Brewbaker, J. L. 1964. Agricultural Genetics. Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, N. J. 156 pp.


33. Beckman, L., J. G. Scandatios and J. L. Brewbaker. 1964. Catalase hybrid
enzymes in maize. Science 146:1174-1176.

34. Brewbaker, J. L., L. Espiritu and S. K. Majumder. 1965. Comparative effects
of X-ray and ultraviolet irradiations on pollen growth. I. Species
variations in radiosensitivity and dose response patterns. Radiation
Bot. 5:493-500.

35. Brewbaker, J. L. 1965. Breeding sweet corn hybrids for Hawaii. Hawaii
v Farm Science 14:1-3.

36. Brewbaker, J. L. and J. W. Hylin. 1965. Variations in mimosine content
among Leucaena species and related Mimnosaceae. Crop Science 5(4):348-

37. Watson, D. P.s J. T. Chinn, H. F. Clay and J. L. Brewbaker. 1965. Plumerias
in Hawaii. Amer. Hort. Mag, 44(3):125-128.

38. Brewbaker, J. L. and F. Aquilizan. 1965, Genetics of resistance in maize
to a mosaic-stripe virus transmitted by Peregrinus maidis. Crop
Science 5:412-415,

39. Upadhya, M. D., J. L. Brewbaker and E. A. Macion. 1965. Effect of gamma
irradiation on mango fruits and mango seed weevil (Sternochetus mangiferse
Fabricius). USALEC Report UH-235P5-1, pp. 26-38.

40. Brewbaker, J. L., M. D. Upadhya and E. A. Macion. 1965. Preliminary studies
on the effect of gamma irradiation on pineapple. USAEC Report
UH-235P5-1, pp. 47-51.

41. Brewbaker, J. L. 1965. Year-round corn in Hawaii. Maize Genetics Coop
Newsletter 39:78-79.

42. Brewbaker, J. L. and Flaviano Aquilizan. 1965. Genetic resistance to a
mosaic-stripe disease transmitted by Peregrinus maidis. Maize Genetics
Coop Newsletter 39:80-81.

43. Kashiwagi, Midori and J. L. Brewbaker. 1966. Radiation preservation of
Kamaboko fish cake. Hawaii Farm Sci. 15(1):10-11.

44. Brewbak~er, J. L. 1966. Gamma irradiation and expanding opportunities for
Hawaiian agriculture. Hawaii Farm Sci. 15(1):1-3.

45. Upadhya, Mahesh and J. L. Brewbaker. 1966. Effects of gamma irradiation
on the pineapple. HawJaii Farm Sci. 15(1):8-9.

46. Upadhya, Mlahosh and J. L,. Brewbaker. 1966. Irradiation of mangoes for
control of the mango seed weevil. Hawaii Farm Science 15(1):6-8.

47. Brewbaker, J. L. 1966. Enzyme fingerprints for the plant detective. Hawaii
Botanical Soc. Newsletter 5(1):1-3.

48. Brewbakcer, J. L., J. A. Crozier, Jr., P. J. Ito and D. D. F. W~illiams. 1966.
Performance trials of commercial sweet corn hybrids and varieties in
Hlaw\aii, 1962-65. HIawr. Agric. Exp. Sta?. Tech. Progress Report No. 149:
22 pp.


49. Upadhya, M. D., R. L. Young and J. L. Brewbaker. 1966. Post-irradiation
storage changes in mango following gamma irradiation. USAEC Report
UH-235P5-2, pp. 53-59.

50. Upadhya, M. D., R. L. Young, M. Lin and J. L. Brewbaker. 1966. Post-
irradiation storage changes in pineapples following gamma Irradiation.
USAEC Report UH-235P5-2, pp. 65-78.

51. Upadhya, M. D., K. W. Ching and J. L. Brewbaker. 1966. Inhibition of
sprouting in ginger by irradiation. USAEC Report UH-235P5-2, pp. 82-84.

52. Upadhya, M. D., E. A. Macion and J. L. Brewbaker. 1966. Inhibition of
sprouting in sweet potato by gamma irradiation. USAEC Report
UH-235P5-2, pp. 85-88.

53. Brewbaker, J. L. and David D. Gorrez. 1967. Genetics of self-incompatibility
in the monocot genera, Ananas (pineapple) and Gasteria. Amer. J. Bot.

54. Brewbaker, J. L. 1967. The distribution and phylogenetic significance of
binucleate and trinucleate pollen grains in the Angiosperms. Amer. J.
Bot. 54:1069-1083.

55. Makinen, Y., M. D. Upadhya, J. L. Brewbaker. 1967. Cytotoxic effects of
extracts from gamma irradiated pineapples. Nature 214:413.

56. Gonzalez, V., J. L. Brewbaker, E. Hamnill. 1967. Leucaena cytogenetics in
relation to the breeding of low mimosine lines. Crop Science 7(2):

57. Upadhya, M. D., J. L. Brewbaker and K. W. Ching. 1967. Biochemical changes
during storage of gamma irradiated papaya. USAEC Report UH-235PS-3, pp. 3-13.

58. Upadhya, M. D., K. W. Ching, and J. L. Brewbaker. Post-irradiation storage
changes in irradiated Pirie mango. USAEC Report UH-235P5-3, pp. 70-84.

59. Upadhya, M. D., J. L. Brewbaker and K. W. Ching. 1967. Biochemical
changes in gamma-irradiated pineapples. USAEC Report UH-235P5-3,
pp. 85-94.

60.- Upadhya, M. D., J. L. Brewbaker, K. W. Ching and M. Lin. 1967. Comparative
study of irradiated summer and winter pineapples under varying storage
periods and temperatures. USAEC Report UH-235P5-3, pp. 95-104.

61. Upadhya, M. D., Y. Makinen and J. L. Brewrbaker. 1967. Post-irradiation
storage recovery of pineapple fruits from induced cytoxicity following
disinfestation dosages of gammna irradiation. USAEC Report UH-235P5-3,
pp. 105-114.

62. Upadhya, M. D. and J. L. Brewbaker. 1967. Biochemical changes during
storage of gamma-irradiated lychees. USAEC Report UHI-235PS-3, pp.


63. Brewbaker, J. L. .. D. E. Hamill, and D. L. Shaver. 1967. Winter breeding
nurseries on the island of Molokai, Hawaii. Maize Genetics Coop.
Newletter 41:59-60.

64. Makinen, Y. and J. L. Brewbaker. 1967. Isoenzyme polymorphism in flowering
plants I. Diffusion of enzymes out of intact pollen grains. Physiologia
Plantarum 20:477-482.

64a. (note only) Brewbaker, J. L. 1967. AGRICULTURAL GENETICS. Translations
to German ("ANGEWANDTE GENETIK", 1967), Japanese (1967), Spanish

65. Brewbaker, J. L. and D. E. H-amill. 1967. Winter corn seed production on
the island of Molokai, Halwaii. Hawaii Agri. Exp. Sta. Tech. Progress
Rept. 160:11 pp.

66. Nakagawa, Y. and J. L. Brewbaker. 1967. Growing sweet corn in Hawaii.
Univ. Hawaii Coop. Ext. Servr. Leaflet 120:9 pp.

67. Brewbaker, J. L. 1967. Comparison of tree improvement programs with
crop breeding programs. Proc. 9th Southern Cont, on Forest Tree
Improvement, pp. 41-49 (Publ. 28, Comm. Soc. For. Tree Impr.,
E. Tree Seed Lab, Macon, Georgia).

68. Brewrbaker, J. L., T. Macdonald, Y. Makinen and M. D. Upadhya. 1968.
Isoenzyme polymorphism in flowering plants III. Gel electrophoretic
methods and applications. Physiologia Plantarum 21:930-940.

69. Brewbaker, J. L. and C. Maneephiong. 1968. Genetic marker stocks adapted to
the tropics. Maize Genetics Coop. Newsletter 42:37-38.

70. Upadhya, M. D. and J. L. Brewbaker. 1968. Influence of pH and concentration
on thiobarbituric acid values of gamma-irradiated glucose and
sucrose solutions. USAEC Report UH-235P5-4, pp. 169-175.

71. Brewbaker, J. L. 1968. H38 and H168, Hawaiian sweet corn hybrids. Hawaii
Agric. Exp. Sta. Cire. 66:11 pp.

72. Hamill, D. E. and J. L. Brewbaker. 1969. Isoenzyme polymorphism in
flowering plants IV. The peroxidase isoenzymes of maize (Zea mays L.),
Physiologia Plantarum 22:945-948.

73. Gilbert, J. C., J. L. Brewbaker, J. S. Tanaka, J. T. Chinn, R. W. Hartmann,
J. A. Crozier, Jr., and P. J. Ito. 1969. Vegetable improvement at
the HawJaii Agric. Exp. Sta. HAiES Res. Rept. 175:16 pp.

74. Iwanami, Yozo and J. L. Brewcbaker. 19)70. A method for making permanent
preparation of pollen tube cultures.' Bot. Magazine (Tokyo) 83:36-37.

75. Brewbaker, J. L. 1970. Leaf-fleck mutant in maize. Maize Genetics Coop
Newletter 44:48.

76. Brewlbaker, J. L. 1971. Breeding tropical supersweet corn. HIawali Farm
Sci. 20:7-10.


77. Brewbaker, James L. 1971. Pollen enzymes and isoenzymes. In "POLLEN
DEVELOPMENT and PHYSIOLOGY", pp. 156-170. Butterworth & Co., London.

78. Upadhya, Mahesh D. and J. L. Brewbaker. 1971. Influence of pH and
concentration on the gamma-radiation induced thiobarbituric-acid-
reacting-substances (TBRS) in glucose and sucrose solutions.
Current Science 41:25-26.

79. Martin, Franklin W. and James L. Brewbaker. 1971. The nature of the
stigmatic exudate and its role in pollen germination. In "POLLEN
DEVELOERENT AND PHYSIOLOGY", pp. 171-176. Butterworth &r Co., London.

80. Macdonald, Timothy and James L. Brewbaker. 1972. Isoenzyme polymorphism
in flowering plants VIII. Genetic control and dimeric nature of
transaminase hybrid isoenzyme in maize. J. Hered. 63:11-14.

81. Brewbaker, J. L., D. L. Plucknett and V. Gonzalez. 1972. Varietal variation
and yield trials of Leucaena leucocephala ("Koa haole") in H~awaii.
Hawaii Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. 166:1-29.

82. Brewbaker, J. L. and E. Hamill Johnson. 1972. The maize peroxidases:
designation of seven loci governing peroxidase polymorphisms in maize.
Maize Genetics Coop Newsletter 46:29-33.

83. Brewbak~er, J. L. 1972. Genetic marker stocks in tropical flint background.
Maize Genetics Coop Newsletter 46:33-37.

84. Brewbakrer, James L. 1972. Hello "Kalakoa". Hawraii Farm Sci. 21:8.

85. Peirce, L. C. and J. ]L. Brewbaker. 1973. Applications of isoenzyme analysis
in horticultural science. Hort Science 8:17-22.

86. Brewbaker, James L. 1974. Pyrethrum; A Crop for Hawaii? Hawaii Agric.
Exp. Sta. Misc. Public. 117:24pp.

87. Macdonald, Timothy and James L. Brewbaker. 1974. Isoenzyme polymorphism in
flowering plants. IX. Th~e E5-E10 esterase loci of maize. Journal
of Heredity 65:37-42.

88. Brewbaker, J. L. and Y. HasegawJa. 1974. Nine maize peroxidase loci and their
tissue specificities. Maize Genetics Coop Newsletter 48:35-37.

89. Brewbaker, J. L. and S. Hf. Chang. 1974. Aphid resistance under apparent
monogenic control. Maize Genetics Coop Newsletter 48:37-38.

90. Brewbaker, James L. 1974. Polymorphisms of 13 major peroxidases of
maize. Proc. 3rd International Conf. On Isozymes. Vol. 3:659-673

91. Brewbaker, James L. (ed) 1975. Corn and sorghum diseases and insect pests
in H~awaii. Hawaii Agric. Exp. Sta. Miisc. Public. 122:22pp.

92. Bonner, J. W., R. M. Warner and J. L. Brewtbaker. 1974. A chemosystematic
study of Musa cutltivars. Hort Science 9:325-328.

93. Brewbaker, J. L. 1974. Continuous genetic conversions and brooding of corn in a
neutral environment. Proc. Amner. Seed Trade Assoc. 00rn and Sorghum
Res. Conf. 29:118-133.


94. Macdonald, T. and J. L. Brewbaker. 1975. Isoenzyme
flowering plants V. The isoesterases of maize:
state specificities, and responses to chemical
Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 89:24 pp.

polymorphism in
tissue and sub-
inhibitors. Hawaii

95. Brewbaker, J. L. and N. Banafunzi. 1975. Hawaiian Super-sweet #6 Corn.
HortScience 10:427-428.

96. Brewbaker, James L.
lizer, feed and
Series 1:1-15.


Giant ipil-ipil; promising source of ferti-
for the Phil ippi nes. AID Agric. Seminar
Manila, Philippines.

97. Brewbaker, James L. 1975. 'Hawaiian Giant' Koa Haole. Hawaii Agric.
Exp. Sta. Misc. Public. 125:1-4.

98. Brewbaker, James L. 1975. Registration of Hawaiian Giant K8 Leucaena.
Crop Science 15:885-886.

99. Brewbaker, James L. and Yoichi Hasegawa. 1975.
major peroxidases of maize. In "Isozymes,
Biology", Academic Press. pp. 659-673.

100. Kim, S. K. and J. L. Brewbaker. 1976. Sources
Puccinia sorghi on maize in Hawaii. Plant

Polymorphisms of the
Vol. III. Developmental

of general resistance to
Disease Reporter 60:551-555.

10.Kim, S. K. and J. L. Brewbaker. 1976. Effects of Puccinia sorghi rust
on yield and several agronomic traits of maize in H-awaii. Crop
Science 16:874-877.

102. Kim, S. K. and J. L. Brewbaker. 1977. Inheritance of general resistance
in maize to Puccinia sorghi. Crop Science 17:45j6-461.

103. Brewbaker, James L. 1976. The woody legumec, leucaena: Promising source
of feed, fertilizer and fuel in the tropics. Memoria Internatl.
Seminar Trop. Livestock, FIRA, Banco de Mexico. Vol. 1:13-28.

104. Brewbaker, James L. 1976.
livestock production.
FIRA, Banco de Mexico.

Establishment and management of leucaena for
Memoria Internatl. Seminar Trop. Livestock,
Vol. I:165-182.

105. Brewbaker, Jamies L. 1977. Hawaiian Super-sweet #9 Corn. HortScience

106. Anon. 1977. Leucaena; Promising forage and tree crop for the tropics.
(JLB, Chairman Sym~posium). National Academ~y of Science: 155 pp.

107. Brewbaker, Jamies L. 1978. Introductory remarks to session on "Tissue
Bionomics". In "Maize Breeding and Genetics", ed. D. B. Walden.
J. Wiley & Sons. pp. 423-426.

108. Brewbaker, James L. 1979. Diseases of maize in the wet lowland tropics
and the collapse of the Classic Maya civilization. Economic
Botany 33:101-118.


109. Brewbaker, James L. and E. Mark Hutton. 1979. Leucaena--Versatile tro-
pical tree legume. In "New Agricultural Crops", ed. G. A. Ritchie.
Amer. Assn. Adv. Sci. pp. 207-259.

11.Brewbaker, James L. and Soon Kwon Kim. 1979. Inheritance of husk
numbers and ear insect damage in maize. Crop Science 19:32-36.

111. Brewbaker, James L. (ed.) 1980. Crop Improvement in Hawaii: Past,
present, and future. Hawaii Inst. Trop. Agr. Human Res. Misc.
Public. (In Press). (Includes articles "Corn" by Brewbaker and
John R. Thompson, and "Forage and Forest Legumes" by Brewbaker
and Peter P. Rotar).

112. Brewbaker, James L. 1980. Resistance to maize mosaic virus. In "Virus
and Virus-Like Diseases of Maize and Sorghum", D. T. Gordon, ed.
0ARDC, Wooster, Ohio. (In Press).

11.Brewbaker, James L. 1980. Corn improvement--Some current trends.
Food and Fertilizer Tech. Comm., Asian and Pacific Council Misc.
Public. (In Press).

114. Chung, Jay H., James L. Brewbaker and Charles Ritter. 1980. Effects of
increasing population density in the production of corn in Hawaii.
Hawaii Inst. Trop. Agr. Human Res. Tech. Bull. (In Press).

Pr-ofessional Societies:

February, 1980

Samir A. E1-Swaify

Professor of Soil Science



Department of Agronomy and Soil Science
University of Hawaii
3190 Maile Way
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (Telephone: 808-948-8857)

7271 Kalanipuu Place
Honolulu, Havait 96825 (Telephone: 808-395-3702)

Born July 14, 1937 in Port-Said, Egypt, Married,
one son (18), two daughters (10 and 12), U.S.
citizen since 1971.

1957 B.Sc. (Honors) in Agricultural Science,
Alexandria University, Egypt

1964 Ph.D. in Soil Science (Irrigation Option),
University of California, Davis

Business Address:

Nomee Address:

personal Inform~ation:

University of Hawaii (Assistant
Professor to 1970, Associate
Professor to 1.975, currently
Professor and Soil Scientist)
University of California, River-
side (Post-Doctoral Fellow)
University of California, Davis
(Research Assistant)
Soil Salinity Laboratory,
Alexandria, Egypt (Assistant

Soil Science 640, a graduate-level
course on the Physical and Coll~oid
Chemistry of Soils
Soil Science 440, a senior-level
course on the Mnnagement and
Quality of Kater for Irrigation~

1965 Present

Professional Positions

19641 1965

1961 1964

1958 1959

1967 Present

1971 Present

Teaching Experience:

A2merican Society of Ag~ronom~y
Soil Science Society of America
International Society of Soil Science
Gamma Sigma Delta (current President, Hawaii Chapter)

GradateStudnt rainng:Thesis or Dissertatio~n Cha~irmn for eight
completed Manster of Science and four~ completely
Ph~.D. degrees.

Other University Activities:


Current Chairman for four M.S. and three Ph.D.
Note: Student research topics are within the
area of soil and water management and
conservation, with concentration on erosional
and salinity relations.

1977 Present

1977 Present

1974 Present

1971 1974

1970 1973

Chairman of CTAH~R Senate
Committee for Graduate Curriculum
Member of the Faculty Panel
(for personnel actions)
Chairman of Graduate Programs
in Agronomy and Soil Science
Member of the University of
Hawaii Research Council
U.H. Senate Commrittee for
Privilege and Tenure and for
Student-Faculty Relations
Member of the Administrative
Council for the Hawaii
Institute of Geophysics


- 1973

National and International


OSW Conference on Properties of Saline
Solutions, Cornell University
ISSS, 9th Congress, Adelaide, Austral~ia
Visiting Soil Scientist, Division of
Soils, CSIRO, Adelaide, Australia, for
investigations on soil structure
(sabbatical leave)
Workshop on Soil and Water Conservation
and Managem~ent in the Hiumid Tropics,
ACS 49th National Colloid Symposiumn,
ISSS, Cominission I, Adelaide, Austranliai
ISSS Subcomm~ission on Salt-AffectedJ
Soils, Lubbock, Texas
National E~rosion Symp~osium, Purdue
University, Indiana
National Association of Conservati~on
Districts, Honolulu, Hawaii
U.S.-Europe Workshop on Soil Erosion
Asse~ssment, Chent
Erosion site visits to several countries
in Africa and South andf Southeast; Asia
Symposlum~l on Soil Er-osion and Consri-va~-
tion in the Tropics, Fort Coll~inrs

Annual meetings, ASA, approximatcly in
alternatest years










1969 -


Current Researchi: Project Leader and Principal Investigator for the following

1. Erosion of Tropical Soils by Water.
2. Quality and Mianagement of Water for Irrigation and
Salinity Control.
3. Hydrologic Characteristics of Forest Soils.

public tions : E1-Swaify, S. A. and D. W. Henderson. 1967. Water retention
by osmotic swelling of certain colloidal clays with varying
ionic composition. J. Soil Sci. 18:223-32.

E1-Swaify, S. A., N. T. Coleman, G. Bredell and M. Arca. 1967.
Negative absorption by vermiculties: Salt exculsion from
inter-layer volumes. Soil Sci. Amer. Proc. 31:464-466.

E1-Swaify, S. A. and L. D. Swindale. 1968. Hydraulic conduc-
tivity of some tropical soils as a guide to irrigation water
quality. Trans. 9th Intern. Cong. Soil Sci. 1:381-389.

E1-Swaify, S. A. and W. W. McCall. 1969. Keeping turf grass
green by saline water irrigation. Proc.4th Annual Turf grass
Management Conf., Miisc. Publ. No. 57, University of Hfawaii
Cooperative Ex:tension Service.

Ahmed, S.*, L. D. Swindale and S. A. E1-Swaify. 1969. Effects
of absorbed cations on physical properties of Tropical Red
and Tropical Black earths. I. Plastic limit, percentage stable
aggregates, and hydraulic conductivity. J. Soil Sci. 20:225-

E1-Swaify, S. A. and M. N. Gazdar. 1969. Evaluation of the use of
Na Ca ~, and divalent cation electrodes in some soil extract-
ing solutions. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 33:665-667.

El-Swaify, S. A., L. D. Swindale and G. Uehara. 1969.
Salinity tolerances of certain tropical soils and relationships
between sodium ion activities and soil physical properties.
Office of Saline Water Research and Development Report No.
419, U.S.D.I. (49 pp).

E1-Swaify, S. A. 1969. Soil salinity problems of interest to
seed growers. Proc. 1st Annual Hawaaii Seed Industry Conf.,
Mlisc. Publ. 61, University of Hawaiii Cooperative Extension

E1-Swaify, S. A. 1970. The stability of saturated soil
aggregates in certain tropical soils as affected by solution
composition. Soil Sci. 109:197-202.


E1-Swaify, S. A., S. Ahmed and L. D. Swindale. 1970. Effects
of absorbed cat-ions on physical, properties of tropical red
and tropical black earths. II. Liquid limit, degree of
dispersion, and moisture retention. J. Soil Sci. 21:188-198.

El-Swaify, S. A. and L~. D. Swindlale. 1970. Effects of saline
water on the chemical properties of some tropical soils.
Soil Sci. Soc, Amter. Proc. 34:207-211.

Syed, M. ". and S. A. E1-Swaify. 1973. Effects of saline
later irrigation of N. Co. 310 and I-50-7209 sugarcane cultivars:
I. Physical growth parameters. Tropical Agric. 49:337-346.

Syed, Mi. M. and S. A. El-Swnify. 1973. Effects of saline
water irrigation of N. Co. 310 and H50-7209 sugarcane cultivars.
II. Chemical Composition. Tropical A~gric. 50:45-51.

E1-Swaify, S. A. 1973. Structural changes in tropical soils
due to anions in irrigation water. Soil Sci. 115:64-72.

E1-Swaify, S. A. 1978. Charges associated with soil mineral
comnonents and their implications to tropical soil behavior.
U.H. College of Tropical Agriculture M"isc. publication No.

E1-Swaify, S. A., W. W. M~cCall and S. Sinanuwong. 1972.
Salinity problems in shoreline areas of Hawaii. U.H. Coop.
Ext. Service Circular 462 and Sea Grant Contribution

Osman, A. Mi. and S. A. E1-Swaify. 1976. Effects of irrigation
management practices on salt movement and accumulation in a
tropical Oxisol. Proc. Subcommission on salt-affected soils,
ISSS, Cairo. 75:85.

Sinanuwong, S. and S. A. E1-Swaify. 1976. Predicting
exchangeable sodiumn ratios in irrigated tropical Oxisols.
Proc. Subcomomission on salt-affected soils. ISSS, Cairo.

E1-Sw~aify, S. A. 1972. Qual-ity standards for irrigation
water in the tropics. Water Resources Research Center Sem.
Series L:53-66.

Sinanuwong, S. and S. A. E1-Swaify. 1974. Predicting exchange-
able sodium ratios in irrlgated tropical V7ertisol.s. Soil
Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 38:732-737.

E1-Swa~ify, S. A\. and A. HI. Saywch. 1972. Charge Chara~cteristics
of anl Oxiso1 aInd an Inceptisolt from Hawaii. Soil Sci. 1:.0:49-56.


anmbiji, H. and S. A. E1-Swaify. 1974. Effects of soil
salinity status on pineapple. I. Growth parameters. Hawaii
Agric. Exper. Station Dept. Paper No. 22, University of

E1-Swaify, S. A. 1975. Soil (Salinity relations in the
Tropics). Mic~raw-H~ill Yearbook of Science and Technology:

Dangler, E. W., S. A. E1-Swaify and A. P. Barnett. 1975.
Erosion losses from Hawaii soils under simulated rainfall.
Univ. of HIawaii Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Bulletin No. 181, 80 pp.

Ahuja, L. R. and S. A. E1-Swaify. 1975. Hydrologic ch~aracter-
istics of benchmark soils of Hawaii's forest watersheds.
Final Report to the Forest Service U.S.D).A. for Coop.
Agreement 21-190 (155 pp.).

Dangler, E. W., S. A. E1-Swaify, L. R. Ahuja and A. P. Barnett.
1976. Erodibility of selected Hlawaii soils by rainfall
simulation. ARiS-W'-35 Series, ARS-USDA IWestern Region. (133 pp.)

E1-Swaify, S. A. 1977. Susceptibilities of certain tropical
soils to erosion by water. In Soil Conservation and Mannage-
ment in Humid Tropics. John Wiley and Sons, London:71-77.

Wambiji, H., S. A. E1-Swaify and D. P. Bartholomew. 19 76 .
Effects of soil salinity status on pineapple. II. Chemical
composition.Univ. of Hlawaii A~gric. Exp. Sta. Dept. Paper No. 25.

Ahuja, L. R. and S. A. E1-Swaify. 1976. Determiningi both
water characteristics and hydraulic conductivity of a soil
core at high water contents from a transient flow experiment.
Soil Sci. 121:198-204.

E1-Swaily, S. A. and W. W. Emerson. 1975. Changes in the
phys~ical propecrties of soil clays due to precipitated
aluminum~ and iron hydroxides. I. Swcl~linlg and aggregate
stability after drying. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 39:1056-

Frazier, C. W., J. A. Replogile, K. R. Cooley and S. A.
E1-Swaily. 1976. Erosion and sedimecnt studies in Hawa; ii.
Proc. 3rd Federal Interagency Sediment Conl., Denver, Colorado:

E1-Swaify, S. A. andi L. R. Ahuja. 197r>. Quality trendcs for
water, Harold L. Lyun A~rboretum, 1974. University of: Hawa~ii
Agric. Exp. Sta. De~pt. Paper No. 39.

Ahluja, L,. R., S. A. El-S!waily and A. Rahmacnn, 1976. Mleasu~ring
hyroilog~\ic properties of soil with a doublc~ring infiltromocter
anl mnult i plc-de~p th te ns iometeCrs Soil Sci. Soc. Amr~c. J. 40:769-773.


Dangler, E. W. and S. A. E1-Swaify. 1976. Erosion of selected
Hawaii soils by simulated rainfall.. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer.
J. 40:769-773.

Ahuja, L. R., E. W. Dangler and S. A. E1-Swaify, 1976.
Predicting runoff initiation times under field conditions in
tropical (Hawaii) soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 40:777-779.

E1-Swaify, S. A\. 1976. Changes in the physical properties
of soil clays due to preci~pitated alumbum~ur and iron hydroxides:
II. Colloidal interactions in the absence of drying. Soil
Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 40:516-520.

Liang, Sheng and S. A. E1-Swaify. 1977. The determlinationn of
surface area after different drying treatments of soil samlplcs.
J. Chinese Soil and Water Conservation 8:85-90.

E1-Swaify, S. A. and E. W. Dangler. 1977. Erodibilities of
selected Hawaii soils in relation to structural and hydrologic
pa rame ters In "Soil Erosion: Prediction and Control",
Special Publication No. 21, Soil Conservation Society of

Tama, K. and S. A. E1-Swaify: 1978. Charge, colloidal and
structural stability relationships for oxidic soils. In
Modification of Soil Structures, 41-49, John I;iley and Sons.

E1-Swaify, S. A., A. R. Daud, S. Sinanuwrong and A\. Tengah.
1977. Potential for saline water irrigation of tropical
soils. Proc. International Conf. On Mlanagement of Saline Wdater
for Irrigation: Planning for the Suture, Intern. Soc. of Soil
Sci. (Subcomnmission on Salt-Affected Soils), Lubbock, Texas,
August 1976:358-375.

El-Swaify, S. A. 1979. Irrigation water: ionic effects on
soil physical properties. Encyclopedia of Soil Science,
Part -I.Ear-th Science Series, DowJden, Hfutchinson, and Ross,
Inc., Stroudsburg.

Ahuja, L. R~. and S. A. E1-Swaify. 19 79). Dere rmining so il
hydrologic chalracteristics on a remote forest: waitershed
by continuous monitoring of soil water pressures, rainfall,
and runioff. Jour. H~ydrolog~y 44:135-1r,7.

E1-Swaify, S. A. and K. R. Cooley. 1980. Sediment losses
from small agricultural watersheds in Hanwaii. P'roc. W~orksholl
on Soil Elrosion Assessmentr l in thle U.S. and Eur-ope. John
Wiley andt Sons. In press.

E1-Svnily, S. AZ., E. W. Dungle~;r and C. L. Armsltrong. 1 80 .
Rainfall eronio~n inl tropics: A s t at e-o f -th:e -ar Final Repilor:,
211(di) grant, Agecncy for Inrtern;ation Developencit (425 pp,).

Name Robert L. Fox

Title and Rank of Present Position: Professor of Soil Science, RS

Marital Status: Married

Date of Birth: May 26, 1923

Place of Birth:

Citizenship: U.S.

Name and Location of Institution Type of Dgree Date of Degiree

University of Missouri B.S. 1948
University of Missouri M.A. 1950
University of Missouri Ph.D. 1955

Employment History: Date
Position Title Employer Name and Address From To

Asst. Agron Univeristy of Nebraska 1950 1956
Assoc. Agron University of Ankara 1956 1959
Assoc. of Agron University of Nebraska 1959 1961
Prof. of Soil Sci. University of Hawaii 1961 present

Fields of Specialization:

Soil Fertility and Management, Soil Chemistry Factors responsible for infertility
of highly weathered soils of the tropics and practices which will bring such soils
to a productive state.

International Travel/Foreign Experience:

Two and one-half years experience teaching (1956-58) and research in Turkey at
the University of Ar~xara. As part of the University of Nebraska team there I was
responsible for developing new courses in soil fertility and soil chemistry and
for initiating a research program on soil fertility and management; 3 months (1959)
at the Macanley Institute for Soil Research, Aberdeen Scotland. Research on
nitrogen mineralization in soils; one year (1974) at the International Institute
of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan Nigeria. Soil Fertility research in the Cropping
Systems Group.

International Society of Soil Science Congress
Paris 1956)
Madison 19 60
Bucharist 1964)
Adelaide (Aust) 1968 ) Presented papers and participated in field trips
Moscow 1974)
Edmonton 1978


Participated in the following International Symposia:

1969 Panel on Volcanic Ash Soils, Turrialba
1971 International Symp. On Soil Fertility Evaluation, New Delhi
1972 Symposium on Soils of Tropical America, Trinidad
1972 Symposium on Soils of the Tropical Savanna, Dominican Republic
1975 Symposium on Nutrition of Banana, Canary Islands
1978 Workshop on Mineral Nutrition of Legume in Tropical and Subtropical Soils,

Professional travel in the following countries: Mexico, Canada, Jamaica, St. Lucis,
Trinidad, Barbador, ColombDia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, England, Scotland,
Netherlands, Belguin, Luxenbourg, W. Germany, E. Germany, Poland, USSR, Finland,
Romania, France, Turkey, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Nigeria, Ghana, Lebanan,
India, Thailand, Philippines, R of China, Malaysia, Bougainville, New Guinea,
Australia, New Zealand.

Others: Switzerland, Cu~ba, Italy, Greece, etc.

BIBLIOGR~APHiY--Robert L. lax

1952 Fox, R. L., A. R. 01son, and A. P. ;rA::ulrak. Persistence of a-mmonium
ion anid its effect: uponl physical and1~ Ilchemical propecrties of soil.
Agron. Jour. 44(10):509-513.

1953 Duley, F. L., J. C. Russel, T. H. G~oodling, and Rt. L. F~ox. Soil
conservation and management of sandy form Land in northeast Nocbra~ska.
Nebr. AES Bull. 420.

1953 Fox, R. L., J. E. Weaver, and R. C. LippDs. Influence of certain
soil-profile characteristics upon the distribution of roots of grasses.
Agron. Jour. 45(12):583-589.

1955 Fox, R. L. and R. C. Lips. Influenice of soil-profile cha~racteristics
upon the distribution of roots and nodules of alfalfa and swoot clover.
Agron. Jour. 47(8):361-367.

1955 Fox, R. L. And R. C. Lips. Subirrigation and plant nutrition: I.
Alfalfa root distribution and soil properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer.
Proc. 19(4):458-473.

1956 Fox, R. L. Sulfur shortage can hurt alfalfa. What's New in Crops
and Soils. 8(7), April-Maoy.

1956 Lipps, R. C. and R. L. Fox. Subirrigation and plant nutrition: II.
Utilization of phosphorus by alfalfa from the soil surface to the
water table. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 20(1):28-32.

1957 Pox, R. L. Plant nutrient comes from sky. Nebr. AES Q~uart. SuLmmar.

1957 I'ox, R. L. anld W. A. Albrocht. Soil fertility and the quality of
seeds. Missouri AES Res. Bull 619.

1957 Kmoch, H-. G., R. E. Ramig, R. L. F'ox, andit F. F.. Koch~loc. Root decvelop-
ment of winter wheat as influenced by soil moisture and nitrogen
fertilization. Agroni. Jour. 49(1) :20-25.

1957 Lipps, R. C., R. L. Fox, and P. E. Kochlor. Characterizing root
activity of alfalfa, by radioactive tralcer techniques. Soil Sci.

1958 Fox, R. L. Preservation of plant material for classroom demonstration
and permanent record. Agron. Jour. 50(1):49.

Robert L. Fox

1958 Fox, R, L, and W. A. Albrecht. Calcium-boron interaction. Missouri
Aes Res. Skull 663.

1958 Pay, 8, 7, --L, R. C. Lip)PS, A. W. Moore,) and1 H. F. Rh~oades. Soil fertility
practices for alfalfa production in the central Platte Valley.
Nobr. AE~S Bull. 444.

1960 Fox, R, L. and R. C. Lipps. Distributionl and activity of roots in
relation to soil properties. Trans. 7th International Congress of
Soil Sci. 111:260-267.

1961 Barber, S. A., Ri. L. Fox, et al. North Contral Regional potassium
studies: II. Greenhouse experiments with millet. Indiana AES
Res. Bull. #117.

1961 Hlanway, J. J., R. L. Fox, at al. North~ Contral Regional potassiumn
studies: I. Field studies with alfalfa. Iowa State University
Res. Bull. 11494.

1961 Fox, R. L. and C. A. Hloover. Sulfur fertilizers aid corn and soybean
production. Nebr. AES Quart. Winter.

1961 Fox, R. L. and Knuidson. Phosphorus fertilizers for alfalfa production
in Nebraska. Nebr. AES Quart. Spring.

1962 Fox, R. L. Soil chemistry. Gursoy Publishing Hrouse, Anakara,
Turkey. p. 104. (In Turkish. Translated by Kacar, Burham).

1962 Fox, R. L.,, S. K. DeDatta, and G. D. Shecrman. Phosphorus solubility
and availability to plants and the aluminumn status of Hawaniian soils
as influenced by liming. Proc. International Society of Soil Sci.
of Joint Meeting Commissions IV and V, New Zealand p. 547-584.
H(AES Tech. Paper 572.

1962 Linscott, D. L., R. L. Fox, and R. C. Lipps. Corn root distribution
and moisture extraction in relation to nitrogen fertilization and
soil properties. Agron. Jour. 54(3):185-189.

1963 OcDatta, S. K., R. L. Fox, and G. D. Sherman. The availability
of fertilizer phosphorus in three lataosols of Hiawaii. Agron. Jour.
55:311-313. CAES Tech. Paper 580 Outi of printl

Robert L,. Fox

1964 Fox, R. L., M. Atselp, D. Kampbell, and H. G. Rhloades. Factors
inifluncing the ava7ilab~ility of sullul fertilizer to alfalEk and
corn. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 2A(3):406-408.

1964 Fox, R. L., A. Aydenix, and 8. Kacar. Sail and tissue tests for
predicting olive yields in Turkey. Empire Jour. Experimental Agri.
32(125):84-91. tlAES Tech. Paper 573.

1964 Fox, R. L., K. DeDatta and J. M. Wang9. Phosphiorus and aluminum
uptake by plants from latosols in reaction to liming. 8th Interna~tional
Soil Sci. Proc. Bucharest, Rumania. IV:595-GO3. HA/E:; Tech PapT~C!'
088 (Rec'd 4/,?3/70)

1964 Fox, R. L.,, A. D. Flowarday, F. W. Ilos;torman, HI. F. Rhoodes, andl
R. A. Olson. Sulfur fertilizers for alEalfa production in Neb~raska.
University of Nobraska. Research Bullet~in 214, 37pp.

1964 Fox, R. L. and B. Kacar. Phosphorus mobilization in a calcareous
soil in relation to surface properties of roots and cation uptake.
Plant and Soil 20:319-330. RAES Tech. Paper 627.

1964 Fox, R. L. and R. C. Lipps. A comparison of stable strontium and
p32 as tracers for estimating alfalfa root activity. Plant and
Soil 20:337-350.

1964 Fox, R. L., R. A. Olson and H1. F. Rhoades. Evaluating the sulfur
status of soils by plant and soil tests. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc.
28(2):243-246. ASTc Ppr60

1964 Fox, R. L., and D. L. Plucknott. Overliming Ha;waiian soils creates
problems. HIawaii Farm Science13):10 Out of print

1964 Lipps, R. C. and R. L. F~ox. Root activity of subirrigated alfalfa
as related to soil moisture, temperature anid oxygen supply. Soil
Sci. 97(1):4-12 Nebr. AES Jour. Socies 1328.

1965 Green, R. E., R. L. Fox, and D. D. R. willians. Soil properties
determine water availability to crops. Ha~waii Farm Sci. 14(3):6-9.

1965 Fox, R. L. Mineral nutrition of grals:: potassium, calcium,
mag nosium, pho spho rus P~roc. 1st Annua~il Tudgrlras~s Management Conference,
University of Hawaii.

Robert L. Fox

1965 [95.2.3: Land B. Kacar. Mobilizationr of non-exchangeable potassium
and sodium in calcarious soil during Lplant growth. Plant and [;oil
22(1):33-34. HA~ES Tech. Paper 644.

1965 F~ox R. L. and R. Ka~car. Soil tes;tin'j a5 ;a guide! for fertilizer
use. Annales de 1'luniversite d'Ankara'l 11:37-100.

196j5 VxR .G orJ .WnD .Pukot n .
Furr. Sulfur in soils;, rainwater, aInd foragJe plants of Htawaii.
Ha~waii Farm Sci 14(3):9-12.

1965 Plucknett, D. L. and R. L. Fox. Effects of phosphorus fertilization
on yields and composition of pa~ngola arm~:s andl Desmodiuim intortium.
Proc. 9th Int. Grasslanld Congr., San Paulo 2:1525-1529. HAnES Tech.
Paper 708.

1965 Yaptenco, C. C., Jr., S. P. Mendoza, D7r., R. L. Voss, and R. L. F'ox.
Phlosphate fixation by four Hawaiian soils as affected by phonsphate
concentration and time of contact. P~hilip-pine Journal of Soils
rllARS Tech. Paper 621 3:93-100.

1967 Fox. H. 4,~ Phosphorus fixation by Ha~waiian soils and what to do
about it. Proceedings Annual Hawaii fertilizer Conference 1:28-41

1967 Fox, R. L., J. A. Silva, D. Y. Teranishi, M. H. Miatsuda, and P. C.
Ching. Silicon in Soils, Irrigation Wator, and Sugarcane of Hawaii.
Hawaii Farm Sci 16(4):1-4. (R8C'r 7 12/18/6

1967 Fox, R. L., J. A. Silval, O. R. Younger, D. L1. Plucknett, and G. D.
Sherman. Soil and plant silicon andi silicate response by sugar~canc.
SSSAP 31:775-779. HAEtS Tech Papecr~ 855 (Ou-t of print).

1967 Warner, R. M~. and R. L.Fox. Effect of fertilization on fruit cet
andl yield of Keauhlou ma~cadania at wa.imanatao. Proc. liawatii Mat~cadamia
Producers Assn. 7:24-27. HIAES Techf note 38.

190;8 Fox, R. L., D. L. Plucknott, and A. S. whiitney~. Phosphit~e req~uirements
of Hawaiian latosols and residual effects of fertilizer phosphorus.
Proc. 9th Int. Congress of Soil Scieceii, Adelaide, Australia
11(32):301-310. HAES1 TecLh Parper 890n (lii.'d~ 1l/68)

Robert L. Fox

1968 Silva, J. A., K. ThingaJlingam, R. L. Foxr-, anld Y. Yoder.Coariv
effects of calcium silicate on~ several crops ini a Labosol. Presented
at Agron. Soc. Meetings, New Orleans. (Mannuscript)

1968 Teranishi, D. Y., J. A. Silva, R. L. Foxir, D. L,. Plucknctt. In flu~ence
of applied Si and P and soil plI on thle yield and mineral compiosition
of sugarcane. P~resented at Agron. Soc:. Mootings, New Orlcans.

1969 Fox, R. L. FertiliZation of volcanic .ash soils of HaW~il. PanalC
on soils derived from volcanic ash of Latin America, Turrialba,
Costa Rica. HAES Journal No. 1127 C. G 1-13. JS 112'7 (Ricc'di 3/70)

1969 Fox,, R. L. The changing pattern of micronutrient and secondary
nutiet ue.Proceedings Annual Haw~iii Fo'rtilizer Confeccrenc

1969 Fox, R. L., J. A. Silva, D. L. Plucknct~t, and D. Y. Teranishi.
Soluble and total silicon in sugarcanac Plant and1C SOil, Vol. 30(1):81-92.
HANiS' ?'iech Pacper 893 (R'cL'd 7/20/Li9)

1970 Hlasan, S. M., R. L. F;ox, and C. C. Boyd~. Solubility and availability
of of sorbed sulfate in Hfawaiian soils. Soil Sci Soc. America
Proc. 34(5) :897-901. JIS 116S (Roc'dl -:/n/71)

1970 Fox, R. L. The changing pattern of micronutrient and secondary
nutrient use. Third Annual Hfawaii Fcr~ti.10azcr Conference Proc.
37-47. Miscellaneous Publication 58.

1970 Fox, R. L., Burhan Kacar, Akgun Aydoniz, and Sevin Zabunoglu.
Nitrate Accumulation, Distribution and Utilization during
Fallow-Wheat Culture in Turkish Soils. Sail Science 100(1):60-65.
HASYS Tech Paper 1071 (Recc'd 3/183/70)

1970 Fox, R. L. and E. J. Kamprath. Phorspha~Le cor~ptioni isotherlms for
evaluating the phospha~te requirements of soils. Soil Sci. Amer.
Proc. 34(5) :902-907. JS' 1167 (Hiec'dl 3/9/77.)

1970 Mahilum, B. C., R. L. Foax, and J. A. Silva. .Residual effects of liming
volcanic ash soils in thie humid tropics. Sail Sci. 109)(2):102-109.
JS~C 1081 (Rcc'di D/t15/;0)

Robert L. Fox

1970 Ogus, Lufti and R. L,. Fox.. Nitrogen Irec~overy Crom a soil proflile
by Bromus inermis;. Agronomy Journal. 62(1):69-71. JS 21140 (R~e 'd

1971 Beaton, J. D. and R. L. Fox. Production, marketing and use oE
sulfur products. In: Fo'rtilizer Techn~Iology an1d Ulse, 2nd Ed.,
Cha7pt. 11. p. 335-379.

1971 Daigger, L. A. and. R. L. Fox. Nitrogen~i and sulfur nutrition of
sweet corn in relation to fertilization and water composition.
Agron I. 63:729-730.

1971 Fox, R. L. Growth~ response curves the? "Law of Diminishing~
Returns." Illustrated Cohcepts in TIrolpical Agjriculture No. 2.

1971 Graham, E. R., R. L. Fox. Tropical s;oil potassium as related to
labile pool and calcium exchange' equil~ibria. Soil Science
Vol 3(5):318-322. Js' IL01 (R'ec'd :!/L3/21)

1971 FoxR. L., S. M. Hiasan, and R. C. Jonecs. Phospharte andtc sulfate
sorption by Laitasols. Proc. Int. Symp. Soil Fertility Evaluation,
New Delhi. 1:857-864. JS 1226

1971 Fox, R. L. and E. J. Kamprath. Adsorption and leaching of P in
acid organic soils and high organic matter sanid. Soil Sci.
Soc. of Amer. Proc. 35(1):154-155. JS 1236 (4/23/71)

1971 Fox, R. L. and Y. N. Ta~mimi. Symptomi; of plant malnutrition -
mnultip~le deficiencies anld "The La~w DIC the Minimoum." Illustra teld
Concepts in Tropical Agriculture No. 1.

1971 FoxI, R J. R. Thomplson, R. S. tio la; Panal, R. L~. Youngr. Yiold
of corn and residual effects of phosphar~te fertilization in relation
to adjusted~ yield levels of phosphoruis in soil solutions. Twenlty-first
Conference, 'Western Regional Phosphaltel Work Group, Reno, Novadac.

191 ox, R. L. and R;. M. War~ner. Fexes:; I'hospha~to anld Micronlutrieltt
Deficiency in Malcadamia. Ha~waii Farm Science 20(4):2-11
(h;aC'd 11/19/71)

Robert L. Fox

1971 Fox, R. L. and Ri. M. Warnor. Symlptoms: of ~lanlt malnutrition Inf~lu-
once of nutrient mobility on iron deficiency. Illustrated Concepts
in Tropical Agriculture No. 3.

1971 Roy, A. C., M. Y. Ali, R. L. Fox, andi J. A. Silva, Influence of calcium
silicate on phosp~hata solubility anld aivaila\bilit~y in Hlawaiilan La~tosols.
P~roc. Int. Symp. Soil Fort~ility Evaluatlion, Nrew Delhi. 1:757-765.

1971 Shigeura, G. T., H. Oaka, G. Uehara, R. C. Jones, and R. L,. Fox.
Growing[ macadamia nut trees on aa landl. Proc. 11th Annual Mty.,
Haswaii Macadamia Producers Assn. p.1-2.JS I1424

1972 Pay. F. L. Solubility, uptake and lea~ching of plant nutrients:
Phosphate, sulfatee and calcium. Proc:. 5th naw;\ii Fortilizer
Conference, Hlonolulu, Ha~waii. p. 25-32.

1972 F~ox, R. L. Symp~toms of plant nutritional decfici~ency visual
symptoms and incipient malnutrition. Illustrated Concepts in Tropical
Agriculture Nlo. 4.

1972 Fox, R. L., Ri. K. Nishiimoto, J. R. Thompson, Ri. S. do la Pena. Com-
parative external ph~osp~horus requirements of plants growing in
tropical soils. Trasnsctions of thle 10th Intern. Congress of Soil
science IV. J.S. 1697 (IReo'd 3/9/77)

1972 Fox, R. L., Nishimoto, Ri. K. Comparative phosphorus needs of lettuce
and1 chinese cabbago.C Hawa~ii Farm Science, No. 3, p. 8. M~isc. P'ubt.

1972 Rajan, S. S. S. and Ri. L~. Fox. PhlOsphalte Adsorp~tion by Soilr; I.
Influence of time and ion~ic environment. on phosphaito adsorption.
Cormmunications in Soil Sci. and Plant~ Ana~y:;is 3:4933-504.
,.:: 21472

1972 Warnor, R. M.. and R. L. Foxc. Con~centration and~ distribution
ofi S, Mg~ and five micronuiurients in macadamialni in relationl to yiecldls.
Hiawaii Macadamia P'rodu~cers Assn. P~roc. 12th Annual Mtg.
p. 26-37. JS 1491Z

1972 Warner, Ri. MI., R. L,. F:ox, and S. Par~r~~ rmsoook. Nutrition and dens~ity
studies of the Williamsr hybrid ban.7n.. Pr-oc. of Halwaii Dna7nnd
Industry Assn. 4th Annual Mltg. .34.

Robert L. Fox

1973 oxRL. Agronomic investigationn; using~ continuous function
experimental designs--nitrogen fortiltraition of swoot, corn. Agronomy
Journal 65:454-456. JS 1483 (Recll!';/ 8~/197)

1973 F'ox, RI. L. and Minoru Isobe. Crop quality control through soil
management techniques: manipulating ni~togan and water t~o ripecn
sugarcane. IYAES Series of Illustratial c~onlcpts in Tropical AgJriculture,
No. 5.

1973 Ravoof, A. A., R. L. Fox, and W. G. Saniford. Low soil temperatures
depress root activity in the tropics. Illustrated concepts in
tropical Agriculture No. 6.

1973 Warner, R. M., R. L. Fox, and R. MI. Dullock. Nutrition aInd density
studies on the Williamls hybrid banana. 5th annual meeting~ Hawaii
Banana Industry Assn.

1974 Fox, R. L. Examples of anion and caltion adsorption by soils of
tropical america. Tropical Agricultulre (Trinidald) 51:200-210.
JS 1578

1974 Pox, R. L. and S. T. Donavides. El fosforo de los Oxisoles. Suios
Equatoriales. Sociedad Colomb~ian de la Ciencia del Suelo VI(1):137-175.

1974 Silva, J. A. and R. L.Fox. Assessingc P' fertilizer req~uirements of:
soils with phosphorus sorption isotherms. Proc. Planning & Organization
Mtg. Fertilizer INPUTrS Project, Octobecr 21-25, 1974, Hronolulu, Ha~waii'.
p. 100-105. JS 1833 (Riec'd 5/13/75)

19741 Warner, R. M., R. L. Fox, and R. M. Bullock. Nutritional and denrsity
stud~ies on the williamr hybrid 1,an;\na. P~roc. Ha~waii TBanana Indus~!try
Assn. 6th Annual Conference 1974. Cooperative Extension Service,
Univ. of H~awaii. Mlisc. Publ. 126:57-(;5.

19741 Warner, R. M., R. L. Fox, and W. Parasomsook. Nutritional guidelines
for the "williamFs hyrid" banatna. Ha~waii Farm Science

1975 Luse, R. A., 8. T. Kang, R. L. Fox, and D. Nanqju. Protein quality
in grain legumers grown in the lowlandc huimid tropics, with special
reference to West Africa~. 11th In1tern. Pota7sh Institute Colloquium.

1975 Nishimoto, R. K., R. L. F'ox, and P'. M. I'arvini. Exte~rnal and inter~nal
phosphate requirements of field gr~own <:htysanthemums. H~ortscience
10(3):279-280. JS 2835

1974 Fox, R. L. 1973. Chemistry and Management of Soils Dominated
by Amorphous Colloids. Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida
Proc. Volume 33, Nov. 27, 28, and 29, 1973.

Robert L. Fox
1975 Rajan, S. S. S. and R. L. Fox. Phosphate adlsorption by soils: II.
Reaction in tropical acid soils. Soil Science Society of Amer. Proc.
39(5):846-951. Journal Series 1770.

1976 Fox, R. L. Soils of the West African Savannan--The Maintenance and Improvement
of their Fertility by M. J. Jones and A. Wild. (Book review) Soil Sci.
Soc. Amer. J. 40(6)IV.

1976 Fox, R. L. Sulfur and Nitrogen Requirements of Sugarcane. Agranomy Journal
68:891-896, Journal Series 1958

1976 Fox, R. L., B. T. Kang, Some major fertility problems of tropical soils.
In J. M. Vincent, A. S. Whitney and J. base (Eds) Exploiting the Legume -
Rhizobium Symbiosis in Tropical Agriculture. University of Hawaii, College
of Tropical Agriculture Mise. Publ. 145.

1976 Fox, R. L. and D. N. Munns. Short communication--Depression of legume
growth by liming. Plant & Soil 45(3):701-705. Journal Series 1955.

1976 R. L. Fox, E. Okazaki and Annie Chang. Mineral nutrition of macadamia.
I. Extenral and internal nitrogen and sulphur requirements of seedlings.
Tropical Agriculture 53(3):231-241. Journal Series 1905.

1976 Munns, D. N. and R. L. Fox. The slow reaction which continues after
phosphate adsorption: Kinetics and equilibrium in some tropical soils.
Soil Science Society of America Journal 40(1):46-51.

1976 Munns, D. N., R. L. Fox and B. L. Koch. Influence of lime on nitrogen
fixation by tropical and temperate legumies. Plarnt and Soil 46:591-601.

1976 Warner, R. M. and R. L. Fox. Effect of nitrogen and climatic factors onl
seasonality of banana production in Hawaii. Proc. Internat'1 Plant
Propagator's Soc. Volume 26. Journal Series 2065.

1977 Evans, I. Marta, Donald Boulter, R. L. Fox, and B. T. Kang. The effects
of sulphur fertilizers on the content of sulpho-anino acids in seeds of
cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). J. Sci. Fd. Agric. 28:161-166.

1977 Juo, A. S. R. and R. L. Fox. Phosphate sorption characteristics of some
bench-mark soils of West Africa. Soil Scienlce Vol 124(6). Journal Series

1977 Fox, R. L, B. T. Kang and D. Nangju. Sulfur requirements of cowpe3 and
implications for production in the tropics. Agran. J. 69:201-205.

1977 D. N. Munns and R. L. Fox. Comparative lime requirements of tropical and
temperate legumes. Plant and Soil (Internat'1 J. of Plant ...)46(3):
533-548. Journal Series 1953.

1977 Munns, D. N. and R. L. Fox. Stabilization of calcium by surface char-ge
variation in an Oxisol. Soil Science Soctety of Americal J. Vol. 41(4).

1977 Nishrimoto, R. K., R. L. Fox and P. E. Parvin. Response of vegetable crop
to phlosphorus concentrations in soil solution. J. Amer. Soc. of Ilort.
Sci. 102(6):705-709, Journal Series 2068.
1977 Jones, J. P. and R. L. Fox. 1977. Phosphate Sorption Curves as a Soil
Testing Technique: A Simplified Apprach. Commun. in Soil Science and Plant
Analywin. MT}~. 7009101

Robert L. Fox

1977 Warner, R. M. and R. L. Fox. Nitrogen and potassium nutrition of Giant
Cavendish banana. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1.02:739-743.

1977 Saeed, M. and R. L. Fox. Relations between suspension pH and zinc solubility
in acid and calcareous soils. Soil Sci. 124:199-204.

1978 Fox, R. L. and B. T. Kang. Influence of phosphorus fertilizer placement
and fertilization rate on maize nutrition. Soil Science 124(1):34-40.
Journal Series 2056.

1978 Fox, R. L., R. A. Lower and R. M. Warner. Fertilizer requirements for
near term and long-term banana production in Hlawaii.

1978 Fox, R. L. and P. G. E. Searle. Phosphate adsorption by soils of the tropics.
ASA, SSSA, Chapter 7 in Diversity of Soils of the Tropics. p. 98-119.
Journal Series 2236.

1978 Jones, J. Preston and R. L. Fox. Phosphorus nutrition of plants influenced by
manganese and aluminum uptake .from an Oxisol. Soil Sci. 126(4):230-236.
Journal Series 2145.

1978 Kacar, Burhan and R. L. Fox. Boron status of some turkish soils.

1978 Kacar, Burhan, R. L. Fox and H. F. Rhoades. Zinc and phosphorus interaction
in corn production under greenhouse conditions as influenced by prior cropping
and fertilization.

1978 Khalid, R. A., J. A. Silva and R. L. Fox. Residual effects of calcium
silicate in tropical soils. I. Fate of applied silicon during five years
cropping. Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. J. 42(1):89-94.

1978 Saeed Mi. and R. L. Fox. Influence of residual phosphate fertilizer on
labile and extractable zinc in Hawaii soils. Commun. in Soil Science and
Plant Analysis, 9(8):685-698. Journal Series 2174.

1978 Jones, R. C. and R. L. Fox. Amorphous coatings on soil minerals sorb
phosphate and sulfate. Illustrated Concepts in Tropical Agriculture, No. 14.

1978 Fox, R. L. Studies on phosphorus nutrition in the tropics. In C. S. Andrew
and E. J. Kamprath (Eds.) Mineral Nutrition of Legumes in Tropical and
Subtropical Soils. CSIRO 1978.

1978 Fox, R. L. and J. A. Silva. Symptoms of plant malnutrition: Silicon,
an agronomically essential nutrient for sugarcane. Illustrated Concept
in Tropical Agriculture No. 9. 1978.

1978 Fox, R. L. and D. N. Munns. Liming in thle tropics. Illustrated Concept in
Tropical Agriculture No. 9.

1978 Fox, R. L. and R. S. Yost. Sorbed phosphante andt the standard phosHphteft
requirement. Illustrated Concept in Tropical Agriculture No. 10.

1978 Fox, R. L. and D. L. Plucknett. Res idual1 ef ficiency o f fert ili zer phalc-s pho rus :
Field evaluation. Illustrated Concept in Tropical Agriculture No. 11,

Robert L. Fox

1978 Fox, R.L. and A.S. Whitney, Molybdenum deficiency inhibits nitrogen fix-
ation by legumes. Illustrated Concepts in Tropical Agriculture No. 12.

1978 Fox, R.L. and P.P. Rotar. Improved stiff-strawed rice varieties utilize
nitrogen more effectively than traditional varieties. Illustrated Con-
cepts in Tropical Agriculture No. 13.

1978 Green, R.E. and R.L. Fox. Soil properties and root distribution determine
water availability to crops. Illustrated Concepts in Tropical Agriculture
No. 14.

1979 Saeed, M. and R.L. Fox. Influence of phosphate fertilization on zine ad-
sorption by tropical soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 43:683-686.

1979 Vander Zaag, P., R.L. Fox, R.S. de la Pena and R.S. Yost. P. nutrition
of cassava, including mycorrhizal effects on PKS Zn and Ca uptake. Field
Crops Res. 2:253-263.

1979 Kagbo, R.B., R.S. de la Pena, D.L. Plucknett and R.L. Fox. Mineral nutri-
tion of taro (Colocasia esculenta) with special reference to phosphorus.
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Tropical Root and Tu-
ber Crops, Nigeria.

1979 Peaslee, D.E. and R.L. Fox. Phosphorus fertilizer requirements as esti-
mated by phosphate sorption. Commun. in Soil Scienrce and Plant Analysis

1979 Fox, R.L. Phosphorus status and management of so~irs of the tropics. In
R.E. Green and H. Ikawa (Eds.) Teaching Introductory Soil Science includ-
ing some special considerations of soils of the tropics. HAES Misc. Pub.
169. pp. 74-84.

1979 Vander Zaag, P., R.L. Fox, R. de la Pena, W. M. Ianghlin, A. Ryskamp, S.
Villagarcia and D.T. Westermann. The utility of phosphate sorption curves
for transferring soil management information. Tropical Agric. (Trinidad)

1979 Fox, R.L. Comparative responses of field grown crops to phosphate concen-
trations in soil solutions. In H. Mussell and R. Staples (Eds.) Stress
Physiology in Crop Plants pp. 81-106. John Wiley & Sons, N.Y.

1979 Yost, R.S. and R.L. Fox. Contribution of Mycorrkinae to P Nutrition of
Crops Growing on an Oxisol. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 71:903-908.

1979 Lower, R.A. and R.L. Fox. Banana Fertility Managuent. Proceedings Ha-
waii Banana Industry Association 11th Annual Conference, pp. 23-40.

1979 Fox, R.L., B.T. Kang, and G.P. Wilson. A Comparatd e study of the sulfur
nutrition of banana and plantain. Fruits 34:5245-f4.

1979 Vander Zaag, P, R.L. Fox, R.S. de la Pena and R.S. Yost. P nutrition of
cassava, including mycorrhizal effects on P, K, S. Zn, and Ca uptake.
Field Crops Research 2:253-263.

R~obert L. Fox

1980 Vander Zaag, P., R.L. Fox, P.K. Kwakye and G.O. Obigbeson. The phosphor-
us requirements of yams (Dioscorea spp.).

1980 Robert L. Fox and Roy K. Nishimoto. Illustrated Concepts in Tropical
Agriculture. The External Phosphorus Requirements of Plants.
No. 16. 1980.

1980 Kenneth Cassman, A. Sheldon Whitney and Robert L. Fox. Illustrated
Concepts in Tropical Agriculture. Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by Legumes
requires extra phosphorus. No. 17. 1980

1980 Robert L. Fox and Robert Lower. Illustrated Concepts in Tropical
Agriculture. Premature leaf Senescence of Banana A Symptom of Potassium
exhaustion. NO 18. 1980

1980 Robert 1. Fox, Robert Lower and Robert M. Warner. Illustrated Concepts
in Tropical Agriculture. Nitrogen and Potassium Interact to shape
a Yield Response Surface. No 19.

1980 Luis A. Manique David J. Harris and Goro Uehara. Illustrated Concepts
in Tropical Agriculture. Matching Crop requirements to land Characteristics.
No 20.

1980 Robert L. Fox and Russell S. Yost. Illustrated Concepts in Tropical Agriculture
Mapping Soil Fertility and Fertilizer requirements. No 21

1980 Robert L. Fox and Richard E. Green. Illustrated Concepts in Tropical
Agriculture. Water and Salts move Together in The Soil Profile. No 22

1980 Robert L. Fox and Russell S. Yost Illustrated Concepts in Tropical
Agriculture. Mapping Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Requrements No 23


Name: Wallace C. Mitchell

Home address: 2417 Parker Place, Honolulu HI 96822.. Tel. (808)988-6805.

Office address: Dept. Entomology, Univ. Hawaii, 3050 Maile Way, Honolulu 96822.
Tel. (808) 948-7670.

Date Birth: November 12, 1920, Ames, Iowa, U.S.A.

Major Field Specialization: Economic Entomology, Insect Behavior, Fruit and
Vegetable Insects, Integrated Pest Control.

Dependents: Shizuko (Sue) (-Maeda)-Wife- Married June 27, 1958
Teri Ellen daughter- Born April 22, 1959
Pamela Sue Born July 29, 1962
Janyce Rae Born January 7, 1965


1953-55 Iowa State College (Major: Entomology) Ph.D., August 1955
1950-53 Univ. of Hawaii (Major: Entomology)
1947-49 Iowa State College (Major: Entomology) M.S., December 1949
1946-47 & Iowa State College (Major: Entomology) B.S., June, 1947
kmes High School HS Diploma, May 1938


Sept 1962 to date Univ. of Hawaii, Dept. of Entomology, Honolulu HI.
Professor and Entomology (Department Chairman 1968-1978); research &
teaching economic entomology.
Apr 1975 to July 1976 Univ. of Hawaii, College of Tropical Agriculture.
Acting Dean of College of Tropical Agriculture, Director of Cooperative
Extension Service, Director of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station;
June 1969 to July 1970 Univ. of Hawaii, College of Tropical Agriculture.
Acting Associate Director of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station;
Mar 1956 to Sept 1962 USDA Hawaii Fruitfly Investigations, Honolulu HI.
Entomologist, GS-12; research area control of fruit flies.
Sept 1955 to Mar 1956 South Dakota State College, Dept. Entomology & Zoology,
Brookings, S. Dakota. Asst. Professor Entomology; teach entomology &
Sept 1954 to Sept 1955 Iowa State College, Dept. Entomology & Zoology, Ames,
Iowa. Graduate Teaching Assistant; teach entomology & zoology.
Mar 1953 to Sept 1954 Geigy Agricultural Chemicals, New York. Midwest Field
Research Technician; field entomology research & trouble shooting.
Dec 1949 to Mar 1953 Univ. of Hawaii, Dept. of Entomology. Instructor and
Jr. Entomologist; teaching, research entomology.


June 1947 to Dec 1949 Iowa State College, Dept. Entomology & Zoology.
Graduate Teaching Assistant & State Nursery Inspector (4 mos.); nursery
plant inspection & teaching entomology & zoology.
Oct 1943 to May 1946 U. S. Navy, WW II. Aircraft Electronic Technician Mate
First Class (AETM1/C); electronics.
May 1942 to Sept 1943 U.S. Public Health Service, Malaria Control in War
Areas, Jacksonville, Florida. Engineering Aide (Entomologist); mosquito
survey & control.

Fellowships & Grants

U. S. Department of Agriculture: 1966-1969; $41,750. Ecological Study of the
Southern Green Stink Bug, Nezara viridula L., With Special Emphasis on
Attractive Plants as Trap Crops or Lures.
National Science Foundation: 1967-1968; $18,476. Secondary Science Training
Program for Outstanding Juniors in Hawaii's High Schools.
National Science Foundation: 1966-1967; $18,210. Secondary Science Training
Program for Outstanding Juniors in Hawaii's High Schools.
Office of Naval Research: 1970-1974; $60,000. Biology, Ecology and Control
of Musca sorbens Wied.

Professional Memberships

Phi Kappa Phi (Scholastic Honorary)

Gamma Sigma Delta (Scholastic Honorary)
President, Hawaii Chapter 1968
Historian 1969

Sigma li (Research Honorary)
Chairman, Admissions Coammittee 1967-68

Entomological Society of America
Executive Committee, Pacific Branch 1967-70
Arrangements Chairman, Pacific Branch Meeting, Bonolulu HI, June 23-25, 1970
Program Chairman, National Meeting, Nov. 28-D~ec. 2, 1976
Produced a Handbook for ESA Program Chairmen, June 1978
Member,- ESA National Committee on Common Names of Insects

Hawaiian Entomological Society
President 1965
Secretary 1959 and 1960
Treasurer 1957 and 1958
Advisor 1966 and 1969
Editorial Committee 1966-1968

Torch Club of Honolulu
Vice President 1971, 1979, 1980
President 1972

Hawaiian Academy of Sciences
President 1972.
Counselor 1979-1980


Hawaiian Trail & Mountain Club

Hawaii Amateur Radio Club

Honors and Awards

Unit Citation for Superior Service USDA, Ezra Taft Benson, May 1959
Unit Citation for Superior Service USDA, Secy. Orville Freeman, May 1964
State Agricultural Experiment Station Centennial Medal, June 1976
Executive Comrmittee, Pacific Branch, Entomological Society of America, 1968-1970
Hawaii State Department of Agriculture Cormmendation for Service to Agriculture
in Havaii, June 1976
Gamma Signa Delta Award Recognition of Administration of the College of
Tropical Agriculture and Service to Agriculture in Hawaii, May 1977
Merit increments from the University of Hawaii, July 1964, 1969, 1977.
Board of Directors of Consortium for International Crop Protection (CICP),
1979, 1980 (Treasurer, 1980)
Honorary Member: Hawaii Turf grass Association
Honorary Member: Hawaii Pest Control Association

Give a brief description below of your international interests, expertise, and
significant international publication and papers. Please indicate groups of pests
and crops involved.
My primary international interest and expertise is in tropical entomology, in
problem solving based upon accurate diagnosis and effective utilization of the
various insect control technologies. Expertise has been with economic entomology
;primarily,tephritid fruit flies (Dacus dorsalist D. cucurbitae, Ceratitis capitata)
in the south pacific, Bonin Islands, Volcano Islands, Mariana Islands, TRust Territory
of the Pacific, Insect pests of macadamia, papaya in Australia. Mediterranean
Fruit Fly in all the Central American Countries'and P~anamai. Vegetable insect pests
in the Trust ~Territory of the Pacific. Also have worked on insect yests ( of turf,
bananas, orchids, and other tropical ornamental plants.
I have been involved with numerous train~ing programs for participants from developing;
countries at the University of Htawaii, East West Center and in several countries.
The programs were in integrated pest management, pesticide safety, sterile insect
fly release control programs etc. I have hzsearch, extension and instructional
experience in entomology at the University of Hawaii, Iowa State University and
South Dakota State College.



Foreign Travel:

1958 April to July 1962 Trust Territory of the Pacific. Traveled extensively
in the Bonin, Volcano, Mariana, Mashall and Eastern Caroline Islands.
Directing the eradication program for the oriental fruit fly and melon fly.
Cooperative program between the U.S. Dept. Agriculture, U.S. Navy and the
Trust Terrotory of the Pacific.

1967 February Truk, Ponape and Marshall Districts, Trust Terrotory of the
Pacific. Investigate biological agents released for control of the Taro
leafhopper, and lantana. Advised on ant control problem at Ngatik Atoll
Eastern Carolina Islands. Taught basic economic entomology course at
Metalanin Agriculture Institute, Ponape.

1970 Julyv to March 1971 A'ustralia, Nambour, Queensland. Research on
macadamia not insects. Visiting Professor with Department of Primary
Industries, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Consulted with entomologists
at C.S.I.R.O., Canberra, Australia.

1970 June Visited Canada Dept. Agric. Entomology Research Station Summerland,
British Columbia. Sterile insect release population control program.

1972 June Vancouver, B.C., Canada. Pacific Branch E.S.A. meeting. Visited
the Entomology Laboratory, Canada Agricultural Research Station, Summerland,

1975 February Philippine, Taiwan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand. Visited
Universities, Agricultural Research Stations, and Plant Quarantine offices
in these countries. Sponsored by the East-West Center, to discuss the
development of Integrated Pest Management Training Programs and needs of
these respective countries with administrators and university personnel.

1976 January and February Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, New Zealand.
Agricultural Policy Tour with four state representatives. Discussed the
economic policies, foreign-market development and research programs in each
country. Also discussed agricultural development and the movement of
population to agricultural producing areas. Met with the Secretaries of
Agriculture, Development and commerce of each country as well as
Agricultural Research Stations. Discussed entomological problems with each
of them.

1976 August Cuam, Saipan, Tinian, Rota Islands, Mariana Islands. Oriental
fruit fly and melon fly survey. Verification of the eradication of the two
fruit flies from Saipan, Tinian and Rota.

1976 December Guatemala. Investigate insect pests of macadamia (Macadamia
integrifolia) and cardamom Elettaria cardomomum and to evaluate presently
used control measures.

1977 February -. March April Belize, Costa Rica, E1- Salvador, Guatemala,
Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama. Evaluate Central American Institutional
capacity, evaluate potential losses and analyze loss incidence. Study of the
impact of the Mediterranean fruit fly on Central America and Panama.


1. Mitchell, W. C. 1949. Strawberry insects of Iowa: I. A survey of the
species. II. Insecticidal control of Empria fragariae Rohner.
Master' s thesis. Iowa State College Library, Ames, Iowa.

2. Sherman, M., and W. C. Mitchell. 1951. The chemical control of sweetpotato
insects. HAES Progress Note No. 71.

3. Newell, I. M., W. C. Mitchell and Francis Rathburn. 1952. Infestation norms
for Dacus cucurbitae in Momordica balsamina and seasonal differences in
activity of the parasite, p;lus fl~etcheri. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol.
Soc. 14(3): 497-508.

4. Mitchell, W. C., and M. Sherman. 1952. Chemical control of a leaf miner
(Liriomyza hawaiiensis Frick) and the tomato fruihtworm (Heliothis
armigera Hiubner) -fo~n -~tomatoe. HAES Progress Note No. 75.

5. Bess, H. A., M. Sherman, and W. C. Mitchell. 1952. Plant, poultry and
livestock pests and their control." Hawaii Agr. Ext. Bull. No. 57.

6. Bess, H. A., M. Sherman, and W. C. Mitchell. 1953. Household pests. Hawaii
Agr. Ext. Bull. No. 58.

7. Sherman, M., and W. C. Mitchell. 1953. Control of sweetpotato weevils and
vine borer in Hawaii. J. Econ. Entomol. 46(3): 389-393.

8. Sherman, M., and W. C. Mitchell. 1953. Toxicity of insecticides to
cultivated crops. HAES Progress Note No. 93.

9. Mitchell, W. C. 1955. Organic phosphate insecticides as seed treatments on
corn, soybeans and sorghum. Doctorate Thesis No. 1707. Iowa State
College Library, Ames, Iowa.

10. Mitchell, W. C. 1956. Organic phosphate insecticides as seed treatments.
Proc. 11th Annual Meeting North Central Branch Entomo3 Soc. of
America Vol. 11, p. 25.

11. Mitchell, W. C. 1957. Organic phosphate insecticides as seed treatments on
corn, soybeans, and sorghum. Abst. Doctorate Thesis. Iowa State
College Jour. Sci. 31(3): 480.

12. Gertler, S. I., L. F. Steiner, W. C. Mitchell, and F. F. Barthel. 1958.
Esters of 6-methyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid as attractants for
the Mediterranean fruit fly. Agr. Food Chem. 6(8): 592.

13. Steiner, L. F, W. C. Mitchell, and K. Ohinata. 1958. Fruit fly control
with poisoned-bait sprays in Hawaii. USDA Publ. ARS-33-3 (rev.).

14. Steiner, L. F., W. C. Mitchell, Nathan Green and Morton Beroza. 1958.
Effect of cis-trans isomlerism on the potency of an insect attractant.
J. Econ. Entomol. 51(6): 921.


15. Steiner, L. F., W. C. Mitchell, and K. Ohinata. 1959. Poisoned bait sprays
for fruit flies. Hawaii Farmer (Haw. Agr. and Food Trade) March:
25-27, 30.

16. Steiner, L. F., W. C. Mitchell, D. M. Miyashita. 1960. New synthetic lures
for the melon fly. Science 131:1044-1045. 8 April 1960.

17. Steiner, L. F., J. W. Balock, and W. C. Mitchell. 1961. Current USDA fruit
fly research in Hawaii and the western Pacific. Entomology Research
Div., ARS, USDA, Honolulu. Presented Fruit Fly Symposium Papers, 10th
Pacific Science Congress, Honolulu, Hawaii. August 25, 1961.

18. Steiner, L. F., W. C. Mitchell and A. H. Baumhover. 1961. Progress of
fruit fly control by irradiation sterilization in Hawaii and the
Marianas Islands. Entomology Research Div., ARS, USDA, Honolulu.
Presented at 10th Pacific Science Congress, Honolulu, Hawaii. August
31, 1961. Symposium--Isotopes. Applications in the soil and Crop
Sciences IIIB, Insect Control by Radiation Sterilization.

19. Steiner, L. F., W. C. Mitchell, and A. H. Baumhover. 1961. Problems in
application of radiation sterilization and male annihilation tech-
niques to control tephritid fruit flies on Pacific Islands. USDA,
ARS, Honolulu, Hawaii. Paper presented: National Mtg., Ent. Soc.
America, November 28.

20. Steiner, L. F., W. C. Mitchell and A. H. Baumhover. 1962. Progress of
fruit fly control by irradiation sterilization in Hawaii and the
Marianas Islands. Ent. Res. Div., USDA, Honolulu, Hawaii. Inter-
National Jaunual of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Vol. 13,
pp. 427-434.

21. Alexander, B. H., M. Beroza, T. A. Oda, L.F. Steiner, D. H. Miyashita and
W. C. Mitchell. 1962. The development of male melon fly attractants.
Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10(4): 270-276.

22. Mitchell, W. C. 1963. Southern Green Stink Bug. Extension Leaflet. July.

23. Mitchell, W. C. 1963. Book Review of "Pests of Crops in Warm Climates and
Their Control" by R. Wyniger. Bull. Entomol. Soc. America 9(4):
2808-285 .

24. Steiner, L. F., E. J. Harris, W. C. Mitchell, M. S. Pujimoto and L. D.
Christenson. 1963. Melon fly eradication by overflooding with
sterile flies. USDA Ent. Res. Div., Honolulu, Hawaii. Paper
presented at national meeting of SSA December 4, 1963.

25. Steiner, L. F., W. C. Mitchell, E. J. Harris, T. T. Kosuma, and M. S.
Fujimoto. 1963. Oriental fruit fly eradication by male annihilation.
USDA Ent. Res. Div., Honolulu, Hawaii. Paper presented: National
meeting, ESA', December 5, 1963.


26. Mitchell, W. C. 1964. Present status of the Southern green stink bug,
Nezara viridula (L.) in Hawaii. Paper presented at Pacific~ Slope
Branch- of ESA meetings, Long Beach, California.

27. Mitchell, W. C., R. M. Warner, E. T. Fukunaga. 1964. Southern green stink
bug, Nezara viridula (L.), injury to macadamia nut. Proc. Hawaiian
Entomo-~l. Sc. 19(1):~ 103-109.

28. Mitchell, W. C. Effective control of orchid pests. 1965. Bull. of Pacific
Orchid Society of Hawaii. Vol. 23 (2): 3-5.

29. Steiner, L. F., E. J. Harris, W. C. Mitchell, M. S. Fujimoto, L. D.
Christenson. 1965. Melon fly eradication by overflooding with sterile
flies. J. Econ. Entomol. 58(3): 519-522.

30. Steiner, L. F., W. C. Mitchell, E. J. Harris, T. T. IKosuma and M. S.'
Fujimoto. 1965. Oriental fruitfly eradication by male annihilation.
J. Econ. Entomol. 58(5): 961-964.

31. Steiner, L. F., W. C. Mitchell, E. J. Harris, T. T. kosuma and M. S.
Fuj imoto. 1965. Oriental fruitfly eradication by male annihilation.
P.C.O. News Supplement Vol. 25(11): 1-3.

32. Mitchell, W. C. 1965. An example of integrated control of insects: The
southern green stink bug in Hawaii. Agriculture Science Review
3(1): 32-35.

33. Mitchell, W. C. 1966. New developments in the Southern green stink bug in
macadamia orchards. Proc. 5th Annual Meeting Hawaiian Macadamia
Association. CES Misc. Publ. 24, pp. 33-36.

34. Mitchell, W. C. 1966. History of the Department of Entomology, University
of Hawaii, College of Tropical Agriculture. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol.
Soc. 19(2)3: 251-279.

35. Sholdt, L., and W. C. Mitchell. 1967. The pollination of Cocos nucifera L.
in Hawaii. Tropical Agriculture 44(2): 133-142.

36. Mau, R. F. L., W. C. Mitchell and M. Anwar. 1967. Preliminary studies on
the effects of gamma radiation of eggs and adults of the Southern green
stink bug, Nezara viridula L. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. 19(3):

37. Macion, E. A., W. C. Mitchell and J. B. Smith. 1968. Biophysical and
biochemical studies on the nature of resistance of pineapples to the
oriental fruitfly. J. Econ. Entomol. 61(4): 910-916.

38. K~awano, Y., W. C. Mitchell and H. Matsumoto. 1968. Identification of the
male oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) attractant in the
golden shower (Cassia fis~tul~3a L.) blossom.~To J. Eoon. Entomol. 61(4):


39. Harris, E. J., W. C. Mitchell, A. H. Baumhover and L. F. Steiner. 1968.
Mutilation and survival of sterile Oriental fruit flies and melon
flies emerging in drop boxes. J. Econ. Entomol. 61(2): 493-496.

40. Mitchell, W. C. 1968. Book Review: "Appendix to Pests of Crops in Warm
Climates and Their Control. V. Control Measures," by R. Wyniger.
Bull. Entomol. Soc. America 14(3): 260-261.

41. Mitchell, W. C., and Ronald F. L. Mau. 1969. Sexual activity of the
Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula. Annals Entomol. Soc.
America 62(6): 1246-1247.

42. Mitchell, W. C., M. Tamashiro, T. Nishida and M. Sherman. 1969. Status
of 1967-68 experiments on the New Guinea sugarcane weevil on
Hawaiian sugarcane plantations. 1968 Reports Hawn. Sugar Techno-
logists pp. 66-72.

43. Mitchell, W. C., and Ronald F. L. Mau. 1971. Response of the female
Southern green stink bug and its parasite, Trichopoda pennipes, to
male stink bug pheromones. J. Econ. Entomol. 64(~4): 856-859.

44. Wasti, Salman S., and Wallace C. Mitchell. 1971. Effect of temperature
on development of the Oriental fruit fly in Hawaiian fruits. J. Econ.
Entomol. 64(5): 1142-1145.

45. Ota, Asher, and W. C. Mitchell. 1971. An insecticide test to control the
sugarcane beetle borer. Hawn. Planters' Record 58(11): 147-156.

46. Mitchell, W. C. 1971. Australian macadamia insects of economic importance
to Hawaii. Eleventh Annual Proc., Hawaii Macadamia Producers Assoc.
pp. 36-40.

47. Gary, Norman E., and W. C. Mitchell. 1972. The foraging range of honey
bees used for macadamia pollination. Twelfth Annual Proc., Hawaii
Macadamia Producers Assoc. pp. 45-57.

48. Mitchell, W. C. 1972. Biological control of macadamia insect pests in
Hawaii. Twelfth Annual Proc., Hawaii Macadamia Producers Assoc.
pp. 38-44.

49. Murdoch, Charles L.? and W. C. Mitchell. 1972. Insect control in 'Sunturf'
bermudagrass. Hawaii Farm Science 21(2): 1, 11.

50. Gary, Norman E., Ronald F. L. Mau and W. C. Mitchell. 1972. A preliminary
study of honey bee foraging range in macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia,
Maidea and Betche). Proc. Hawn. Entomol. Soc. 21(2): 205-212.

51. Napompeth, *Banpot, Toshiyuki Nishida and W. C. Mitchell. 1972. Biology
and rearing methods of the New Guinea sugarcane weevil, Rhabdosce-lus
obscurus. HAES Technical Bull. No. 85.


52. Mitchell, W. C. 1973. Pheromones and insect control. Thirteenth Annual
Proc., Hawaii Macadamia Producers Assoc., May 12, 1973 pp. 29-33.

53. Schroeder, W. J., W. C. Mitchell and R. Y. Miyabara. 1974. Dye-induced
changes in melon fly behavior. Environ. Entomology Vol. 3(3): 571.
June 1974.

54. Mitchell, W. C., and C. L. Murdoch. 1974. Insecticides and their applica-
tion frequency for control of turf insects in Hawaii. Down to Earth
Vol. 30(2): 17-23. Fall 1974.
55. Mitchell, W. C. 1970. Entomology in the State of Hawaii. University of Hawaii
Cooperative Extension Service Miscellaneous Publication 70 74pp June 1970

56. Metcalf,.R. L.', W. C. Mitchell, T.R. Fukuto and Es RE.,.Metcalf. 1975. Attract-
ion of the oriental fruitfly, Dacus dorsalis, to methyl eugenol and
related olfactory stimulants. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 72 (7),
2501-2505. July 1975
57. Tamashiro, Minoru and W. C. Mitchell. 1975. Control of Three Species of
Caterpillars that Attack Monkeypod Trees. College of Tropical Agriculture,
Havaii Agricultural Experiment Station, Miscellaneous Publication 123,
4 pp. May 1975
58. Murdoch, C. L. and W. C. Mitchell. 1975. Insecticides and their application
schedules for control of-lawn caterpillars (Spodoptera mauritia acronyctoides
Guenee and Herpetogramma licarsisalis Walker) in Hawaii. Jour. Am. Soc.
Hort. Sci. 100 (6):684-688. November 1975.
59. Murdoch, C. L. and W. C. Mitchell. 1976. Effectiveness of Organo-phosphate
Insecticides in Controlling Rhodesgrass Scale in Sunturf Bermudagrass..
Hort. Sci. 11 (3): 209-210. June 1976
60. Mitchell, W.C. 1976. Entomology in the State of Hawaii. University of Hawaii
Cooperative Extension Service, Miscellaneous Publication 136. 59 pp. June 197f

61. Manoto, Eugenia and .1976. Effect of Temperature and Fruit Ripeness
on the Development of Oriental Fruit Fly Larvae (Dacus dorsalis) in
Avocado. Proc. Hawn. Entom.Soc. 22(2): 323-328. September 1976.

62. Brennan, B. M., F. Chang and W. C. Mitchell. 1977. Physiological Effects on
Sex Pheromone Communication in the Southern Green Stink Bug, Nesara
viridula. Environ. Entom. 6(1): 169-173. February 1977.

63. Mau, R. F. L. and W. C. Mitchell'. 1978. Development and Reproduction of the
Oriental Stink Bug, Plautia stali (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Annals
Entom. Soc. Am. Vol. 71 (5rj) pp. 756-7.

64. Ikeda, J. K., R. F. L. Mau, We C. MVitchell and M. Tamashiro. 1979. Toxicity
of Insecticides to Musca sorbens in Hawaii. Jour. Econ. Entom. 72(1):
33-35. February 1979.

65. Murdoch, C. L., R. K. Nishimoto, W. C. Miitchell, A. M. Alvarez, N. J. Apt and
A. P. M~artinez. 1979. 1979 U. H. Recommendations for Turfgrass. For
Professional Turfgrass Managers and Superintendents. Coop. Ext. Serv.
Publ. App.



66. Mitchell, W. C. (Team Leader), C. 0. Andrew, K. S. Hagen, R. A. Hamilton,
E. J. Harris, K. L. Machler and R. H. Rhode. 1977. The Mediterranean
Fruit Fly and Its Economic Impact on Central American Countries and
Panama. UC/AID Pest Management and Related Environmental Protection
Project, Multidisciplinary Study Team Report. 189 pp. May 1977.

67. Metcalf, Robert L., Esther R. Metcalf, W. C. Mitchell and Lena W. Y. Lee.
1979. Evolution of Olfactory Receptor in Oriental Fruit Fly Dacus
dorsalis. Proceedings National Academy Sciences USA. Vol. 76 (4);
pp. 1561-65. April 1979.


Current appointment and address:

Professor and Chairman
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences
University of Hawaii
Hlonolulu, Hawaii 96822

Personal Data:

Date of Birth: 12 June 1921
Place of Birth: Paterson, NewJ Jersey
Marital Status: Single
Social Security: 154-22-4419


H~ontclair State College (NJ) A.B. 19)39-43 Physical Sciences
New York University, NY 1943-44 M~eteorology
Rutgers University, NJ Ph.D. 1946-49 Biochemistry-Nutrition

Professional Experience:

Research Fellow, Rutgers University, 1947-49
Associate Biochemist, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1949-51
Research Associate, McCollum Pratt Institute, The Johns Hopkins University,
Assistant Professor, iUcCollum Pratt Institute, The Johns Hopkins University,
Supervisory Chemist, Associate Head of Dental Division, Naval M~edical
Research Institute, Bethesda, M~aryland, 1956-61
Chief, Laboratory of Mletabolism, Naval iMedical Research Institute, Bethesda,
Maryland, 1961-70
Professor and Chairman, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences,
University of Hiawaii, 1970-present

Professional Societies:

American Institute of Nutrition
American Society of Biological Chemists
International Association of Dental Research
kznerican Society for Nutrition Education
Institute of Food Technologists
American Dietatic Association

Miscellaneous: (Military experience, Awards, Fellowships, etc.)

Branch of Service: U. S. Army, 2/43-6/46
Highest Rlank: 1st Lt.
Special Training: M~eteorology School, College of Engineering,
New York University, 3ew York, 1TY


Research fellowr, Rutgers University, 2/47-6/49
Recipient of 1959 IMcLester Award sponsored by J. B. Roerig Division of
Charles Pfizer and Company. Plaque and $500 honorarium.
Laboratory Director for the Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for
National Defense, Vietnam Survey, 1959.
Recipient of $850 travel award to attend the Vth International Congress of
Biochemistry, MIoscow, U.S.S.R., August 1961. (Joint travel award
committee of American Society of Biological Chemists and American
Chemical Society).
Alternate Member for Navy, Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for
National Defense, 1961-63. Member, 1963-65.
Book ReviewJer for "Quarterly R~eview of Biology," "HTilitary M~edicine."
Lecturer at U'. S. Naval Dental School, 1958-70.
NIEZ Research Grants Division, Nutrition Study Section (N~avy Representative)
Navy Bureau of iMedicine and Surgery Representative at 2nd Parathyroid
Symposium, N~oordwijk san Zee, The Nethierlands, Aug., 1964.
Lecturer in Biochemistry, Georgetown University School of Dentistry, 1965-70.
Visiting Associate Professor of N~utrition, Ramathibodi Hospital, Faculty of
Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand, 1968-
Editorial Board Member, The Journal of Nutrition, 1969-73.
Nominating Committee, American Institute of N~utrition, 1970-71.
NIH Research Grants Division, Njutrition Study Section, Appointment 1971-75.
WHO Consultant to organize a "Symposium on Vesical Lithiasis"' to be held
in Bangkok, Thlailand. Jan-Feb 1971 and Dec-Jan 1972.

Areas of Interest, Research or Specialization:

Mineral H-etabolism and requirements
Nutritional evaluation
Bladder stone disease
Dental caries
Protein requirements
Nutrition education

July, 1978


A. Experiences in Foreign Countries

1. Interdepartmental Commir~ttee on Nutrition for National Defense (ICNND)

1959 Laboratory Director of the ICNNDi Nutrition Survey of South
Vietnam. This survey consisted of clinical, biochemical and dietary
evaluations to assess the nutritional status of the South Vietnamese
military and civilian populations. I was directly responsible for all
laboratory aspects of the study. WIe established a laboratory in Saigon,
then set up and tested the chemical procedures for several substances
including: serum vitamins A and C, lb, Ht, urinary vitamins 51 and B2
and N-mcethylni coti~namide. Some special procedures;, such as vitamin C
loading tests were also carried out. Approximately 600 individuals
were evaluated biochemically during our three-month survey. I also was
involved in the preparation of the survey report.

1961-1963 T was appointed to the ICNND as an Alternate Navy Representa-
tive. I attended the various meetings of the TCNND. Each team that was
sent abroad was thoroughly briefed on the history of the country to be
surveyed and on the social, political, economic and health situations.
I participated in most of these briefings.

1963-1965 I was appointed to the TCNND) as Navy Representative and par-
ticipated as above. In all approximately 30 countries were surveyed.

II. Bladder Stone Research

1965 The Nutrition Survey of South Vietnam and the one in Thailand
revealed that many children in these countries suffered from idiopathic
urinary bladder stone disease. My studies on stone formation in the
laboratory rat conducted at the Naval Medical Research Institute suggested
that nutritional factors may be involved in bladder stone formation.
Thus, I sought funds to carry out in-depth studies in an appropriate
country. In early 1965, Dr. Charles Cornelius of the University of
California at Davis and I visited many countries to determine where
idiopathic bladder stone disease still occurred and wh~at workc was being
done on the disease. This vas supported with funds from the IGN'ND. Sub-
seqluently, arrangements were made to study stone disease in Thailand.

1965-present In October 1965, L went to Thailand for six months to
worku with Dr. Aree Valyasevi at the SEATO Medical Research Laboratory.
5Je investigated the biochemical and nutritional status of children living
in endemic stone areas to find clues concerinin thie etiology of the
disease. I again worked in Thailand for six months in 1955-66 and for
shorter periods of time each year since 1967. From 1968 on, our work
was conducted at Ramathibodi Hosp~tal in Bangkok since Dr. Aree had be-
come Dean of the Medical Faculty. Our studies revealed that a sub-acute
phosphate deficiency appeared to be involved in the etiology of pediatric
bladder stone disease.

Our studies in Thailand prompted r;;0 to support a symposium on vesical
lithiasis held in Eangkok, January 1972. This was the first international


conference to be devoted to this subject. WH3 asked me to be a
consultant to plan and organlize the symposium, to attend the meeting,
and to prepare a report of the proceedings. To thesec ends, 1 vas a
HO1 consultant in January-February 1971 and in December-January 1972.

The investigations in Thailand and the Sym~posium stimulated scientists
in other countries to undertake studies of bladder stone disease. I
assisted in the development of two additional projects on the disease.
One is directed by Dr. Adel Loutfi of Childrens Hospital, Cairo Univer-
sity, Cairo, Egypt and the other by Dr. M. Ataur Rahman of the Jinnah
Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi, Pakistan. Both these latter
projects have been funded by the Office of Naval Research. In 1974,
six papers on our work in Egypt were published in the Journal of the
Egyptian Medical Association.

Dr. Taba, Director of the Eastern. Mediterranean Office, WHO in Alexandria
Egypt and the Fogarty International Center, NIH, Bethesda agreed to co-
sponsor a second symposium on bladder stone disease. It was held in
Bethesda, Maryland in April 1976. WHO0 asked me to be their con-
sultant and to visit various countries in May and June 1975 to identify
possible participants for the symposium and to coordinate efforts of
various scientists.

A third International Symposium on Bladder Stone Disease is now being
planned for 1979.

III. Additional Foreign Contacts and Expertise

1. Since 1968 I have been a visiting Associate Professor of Nutrition
at Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

2. I have visited rEAMRU-2 in Taipei and NARlrU-3 in Cairo many times
and am familiar with their operations.

3. In 1970, I was a consultant to NIH to review the project on nutri-
tion and human development at INC9AAP in Guatemala. I visited the
Institute and saw the entire operation.

4. I have been abroad twenty-four times. My visits to various countries
have provided valuable information concerning scientists and their
research efforts not only in regard to bladder stone disease and
nutrition, but also in the general. field of health, medical re-
search and teaching.

5. During my tours on thie NIH Nutrition Study Section (1964-70 as Navy
Represcenttive and 1971-75 as a voting member from the University of
Havaii) I have reviewed many projects from foreign countries.

6. At the University of Havaii, I have served on the University's
International Health Cormmxittee which has taken an active role in
formulating and implementing plans for international health programs.


7. Collaborative efforts vith the East-West Food Institute of the
East-West Center, University of Hawaii have provided considerable
information and expertise in regard to health and agricultural
programs in Asia and the Pacific Basin.

B. Background in Nutrition Education

During most of my career I have been involved in teaching nutrition. At
the Johns Hopkins University's McCullum Pratt Institute (1951-56) I was the
primary expert in nutrition on the staff and taught in various courses.
During my years at the Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland,
I participated in the training courses offered, particularly in the post-
graduate dental course.

At the University of Hawaii, I have been professor and chairman of the
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences for the past six years. The
Department has the primary responsibility at the University for training
in human nutrition. We offer undergraduate options which prepare students
for careers in clinical and/or community dietetics. Our program has been
approved by the American Dietetic Association and our graduates are eligible
for internship training at mainland facilities. About 100 undergraduate
students are majors in our departrant. We also offer a M.Sc. degree. in
nutritional sciences and have about 12 students registered for degree

The Department has also developed a proposal for a Ph.D). degree program
which is in administrative channels at this time.


1. Russell, W. C., Taylor, M. W., and Van Reen, R. Vitamin A requirement
of the turkey poult. Fed. Proc. 8, 394 (1948).

2. Van Reen, R. Sucrose storage in corn stalks. Maize Genetics
Cooperation News Letter 24, 4 (1950).

3. Singleton, W. R., and Van Reen, R. Segregation for sucrose storage
in corn stalks, Maize Genetics Cooperation News Letter 21, 3 (1950).

4. Van Reen, R., Russell, W. C., and Taylor, M. W. The vitamin A requifre-
ment of the turkey poult fed a purified diet. J. Nutrition 43,
235 (1951).

5. Van Reen, R., and Singleton, W. R. Sucrose content in the stalks of
maize inbreds. Agronomy J. 4 610 (1952).

6. Van Reen, R., and Pearson, P. B. The effect of excessive dietary
sinc on growth and liver enzymes of the rat. Fed. Proc. 12,
283 (1953).

7. Van Reen, R., and Pearson, P. B. Magnesium deficiency in the duck.
J. Nutrition 51, 191 (1953).

8. Van Reen, R. Effects of excessive dietary sinc in the rat and the
interrelationship with copper. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 46, 337

9. Van Reen, R., and Pearson, P. B. Biochemical abnormalities during
molybdenum toxicity in rats. Fed. Proc. 13, 314 (1954).

10. Van Reen, R. Inhibition of catalase by 2, 4-dichlorophenoL. Arch.
Biochem. Biophys. 50, 221 (1954).

11. Van Reen, R., and Pearson, P. B. Nutritional studies with the white
throated wood tra. Science 120, 571 (1954).

12. Van Reen, R., and Pearson, P. B. Magnesium deficiency in the duck.
J. Nutrition 5525(95)

13. Van Reen, R. The influence of excessive dietary molybdenurm on liver
enzymes of the rat. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 53, 77 (1954).

14. Van Reen, R., and Pearson, P. B. Studies on uricase. Fed. Proc.
14, 296 (1955).

15. Van Reen, R., and Kaplan, N. 0. B-picoline, pyridyl-3-carbinol, and
pyridyl-3-aldehyde as precursors of nicotinamide in the duckl0ag.
Div. of Biol. Chem., 128th Nat'1 A.C.S. Meeting, Minn., 8C (1955).


16. Van Reen, R., and Njason, A. Role of minerals in enzyme systems.
129th Nat'1 A.C.S. Meeting, Dallas, (1956). Symposium.

17. Baxter, C. F., Van Reen, R., and Pearson,1P. B. The oxidation of
sulfide by an adaptive system in rat liver. Fed. Proc. 15, 215 (1956).

18. Williams, M. A., and Van Reen, R. Studies on molybdenum toxicity in
rats. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 91, 638 (1956).

19. Van Reen, R., and Williams, M. A. Studies on the influence of
sulfur compounds in molybdenum toxicity in rats. Arch. Biochem.
Biophys. 63, 1 (1956).

20. Van Reen, R., and Stolzenbach, F. Pyridine derivatives as growth
factors. J. Bio1. Chem. 226, 373 (1957).

21, Van Reen, R., Losee, F. L,, and Lyon H. W. Molybdate-sulfate inter-
relationship in rats. Abstracts 4th International Congress of
Nutrition, Paris (1957).

22. Losee, F. L., Peckham, S. C., Hess, Wr. C., Van Reen, R., Henderson,
N., and Gerende, L. J. The effects of variation of the casein and
sucrose levels in the diet of rats on caries activity and the
composition of mineralized tissues. Naval Med. Res. Inst. R~ept.
15, 525 (1957).

23. Baxter, C. F., Van Reen, R., Pearson, B.B., and Rosenberg, C.
Sulfide oxidation by rat tissues. Biochem. Biophys. Acts 2 ,
548 (1958).

24. Van Reen, R., Lyon, H. W., and Losee, F. L. Studies on mineral
metabolism in the albino rat. I. Occurence of urinary calculi.
Naval Med, Res. Inst. Rept. 16, 73 (1958).

25. Baxter, C. F., Van Reen, R., and Rosenberg, C. Effect of starvation
on sulfide oxidation in rat liver. Proc. Soc. Expth. Biol. Med.
96, 159 (1957).

26. Losee, F. L., Van Reen, R., Peckham, S. C., Hess, W. C,, Henderson,
N., and Gerende, L. J. Dietary casein-sucrose ratios and their
effects on mineralized tissues. J. Dent. Res. 36, 904 (1957).

27. Van Reen, R., Lyon, H. W., and Losee, F. L. Formation and prevention
of calcium citrate urinary calculi in rats. Fed. Proc. 17, 496

28. Baxter, C. F., and Van Reen, R. Some aspects of sulfide oxidation
by rat liver preparations. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 28, 567 (1958).

29. Baxter, C. F., and Van Reen, R. The oxidation of sulfide to thio-
sulfate by metallo-protein complexes and by ferritin. Biochem.
Biophys. Acta 28, 573 (1958).


30. Van Reen, R. Influence of dietary factors on calcified tissues.
Surveys of Naval Science 6,, 34 (1957).

31. Van Reen, R., and Losee, F, L. Organic composition of bone: Local-
ization of isocitriedehydrogenase in fomurs. Nature 181, 1543 (1958).

32. Losee, F. L., Levy, G., and Van Reen, R. The effect of carbohydrate
refinement on dental caries in the rat. Naval Med. Res. Inst.
Rept. If, 269 (1958).

33. Van Reen, R. Citric acid metabolism in bone. Abstracts 4th Inter-
national Congress of Biochemistry, Vienna (1958) p. 150.

34. Losee, F. L,, Van Reen, R., and Glassford, K, F. The effect of
inorganic sulfate on growth and dental caries in rats. Naval Med.
Res. Inst. Rept. 16, 543 (1958).

35. Van Reen, R., Losee, F. L., Lyon, H. W., and Glassford, K. F.
Studies on mineral metabolian in the albino rat. II. Effect of
casein level of the diet on the formation of calcium citrate
urinary calculi. Naval Med. Res, Inst. Rept. 16, 549 (1958).

36. Van Reen, R. Specificity of the molybdate-sulfate interrelationship
in the rat. J. Nutrition 68, 243 (1959).

37. Van Reen, R., Glaseford, K. F., and Zagroaky, J. P. Molybdenum
toxicosts in the rat. Naval Med. Res. Last. Rept. 17, 77 (1959).

38. Van Reen, R., and Lyon, H. Wl. The formation of mandibular and
naxillaryr exostoses in rats. J. Dent. Res. 38, 688 (1959).

39. Van Reen, R. Di1- and Triphosphopyridine nucleotidases of the dog
feaur. Fed. Proc. 18, 549 (1959).

40. Indacochea, N., Van Reen, R., and Hess, W. C. Citrate lithiasis
related to mineral metabolism in the rat. Abstracts XXI Inter-
national Congress of Physiology, Buenos Aires (1959) p. 133.

41. Van Reen, R. Metabolic activity La calcified tissues. Aconitase
and isocitric dehydrogenase activities in rabbit and dog fanurs.
J. Biol. Chem. 224, 1951 (1959).

42. Van Reen, R. and Glassford, Kenneth F. The caries inhibiting effects
of Na2HPO4 and CaKPO J. Dent. Res. 38, 633 (1959).

43. Van Reen, R., Lyon, H. W. and Losee, F. L. Urolithiasis ia the rat.
I. The influence of diet on the formation and prevention of
calcium citrate calcult. J. Nutrition 69, 392 (1959).

44. Van Reen, R., Indacochea, N,, and Hess, W. C. Urolithiasis in the
rat. I.Excretion of calcium, citric acid, and phosphate.
J. Nutrition 62397 15)


45. Van Reen, R. Metabolic activity in calcified tissues. NMRI Report
17, 201 (1959).-

46. Van Reen, R. Indacochea, N. and Hess, W. C. Studies on mineral
metabolism in the albino arat. III. Excretion of calcium, phosphate,
and citric acid by NMRI-D rats fed diets conducive to or
preventing calcium citrate urolithiasis. NMRI Report 17, 647 (1959).

47. Van Reen, R. Metabolian of citric acid by the rabbit mandible.
J. Dent. Res. 39, 689 (1960).

48. Forbes, A. L., et al. Biochemistry section of "Nutrition Survey
of the Republic of Viet Nam". A Report of the Interdepartmental
Committee on Nutrition for National Defense (1960).

49. Ostrom, C. A., Miller, C. W., and Van Reen, R. Connective tissue
changes in molybdenum toxic rats. NMRI Report 18, 241 (1960).

50. Van Reen, R. Metabolism in calcified tissues: Pyridine nucleo-
tidases of the rabbit femur. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 93, 242

51. Van Reen, R. and Ostrom, C. A. The influence of phosphates and
molybdenum on dental caries in the NM~RI-D Mat. J. Dent, Res.
40, 664 (1961).

52. Ostrom, C. A. and Van Reen, R. Interruption of oral ecology re-
lated to caries in the NMRI-D rat. J. Dent. Res. 40, 664 (1961).

53. Van Reen, R. Further studies on the formation of urinary calculi
in the rat. Fed. Proc. 20, 365 (1961).

54. Van Reen, R. The destruction of diphosphopyridinie nucleotide and
triphosphopyridine nucleotide by rabbit femur and marrow prepa-
rations. NMRI Report 18, 415 (1960).

55. Van Reen, R. The levels of pyridine nucleotides in calcified tissues.
Proc. Vth International Cong. Biochem, p. 470 (1961). Moscow, UJSSR.

56. Ostrom, C. A., Van Reen, R. and Hilller, C. W. Changes in the
connective tissue of rats fed toxic diets containing molybdenum
salts. J. Dent. Res. 40, 520 (1961).

57. Van Reen, R., Ostrom, C. A. and Berzinskas, V. J. Studies on the
possible cariostatic effect of sodium molybdate. Arch. Oral
Biol. L 351 (1962).


58. Van Reen, R., Konig, K:. G., Ostrom, C. A. and McClure, F. J. Evaluation
of dental caries in the rat. A comparison of Grinding and slicing
technics in two strains of rats fed a purified diet of high cariogenic
capacity with orthophosphate supplements. Arch. Oral Biol. 1, 481 (1962).

59. Van Reen, R. and Ostrom; C. A. Effect of dietary phosphate supplements
on dental caries in the rat. J. Dent. Res. 41., 875 (1962).

60. Van R~een, R., Ostrom, C. A. and Bersinskas, V. J. The cariostatic effect
of dietary phosphate in the rat in the presence or absence of fluoride
in the drinking water. Arch. Oral Biol. 2, 587 (1962).

61. Van Reen, R., and Michalakis, E. J. Effect of parathyroid hormone on
rabbit feaur isocitric dehydrogenase and aconitase. Fed. Proc. 21,
812 (1962).

62. Van Reen, Ri. The chemical structure of the peridontium. J. Dent. Res.,
41 (Supp. No. 1), 259 (1962).

63. Van Reen, R. Urolithiasis in the rat. III. Effects of proteins,
carbohydrate and phosphate on the occurrence of calcium citrate stones.
J. Nutrition 7717(16)

64. Ostrom, C. A. and Van Reen, R. Systemnic phosphate influences on dental
caries in the NH~RI-D rat. J. Dent. Res. 42, 732 (1963).

65. Van Rieen, R., Minard, D., Consolazio, C. F. and Matousch, L. 0.
Nutritional aspects of a shelter habitability study with ninety-six
naval recruits. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 42, 117 (1963).

66. Ostrom, C. A. and Van Reen, R. Dietary titanium influence on experimental
caries. J. Dent. Res. Abst. p, 108 (1963).

67. Van Reen, R. The NNM~C shelter habitability studies Nutritional aspects.
J. Dent. Res. Abstr. p. 372 (1963).

68. Hoerman, K. C., Dasler, A. R., Littleton, N. and Van Reen, R. Some
physical and biochemrical observations in persons showing gingival
disease after prolonged shelter habitation. J. Dent. Res. Abstr.
p. 372 (1963).

69. Ramskill, E. A., et al. Studies of the Bureau of Yards and Docks
Protective Shelter. I. Winter Trials. U. S. Naval Research Laboratory
Report N~o. 5882. December 31, 1962.

70. Van Reen, R., Simmons, W. K., and Jenkins, L. J., Jr. Utolithiasis in
the rat. IV. The influence of amino acid supplements on the occurrence
of citrate calculi. J.Ntiin8, 358-364 (1964).

71. Van Reen, R. HumFan Nutritional Requirements for Unter in Long Space
Flights: Discussion. In Conference on Nutrition in Space and Related
luaste Problems. NASA SP-70, p. 171 (1964).


72. Van Reen, R. Effects of Prolonged Bed Rest: Discussion. In Conference
on Nutrition in Space and Related Waste Problems. NASA SP-70,
p. 249 (1964).

73. Van Reen, R., Mlinard, D., Dasler, A. R., Raica, Nicholas, Jr., and
Nelson, Richard A. Nutrition of 92 naval recruits during a summer
habitability study. J. Am. Dietetic Assoc. 45, 117-123 (1964).

74. Van Reen, R. and Ostromn, C. A. Investigations at NMRI on the cario-
static effect of dietary phosphates. J. Dent. Res. 43, 1156 (1964).

75. Russell, A. L., Leatherwood, E. C., Hien, LeVan, and Van Reen, Robert.
Dental caries and nutrition in South Vietnam. J. Dent. Res. 41,
102 (1965).

76. Van Reen, R. The influence of parathyroid extract on bone metabolism
and the levels of nicotinamide nucleotides. In "The Parathyroid
GLands: Ultrastructure, Secretions and Function" by P. J. Gaillard
and R. V. Talmage, The Univ. of Chicago Press (1965).

77. Russell, A. L., Leatherwood, E. C., Consolazio, C. Frank, and Van Reen,
Robert. Peridontal disease and nutrition in South Vietnam. J.
Dental Res. 44, 775 (1965).

78. Bogardus, H. F., et al. Studies of the Naval Facilities Engineering
Command Protective Shelter. II. Summer Trials. U. S. Naval
Research Laboratory Report No, 6656. Washington, D.C. March 29, 1968.

79. Van Reen, R. Zinc Toxicity in Man and Experimental Species. In "Zinc
Metabolian and Nutrition" Ed. by Ananda S. Prasad, C. C. Thomas

80. Jenkins, L. J., Jr., and Van Reen, R. Hematological and biochemical
effects of exposure to an atmosphere of 100% oxygen. In U. S.
Naval Air Engineering Center, Aerospace Crew Equipment Laboratory
Report MAECIACEL-530, 26 July 1965.

81. Jenkins, L. J., Jr., and Van Reen, R. Biochemical effects of prolonged
exposure to an atmosphere of 100% oxygen at a simulated altitude of
27,000 feet. In U. S. Naval Air Engineering Center, Aerospace Crew
Equipment Laboratory Report NAEC-ACEL-535, Part I, 1 April 1966.

82. Van Reen, R., and Quesada, M. Bone nicotinamide adenine dinuleotide
levels in response to nicotinanide and parathyroid extract injections.
Biochen. Biophys. Res. Commun. 24, 56 (1966).

83. Coble, Y. D., Van Reen, R., Schulert, A. R., Koshakji, R. P., Farid,
Z., and Davis, J. T. Zinc levels and blood enzyme activities in
Egyptian male subjects with retarded growth and sexual development.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr. JS, 415 (1966).

84. Van Reen, R. Urolithiasis in the rat. V. In vivo dissolution of
calculi. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 123, 450 (1966).


85. Costello, L. C., Van Reen, R., Quedass, M., and Derago, L. The
in vivo effect of parathyroid extract on nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide cofactor levels in kidney mitochondria. Endocrinology
80, 542 (1967).

86. Van Reen, R., Ostrom, C. A., and Berzinskas, V. J. Trace elements
and dental caries, Mo, Al, and Ti. Helvet. Odont. Acta 11, 53

87. Van Reen, R,, Valyasevi, A., and Dhanamitta, S. Studies of bladder
stone disease in Thailand. VIII. Sulfate excretion by newborn
infants: the possible relationship of protein malnutrition to bladder:
stone disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutrition 20, 1378 (1967).

88. Dhanamitta, S., Valyasevi, A., and Van Reen, R. Studies of bladder
stone disease in Thailand. fK. Effect of orthophosphate and
fat-free powdered milk supplementations on the occurence of
crystalluria. Am. J. Clin. Nutrition 20, 1387 (1967).

89. Van Reen, R., and Cotton, W. E. Methods for scoring dental caries in
various experimental animals. In The Art and Science of Dental
Caries Research, Ed. R. S. Harris, Academic Press, New York, 1968.

90, Valyasevi, A., and Van Reen, R. Current status of research on
pediatric bladder stone disease. J. Pediatrics 2Z, 546 (1968).

91. Van Reen, R. Review of biochemistry of the calcified tissues. J. Am.
Dent. Assoc. 76, 1340 (1968).

92. Dbansmitta, S., Van Reen, R., and Valyaser~i, A. Composition of
water from Ubol Province, Bangkok, and surrounding areas. J. M~ed.
Assoc. Thailand 5J,63(16)

93. Vatyasevi, A., Dhananitta, S., and Van Reen, R. Studies of bladder
stone disease in Thailand. X. Effect of orthophosphate and nonfat
dry milk supplementations on urine composition. Am. J. Clin.
Nutrition 22, 218 (1969).

94. Dhanamitta, S., Valyasevi, A., and Van Reen, R. Studies of bladder
stone disease in Thailand. XI. Effect of 4-hydroxy-L-proline
and orthophosphate supplementations on crystalluria. Am, J. Clin.
Nutr. 23, 371 (1970).

95. Van Reen, R., Valyasevi, A, and Dbanamitta, S. Studies of bladder
stone disease in Thailand. XII. The effect of methionine and
pyridoxine supplements on urinary sulfate. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
23, 940 (1970).

96. Dhanamitta, S., Valyasevi, A., and Van Reen, R. Studies of bladder
stone disease in Thailand. XIII. Excretion of uromucoid material
by infants and newborn. Urologia Internationalis 25: 473-480 (1970),

97. Dhanamitta, S., Valyasevi, A. and Van Rieen, R. Studies of bladder
stone disease in Thailand. XIVJ. Effect of vitamin B1 and phosphate
supplements on oxalcrystalluria. Nutr. Rept. Intuat'1. _2, 87 (1970).


98. Shackelford, A. H., ITrattali, V. and: Van B;?on, Rt. Thre determination of
iuorganic sulfate 'ay an isotope dilotion technique. Cli~n. Chin. /*.cta. 34,
13-17 (1171).

99. Chel::aratana, Srnis, VanL Reen, Robert, and Valynaevi, Aree. Studies of
bladder stone dlisease in Thailand XV. Factors affectin= thle solubility of
calcina3 oxalace. Ijvestigative Urology Vol. 9, Uo. 3, 246-253, (1971).

100. Valyasevi, A., thanamitta, S. and Van Taen, P.. Studies of bladder stone
disastse in "i.;ialanj. XVI. Effect of 4-alyro-xy-L-proline and orthoph~ospSitat
supplme~ntations on urinary composition and crystalluria. Am. J. Clin.
Btutr. 26, 1207-1211 (1973).

10. an Reen, R. and Valyasrevi, A. Idiopathic bladder stone disease. Public
Bealtal Reviews 3, 57-71 (1974).

102. Van Rfeen R. Urinaryl bladder. stone disease. Proc. IV' Intal. Cong. Noutr.

103. Loutfi, A. and Van Raen, B. Studies of bladder stone disease in Egyptian
children. I. ?rospectus, J. Egyptian Mad. Assoc. 57, 39-95 (1974).

104. Loutfi, A., Van Reen, R. and holtd, G. A. Studies of ';ladder stone disease
in Egypztian children. II. Merthnodologies and Peneral aspects of the disease,
J. tIiayrn Med. Assoc. 57*- 9i-108 (1974).

105. Loutfi, A., Hansonr, N. andi Van Reen, R. Studies of ;ladlder stone disanze
in Egyptian children. iII. Regative role of Bi~lhaariasis in pathogenesis.
J. Eg~yptifan Hed. Assoc. 57, 100-115 (1974).

106. Loutfi, A ., Waslein, C. and Van Reen, R~. Studies of bladder stoneo disease
in Egyptian children. IV. EvaluJation of vitaniaz A. Status. J. Etgyptianr
Mad. Assoc. 57, 116-123 (1974).

10.Loutfi, A. and Vanr Reen, R. Studies of bladder stone disease in Egyptian
children. V. Composition of bladder stones. J. Egyptian Ead. Assoc. 57,
124-136 (1974).

109. Van Reen, E. E~ditor. Proc. luEDR Regional Symposium on Vesical. Calculus Disear
Bangok, Thailand, 1972. DIIEy Publ. Mb. (WIEi) 77-1191.

110. Van Reen, R., Animal modelsr relating urolithiasis to nutrition. In Proc. FE
Regional Syoposium on Vesical Carlculus Disease, Bangkok, Tarioand, 1972. DBA
Publ. ;lo. (tSmI) 77-11i'1, pp. 23-33.

111. ;ahoan, .1. .t~taur and Van Deen, R. Current investigations of vesrical lithisat
in Pak*istan.' in Proc. iM .'agional Symposium on Vesical Ca1Ululs DJisassa,
Baa3kokt, Thailand, 1572. 0850 Pu'jl. ;io. (Ni3;) 77-1191, pp. 57-67.

112. Van Reen, R. Id~iopathic urinary bladder stone disease.Inroihai
Reseach. dited by !J. Fleisch, et al., PlanumP Press, :!ev York, 17, 1976,
pp. 569-572.



11.Van Reen, R. Idiopathic urinary bladder stone disease. In Never Horizons
in Tropical Pediatrica, S. Gupte, Ed. Jaypee Brothers, Medical Publishers,
Yamrla Nagar, Delhi, 1977. pp. 50-62.

11.Van Reen, R. Pyridoxine in urinary stone treatment. Nutrition and the M.D.
3, No. 10, 1 (1977).

115. Van Reen, R. Editor. Idiopathic Urinary Bladder Stone Disease. Fogarty
International Center Proceedings No. 37. DHEGI Publication No. (NIR) 77-1063,
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Stocks Nurmber 017-053-00062-1

116. Valyasevi, A., Dhanamnitta, S., Watthana-Kasetr, S,, and Van Reen, R. Preven-
tion of bladder stone disease: Preliminary results. In, IdioPathic Urinary
Bladder Stone Disease. DR1EW Publication No. (NI8) 77-1063, 1977, pp. 348-362.

117. Sirivech, S., Dhanamitta, S., and Van Reen, R. Effect of level of Protein
intake on urinary uric acid excretion and saerM uric acid. Nutr. Rpts.
Internat'1. 17: 349-355 (1978).

118, Van Raen, R., H~ilke, A. D., Dhanamitta, S., and Sirivech, S. Urinary uric act
levels in Thai children. Fed. Proc. 37: 400 (1978).

119. Van Reen, R, and P. Winichagoon. Effect of dietary protein quality on uric
acid excretion. Fed. Proc. Vol. 39, No. 3: 1116 (1980).

120. Van Reen, R. Idiopathic urinary bladder stones of childhood. Aust. N. Z.
J. Surg. Vol. 50, No. 1: 18-22 (1980).

121. Van Reen, R. Nutrition and Urinary Stones. The Prof. Nutr., Sumomer 1980.
pp. 11-14.


La6.t nane
FL464t name
ODte od bihth
Place oj biActh
Watio naLly
ci'6c's name
Da-te o6 b-ihth


Pod tg)UaduLte

Post- Doctolral

Degated Add

Hlall1i day
John (but known as Jake)
10th July 1918
Newtownards Co., Down, N.Ireland
British and irish
Eleanor Mlargaret (nee Preston)
3rd March 1947
Zoe Elizabeth (10~th March 1976 by adoption)
David Robert (16th September 1977 by adoption)

Cregagh Primary School, Belfast (1952-1960)
Annadale Grammnar School, Belfast (1960-1967)
Queens University, Belfast (1967-1971)

Queens University, Belfast (1971-1973)
Supervisor : Prof. J.S.Pate
Ulniversf'ty of W~estern Australia (1973-1975)
Supervisor : Prof. J.S.Pate

Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)
Cali, Colombia (1976-1977)
with Or.P.H1.Graham on Physiology and Mficrobiology
of N2-fixation in Phsectub vlgcutis.

Bachelor of Science (8.Sc.) with first class honors
in Botany (Legumie Physiology). (Queens Uni vers ity ,
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) Thesis title : An
interpretation of seasonal and short term fluctuations
in nitrogen fixation. Examined by W.D.P.Stewart
(Dundee), A.H.Gibson (Canberra) and C.T.Wheeler
(Glasgow). Ph.D. conferred Universi ty of Western
Australia (1976).



Acetylene reduction assay of nitrogenase activity.
]2 methodology, mass spectrometry and emissions spectroscopy.
C methods, scintillation counting and autoradiography.
Gas-liquid chromatography of TMS derivates of carbohydrates.
Feulgen spectrometry.
A~nthrone determination of carbohydrates.
Starch analysis.
GMA embedding and light microscopy.
Amino acid analysis of biological fluids.
Paper and thin layer chromatography.
Serological typing of REtizobium strains.

Fluent in English and Spanish.
Reading ability in French and Portuguese.

Administrative experience
Currently administering a Section in the CIAT B~eef Program with a
staff of ten and an operating budget of US$12,000 (1978).
Member of CIAT Publications Committee.
In charge of Central Services Laboratory of CIAT.

Additional information

FA0O consultant on biological nitrogen fixation in Venezuela and the
Dominican Republic.
Intimate knowledge of groups researching biological nitrogen fixation
throughout tropical Latin America due to official travel and outreach
work related to my CIAT program.
Member of Latin American Grhizoblum Commnittoo



Co.Down Ed.Comm. University Scholarship.
N.Ireland Ministry of Education Postgradfuate Award.
Dunville Studenship (Prize off600 for th~e moost outstanding
honours examination performance in the Faculty of Science).
Travel grant from British Council to cover round trip expenses
to Australia.
Selected to present postgraduate work at British Association for
Advancement of Science, Canterbury, 1973.
Travel grant from QUB to attend IB3P conference "Nlitrogen Fixation
in Plants", Edinburgh, 1973.
Travel grant U.H~.A. to visit colleagues in Adelaide, Melbourne,
Canberra, Sydney and Brisbane, and present paper at 5th Australian
Rhcizobdum conference (Brisbane, 1975.).

Travel grant from Aust.Soc.P1.Physiology to present paper at
Annual M~eeting (Mrelbourne, 1975).
Post-Doctoral Fellowship (CIAT). (1976-1977).
Appointed Soil Microbiologist, Beef Program, Centro Internacional
de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) Colombia July 1st., 1977.


PUbeiCatio nJ

Halliday, J. (1976). An interpretation of seasonal and short termi
fluctuations in nitrogen fixation. Ph.D. Thesis, University
of Western Australia.

Halliday, J., and Pate, J.S. (1976). The acetylene reduction assay
as a means of studying nitrogen fixation in white clover, under
sward and laboratory conditions. J.Brit.Grassld.Soc. 31 : 29-35.

Halliday, J., and Pate, J.S. (1976). Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by
coralloid roots of the cycad Clhe-tuzamnin tiedic : physiological
characteristics and ecological significance. Aust.J.P1.Phlysio1.
3 : 349-358.

Graham, P.H., and Halliday, J. (1977). Inoculation and nitrogen
fixation in the genus Phnastolub. j Exploiting thle legumec-
Rlit~zaicum symbiosis in tropical agriculture. pp.331-334 NIFTAL,

Halliday, J. (1976). Energy and nitrogen fixation. VIII Latin
Almerican Risizobium Mleeting. pp.153-177. CIAT, Colombia.

Halliday, J., Gutidrrez, F. and Sdnchiez, G. (1977). Rttizo bium s tra in
selection for tropical forages adapted to acid, infertile soils.
Proceedings VI A~merican Rcizobiium conference. University.of on
Florida, Gainvesville. i. .e .

H~alliday, J. (1977). Maximizing nitrogen fixation in tropical forages.
Proceedings VI American Rltizobiilum conference. University of
Florida, Gainesville.

H-alliday, J. (1978). Comparative physiology of nitroglen-fixing
symbioses. in, Proceedings 2nd Latin American Botanical
Congress. Brasilia, Brazil (In English and Spanish).
Halliday, J. (1973). Maximizing N2~ fixation in tropical forages.
in, Limitations and potentials for biological nitrogen fixation
in~ the tropics. pp.344-345. Ed.J.Dobereiner, R.H.Burris, A.
Hollachder. Plenum, New York.

Date, R.A., and Halliday, J. (1978). Collection of strains of RI~izobium.
in, Amanual for the collection and preservation of tropical forage
IFermp lasm. Ed.G.O.Mo tt. University of Florida/CIAT, Colombia.