Assessing the benefits of rural women's participation in natural resource management research and capacity-building

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Assessing the benefits of rural women's participation in natural resource management research and capacity-building a project of the CGIAR Systemwide Program on Participatory Research and Gender Analysis for Technology Development and Institutional Innovation
Physical Description:
33 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
Germany -- Bundesministerium für Wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung
Publisher:
CIAT
Place of Publication:
s.l
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Women in conservation of natural resources   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
a proposal to the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development ; submitted by CIAT (International Center for Tropical Agriculture).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 675125549
ocn675125549
System ID:
AA00007157:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text




ASSESSING THE BENFhs; ITS OF
RUAZ WVOMIEN' S PARTIC IPATION
IN NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT RESEARCH
AND CAPACIT'Y-BUILDING





A Project of the
CGIAR Systemwide Program

on

Participatory Research and Gender Analysis
for Technology Development and Institutional Innovation


A proposal to the:




Submitted by:


German Federal Ministry for
Economic Cooperation and Development
(B M Z)


CIAT
(International Center for Tropical Agriculture)


January, 1997












Institutions Participating in the Program
BOLIVIA
Program de Investigaci6n de la Papa
PROINPA

CANADA
International Development Research Centre IDRC
University of Guelph

COLOMBIA
Sistemas de Producci6n Regional No. 2
CORPOICA

Germplasm Improvement Division
Natural Resource Management Division
CIAT

ECUADOR
Program en Sociedades de Montaila y
Desarrollo Sostenible DESO
Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales
FLACCSO

INIAP- Programa de Raices y Tuberculos Rubro
Papa, PNRT -PAPA /FORTIPAPA

ETHIIOPIA
Institute of Agricultural Research, IAR

GERMANY
GTZ Agritex Conservation Tillage Project
Institute of Agricultural EngineeringUniversity of
Mainz Institut flir ]Ethnologie und Afika-
Studien"

GHANA
Gara Agricultural Station (GAS)

INDIA
Directorate of Research
Indira Gandhi Agricultural University

ILEIA

Department of Gender Studies in Agriculture
Agricultural University of Wageningen


and Contributing to this Proposal
Society for Research and Initiatives for
Sustainable Technologies and Institutions,
SRISTI, Ahmedabad

ICRISAT

Plant ]Breeding Division
Central Rice Research Institute C.R.RI.
Cuttack, India

IVORY COAST
Principal Rice Breeder
West Africa Rice Development Association
WARDA

Production Economist
West Afica Rice Development Association
WARDA

MEXICO
Program de Genetica
Colegio de Postgraduados, CP

Natural Resources
Management Research Group

CIMMYT
Applications of Biotechnology
Maize Program

NEPAL
Nepal Agricultural Research Council
NARC

NETHIERLANDS
Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction
Research (CPRO/DLO)
The Centre for Genetic Resources The
Netherlands
Wageningen

ISNAR

Seeds &r Biodiversity Program
Overseas Development Institute, ODI










PERU
Grupo Yanapai ILEA

PHILIPPINES
Center for Research and Information Exchange
in Ecologically Sound Agriculture
ILEIA

Irrigated Rice Research Program
International Rice Research Institute, IRRI

Gender Analysis Program
International Rice Research Institute, IRRI


SYRIA
Barley Program Leader
International Center for Agricultural Research
in the Dry Areas, ICARDA


Dry Land Resource Management Project
International Center for Agricultural Research
in the Dry Areas, ICARDA

THAILAND
ASIALAND Network for Management
of Sloping Lands
International Board for Soil Research
& Management, IBSRAM

TUNISIA
Director of Extension
and Project of Development
Institute des Regions Arides, IRA
Tunisia

UNITED KINGDOM
Overseas Development Institute, ODI
Centre for Arid Zone Studies
University of Wales, Bangor
United Kingdom

USA
CGIAR Gender Program

Cornell University


ZIMBABWE
Department of Research and
Specialist Services DR&6SS
MinistrIy of Lands, Agriculture and
Water Development

Department of Reserch and Specialist Services
DR&SS
Chiredzi Research Station

Institute of Environmental Studies, IES
University of Zimbabwe, UZ


Socioeconomics and Policy Division
ICRISAT











MEMBERS OF THIE NRM WORKIING
GROUP

G. Thiele
PROINPA
Program de Investigacicin de la Papa
Man Cesped 293,
Casilla Postal 4285
Cochabamba, Bolivia
Tel. (591-42) 49013 -49506
Fax. (591-42) 45708
Email: g.thiele@cgnet.com

J. H~agmann
GTZ
Agritex Conservation Tillage Project
Consultant for Natural Resource Management
Talstrasse 129
D-79194 Gundelfingen
Germany
Tel. (49-761) 54762
Fax. (49-761) 54775
Email. jhagmann@aol.com

K. K. Patel
Secretary
Society for Research and Initiatives for
Sustainable Technologies and Institutions, SRISTI
Researcher at IIM-A
clo Prof. Anil K. Gupta
IIM-A Ahmedabad 380015, India
Tel. (91-79) 407 241
Fax. (91-79) 642 7896
Email: honeybee@iimahd.ernet.in

L. Harrington
CIMMYT
Lisboa 27
Apartado Postal 6-641
06600 Mtxico, D.F., Mexico
Tel. (52-5) 7267532
Fax. (52-5) 7267558-9
Email: lharrington@cimmyt.mx

M. Loevinsohn
ISNAR
International Service for National


Agricultural Research
Senior Officer, National Research Management
P.O. Box 93375
2509 AJ, The Hague, Netherlands
Tel. (31-70)3496100
Email: M.LOEVINS OHN~icgnet.com

M. E. Fernsndez
ILEIA
P.O. Box 64
Zip Code 3800
Leusden, Netherlands
Tel. (31-33) 4943086
Fax:(31-33) 4951779
Email: mfernand@msn.com

J. Recharte
Program en Sociedades de Montafia y
Desarrollo Sostenible DESO
F~acultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales
FLACCSO
Ulpiano Paez 118 y Avenida Patria
Casilla 17-11-06362
Quito, Ecuador
Tel: (593-2) 528200
Fax: (593-2) 566139
EMail. Recharte@pddsflac.ecx.ec

F. Castillo
Mejoramiento Gen~tico de Maiz
Program de Gen~tica
Colegio de Postgraduados, CP
Km 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Texcoco
Montecillo, C.P. 56230
Estado de Mexico, Mexico
Tel. (595) 10230
Fax: (595) 10230

E. Fernndez-Baca
Country Facilitator Researcher
Grupo Yanapai ILEIA
Durero 285, San Borja
Lima 41, Pent
Tel. (51-1) 4359579
Fax. (51-1) 4359519
Email: ferbaca@amauta.rcp .net.pe










H. Bechstedt
ASALAND Network for Management
of Sloping Lands
International Board for Soil Research
& Management, IBSRAM
6 FL. Dept. of Land Development,
Phaholyothin Road
9-109, Bangkhen, Bangkok
10900 -Thailand
Tel. (66-2) 5611322 5790900 5797590 -
5794012
Fax. (66-2) 5611230
E.Mail. IBSRAM@cgnet.com
OIB SRAM@nontri.ku. ac.th

E. Ayeh
Garu Agricultural Station (GAS)
P.O. Box 44
Bawku UER, Ghana
Fax: (233) 7123910

M. Sghaier
Reseacher, Director of Extention
and Project of Development
Institute des Regions Arides, IRA
4119 Medenine, Tunisia
Tel. (216-5) 640 661
Fax. (216-5) 640435

D. Carney
Overseas Development Institute, ODI
Portland House
Stag Place
London SW1E 5DP
United Kingdom
Tel. (44-171) 393 1642
Fax: (44-171) 393 1699
EMail: d.carney@odi.org.uk

I. 1Mharapara
Head of Research Station
Department of Reserch and Specialist Services
DR&SS
Chiredzi Research Station
P.O. Box 97
Chiredzi, Zimbabwve
Tel. (26- 31) 2397/8
Aleppo, Syria


E. Chuma
Institute of Environmental Studies, IES
University of Zimbabwe, UZ
P.O. Box MP 167
Harare, Zimbabwe
Tel. (26-34) 303211
F~ax. (26-34) 3334071 335249
E-Mail. beampbell~esanet.zw
erudo@esanet.zw

N. R.Gata
Department of Research and
Specialist Services DR&iSS
Ministry of Lands, Agriculture and
Water Development
P. O. Box 8108, Causeway
Fifth Street Extension,
Harare, Zimbabwe
Tel: (263-4) 704531-728310
Fax: (263-4) 728317

D. Rohrbach
Director, Socioeconomist and Policy Division
ICRISAT
P.O. Box 776
Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
Tel. (26-3) 838311
Fax. (26-3) 838253
Email: D.Rohrbach@cgnet.com

T. Paris
Senior Assoc. Scientist and Coordinator
of Gender Analysis Program
International Rice Research Institute, IRRI
P.O. Box 933
Manila, Philippines
Tel. (63-2) 8181926 Loc. 312
Fax. (63-2) 8911292
Email. TParis~cgnet.com

A. Aw-Hassan
Coordinator, Dry Land Resource Management
Project
International Center for Agricultural Research
in the Dry Areas, ICARDA
P.O. Box 5466
Tel. (963-21) 213477 213433










Fax. (963-21) 213490 225105
EMail. A.Aw-Hassan@cgnet.com.

T. D~alton
Production Economist
West Afica Rice Development Association
WARDA
01 BP 2551 01 Bouake, Ivory Coast
Tel. (225) 632396
Fax. (225) 634714
Email. DALTON@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU
WARDA@cgnet.com

J. A.Ashby
Director of Research
Natural Resource Management
CIAT AA 6713
Cali, Colombia
Tel: (57-2) 4450000
E-Mail. J.Ashby@cgnet.com

D. Pachico
Director Strategic Planning
CIAT AA 6713
Cali, Colombia
Tel: (57-2) 4450000
EMail. D.Pachico@cgnet.comn

H. Raynborg
Hillsides Program
CIAT AA 6713
Cali, Colombia
Te: (57-2) 4450000
E-Mail. H.Raynborg@cgnet.com

S. Fujisaka
Land Management
CIAT AA 6713
Cali, Colombia
Te: (57-2) 4450000
E-Mail. S.Fujisaka@cgnet.com

R. Thomas
Tropical Lowlands Program
CIAT AA6713
Cali, Colombia
Tel: (57-2) 4450000
E-Mail. R.Thomas@cgnet.com











ASSESSING THE BENEFITS O1F RURAL
`WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION
IN NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT RESEARCH
AND CAPACITY-BUILDING



1. Project Summary

Theme
The payoff to different participatory approaches for involving rural women in agricultural research
priority-setting and experimentation.

Purpose
To help make agricultural research more responsible to farmers demand, and to increase the
access of poor rural women to appropriate technology by improving the application of
participatory methods and gender analysis in natural resource management (NRM) research.

Objectives
O to develop a typology of approaches to using gender analysis, participatory methods and
organizational innovations, for involving rural women in NRM research.
O to assess methods and indicators for determining the impact of different approaches.
O to monitor and assess impact together with participants in a select number of cases (sites) to
build their capacity through action-research and training.
O to provide systematic assessment of the payoff, including costs and benefits of different
approaches to involving poor rural women in participatory NRM.
O to stimulate methodology development and organizational change by identifying method
gaps, prioritizing areas for refining and developing methodology, and opportunities for
innovation.

Abstract
The participation of farmerslespecially womenlin technology development is vital for achieving
impact that benefits poor people. Household food security is vitally affected by women's access
to technology appropriate for their needs. Participation of such users with special needs, can be
critical in the early stages of technology development to help set priorities, define criteria for
success, and determine when an innovation is "ready" for release to farmers. We have some
evidence that this novel approach may dramatically reduce the cost of applied research and can
significantly improve the impact of research for poor farmers, especially women. However,
evidence is patchy and it is not well understood how to replicate success on a large scale. The key
contribution of this proposal will be to develop clear guidelines on how to achieve this, and build


January 23rd,1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd









capacity to operationalize novel approaches in practice. Research will analyze data on costs of
contrasting approaches, both historical and generated by action-research of this project. Both
qualitative and quantitative benefits of contrasting approaches will be measured. Although
quantitative cost-benefit ratios will be difficult to establish, overall impact will be defined and
analyzed, using a variety of methods -- including participatory methods for impact assessment.
Guidelines for decision-makers, researchers, development practitioners, and community leaders on
methods'for assessing impact of participation will be developed and disseminated. Results of
comparative analysis of costs of different approaches. Their benefits to different stakeholders, and
their overall impact on research priority-setting, technology design, and adoption will be used to
formulate guidelines for appropriate use. Capacity building will be integrated with cooperation in
research with NARI and NGO projects, associated with the Systemwide program's NRM
international working group.

Mode of Cooperation
The Systemwide Program's NRM international working group will identify up to six cooperating
projects and candidates for regional fellows. Three CIAT social scientists will provide scientific
leadership in coordination with the NRM Group and the Systemwide Program coordinator. Joint
research and training; activities will be carried out in each project by regional fellows, with input
from the NRM Group members and CIAT scientists, and the cooperating projects as defined on a
case-by-case basis.

IARC Programme and U~nit/Department:
The CIAT Project "Methods of Farmer Participation in Research and Gender Analysis for
Technology Development." The International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) in
Colombia, South America.

IARC Project Coordinator:
Dr. Jacqueline A. Ashby, CIAT

Collaborating Institutions:
This project is submitted in conjunction with the CGIAR Systemwide Program for "Participatory
Research and Gender Analysis for Technology Development and Institutional Innovation" for
which CIAT is the convening center. Institutions collaborating in this program (listed on pages I-
v) have agreed to be members of the Working Groups of this program, and participated in the
preparation of the workplan for the Gender Analysis and the NRM Working Group, of which this
proposal is a part.

Project Scientists
Participatory Research Project Manager, Anthropologist Asia, Sociologist Uganda,
Systemwide Program Coordinator
Project Duration: Three years: 1998-2000

Location
This will be a global effort, with sites for empirical work, training workshops, and dissemination


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd









in Afica, Asia, and Latin America.


Budget Summary
The total grant request from BMZfor 1998-2000: US $1,406,000
CIAT's contribution: US $1,125,000
The Systemwide program contribution: US $ 626,000

Status: Submission January 31, 1997

2. Background and ]Rationale

The development problem.
Achieving the participation of users especially women in the process of technology
development is an important strategic research issue, vital to achieving impact which benefits poor
people. User participation in the early stages of technology design ensures that new technologies
can be adopted rapidly. Household food security, particularly among children in poor countries,
is vitally affected by women's access to income-generating technologies.
The "feminization of poverty," a trend which is driving rural women in particular to form an
increasing proportion of the very poor, makes it increasingly imperative that a high priority and
visibility be given to strengthening, consolidating appropriate use of gender analysis and
participatory research in the CGIAR system, NARS and other partners in agricultural research
and development.

Participation of beneficiaries in formulating the research.
The Systemwide Initiative on F~armer Participation and Gender Analysis held a Planning Meeting
in September 1996 which was the first opportunity for a group of NRM practitioners from the
CGIAR to work with other institutions to analyze the need for collaborative work on
development of participatory methods and gender analysis for natural resource management
research. (See NRM group composition, page iii-v)

The NRM Group prioritized two main thrusts for future work:
*An assessment of current practices, the payoff to different approaches, and the main
opportunities for further work.
*Case studies of action research for comparative analysis of the process of implementing
participatory approaches and gender analysis in the NRM research projects. This would
involve monitoring a learning process approach, emphasizing capacity building and
operationalizing new methods and organizational approaches.
A key issue identified by the NRM Group is how to operationalize the input of resource-poor
farmers, especially women, into research planning and implementation at a scale that can really
make a difference to the planning process. We have many cases of small scale participatory
diagnosis, often at the village level. If user participation in research is to be more than symbolic,
then the challenge is to systematize methodology for scaling up this participation to a regional,


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd










national, or even international level. The NRM Group seeks through this proposal to provide
information and guidelines to enable research organizations to operationalize user participation in
a cost-effective way.

Overview of current research and statement of the research problem.
Over the last decade, substantial work has been done to introduce a user perspective into
adaptive research. For example, CIMMYTis development of on-farm research methodology and
resulting manuals and training have been very influential, as have CIP's "farmer back-to-farmer"
approach, IRRI's experience with the Women and Rice Farming Network, FAO's Women and
People's Participation in Development, ISNAR's study of client oriented approaches and CIAT's
farmer participatory research. Extensive work is going on in the NGO community with the use of
participatory rapid appraisal (PRA), participatory diagnosis, and farmer-to-farmer transfer
methods. There is an explosion in the application of extant participatory techniques in adaptive
research and technology transfer. This proposal builds upon past work, but offers something
more.

Participatory approaches can change the division of labor between policy-makers, researchers,
extension services and farmers, leading to a more efficient use of all these resources (Carnap and
Da'meem, 1996). However, a problem inherent in the popularization of participatory methods, in
particular PRA, is that the methods can be used to extract local knowledge for the benefit of
outside agencies without building any capacity among the participants for sustaining a new
division of labor. This approach, which can be called functional participation was distinguished
by the NRM working group from empowering participation, which involves building local
capacity to manage participatory processes and the decisions inherent in these (Systemwide
Program, 1996).

The NRM group gave high importance to the use and development of participatory methods in a
learning process approach. Developing tools and guidelines in a learning process approach is
particularly important in NRM because there is a range of complex trade-offs between
conservation and productivity acceptable to farmers, and to other stakeholders in natural resource
management. Acceptable solutions need to be negotiated, and are typically highly location
specific.This makes difficult to identify~ technological or institutional recommendations for
centralized research and policy-makers. Instead, mechanisms, methods and tools have to be
provided that will enable stakeholders to develop locally acceptable recommendations.

However, functional participation and empowering or capacity-building participation approaches
tend to have very different cost structures. Functional participation can be rapidly implemented
by a few facilitators on a large scale (e.g. hundreds or thousands of villages), while
capacity-building participation has to date been implemented on a small scale, requiring intensive
facilitation by outsiders over a longer time period. Functional participation may not be
self-sustaining or have any lasting benefits for the local community or specifically the local
agricultural innovation process.In contrast the payoff to capacity-building approaches may
be in strengthening local capacity to experiment and innovate in agriculture, as well as the


January 2rd, 1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd










spill-over effects to a broad spectrum of local development issues.


This kind of question is raised with respect to gender analysis. Does differentiating users by
gender can slow down PRA? Do capacity-building approaches increase costs? Does the
additional information or the type of information obtained justify the expense? And howu can
this be assessed before the additional investment is incurred? What is the cost of not including
rural women in a participatory process? Advocates of gender analysis would argue that this
should be done a priori but many IARC and NARS agricultural research managers avoid using
gender analysis because of the additional cost and vagueness on this issue. Definitive data to
address these questions needs to be available to decision-makers for research planning.

ACt present, it is difficult to say what degree of user participation is appropriate at an early stage in
the research process, and for which circumstances. Some experience suggests that early user
participation in research may reduce the costs of applied research, (see for example, Ashby, 1995;
Berg, 1995; Marfo,1996; Thrupp, 1995; Sperling, 1995; Welzein, 1995). A recent study which set
out to evaluate a cross-section of experiences in different parts of the world with participatory
research, found that there was too little evidence being collected on which to base an evaluation
(Okali and Sumerg, 1995).

It is not clear if difference in costliness, time frame, scale and sustainability is inherent in different
approaches, or whether practitioners of gender analysis and capacity-building participatory
approaches are still in the early stages of a learning curve, when pilot experiences tend to be more
costly and small-scale. There is a need for systematic comparison of successful as well as
unsuccessful efforts to implement and scale-up functional and capacity-building participation, in
order to answer these questions.

This information is needed to provide guidelines for agricultural researchers and research
managers, development practitioners and local community leadership on the use of different
approaches.


Position of the project in the research-development continuum.
This project combines research, and capacity building in an integrated approach. Comparative
research will be conducted with at least six selected case study projects which are implementing
contrasting participatory approaches to develop and introduce new natural resource management
practices. Research will generate data to answer the questions on the impact, costs and benefits of
different approaches formulated in the previous section of this proposal. The research will be
conducted with project participants, both professional staff and beneficiaries, including rural
women. Assessing the impact of the participatory approach used by a project will involve
action-research that provides immediate feedback to the project members.

An integral part of implementing the research will be workshops on the methods, joint data
collection and analysis, and follow-up workshops on the results to identify methodology


January 23rd,1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd









innovations these projects want to introduce as a result of the joint research.


Capacity-building activities will include: operationalising impact assessment with case study
projects, training and workshops on participatory approaches and gender analysis to provide
technical advice on methodologies, and the results obtained on comparison of different
approaches.

Ongoing activities
This proposal is based on the results of an International Seminar and Planning Meeting conducted
from September 9-14, 1996 at Cali, Colombia which brought together an international group of
fifty researchers and development professionals highly experienced in participatory research and
gender analysis. They represented IARCs, NAR~s, universities, NGOs and donors (see page i-ii
for participant list). These scientists and development practitioners from Asia, Latin America,
Central America, Africa (east, west, south and north), South and Southeast Asia, the Middle East
and Europe developed a research plan to address the priority methodological issues in
participatory research and gender analysis. They defined the program goal, purpose and
workplans for three working groups: plant breeding; natural resource management, and gender
analysis. In December 1996 the CGIAR Technical Advisory Committee approved the
participants'proposal as a systemwide program, which has been funded through the CGIAR for
1997.

In 1997 the NRM Group workplan will conduct an inventory and assessment of current PR/GA
methods and organisational approaches in NRM research, and will identify constraints to
involving specific user groups in NRM research decision-making. Methods and indicators for
determining impact will be identified. Resources for capacity building, including trainers,
consultants, exchange possibilities between group members and resource materials will be
inventoried, and made available through the PR/GA E-mail list serve.

This work will be carried out through up to four regional workshops and one global workshop to
provide a synthesis of the state of the art in 1997. This proposal will build on the results of 1997.


January 23rd,1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd









Relations to CIAT's m13id-term plan
CIAT's mid-term plan proposes continuation of its core-funded project on participatory research
for the period 1998-2000.

Expected Impact and Innovations
Methods
0 This research will accelerate technology development and adoption for natural resource
management (NRM), by accelerating learning firom existing experience and by identifying
innovations needed in participatory research and gender analysis tested in at least six
contrasting projects around the world.
O Researchers will have a stronger capacity to process feedback on technology design from
gender-differentiated client groups.

Poverty-alleviation and environmental protection
O Poor rural women will be important participants in and beneficiaries of the research.
O Technologies for natural resource management that increase food security while protecting
the environment will be better targeted and adopted to rural women's needs and will be
adopted more rapidly.

Innovations
O Through original empirical studies and comparative data, it will be possible to assess the
payoff to participatory methods and gender analysis.
D Results will promote user involvement in the early stages of research priority-setting and
technology testing.
O Gender analysis will be integrated into NRM research.
O NARS, NGOs, and producers will be closely involved with the CGIAR in methodology
development for participatory research and gender analysis.

Excpected benefits of the project for NARSC
NARS are represented on the Systemwide Program Planning Group and in the NRM Working
Group; NARS projects will be cooperating integrally in this project, which will be an important
forum for CGIAR/NARS to work together.

* The CGIAR and NARS will access worldwide exchange of expertise on participatory
research and gender analysis.
O Better designed technologies, with a greater probability of adoption and with less time in the
pipeline before testing by clients, will result in considerable savings and increased impact for
NARS projects involved.
O Indigenous systems of crop development and natural resource management will be
strengthened and integrated in a mutually reinforcing way with formal research.

* Organisational innovations to "mainstream" gender analysis and participatory approaches will


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd









be identified.
*Capacity-building in participatory research methods and gender-analysis tools will be
expanded.

3. Project Objectives and Outputs

Objectives and expected results
This project's goal, purpose and specific objectives (outputs) are summarised in Box 1 and
detailed in the logical framework matrix in Fig 1.

Box 1. Goal, Purpose and Objectives.

Goal
To improve the ability of the CGIAR System and other collaborating institutions to develop
technology which alleviates poverty, improves food security and protects the environment with
greater equity.

Purpose
To help make agricultural research more responsive to farmers'demand and to increase the
access of poor rural women to appropriate technology by improving the application of
participatory methods and gender analysis in NRM research.

Objectives
0 to develop a typology of approaches to using gender analysis, participatory methods and
organisational innovations, for involving rural women in NRM research.
I to assess methods and indicators for determining the impact of different approaches.
O to monitor and assess impact together with participants in a select number of cases (sites)
to build their capacity through action-research and training.
O to provide systematic assessment of the payoff, including costs and benefits of different
approaches to involving poor rural women in participatory NRM.
O to stimulate methodology development and organizational change by identifying method
gaps, prioritizing areas for refining and developing methodology, and opportunities for
innovation.

Contribution to the CGIAR goals
During the CGIAR ICW 095 meetings in October, the priority-setting process concerned the
urgent need to enhance the impact of research on the well-being of the poor with particular
attention to women. Achieving this goal will require building new partnerships not only with
respect to institutional relationships, but also in terms of research methodology that promotes
participation of gender-differentiated client groups in the process of technology design. Close


January 23rd,1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd













Project Title: O]Assessing the Benefits of RuralWomeni]s Participation in Natural Resource Management Research and Carpacity-buildingO
Duration: 3 years
Starting date: January 1997 End date: December 2000


Narrative Summary Measurable Indicators Means ofVerification Important Assumptions

Goal
To improve the ability of the CGIAR System and other collaborating institutions to develop,
technology which alleviates poverty, improves food security and protects the environmen with
gr eater equity

Propose
To increase the access of poor rural womento appropriate technology by improving the application
of participatory methods and gender analysis in NRM research

Output 1. A typology of pproaches to using gender analysis, participatoy methods, and A paper on the typology is. Journal publications and reports There exist at least six projects with
organizational approaches for involving! rural women in NRM research available in 1998 5-6 years of excperience willing to
conductactionl-researchi. The NRM
group completes its inventory of
approaches in 1997

Adivities
1.1 Synthesize results of prior work to develop a typology of approaches
1.2 Inventory projects and classify using the typology
1.3 Publish and disseminate results

Output 2. Methods and Indicatols tested for assessing the impact of different approaches Published guidelines are available Publicationls and reports Cooperating projects are willingto
to PR/GA on use of indicators and methods test range of methods and
for impact asessment indicators


Activties
2.1 Intemnational workshop with six case study projects selects the most promising methods and
indicators for impact assessment (benef is); fmnalize research design
2.2 Apply interventions with case study projects, monitor and compare results obtained with
respectto impact on costs, benefits and overall
2.3 Conduct follow-up workshops an-site to assess utility of methods applied
2.4 Publish guidelines for impact assessment of participatory research and gender~ analysis



Output 3. Improved capacity through action-assearch and training for appropriate use of Regional fellows, project Follow-up workshops in 2000 Training in PR/GA and methods of
PR/GA methods beneficiaries, and staff apply impact assessment is of interest to
knowledge obtained cooperating projects


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd


Fig. 1 Logical Framework












Activities
3.1 Use of typology to select six case study projects for comparison
3.2 Appoint three regional research fellows and conduct t raining on site, with six case study
projects in PR/GA methods
3.3 In follow-up workshops with case study projects, assess the usefulness of capacity building


Output 5. Innovationin methodology development and organniztional change by Case study projects identify~ Planning workshops in 1998, 1999 Projects are interested in
identiffing method gaps, prioritising aeas for refining and developing methodology, and opportunities for innovtion and follow-up workshops in 2000 implementing innovations
opportunities for organizatiornal innovation

Activties
5.1 Synthesize weaknesses and mehod gaps
5.2 In follow-up workshops with case study projects, design implementation of innovations for
fiuther testing
5.3 Conduct project evaluations, and input results to identifying needed innovations


Output 4. Systematic assessment of the payof [, including costs and benef les of different
approaches to involving poor rural women in~ participatory NRM





Activities
4.1 Design comparative studies withup to six case study projects to collect data on costs anld
benefits over three years
4.2 Document status of women in NRM and participation in case study projects
4.3 Compare costs and benefits of including gender analysis in research priority setting
4.4 Compare costs and benefits of differentiating participants in experimentation by gender
4.5 Compare costs and benefits of participation by women at different scales
4.6 Compare costs and benefits of functional vs empowering participatory approaches to
involving women
4.7 Synthesize and publish research results and guidelines
4.8 Intemnational Seminar on results


Published data and analysis
comparing costs and benefits of
diferen approaches to
participatory research and gender
analysis


Published Guidelines for decision-
makers;
Working papers and fmnal
publication


Projects are willing for monitor~
for costs and share historical
data on costs
Projects are doing studies of
impact or willing to do so
Projects are selected which have
accomplished some measurable
impact


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd










linkage between farmers and researchers, and farmer involvement in the process of technology
design has been identified by TAC as essential in integrated natural resource management research
(TAC, 1995, Annex 1:53; Greenland et al 1994; CG Soil Water Nutrient Management Program ,
1995). This project will contribute to this goal by improving understanding of how to
operationalize farmer involvement in research, providing information for research managers as
well as method development for research and development practitioners.

Costs of the research in relation to its impact
One of the key issues addressed by this proposed research is the deficiency of systematic
information and analysis with which to assess the costs and benefits of participatory research and
gender analysis. The benefits are widely advocated: more accurate targeting of technology to
users, in particular marginal or invisible groups like poor rural women; improved
cost-effectiveness of research because fewer "white-elephant "technologies are developed;
technologies are more appropriate to users' needs, and adopted more quickly; technologies are in
users' hands at an earlier stage speeding up the technology development and transfer process;
rural peoples' own capacity for innovation in agriculture is strengthened thus increasing the
returns to external agency inputs, and to local initiative; food security and equity objectives are
directly addressed when the beneficiaries are rural women who participate in design and
dissemination of technologies.

These benefits are difficult to assess in natural resource management. Very little data exists on the
costs of implementing different participatory approaches to achieving these benefits. Moreover,
virtually no assessment has been done of the extent or duration of these different types of benefits
in relation to costs of implementation. This knowledge gap is serious because at the same time
that donors, research managers and development projects are encouraged to finance participatory
approaches, which may be cost-intensive, little research is being done on how to assess the return
on this investment.

Different methods to assessing benefits to stakeholders, and their impact on development
objectives, research priority-setting and research efficiency need to be used.

Methods need to be qualitative, or non-monetary and benefits need to be identified together with
user participation; there are also direct costs and economic benefits which can be measured
quantitatively.

The absence of this information may in the near future cause fatigue with participatory approaches
and their abandonment, without proper understanding of their costs and benefits, to the detriment
of the poor who stand to gain substantially from effective, large scale participation in the process
of technology development.

In view of the scale of this knowledge gap, and the size of the investments in participatory
approaches that are being made by donors to CGIAR, NARS and NGO partners involved in
agricultural research and development, the cost of this project (US$000,000) is small relative to


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd










the potential impact of a rigorous study which can help to orient more cost-effective investment in
these approaches, and may accelerate their introduction to NARS once the costs and benefits are
clearer to decision-makers.


Beneficiaries
The direct beneficiaries of this research will be the participants in at least six projects using
participatory approaches and gender analysis for technology development and transfer in natural
resource management, including IARC, NARI and NGOs as well as members of the NRM
working group, project staff and these projects' beneficiary population of farmers, in particular
rural women. Projects will be selected together with members of the systemwide Program NRM
working group (see page 4-6), using criteria developed by the program for this purpose, and a
typology of participatory approaches which will be the first output of this research. For this
reason it is premature to specify the exact projects which will be involved.

Indirect beneficiaries and ultimate users of this research will be all member institutions of the
Systemwide Program, the international audience of IARC and NARS research managers,
researchers, development practitioners and community leaders with which this program works,
and the resource poor farmers and especially women whose participation in agricultural research
and development this research intends to enhance.

Participatory methods and gender analysis have the potential to strengthen indigenous systems of
knowledge generation, of crop development, and of natural resource conservation. Strengthening.
these systems, as opposed to displacing or discrediting them, can be vital to development which
promotes sustainable and equitable production increases and natural resource management.
Specific beneficiaries of this research include rural men and women who are contributing to
agricultural research through local experimentation with new practices, and who can benefit from
cost-effective approaches to enhancing their participation in the wider agricultural research
community.

4. Activities and W~orkplan

Research design, methodology and procedure
The research will involve a quasi-experimental design for comparison of functional and
empowering or capacity-building approaches to participation for technology development and
transfer in natural resource management. A typology of approaches will be developed as a
framework for comparison, in order to select specific case study projects according to key
determinant variables included in the typology. The typology will be developed and tested for
general applicability with the members of the NRM working group through E-mail conferencing.
Projects will be identified in Asia, Africa and Latin America -- ideally two in each region each
representing either functional or capacity building approaches (See Figure 2).


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd








Figure 2. Example of framework for selection of case study projects.

Gender-Differentiatio n
Approach to Men and Women Men and Women
Participation in NRM participants mixed participants differentiated
Functional



Capacity-building




This will be determined once an inventory of participatory approaches is completed in 1997.
Factors to be considered are: length of project; plans to increase the geographic scale of
participation; commercial vs. subsistence orientation of production; role of women in production,
and resource management; types of NRM problems and technologies involved; organizational
strategies.

Once projects have been selected, workshops will be conducted with their staff and beneficiary
groups on approaches to impact assessment of their approach, including data gathering on costs
and benefits. A synthesis will be made for training purposes, of an inventory of methods and
indicators for impact assessment conducted in 1997, and results will be shared with the case study
projects. A procedure will be jointly defined for this research. Some key data must be gathered in
common to permit comparison, but projects will also want to collect information on areas of
special interest to each of them.

Two types of data will be sought (1) Historical data it will be important to include some case
studies with at least five years of documented experience (2) current data collection of this can
be initiated by this project. Some projects may wish to implement novel procedures as a result of
training in the first year of the project, and to monitor the costs and benefits ofthese.

Data will be collected with the case study projects on: costs of implementing their approach to
user participation at different geographic scales, and over time as they have scaled up costs
include human resources, and operational costs to the institutions involved; and the costs incurred
by the communities and farmers participating. Costs of participation in problem diagnosis will be
differentiated from participation in experimentation or in technology transfer. Participation with
and without gender differentiation will be costed. Evidence of organizational changes
implemented to achieve user participation and to increase geographical scale of participation and
their costs will be sought.


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/lbmz-pro.wpd











Both historical and ongoing benefits obtained from user participation, and their impact will be
documented. Data collection and analysis for impact assessment will involve addressing questions
like the following:
-Did participation and gender differentiation change project objectives or priorities with
respect to technology development and transfer for NRM?
-Was there feedback to NARS or IARC research that changed their research priorities?
-What difference did this feedback make to the cost or impact of that research?
-Did participation, and gender differentiation or new organizational strategies affect the
number ofbeneficiaries, the type of beneficiaries adopting new technology, or the speed at
which they adopted?
-What were the economic benefits of this impact on adoption?
-Was local experimentation with new practices strengthened?
-Did it improve targeting?
-Did it improve the design or appropriateness of technology for a given beneficiary group?
-Did capacity building improve local skills, problem-solving ability and ability to initiate and
sustain participation without external facilitators?
Data analysis will be carried out through workshops with the case study projects to build their
capacity to continue the impact assessment especially for adoption variables which require an
extended time-frame. These workshops will also evaluate the findings of the research with the
projects to identify~ methodology innovations they want to introduce, and monitoring of these.

Results will be prepared for publication with the full collaboration and co-authorship of case study
project participants. Publications will be in the form of guidelines for research managers, project
managers' donors and other decision-makers; scientific journal articles; handbooks for community
leaders.

Milestones to monitor progress
1998
-- Typology of functional and empowering or capacity-building approaches to using
participatory research and gender analysis completed and available as a working paper.
-- International workshop conducted with 6 case study projects on methods and indicators for
impact assessment and cost-benefit analysis to finalize research design.
-- Regional research fellows appointed and case study project participants trained on-site in
PR/GA methods.
-- Interventions or practices to be introduced are determined, and implementation begun.
-- Data collection on costs initiated in at least six sites.
-- Documentation of historical and current status of women beneficiaries of the projects with
respect to key impact indicators, including NRM practices

1999
-- Collection of historical data on costs of different approaches used by the case study projects
completed


January 23rd, 1997 JAAlbmnz-pro.wpd










--. Costs documented of different approaches to implementing participation in research priority
setting at different scales (e.g. farm, community, watershed, regional ); resultant findings
synthesized and available as a working paper
-- Costs documented of carrying out participatory research priority setting with and without
differentiating women as separate stakeholder group (s) ;resultant findings compared and
synthesized and available as a working paper
-- Collection of historical data on impact and benefits of different approaches initiated
-- Collection of historical data on benef its of gender dif ferentiation initiated

2000
-- Costs documented of different approaches to involving farmers in experimentation for
technology development; and of gender-differentiation of participants in experimentation;
results compared synthesized and available as a working paper.
-- Costs analyzed in relation to short-term impact and benefits of participatory approaches and
gender analysis interventions implemented as part of the research of this project
-- Overall impact, costs and benefits of including gender analysis compared among projects and
results synthesized and published
-- Overall impact, costs and benefits of different approaches to participation compared among
projects and results synthesized.
-- Follow-up workshops on-site with case study projects conducted; guidelines for future
developed; and innovations in methods for further testing identified based on the findings to
date;
-- Need for second stage of this project assessed, to continue data collection on impact of
interventions and proposed innovations in methods
-Results and guidelines published and presented at a international seminar conducted by the
systemwide program on a comparison of costs and benefits to technology design and
adoption of different approaches to adoption and the inclusion of different types of users
in NRM at different scales of management, and sustain participation without external
facilitators?

Inputs
Experienced scientific leadership at the PhD level is required to manage this research: the project
requires rigorous design and data collection to ensure comparability and reliability of results.

Capacity -building and implementation of the research will be combined in the form of up to six
Regional Research Fellowships to be available at the level of recent PhD or experienced MA/MSc
graduates. Fellows will be based in Africa (2), Asia (2) and Latin America (2). Regional Fellows
will be experienced in participatory methods and gender analysis. Regional Fellows will be
affiliated to or may be staff members of the case study projects, and will work closely at their
sites. They will require support for international travel, to attend workshops to unifyr research
design and measurement, as well as to compare results across case studies.

Operational expenses will include data collection, analysis ,training in methods, annual
international meetings of the NRM Group, regional fellows and CIAT project staff and six on-site


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd










workshops with cooperating projects in 1998 and 2000. It is expected that cooperating project
staff will be implementing participatory activities as part of their own project commitments and
will take part in the research as a means of monitoring and improving their own ef fectiveness.
Nonetheless, especially NGO-sponsored projects may be required some financial assistance to
facilitate their involvement in the research, in the form of operating expenses for local staff.

Roles and responsibilities of collaborating institutions.
The project will implement part of the workplan developed by the NRM Group of the CGIAR
Systemwide Program on "Participatory research and Gender Analysis for Technology
Development and Institutional Innovation. CIAT is the convening center for this programme (the
PR/GA Programm~e). The principal IARC agency for this proposal will be CIAT's internal
Project"Methods of Farmer Participation in Research and Gender Analysis for Technology
Development. "

The workplan for this project involves objectives and activities designed by the NRM Working
group of the PR/GA Programme, and CIAT's role will be ensure the proposal is executed on
behalf of this international Working Group. The systemwide program will evaluate this project.
As the executing agency for the PR/GA systemwide programme and for this project, CIATC is
ultimately responsible for financial and progress reports to donors. CIAT will provide scientific
leadership to this project from its senior scientific staff working in Latin America, Africa and Asia.

The NRM Working group (for memberships see page iii-v) constitutes the primary set of
collaborators for this project. The NRM working group is represented on the Systemwide
Program Planning Group and is accountable to the Planning Group for implementation of its
workplan. The Planning Group consists of eight members, who are representatives of the NRM,
Plant Breeding and Gender Working groups, the NGO, NARS IARC and Donor stakeholders in
the Programme and the convening Center. GTZ and BMZ, Germany representatives took part in
the election of the donor representative to the Planning Group at the September, 1996 planning
meeting. The programme aspires to add farmer representation to the Planning Group in due
course.

Through annual international seminars and workshops financed by the Systemwide program, the
NRM Working group will be involved in development of the research design, selection of case
study projects which will very likely be associated with NRM working group members,
nomination of regional research fellows, and workshops of this project, which will be organized
sequentially with the NRM Group meetings. The syustemwide program will support the case
studies with staff exchange, field research and data analysis consultancies.

The third set of partners in this project are the cooperating case study projects. These have yet to
be selected on the basis of the typology of participatory approaches which this project will
develop. Their leadership will help to select the proposed regional fellows; will contribute to data
collection, participate in conducting workshops proposed here, and in training in methods; and
will be closely involved in the analysis of results and development of final guidelines.


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd









Communities and farmers, both men and women, involved with the cooperating case study
projects are expected to assume important responsibilities in executing, monitoring and
evaluating the impact, including costs and benefits that this research aims to assess.

Implemlentation:

The proposed project is a three year project (1998-2000) Details of the implementation are shown
in Fig. 3.


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd












Activities J F M J A M J J IA S O N1D
1998:
m
Typology developed.
m
Inventory of projects using different approaches.
Case study projects selected and collaboration with them established.
Intern01 workshop conducted on methods and indicators for impact.

Implementation of interventions introduced for assessment. (*)
Regional research fellows appointed.
Case study project participants trained on-site in methods.
Data collection on costs initiated in at least six sites.

Documentation of historical and current status of gender-differentiated target

groups of projects with respect to key impact indicators, including NRM.
Publications
1999:
Collection of historical data on costs of different approaches.
Costs documented of participation in research priority setting at different
a1
scales (e.g. Farm, community, watershed &t regional).
Three case studies of organizational change. (*)
Costs documented of participatory research with and without women as

separate stakeholder groupss. (*)
Collection of historical data on impact and benefits of different

approaches. (*)


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd


Fig. 3 Trime Chart for Implementation









J F MAM ~~J J A S ONDI


Activities
Collection of historical data on benefits of gender differentiation initiated. (*)

Implementation of interventions introduced for assessment. (*)
2000:
Costs documented of different approaches to involving rural women in
experimentation for technology development.
Data analyzed on costs, short-term impact and benefits of participatory
approaches and gender analysis interventions of this project.
Overall impact, costs and benefits of different approaches to participation
compared among projects.
Overall impact, costs and benefits of different approaches to gender analysis
compared among projects.
Follow-up workshops on-site: guidelines for future; innovations for further
testing identified.
PR/GA Programme international workshop on results.
Publications.

Implementation of interventions introduced for assessment.
Three case studies of organizational change.
Costs documented of participatory research with and without women as

separate stakeholder groupss.
Collection of historical data on impact and benefits of different approaches.
Collection of historical data on benefits of gender differentiation initiated.


a
m
a


January 23rd,1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd










Project Evaluation and Documentation
Progress against milestones will be monitored by the Systemwide Programme together with this
project.

Evaluation will be carried out in the following way:

(1) Mid-term evaluation.
Evaluation of the Systemwide program is scheduled near the mid-term point (mid-1999) and at
completion (5 year point). Representatives from all major partner groups will be invited to
participate (CGIAR, NAR~s, NGOs, Donors and other stakeholders). Community evaluations of
the program at each project site will be synthesized and integrated into the central evaluation
findings. Partner institutions will involve IARCs, NARls, NGOs, farmers and other stakeholder
groups in project-level monitoring and evaluation. The mid-term evaluation will include this
project.

(2) Final evaluation an evaluation panel including BMZ copy note 11 from the budget.
Documentation will be in the form of : annual working papers; workshop proceedings; journal
articles; member institutions' newsletters; reporting through the PR/GA Program's e-mail listserve
to which all members are being connected; WWW home page of the PR/GA program to be
opened in spring 1997.

Dissemination of results to participants will be accomplished through: follow-up workshops on-
site with cooperating case study projects at the end of the project; their own involvement in
drawing conclusions and guidelines from the results. The communities and farmers, both
men and women, involved in evaluation of the project will necessarily be cognizant of its findings
and their implications.


5. Probability of Success

The proposal assumes that historical data can be obtained from at least four of the proposed six
case study projects to estimate costs of implementing participatory approaches and gender
analysis. Since this data is not usually recorded for research purposes, but for accounting
purposes, it is likely to be incomplete. To complement this, the project will implement some
carefully designed interventions of interest to the case study projects and consistent with their
objectives. These interventions will be monitored and costed. Therefore the probability of
generating a range of interpretable cost data is high.

Benefits are much more difficult to assess, especially since the proposal is focused on NRM
technology development and transfer. The proposal assumes that case study projects will have
been monitoring historical impact, indeed this will be one criteria for selecting cases. Indicators of
positive change in NRM will be sought through participatory research methods with beneficiary
groups in the case study projects. At a minimum, cost structures of different approaches and the


January 23rd,1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd










quantitative benefits achieved can be compared.


The project will measure short-term (i.e. observable in the 3 year span of the project) benefits of
the planned interventions referred to above. For example, impact of womenis' participation on
problem diagnosis and priority setting can be assessed in the short term; as can the extent and
nature of capacity-building or empowerment achieved in beneficiary groups. CIAT is already
operationalizing variables and instruments for this purpose as part of its ongoing participatory
research .

Calculation of strict cost-benefit ratios will be attempted where the data is appropriate, but these
are not central to the objectives of the project nor are these likely to be easily achieved, due to the
complexities of valuing in monetary terms, the NRM impacts and qualitative benefits fr~om
participation

A systematic assessment of a range of benefits, measured qualitatively or quantitatively has a high
probability of being achieved. These can be realistically associated with contrasting cost
structures, scales of operation, and time frames to meet the objectives of the project. Ths
information will be unique, and represents an original and timely contribution to ensuring
appropriate use of participatory methods and gender analysis.

The capacity-building outputs have a high probability of being achieved, since the project will
draw on highly experienced contributors to the field drawn from the international participants in
the Systemwide programme for this purpose as needed.


6. Training and Scientific Interaction

Capacity-building through cooperation in research is integral to this project. Specific activities,
detailed above, include selection of methods and approaches for testing with cooperating case
study projects; monitoring and assessment together; workshops to synthesize results and
guidelines based on them; regional fellows, whose ability to conduct rigorous evaluation of
PR/GA approaches will be consolidated ; involvement of community leadership, men and women
farmers, in defining benefits and costs to be measured, in project evaluation and in synthesizing
guidelines for future practice

The NRM working group will explore via its member based in Germany and with GTZ the
possibility to identify some GTZ-funded projects and German University social scientists expert in
this field to participate in this research For example, CIAT is conducting a
training course in March 1997 with LAC projects of GTZ ; a copy of this proposal is being sent to
the program organizer Dr Jutta Kraause for comment and further discussion.


7. Intellectual Property Rights


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd











The data and publications resulting from this project will be freely available, and the published by
the Systemwide Program on "Participatory Research and Gender Analysis for Technology
Development and Institutional Innovation" with appropriate authorship recognized.


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd











Items Year 1 1998 Year 2 1999 Year 3 2000

Grant CIAT SWI Total Grant CIAT SWI Total Grant CIAT SWI Total
ReqOd Prog. Cost Reqid Prog. Cost Reqid Prog. Cost
CIAT

Personnel (1) 93 82 0 175 93 82 0 175 93 82 0 175

Supplies and operations (2) 10 206 0 216 10 206 0 216 10 206 0 216
Training (3) 55 55 15 125 55 55 15 125 55 SS 15 125

International travel (4) 16 32 6 54 16 32 6 54 16 32 6 54

Subtotal 174 375 21 570 174 375 21 570 174 375 21 570

Systemwide Program NRM Working Group

Regional fellows (5) 135 0 0 135 135 0 0 135 135 0 0 135

Supplies and operations (6) 60 0 100 160 60 0 100 160 60 0 100 160

Equipment (7) 4 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Training and workshops (8) 105 0 86 191 15 0 63 78 105 0 64 169

International travel (9) 15 0 10 25 20 0 10 30 15 0 10 25

Publications (10) 5 0 5 10 5 0 5 10 S 0 10 15

Project evaluation (11) 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 0 0 5
Subtotal 324 0 196 520 235 0 183 418 325 0 184 509

Grand Total 498 375 217 1,090 409 375 204 988 499 375 205 1,079


January 23rd, 1997 JIAA/bmz-pro.wpd


8. Budget (US 5000s)












Budget Notes:


NB: CIAT inflation rate of 3% / year is not included in the figures.

1. Senior research social scientists: CIAT-Africa 40%; CIAT-Asia 40%; CIAT-Latin America 60% (Project Manager);
CIAT Director for SWI PPJOA Program 10% @ US $116,000 average annual cost.
2. Supplies and operations include communications, and training materials financed by project; secretarial and financial
support, oilice facilities, computer services, and data analysis services.
3. Training associates in Africa, Asia, Latin America (2 person equivalent) for 3 years, Systemwide program coordinator
30%.
4. One international roundtrip annually for 3 senior scientists and 2 trainees for workshop attendance and to coordinate plans
for comparative research financed by project; biannual site visits to six projects fmanced by CIAT.
5. Three recent Ph~s or experienced MA/MSc level fellows: Africa (1), Asia (1), Latin America (1) stipend and benefits
US$45,000 p.a each average.
6. Regional travel for fellows; operational support for data collection to cooperating projects (field interviews); computer
processing; communication for regional fellows; regional staff exchange, field research costs and data analysis
consultancies, supplied by NRM working group members to support fellows financed by SW program.
7. PCs for regional fellows (3).
8. Training: one international workshop/seminar for approx. 50 participants annually financedd by Systemwide Program);
three workshops: one for detailed planning (1998) with cooperating projects and fellows; and two for data analysis (1998-
2000) @ US$15,000 per workshop of approx. 10-15 participants; short training courses with cooperating projects
involving approx. 25 participants from their staff and communities involved in their project in 1998; 6 on-site follow-up
workshops with projects in 2000 @ US$ 10,000 per site; participation of NRM working group members at training
courses and project workshops financed by Systemwide Program.
9. International travel: one international roundirip annually between either Latin America, Africa or Asia for three regional
fellows to attend international seminars of Systemwide Program in conjunction with planning workshop for their project.
10. Publications by the project include 4 annual working papers (4. Africa, Asia Latin America and comparative synthesis);
fmnal reprot for worldwide dissemination.
11. Project evaluation. In 1999 the Systemwide Program will conduct its mid-term evaluation, evaluating this project at half-
way execution. In 2000 an external evaluation panel including BMZ will be asked to assess the feasibility of a second phase
based on the results 1997-2000.


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/Vbmz-pro.wpd














Items Year 1 1998 Year 2 1999 Year 3 2000 Total

CIALT
Personnel 93 93 93 279

Supplies and operations 10 10 10 30

Training 55 55 55 165

International travel 16 16 16 48

Subtotal 174 174 174 522

SytewiePrgrm- NRM We kn r
Regional fellows 135 135 135 405

Supplies and Operations 60 60 60 180

Equipment 4 0 0 4

Training and workshops 105 15 105 225

International travel 15 20 15 50

Publications 5 5 5 15

Project evaluation 0 0 5 5
Subtotal 324 235 325 884

Grand Total 498 409 499 1,406


January 23rd, 1997 JPAA/brz-pro.wpd


Budget Request from BMZ Summary Table (US S000s)










9. ]References


Ashby, Jacqueline A., J. A. Beltri~n, M. P. Guerrero and H. F. Ramos. 1996. "Improving the
Acceptability to Farmers of Soil Conservation Practices". Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 51
(4) 309-312

Ashby, Jacqueline A. and Louise Sperling, 1995. "Institutionalizing participatory client-driven research
and technology development in agriculture. Development and Change. Vol. 26 No. 4 October 1995,
753-770

Carnap, Martin, Abdulla A. Da'meem and Sana'a/Ylemen, 1996. "Research on resource management
between client orientation and policy advice". In Hans-Joachim A. Preuss (ed.) Agricultural Research
and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources. Hamburg, Germany: LIT Verlag
Munster-Hamburg.

Ceccarelli S, S. Granco and J.A. G. Van Leur. 1995. "Understanding landraces: The fertile crescent's
barley provides lesson to plant breeders." Diversity. (In Press).

CIAT, CIMMYT, IRRI, ICARDA, 1996. "Systemwide Program on Participatory Research and Gender
Analysis for Technology Development: A proposal for the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC).
CIA~T, Palmira

CIAT 1994-1995. Hillsides Progr~am Annual Report, CIAT, Palmira, Colombia

Fernandez, M 1995. Personal communication

Greenland, D.J.; G. Bowen; H. Eswaran; R. Rhoades, and C. Valentin. 1994. Soil, Water and Nutrient
Management Research. A New Agenda. Washington, D.C. CGIAR Secretariat.

Harden, Jaap. 1995. "Plant breeders and Farmers: can the twain meet?" In P. Eyzaguirre and M.
Iwanaga (ed.) Participatory Plant Breeding. Wageningen, The Netherlands: IPGRI

Iglesias, Carlos and Luis Alfredo H-ern~ndez, 1994. "Participatory Cassava Breeding", Cassava
Program Annual Report, CIAT, Palmira.

IPGRI, 1995. "Participatory Plant Breeding". Issues in Genetic Resources No. 3, October 1995.

Kornegay, Julia, Jorge Alonso Beltrin and Jacqueline A. Ashby, 1995. "Farmer Selections within
Segregating Populations of Common Bean in Colomnbia". In P. Eyzaguirre and M. Iwanaga (ed.)
Participatory Plant Breeding. WJageningen, The Netherlands: IPGRI.


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd











Marfo, K.O. and Nyankpala/Ghana. 1996. "Ghana's national agricultural research strategic plan: an
improvement on efficient utilization of resources.". In Hans-Joachim A. Preuss (ed.) Agricultural
Research and Sustainable Managrement of Natural Resources. Hamburg, Germany: LIT Verlag
Mvunster-H-amburg.

Okali, C., C.V. Sumberg and J. Farrington, 1994. Battlefields and Trial Plots: Rhetoric and Reality of
Farmer Participatory Research. London: Intermediate Technology Publications

Pretty J.N., and P. Shah, 1994. "Soil and water conservation in the 20th century: a history of coercion
and control". Reading, MA: University of Reading, England: Rural History Centre Research Series No.


Soil, Water and Nutrient Management Initiative: Report from the Feldafing Consultation (1995).
DSIE/IB SRAM/CIATI, 1995 .

Sarin, Madhu. 1996. "Actions of the voiceless: the challenge of addressing subterranean conflicts
related to marginalized groups and women in community forestry. Paper prepared for the FAO Email
conference on ~Addressing Natural Resource Conflicts through Community Forestry.

Sperling, Louise and Urs Scheidegger, 1995. "Participatory Selection of Beans in Rwanda: Results,
1Methods and Institutional Issues",Gatekeeper Series No. 51, London: IIED

Systemwide Program (1996). "A Global Initiative on Participatory Research and Gender Analysis for
Technology Development and Organisational Innovation" In Agricultural Research & Extension
Network Paper. London: ODI (forthcoming)

TAC, 1995. Priorities and Strategzies for Soil and W;ater Aspects of Natural Resources Management
Research in the CGIAR. CGIAR Secretariat, Washington, D.C., October 30-November 3, 1995.

Thrupp, Lori-Ann, 1995. Personal Communication, comments on this proposal.

Welzein R., Eva, M.L. Whitaker and M.M. Anders, 1995. "F~armer Participation in Pearl Millet
Breeding for Marginal Evionments" In P. Eyzaguirre and 1M. Iwranaga (ed.) Participatory plant
breeding. Wageningen, The Netherlands: IPGRI

Zimmermann, Maria J. de O. 1995. "Breeding for Marginal/Drought Prone Areas in Northeastern
Brazil". In P. ~Eyzaguirre and M. Iwanaga (ed.) Participatory plant breedingr. Wageningen, The
Netherlands: IPGRI


January 23rd, 1997 JAA/bmz-pro.wpd