The Ukraine terror and the Jewish peril

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Title:
The Ukraine terror and the Jewish peril
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Federation of Ukrainian Jews
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Jews -- Persecutions -- Ukraine   ( lcsh )
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University of Florida
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lcc - DS135.U4 U47 1921
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Full Text




THE UKRAINE TERROR

and the


JEWISH


PERIL


Comprising (1) Memorandum by the Committee of Jewish Delegations
on the Massacre of Jews in the Ukraine. (2) Report by the
Kiev Pogrom Relief Committee of the Russian Red Cross.
(3) Some Statistics of Women Violated. (4) Some
Statistics about the Massacres. (5) Some Typical
Pogroms in the Ukraine, and (6) The
French Appeal to Humanity.













Published by
THE FEDERATION OF UKRAINIAN JEWS,
IN AID OF THE POGROM SUFFERERS IN THE UKRAINE.
(Registered under the War Charities Act.)
26a, Soho Square, London, W. 1.
1921.





THE UKRAINE TERROR.


PREFACE.
JUDAKA
LBRARY

This Pamphlet requires no Preface.

It contains a statement of facts, collected from trustworthy sources, as
to the Terror in the Ukraine, since the conclusion of war, and the peril to the
Jewish population in that country. It is quite likely that some of the facts
and figures cited in the following documents are below or above reality. A
moment's imagination will show the grave difficulty of eliciting the exact truth
from witnesses who have fled from scenes in which they took part as victims.
Thus, on page 5, when Jewish representatives, recently arrived from the
Ukraine, unanimously declare that the number of Jews massacred far exceeds
a hundred thousand," we do not claim plenary accuracy. But the next sentence
is accurate: The Committee' of Jewish Delegations has in its possession
reports on these massacres committed in more than 400 places." On pages
12 and 14 some statistics are given of the Terror, place by place. A very simple
effort of computation will justify the aggregate estimate. Further, on pages
14 and 15 will be found some details of the Terror. These details do not
encourage a minimization of its effects. The conclusion should be read in the
eloquent terms of the French Appeal (pages 15 and 16), in which men as eminent
and humane as MM. Anatole France, Henri Barbusse, Georges Duhamel,
Charles Seignobos and Albert Thomas, appeal to all peoples of the world
against the unheard-of crimes of which a single people is the victim." The
burning words from the altar of French justice sear the conscience of mankind :
" the Jews," we read, who for centuries have been settled in Eastern Europe,
have become the innocent and pitiful victims of struggles-national, political,
and social. Millions of men, women, and children are suffering un-
describable misery, and are handed over defenceless to death and dishonour."






THE UKRAINE TERROR.


Who is to defend them? The Federation of Ukrainian Jews in London,
which is responsible for publishing these documents, is doing all it can to
collect what is necessary to relieve their distress. This elementary duty is in-
cumbent in the first instance on fellow-Jews, who are united with the victim5
by a religious bond, and whose constant tradition it is to express that bond
in' terms of charity. If this were all, the Federation might have refrained from
making public the details of the Terror, and from adding to the evidence of
unrest, which is accumulated from every country of Europe. But the question
of relief is not all, as the signatories to the French Appeal recognize. Relief
is urgent and essential, not merely for the sake of the victims, pitiable though
their plight is, but for the sake of Europe at large. The extent of the problem
is too vast, to be left to the charity of co-religionists. Starving children are
always the potential parents of discontented and anti-social men and women.
But the demoralized urchins from the Ukraine, with their childish memory of
seeing a father shot or a mother violated by savage soldiery, present a problem
beyond the ;each of ordinary methods of relief. Such children seem bound to
grow up with a grievance against society, unless a remedy is found for their
moral as well as their physical wants. The latter may be supplied by a tre-
mendous effort of charity among their own brethren ; the former clearly depends
upon the public opinion of civilized peoples. It is, first, then, to public opinion
that these facts and figures are addressed.

One further reflection suggests itself. The Federation of Ukrainian
Jews has no political axe to grind, and is neither Zionist nor anti-Zionist. Its
functions begin and end (though, unfortunately, the end is not in sight) with
the needs of the Jews in the Ukraine. The rival ambitions of peoples, govern-
ments and parties, and all the folly of civil war, satiate themselves to-day upon
the unhappy Jewish minority with criminal cruelty ": these are the words
of the French Appeal (page 15), and they lift the problem out of politics. But,
however much detached from politics the attitude of the Federation may be,
it cannot but see in the facts, which it brings to the bar of public opinion, a
meaning beyond the facts themselves. It is freely asserted that Soviet Russia
is under a Jewish domination, in which Jews alone are above the law, and that






THE UKRAINE TERROR.


one of the chief objects of their misrule is to abolish the sanction of religion,
as the mainstay of the moral life. From this assertion it follows, that to destroy
the Jews is to destroy destructive Bolshevism. Thus stated, the proposition
moves in a vicious circle of destruction, out of which no sound principle is forth-
coming. But the facts disclosed in the following pages seem to strike at the root
of the argument. Not even a nightmare could conjure up the vision of a Jewish
domination, which would tolerate the Terror in the Ukraine, raging since 1918,
and directed precisely at Jews. The unhappy victims of that Terror, so far
from having lost their religious sense, find in the teachings of Judaism their
sole, remaining comfort in life. They have seen their homes sacked and pillaged ;
their few worldly possessions have disappeared ; their relatives, distant or very
near, have been killed in their sight by a violent death ; they include 150,000
orphan children, who will never find their parents' graves, and who are crying
for food, clothes, and bedding, in a land where such commodities are un-
obtainable ; they have passed through a purgatory of suffering, so unimaginable
and irrational, when measured by their limited experience, as often to drive them
crazy--and yet they cling to the consolation of religion, and welcome the
ministrations of their Rabbis.

We other Jews, watching with anguish the trials of our- brethren in
South-eastern Europe, and welcoming chiefly for their sake the prospect of a
national home in Palestine, deplore the fallacies of half-knowledge, which
confound the victims of revolution with the revolutionaries themselves, and
even identify Zionism with Bolshevism. The Federation of Ukrainian Jews
in London, which has no politics, and which is neither Zionist nor anti-Zionist,
is not concerned with the fight against anti-Semitism, though it seeks to alleviate
persecution of the Jews. But, so far as the facts herein disclosed admit a
general conclusion, apart from their particular conclusion to the urgency of
swift relief, they do seem to show that a great wrong is still being organized
against the Jewish population in the unhappy country which was Russia. Of
Russia, in 1896, Lecky, the historian, wrote (Democracy and Liberty, I., 465) :

The Russian persecution stands in some degree apart from the other






THE UKRAINE TERROR.


forms of the anti-Semite movement, both on account of its unparalleled
magnitude and ferocity, and also because it is the direct act of a Govern-
ment, deliberately, systematically, remorselessly seeking to reduce
to utter misery about four-and-a-half millions of its own subjects. .
Nowhere, indeed, in modern Europe have such pictures of human
suffering and human cruelty been witnessed as in that gloomy Northern
Empire. Some of the most disgraceful apologies for the savage
persecutions in Russia have come from writers who profess to be
champions of nationalities, ardent supporters of liberty and progress."
Twenty-five years and a bloody revolution have neither tamed the Russian,
nor changed the key of some of his apologists.

We would not conclude on a note, however mildly, controversial. This
Pamphlet is published and distributed in the cause of humanity and charity.
The conclusions which we have suggested may be disputed, or may not be
accepted in all quarters. The facts which we narrate are indisputable, and
their victims cry for assistance. We do not believe that the world has grown
so callous as to turn down the appeal of the little destitute children who have
survived the Terror in the Ukraine.






THE UKRAINE TERROR.


THE UKRAINE TERROR AND THE

JEWISH PERIL


I.


MEMORANDUM ON THE MASSACRES OF JEWS IN
THE UKRAINE

COMMITTEE OF JEWISH DELEGATIONS,
Paris,
*10, Place Edouard VII.
GENEVA,
16th December, 1920.
The Committee of Jewish Delegations, representing either by direct election or by
written authority the Jewish populations of 22 countries, appeals to the League of Nations
to obtain justice for the most terrible crimes that history has ever witnessed.
In Eastern Europe, in the Ukraine, a people numbering millions of souls has been
massacred; intervention to put an end to these massacres demands the urgent attention
of the human race and of the League of Nations, its spokesman.
The Committee deems that action in this direction is possible; it is a duty incum-
bent on civilized peoples.
If the League of Nations makes its voice heard, the first step will have been taken
towards putting an end to these massacres. Categoric declarations made by the Govern-
ments who will co-operate in this matter will exercise a restraining influence on these acts
of destruction.
"I Since December, 1918, therehas been anuninterruptedseries of pogroms in the Ukraine.
Since the beginning of September, 1919, a report of the Red Cross Society at Kieff records
that more than 30,000 Jews have been murdered. Since that date the number of murders
has increased alarmingly. Jewish representatives, recently arrived from the Ukraine,
unanimously declare that the number of Jews massacred far exceeds a hundred thousand.
The Committee of Jewish Delegations has in its possession reports on these massacres
committed in more than 400 places.
Many of the pogroms were specially serious on account of their long duration. The
pogroms at Ovroutch lasted from the 31st December, 1918, to the 16th January, 1919.
Those at Vassilkof lasted from the 7th to the 15th of April; those at Zlatopol from the
2nd to the 8th of May; those at Tcherkassy from the 16th to the 21st of May; those
at Derajna from the 7th to the 17th of June ; those at Rovno from the 14th to the 29th
of May; those at Lytine from the 14th to the 28th of May; and those at Balta lasted
9 days. In other places massacres have been several times repeated; Radomysl,
Tcherniakof, Kornip, Volodarka, Elisabotgrad and several other towns were the scenes
of massacres of 4, 5 and even 10 days' duration.
Hundreds and thousands of Jews have been wounded, ill treated, savagely beaten.
Up to the present more than a million Jews have been robbed and many of them have
had literally their last shirt taken from them. The most refined tortures have been
devised. Old men and children have been cut to pieces. Thousands of women and young
girls have been outraged, and among these even little girls and old women. The victims
have been terribly mutilated; the right arm and left leg have been cut off, or vice versa,
the left arm and right leg; one eye has been torn out and the nose cut off. The houses
in which the Jews took refuge were burnt, and all perished in the flames. The number
of cases in which these unhappy victims were doomed to die a slow death of indescribable
torture cannot be counted. Burning was the usual practice.






4 THE UKRAINE TERROR.
Besides physical torture, they were subjected to mental torture of a kind for which
there is no parallel in history. Jews were compelled to dance and to sing in the presence
of their torturers, to mock their own people and to praise their executioners; they had
to dig their own graves and to commit shameful acts for the amusement of their
murderers. These wretched people were forced to look on at the dishonouring of their
daughters and of their wives, and children were compelled to hang their fathers.
The moral condition of the Jewish population of the Ukraine is near insanity; the
terrible sufferings which all the population of this country is enduring through famine
and epidemics, cannot be compared to the hell in which the Ukrainian Jews have been
plunged for a year and a half. History has nothing to compare with it. The imagina-
tion of the greatest poet could not describe these scenes of horror. Dante's Inferno pales
besides the realities of every day life in the Ukraine.
Apart from the Jewish circles, the protests which have been made up to the present
in many countries against this state of things have been merely the individual protests
raised by eminent persons. And, however highly placed those persons were, they found
that they were hopeless in the face of these crimes. It is a matter of urgent importance
that the civilized peoples should make themselves heard. To keep silence is to become
the accomplice of these murderers. The vicissitudes of civil war in Russia have not in
any way modified the duty of the League of Nations. Should the Ukraine fall tem-
porarily under the sway of the Soviets, it must be realized that in the case of new up-
heavals these pogroms will break out with fresh violence. The blood of these victims
is not yet dry, and we see at hand the moment when the crimes of the last two years will
-be surpassed by new acts of violence.
Firm intervention is urgently called for if three millions of human beings are to
avoid complete annihilation. Is an intervention of this kind possible ? Will it succeed ?
It is our opinion that, if at any moment during the course of this criminal butchery
at which the world has passively looked on the public opinion of the civilized world and
the Governments had expressed strongly its firm determination to put a stop to this
state of things, the massacres would, in spite of all, have ceased. During the most
disordered days, when it seems that no regular authority any longer exists, nevertheless
there are some amongst the leaders of these savage bands who would listen to the cries
of horror and indignation coming from the West, and would give way before a determined
and authoritative protest.
The Committee thinks that the same will be true in the future. The extermination
of the Jewish people will become impossible from the moment when order is restored
and the League of Nations makes its voice heard. The principal murderers and the
guilty ones are at the present "moment in full liberty and go entirely unpunished, since
most, if not all of them, have gone to countries within the sphere of influence of the
League of Nations. We demand that an exemplary punishment should be visited upon
them, convinced as we are that this will give a determined and undeniable proof of the
formal will of the peoples of the West to put an end to these massacres.
At the bar of the civilized world, at the bar of the League of Nations, which is the
largest representative international body which has ever been brought into existence,
we denounce as murderers the following persons: the Hetman Strouk, who at the head
of his men, massacred a thousand Jews, in 41 places in the neighbourhood of Tchernobyl ;
the Colonel Hetman Tioutiounik, the Hetman Sokolowsky, whose troops massacred
3,000 Jews in 70 places in the neighbourhood of Radomysl-Jitomir: the Hetman
Simossenko, who was responsible for the butchery at Proskourof; and others besides.
We like to hope that the conscience of humanity will refuse to allow these murderers
to remain in complete liberty, to command their regiments and indirectly to ask for the
protection of the civilized world. We ask the League of Nations, which represents the
continuity of the brotherhood of man, to make a stern example of the culprits. It is a
defiance, direct or indirect, to the principle of the League of Nations and to the most
elementary principles of human justice to maintain amicable relations with men still
red with the blood of their innocent victims, with men who have surpassed an hundred-
fold the horrors of the Spanish Inquisition.
We ask plainly for the punishment of these murderers. We hope that the whole
of humanity will support our claim with all its might.
The President :
N. SOKOLOW.
The Secretary General :
L. MOTZKIN.






THE UKRAINE TERROR. 7
I.
REPORT OF POGROMS IN THE UKRAINE
BY THE KIEV POGROM RELIEF COMMITTEE OF THE RUSSIAN RED CROSS
THE wave of Jewish pogroms, unparalleled in history, which has
covered the fields and towns of the Ukraine with rivers of Jewish
blood, began on December 31st, 1918. The pogroms had their
origin in the civil war which broke out after the downfall of the
German Empire and of the regime of the Hetman which was intimately con-
nected with and dependent upon that Empire. The civil war began with a
victorious revolt of the newly-formed Directorate against General Skoropad-
ski, followed by a no less victorious and violent movement of the Bolshevists
against the Directorate. The troops of Petlura, driven westwards towards
the frontiers of Galicia, began to break up into small gangs of freebooters
and rebels, who remained in the localities occupied by the Communists, and
who thus formed a very dangerous internal front." This front became
especially extensive when the detachments of Grigoriev, Tiutiunik, Zeliony,
Struck, Sokolowsky, and of many other chiefs who had at first joined the
Bolshevists, separated themselves from the latter and started campaigns of
their own.
During the first two years of the Revolution, commencing from February
27th, 1917, there were practically no Jewish pogroms. There were, of course,
excesses committed by demoralized detachments of troops, more especially
during the demobilization. These excesses were, if not exclusively, yet
mostly, directed against Jews, but they were merely sporadic in character
and never asslimed a large scale. The assailants practically always limited
themselves to acts of robbery and to the damage of property.
During the German occupation no pogroms took place in the Ukraine.
Equally the months of November and December, 1918, when the Directorate
victoriously fought the Hetman, passed without these horrors. Pogroms
only commenced when the Directorate suffered defeat at the hands of the
Communists who rose against them. The more decisive these defeats were,
the more often the beaten Petlura troops had to carry out evacuations of
territorities which they had occupied, the more cruelly the defeated and
irritated troops began to revenge their setbacks and hardships on the peaceful
Jewish population, and the more often they began to treat the Jews as
Communists. The battle-cries, Murder Jews and Communists and the
" Jews are Communists 1 soon sounded throughout the Ukraine, provoking
sanguinary pogroms.
The first massacre' broke out in the town of Ovrutsh and its environs.
The defenceless Jewish population were at the mercy of a Petlura Ataman,
and murder and robbery lasted from December 31st to January 16th. At
the same period the Shitomir pogrom took place (January 7th to 10th) and
others of the towns of Berdichev, Tchernichov, and a good number of villages
round Ovrutsh. The wave of pogroms in January was almost exclusively
confined to the eastern portion of the province of Volhynia, where the
Petlurists were severely pressed by the Bolshevists.
The February pogroms were more widely spread. By that time Kiev
was already occupied by the Communists (from February 2nd).
The Petlurists were then hurriedly evacuating the provinces of Kherson,
Poltava, and Kiev. Pogroms took place in Elisavetgrad (February 4th
and 5th), in Novo-Mirgorod, Piriatin, and many other places of the province
of Poltava. On many railway stations soldiers threw Jews out of the
carriage windows and shot at them. In Lubny a pogrom was only pre-
vented because a detachment-about a hundred men strong-came to the
rescue of the threatened victims in time. This detachment lost fourteen
men killed, but the population was saved. The Jews of Krementshug, in
order to escape a pogrom, were compelled to pay a ransom of one million
five hundred thousand roubles.
During this period pogroms took place in the following towns of the
Kiev province: In Vasilkov, February 7th to 8th; in Rossava, February
11th to 15th; most of the victims being murdered by the Soviet troops.
Pogroms also occurred at this time in Stiepantzy, February 14th; Radomysl,
February 18th to 20th ; Skvir, at the beginning and at the end of February;
and in Mtshna and Brovary.






8 THE UKRAINE TERROR.
The most terrible pogroms, however, took place far in the rear of the
armies, in Proskurov (February 15th) and in Felchtine (February 16th).
These pogroms were provoked by an attempt of the Bolshevists to raise a
rebellion in Proskurov.
The March pogroms began when the Petlurists cut the front near Sarny
in the direction of Korosten, and when they again came to within a hundred
kilometers of Kiev. At that time pogroms took place in Korosten, in
Ushomir (March 31st), in Beloshitz (March 7th to 12th), in Samgorodok
(March 13th), in Tsherniakhov (March 11th), in Shitomir, for the second time,
on March 23rd, in Yanushpol (March 25th to 29th), in Radomysl (March 12th
to 13th, and again March 23rd to 31st).
In-Radomysl the pogroms assumed a chronic character, and were con-
tinuous because at that place and at that time the gangs of Sokolowsky
had already started their bloody work. On March 13th a new pogrom
was carried out by the red troops in Korosten. This pogrom was ended
by a new advance of Petlura. In addition there were Petlura pogroms in
Kalinovka, Kublitsh, Ziatkovzy, and other towns of the province of Podolia.
The pogroms in April were less numerous and not of a general character.
The outstanding event of this month was the activity of Struck in the district
of Tshernobyl. On April 7th his gang was raging in Tshernobyl itself. At
the beginning of May, Gornostaipol and Ivankov were ransacked, and during
the whole month the murderous gangs of Struck were plundering and
slaughtering Jews in the surrounding villages, more especially in those
situated on the shores of the Dnieper, where no steamer was allowed to pass
without the Jews being taken off and drowned. Up to August 27th a total
of forty-one settlements in this locality had suffered. In addition to the above,
Sokolowsky's activities continued in this district, and Korolevka was ran-
sacked on April 22nd, Malin, Rakitnoe and Kornin on April 10th. At this
time another settlement-Emiltshenko--was ruined by a detachment of
Petlurists, who were retreating from Gliebsk towards Novogradvolynsk.
The gangs of Zeliony worked near Kiev itself, carrying on their ferocious
activities in Vasilkov, which was subjected to a pogrom lasting from April
7th to 15th, in Rshishtshev, April 9th, and in the village of Seplisetskoe,
Olshanka, and others. It should be pointed out that in Vasilkov the pogrom
was perpetrated by the Sixth Soviet Regiment. There were gangs of free-
booters also in the region of Tarashtshansk, and the pogrom in Boguslav,
which belongs to this region, lasted from April 4th to April 25th. In the
province of Podolia a large number of settlements were destroyed, among
them Balta and Bratzlav.
The pogroms which took place in May were very numerous, and nearly
all carried out by Grigoriev and his detachments. For most of them the
Ataman himself and his assistants Uvarov and Netshaiev were responsible.
Three-quarters of all the pogroms took place in the south-eastern part of the
province of Kiev, in the districts of Tsherkask and Tshigirin. Many pogroms
were organized in the neighboring districts of the provinces of Kherson and
Poltava. Those pogroms for which Grigoriev was not responsible were
organized by the local peasants, who were under the influence of the
" Universals," which were then being issued by the contending Governments.
Chronologically the pogroms can be arranged as follows:-
ZLATOPOL, May 2nd to 8th, 1919. ELISAVETGRADKA, May 15th to 17th.
ZNAMENIEVA, May 3rd. ADJANKA AND B. BISK, May 18th.
LEBEDIN, May 5th. NovY BooG, May 19th.
GORODISHTSHE, May llth to 12th. TSHERKASSY, May 16th to 21st.
ORLOVETZ, May 12th. RAIGonoD, May 20th.
ROTMISTROVKA, May 13th to 14th. SAVDINO ZNAMINSKI, May 20th.
BELOZORIE, May 14th to 15th. ALEXANDROVKA, May 15th to 18th.
MATUsovo, May 13th to 14th. STEPANOVKA, May 18th.
SMIELA, May 13th to 14th. SEMIONOVKA, May 18th to 19th.
GRosULov, May 20th.
During the same period pogroms took place in Fundukleevka, Med-
vicdevka, stations Bobrinskaja Zvetkovo, Moshna, Globin, Kassel, Tomashov,
Verstshak, Vessioly Koot, Vessioly Podol and others. At the station
Ivanovka the men of Grigoriev murdered sixty-two Jews from Kodyma who
were fleeing to Odessa to escape the pogrom. Many murders were also
committed at other stations.
Directly attributable to Gregoriev's Universals are the pogrom






THE UKRAINE TERROR. 9
in the Uman district, which geographically lies far away from the region in
which his troops were acting. The most. sanguinary pogroms were those in
Uman, May 13th; in Doobovo, May 13th to 14th; Talnoje, May 13th,
and in Christionovka, Lodishenko, Biezovok, Mankovka, Ivanka, Booki and
others.
Thus the whole month was signalized by Grigoriev's activities, which
in cruelty surpassed everything that had been committed by other gangs,
and on the Petlura front in the provinces of Volhynia and Podolia. There
were pogroms in Voronovitz on May 9th, in Rovno on 14th and 29th, in
Kremenetz on May 12th, in Litin on May 14th and 28th, in Kodyma and
other places the dates of which are not yet established. The pogroms in
Trostianetz on May 10th, and in Gaisin on May 12th, may be classed among
the most cruel ever perpetrated. In Kodyma, on May 8th, a pogrom was
organized by one of Grigoriev's detachments, in which the peasants from the
neighboring villages co-operated
In connection with Grigoriev's revolt must be mentioned the pogrom
in Zolotonosha-province of Poltava-on May 12th, committed by the
Bogunsky Soviet Regiment. Obuchoff was ransacked on May 17th by the
Sixth Soviet Regiment, and Pogrebishtshe on May 18th by the Eighth
Soviet Regiment.
In June the provinces that suffered most were Podolia, Kiev and
Volhynia. In the provinces of Kherson and Poltava only sporadic out-
breaks took place. In Kiev the remainders of the Grigoriev groups con-
tinued devastating the localities through which they were passing, and on
June 15th they ransacked Stavishtshe; on June 16th, Tarasttsha; on June
20th, Volodarka Ryshanovka; on June 22nd, Skvir; and on June 27th,
Alexandria, for the second time. Within Sokolowsky's sphere of activity
the following towns suffered a second visitation: Brusilov on June 13th,
Khodorkov on June 15th, Korosten on June 20th, Tcherniachov on June
20th and 24th. The towns of Kornin and Radomysl as well as that of
Dubov suffered a second time. Ataman Zeliony ransacked Obuchov on
June 25th, Rshishtshev and Kagarlyk on June 3rd. In the province of
Podolia murders and robberies were committed in the towns of Derashna,
June 7th to 17th, Khmelynin, Golosovka, Maidan, Stryshanka, Staraia,
Siniava and others. In the province of Poltava, Semenovka was the only
place that suffered a pogrom during the month of June.
In July the pogroms assumed a more grave character, as they were
mainly taking place in the same three provinces. The Kiev pogroms ex-
ceeded all others in cruelty. In this province twenty-seven pogroms took
place during the month, twelve being registered in Volhynia and fourteen in
Podolia.
In the Kiev province only dispersed gangs were operating, while in
Volhynia and Podolia, they were joined by the Regular Petlura Troops.
On July 3rd Vorshtshagovka experienced a pogrom. On July 2nd, 5th
and llth pogroms took place in Volodarka, Dekov, Novo-Fastov respectively,
but these names by no means exhaust the number of places which have
undergone a similar fate. Priluki was pogromed on July 4th, Sachnovka
on July 8th, Turubov on July 9th, and Kalinovka on July 14th.
Sokolowsky was now repeating his exploits of the preceding months,
and he again ransacked Roshevo on July 3rd, Makarovo on July 6th,
Brusilov on July 5th, Kornin on July 9th, Yannogorodka on July 15th,
and Khavno on July 13th. Zeliony, too, was very active, and pogroms
were organized in Rshishtshev on July 1st to 13th, Tagantsha on July 8th,
Kosin on July 17th, and Pereyaslav on July 15th to 19th. At the very end
of the month-on the 29th-Uman suffered a sanguinary pogrom, and on
July 31st the stations of Potoski and others were ransacked. In the province
of Volhynia the following pogroms took place during the month of July:
KODRY, the 6th and 15th.
KHAMOVKA, the 9th and llth.
KAMENNY BROD, KOTELNY, SARUSHNETZY AND DOMBROVITZY on the 10th.
XAVROV, on the 20th.
SLOVETSHNA, the 16th to the 19th; there were numerous victims from the neigh-
bouring villages of Davidka, Bobrin and others.
In the province of Podolia the following pogroms took place during the-
month :






10 THE UKRAINE TERROR.
SHMERINKA, on July 3rd.
BRAILOv, PIKOV, VORONOVITZY, OBODIN, all on the 10th.
YANOV, on the 11th to the 15th.
TuLcHIN, on the 14th.
LrrrN, on the 18th.
The following places were pogromed on the 15th to the 20th:
Novo CONSTANTINOV, TEPLIN, GAISIN and PETCHORA.
During the month of August the number of pogroms decreased, but,
in view of the fact that the front line moved nearer to Kiev, information
on pogroms in the provinces of Podolia and Volhynia became scarce. On
August 7th, Pereyaslavl suffered a second pogrom at the hands of Lopatkin's
gang. In Vinnitza a pogrom took place on August 3rd, in Golovatchovsk
on August 4th. During the second half of August pogroms took place in the
following towns :
TATIEV, August 24th. BELAYA-TSERKOV, August.25th.
PLISKOV, August 24th. BOYARKA, September 3rd.
RusHov, August 24th. VASILKOV, September 3rd.
POGREBISHTSHE, August 18th-21st. GERMANOVKA, August 28th.
Shooting took place in Kiev itself on August 31st. Pogroms also took
place in :
SMELA, TSHERKASSY, GORODISHTSHE, ORLOVETZ, KORSUN, FASTOV, USTINOVKA,
IGNATOVKA, NJESHIN, GOSTOMLA, STEPANTZY, TARASHTSCHA, BELOTZERKOVKA, PRILUKY,
and EKATERINOSLAV.
By September 9th the number of places where pogroms were perpetrated
amounted to 372, the actual number of pogroms being no less than 700. In
several places pogroms occurred lasting many days, until the whole Jewish
population was annihilated and their property destroyed.
According to Governments and districts the pogroms can be distributed
as follows :


PROVINCE OF KIEV.
District of Tshernobyl (Struck)
Tripolie (Zeliony)
Tsherkassko-Tshigirinsky (Gregori
Berditchev .
Tarashtshansk
Uman .. ..
Skvir and Pogrebishtshe ..
Kiev
Radomyel-Shitomir (Sokolowsky)


District of



District of

District of
,,


Total

PROVINCE OF VOLHYNIA
Ovrutch
Shitonir
Rovno


Total


PROVINCE OF PODOLIA.
Gaisin
Balta
Vinitza
Proskurov ..
Kamenetz-Podolsk


Total

In the Province of Kherson
Poltava
Tshernigov
S. Ekaterinoslav

Total


43
9
ev) .. 23
.. .. 5
20
12
30
16
52

210


26
20
10

56


29
8
16
8


S. 62

. .. 23
.. 15
..7.


46






THE UKRAINE TERROR. 11
In all, 372 places which suffered from pogroms were registered.
Comparing the dates on which pogroms took place we note that the
most terrible months in this respect were those of the summer-namely,
May, June and July, 1919.
As to the part played by various gangs of pogrom makers in the sufferings
inflicted on the Jewish population in the Ukraine the following statistics are
-available :
PETLURA'S REGULAR TROOPS AND DETACHMENTS.
120 places .. .. .. .. .. 15,000 killed
GANGS OF SOKOLOWSKY.
70 places .. .. .. .. 3,000 killed
GANGS OF ZELIONY.
15 places .. .. .. .. 2,000 killed
GANGS OF STRUCK.
41 places .. .. .. .. 1,000 killed
THE GANGS OF SOKOLOW AND OTHERS.
38 places .. .. .. .. 2,000 killed
GANGS OF GRIGORIEV.
40 places .. ... .. 6,000 killed
GANGS OF YASHTSHENKO, GOLUB AND THE OTHERS.
16 places .. .. .. .. 1,000 killed
THE SOVIET TROOPS.
13 places .. .. .. .. 500 killed

Total .. .. 30,500 killed
To the above data new names must be added of towns which were
ransacked and destroyed by the detachments of the Volunteer Army quite
recently-at the end of August and September. They are as follows :
Pogrebishtsche (400 killed), Bela Tserkov (300 killed), Boguslav, Smela,
Tscherkassy, Gorodischtsche, Korsun, Fastov (over 1,000 killed), Ustinovka,
Germanovka, Vasilkov, Makarov, Rakitnoie, Boyarka, Ignatovka, Neshin,
Ekaterinoslav, Gostomyl, Stepantsy, Tarashtsha, Shabennoie, Belotserkovka,
Priluki, Grebionka, Motovilovka, Borsna.
The entire number of registered victims who were killed in all these
pogroms amounts to 40,000. The number of unregistered sufferers has
-also been very considerable, as there was no possibility of taking note of
those who lived in the villages whose Jewish populations were completely
destroyed. The number does not include the many who were done to death
at points which have not yet been registered, because they are inaccessible.
Such points are in the western parts of the Provinces of Volhynia and Podolia,
and the southern parts of the Province of Kherson.
Not included in the above were those whQ died during their wanderings
from one town to another in search of an asylum, those who were thrown
out of trains and shot, those who were drowned in the rivers, and those who
were murdered in forests and other lonely and sequestered places. In the
above totals we have not included those who died from wounds, from infec-
tion, and from starvation and exposure.
It can be assumed that no less than 70,000 victims perished. Until
quite recently the outstanding feature of Jewish pogroms in Russia was
plundering and damaging Jewish goods, rape and other forms of violence,
murder taking place comparatively seldom. Also refined cruelties were
a rare phenomenon in Russian pogroms. The recent epidemic of pogroms,
however, excels all other periods in its refined cruelty, in the merciless
thoroughness of the acts of violence, and in the naked bloodthirstiness of the
barbarous criminals.
The explanation of the tragic difference may, perhaps, be found in
the fact that whereas the old pogroms were committed with the connivance
of the Government, the newest pogroms were actually organized and directed
by those who held administrative power in places where the Jewish population
was, for days, weeks and even months, at their mercy, without the slightest
prospects of relief from anyone.
It must further be added that never before has contempt for human
life and other people's property been so openly expressed and so widespread
as during the last years of the external war and during the whole period of the
civil war with its White and Red terrors, forcible contributions, requisitions,
searches, raids, round-ups, hostages, and so forth.






12 THE UKRAINE TERROR.
The following is a description of the average pogrom :
The gang breaks into the township, spreads all over the streets, separate groups break
Into the Jewish houses, killing without distinction of age and sex everybody they meet, with
the exception of women, who are bestially violated before they are murdered, and men are
forced to give up all there is in the house before being killed.
Everything that can be removed is taken away, the rest is destroyed, the walls, doors.
and windows are broken in search of money. On one group departing another comes, then
a third, until absolutely nothing is left that could possibly be taken away. All clothing and.
linen is taken, not. only from those who escape death, but also from the corpses of the dead.
A new administration is established in the place, and a deputation.of the Jews miraculously
preserved go to them or to the Christians who are supposed to be friendly to Jews, and
request protection. As a rule the new authorities consent to grant the protection on the-
condition that a certain contribution is paid by the Jews. With great difficulty a con-
tribution is paid and then a new claim arrives from the authorities for contributions in kind,.
and it is the duty of the Jews to obtain a certain number of boots and a certain quantity
of meat for the soldiers. In the meantime small groups continue terrorizing the Jews..
exact money, murder and violate. Then the town is occupied by the Soviet troops who
often continue the robbery of their predecessors. But soon all the gangs return, as the-
front fluctuates and the place continually changes hands. Thus, for instance, Boguslav-
was taken five times during one week. Every change of Government or administration
brings about new pogroms, and the end of it is that the terrorized population, ruined and
exhausted, naked and bare-footed, without a single coin in their pocket, fly heedless of the-
climatic condition and risking the dangers of the journey, to the nearest town in the vain
hope of getting protection there."
This is a typical picture of a pogrom, though, of course, there are
variations in details, in the character of the murders committed, and the
number of victims. Sometimes it happens that the contribution is exacted
before the pogrom can break out. In such a case the Jews sometimes
escape death, but are certain to lose all their property. Sometimes the
raging gangs, or even the regular troops, organize a slaughter in the literal
meaning of this word without a single life being spared, regardless of sex
and age. Details vary also in this respect, and in Belomitza (Province
of Volhynia) all fathers of families were killed. In Trostianetz only males
were killed regardless of age (370 people). In Volodarka, on July 9th to
the llth, seventy-three old men, women and children were slaughtered;
all the rest took to flight. The bandits everywhere displayed great ingenuity
and refinement in the method of killing. Shooting was most frequent, but
before being shot the victims were driven from one place to another until
brought to a cemetery or a forest. But sometimes the bandits were short of
cartridges and cold steel was used. In Proskurov, on February 15th, only
bayonets and swords were used, and it took Samosenko's men four hours to-
slaughter in this way 1,600 Jews. In Diibovo the Jews were brought to a
cellar and two bandits, by dealing blows on their heads, had to throw them
either dead or wounded into this cellar. In Obodin (district of Bratzlav).
only bayonets were used, because one cartridge cost 50 roubles. In
Gorshtshik a group of rebels decided to kill the Jews by bayonets only, because
shooting might create a panic among other rebels who were destroying a
railway not far away.
In Tschernobyl district the usual way of killing Jews was by drowning.
Jews were driven to the river and forced into the water, where they had to
stay until drowned: rifles were used only when some of them succeeded in
swimming to the other shore. Steamers on the Dnieper were stopped, Jews.
singled out from the crowds of passengers and thrown into the water. In
the provinces of Poltava and Kherson, Jews were thrown out of trains.
running at full speed. In Elisavetgrad (1.526 killed) hand grenades were
thrown into the cellars where Jews were hiding. In Rotmistrovka there
were cases when badly wounded people were hanged or burnt in their houses.
In Klevan (district of Rovno) the soldiers of the Red Army invented a new
method of torturing Jews by tearing their beards with a specially-adapted
wire. In Ziadkovtzy (province of Podolia) during the second pogrom fifteen
Jews were thrown into a well alive.
The following is the list of places with the largest number of victims :
PROSKURov, February 15th .. 1,650 TROSTIANETZ, May 10th .. .. 370
ELISAVETGRAD, May 15th-17th .. 1,536 NOVOGRAD-VOLYNSK .. 350
FAsTov, September 23rd-27th .. 1,000 SHITOMIR, March 23rd-26th .. 317
TSCHERKASSY, May 16th-20th .. 700 YANov, .. .. 300'
FELTIx, February 16th .. .. 485 TEOPHIPOL, June 26th .. .. 300'
T cmy, July 14th .. .. 519 BELAIA-TSCHEIKOV, August 25th.. 30(0
UMAN, May 13th .. 400 KRIVOIE-OSERO .. .. .. 280'
POGREBITSHTSHE, August 13th .. 400 KAMENNY BROD. July .. .. 250'
GAISSrN, May 13th .. '.. 350 BRATZLAV .. .. .. 269






THE UKRAINE TERROR. 13
FUNDUKLEEVKA .. .. .. 206 LITIN, May 14th .. .. 110
KAMENETz-PODOLSK .. .. 200 VASILKOV, April 7th-15th .. 110
GOLOVATSHEVSK, August 4th .. 200 LADYSHENKA, May 14th .. .. 100
UMAN, July 29th .. .. .. 1I0 NOVOMIRKOV, May 7th .. .. 105
PaILUKY, July 4th .. .. 150 MESHIGORJE .. .. .. 104
All the wounds inflicted on the Jews were severe, and nearly always
resulted in. death. Very often the bandits were not satisfied with merely
wounding but came back, until those whom they had left alive, though
severely wounded, were killed. This is the reason why the proportion of
killed to wounded is larger here than in real war. Violations of, women in
June and July increased in number tremendously, and on many occasions
gangs of bandits broke into houses mainly for that purpose, though, of
course, no house was left without being ransacked.
The bare recital of the numbers of the victims in no way shows the
misery and affliction of the Jewish population, and the position of those
who survived seems to exceed any imaginable depth of horrors. There
are hundreds of thousands who have looked into the eyes of death and who
have lived through all the horror of expecting death at any moment. These
people, deprived of every possible means of subsistence, physically and
morally ruined are faced with the problem of finding an asylum, of saving
themselves and their children from starvation, from exposure during the
coming winter, from infectious diseases and demoralization.
We quote below a report of our commission on the Jews in Ladyshenka
where an ordinary, simple pogrom took place with only eighty-three victims,
and without the usual bestial accompaniments of other pogroms :
On July 9th a peasant brought to the Jewish hospital in Uman the last two Jews
from Ladyshenka (before the war Ladyshenka counted a Jewish population of 1,600).
These were two young Jewish girls, frightfully beaten and bruised, one with her nose cut off
and the other with her arms broken. They are both in Kiev now and both suffer from
venereal disease. .
More than 1,000 Jews from Ladyshenka are now in Golovatshevsk. They are all
naked, all bruised, and all, whether well or ill, live in the Synagogues, in the stables or the
streets. Nobody knows what their lips-always firmly pressed together-could tell us and
how these people live their day. Funerals take place very often in Golovatshevsk, and
special collections are often made to provide the garments of the dead ..
Pictures, of other places are even more depressing, more sad. Some-
times the places of refuge where those who escaped death from the pogroms-
expecting to find protection-become areas of new pogroms-rwith new
hundreds of victims-and the mass of misery is driven again in all directions.
It is impossible to calculate all the damage caused to the Jewish popula-
tion of the Ukraine. If counted at the present values it would amount to
billions. The vast majority of townships, and even many towns, are entirely
cleared of Jewish property. In some of the places like Boguslav (April 5th),
Volodarka (July 11th), Kutosovo (July 26th), Voshtshagovka (June 9th),
Snamenka (May 3rd), Beloshitza (July llth), the Jewish houses were con-
verted into heaps of smoking rubbish. But where there were no fires the
Jewish houses look like ruins; windows are smashed, frames are torn out,
and everything inside broken or carried away.
DIRECTOR OF THE INFORMATION AND STATISTICAi DEPARTMENT.
KmI, September 19th-October 2nd, 1919.
HI.
SOME STATISTICS OF WOMEN VIOLATED
(Extract from Documents of the Committee of Jewish Delegations.)
Localities. Violated. Localities. Violated.
TCHERKASSY .. .. .. 156 KOSTOLEWITCH .. All the Women.
FILCHTINE .. .. .. .. 200 JGNATOWKA .. .. .. 250
JITOMIR .. .. .. .. 200 JAMrOL .. .. All the Women.
BELAIS-TSERKOW .. .. 50 TALNOIE .. .. .. .. 208
STEPANTZY .. .. .. 150 FASTOW .. .. .. 270
RJICHTCIEW .. .. .. 200 KIEF .. .. .. 60
KIORODOwo .. .. .. 60 BAKITNO .. .. .. 100
VASSILKOF .. .. .. 36 HORODI CHHE .. .. .. 40
TRIPOLLIE .. .. .. .. 170 DYER .. .. .. .. 42
PEREIASSLAV .. .. .. 300 KREMENTCHOUG .. .. .. 350
BORISPOL .. .. .. .. 18







14 THE UKRAINE TERROR.

IV.

SOME STATISTICS ABOUT THE MASSACRES

(The following statistics are based partly upon the report of the Russian
Red Cross in Kieff, issued in September, 1919, and partly on the investiga-
tions subsequent to that date carried out by Jewish Commissions of enquiry.)


Localities.
OVROUTCH .. .
PROSKOUROW
BERSCHADY
ELISABETGRAD
TITYEWO .
TCHERKASSY
POGERTBISTCHE
FILOHTINE
RADOMISI, 16 pogroms
TOULTCHINE
OUMAN
TEPLIK
HAISSINE .
PETCHERA .
TROSTIANETZ
KAMENKA (KIEF)..
NOVOGRAD-VOLYNSKY
MATussowo
Jrrons .. ..
JANOW
BELAIA-TSERKOW ..
ROTMISTROWKA .
KAMENNY-BROD ..


Killed.
120
1,754
300
2,100
200
783
400
615
953
519
550
400
410
1,100
378
210
350
212
412
300
300
500
250


Localities.
BALTA
KRIVOIE-CZERO
KANIEFF
BRATZLAW
ZOLOTONOCHA
FOUNDOUKLEWKA
STEPANTZY
KAMENETZ-PODOLSK
GOLOVANIEVSK
RJICHTCHEW
KHODOROWO ..
PRYLOUKI .
VASSILKOFF
TRIPOLLIE ..
LADYJENKA
ZLATOPOL .
NOVOMIRGOROD
PEREIASLAW
MEJIGORIE ..
BORISPOL .
NOWO-POLTAWKA ..
KIEFF


SOME TYPICAL POGROMS IN THE UKRAINE

(Extracts from Documents of the Committee of Jewish Delegations.)
POGROM OF OVROUTCH.
At the head of the troops of Petlura was the hetman Kozyr-Syrko. The haida-mahs
started the pogrom by violating ten young girls. When a Jewish deputation came to the
hetman to beg for mercy, Syrko answered, "Why have old men come I Send men here
from 15 to 40 years of age." A terrible panic took possession of the town. During the
night Syrko began to outrage and to humiliate the Jews whom he had forced to come to him.
While he lay stretched on his couch, the Jews, a clown's cap on their heads, were forced
to dance and to sing Jewish songs.
On the 16th January, when a delegation composed of the President and twenty-two
members of the Jewish Community, came to see the hetman, the haidamahs with blows of
the knout forced the representatives of the community to sing the Jewish song Malofis '
and then murdered them with bayonets.
THE POGROM AT PROSKOUROV.
The following atrocities were committed by order of the hetman SimosEenko, one of
the commanders of the troops of Petlura, who authorized his lads to amuse themselves
for a few days. The massacres were perpetrated by the Cossacks who carried on their work
coldly and methodically, going from house to house and from district to district. They
mocked their victims before killing them, putting them to all kinds of torture. The murders
were committed usually with the naked sword or bayonet. Some bodies bore on them
thirty-six wounds and cuts, others were cut in pieces, and in some cases the head was severed
from the body.
Children were violated and murdered before the eyes of their parents, who were then
themselves murdered.
By order of the same hetman the first-aid quarters were removed, so that the wounded
had no means for taking refuge, even though the number of them was enormous.
The Jews were not allowed to bury the bodies of those who had been massacred by the
Cossacks. These troops piled the bodies in hollows and then filled them up in order that the
place of burial should not be recognized. By the order of Simossenko, who was the com-
mander of a brigade, the massacres started at one o'clock in the afternoon, with cries of
" Long Live Holy Ukraine I Death to the Jews," and finished towards six o'clock.
when the lads fatigued with their work," returned to the barracks-to the sound of music-
only to start their dread work the next day.
THE POGROM OF FILCHTINE (near PROSKOUROW).
This pogrom commenced on February 17th and was carried out by detachments coming-
from Proskourow. By order of the commandant of the troops of Simossenko, the Cossacks.


Killed.
190
250
506
269.
206.
500.
270
200.
200
426
315
150
427
300 Families..
100
289,
169,
400
194 Drowned.
780
120-
550>







THE UKRAINE TERROR. 15
billetted for the night in Jewish houses, seized all the exits from the town and commenced a
general massacre of the Jews. Those who tried to escape were shot, women and children
were hoisted on bayonets, bombs were thrown and garrets and cellars, where the panic-
stricken populace attempted to hide themselves, were burned. The whole place was des-
troyed by fire-of the whole population, only twenty-five families remained alive. There
was nobody to look after the wounded and bury the dead. Six hundred were killed and
many wounded and mutilated.
THE POGROM OF BALTA.
The detachments of Petlura drove the whole Jewish population from the town, which
was then given up to looting. Ninety Jews were killed. Old women were violated. The
loot was carried off in military trains. The pillaging lasted a whole week. They dragged
from the trains Jews arriving from Balta, covered them with blows, and carried off all their
goods. The pogroms were renewed on several occasions, causing each time numerous
victims.
THE POGROMS IN KORNINE.
On the night of February 20th, 1919, the troops of Petlura arrived in this city during
their retreat and levied a contribution of 200,000 roubles. Drunken soldiers broke into the
houses, attacked the population, carried off all goods of value on waggons and gave up all
the rest to the populace. On February 27th a new detachment arrived which repeated the
pogrom. Among those killed was the Rabbi whose body was cut open by the Cossacks.
Peasants who wished to shelter the Jews were threatened with death. When the Jewish
population hid themselves in the surrounding forests, soldiers on horseback organized a beat
and forced the fugitives to return to the town, and perpetrated unmentionable atrocities
upon them.
THE POGROM OF BOGOUSLAW.
This town changed hands about 20 times in one week. The shooting and the pillage
commenced again with every new occupation. Finally the unhappy population, having
escaped so many horrors, and seized with terror, fled from these terrible places, without
money and without clothes, in utter destitution.
THE POGROM OF LADYJENKA.
In July, 1919, a peasant brought to the Jewish hospital of Ouman, the two last survivors
of the Jewish population of this city, where before the pogrom there were 1,500 Jewish souls.
There were two young girls, both frightfully beaten, wounded and bitten. One had her
nose cut, the other had her arms broken. They are at this moment in Kieff. Apart from
their wounds they suffer from venereal diseases for which they are being treated (Report of
the Red Cross).
THE POGROM OF KREMENTSCHOUG.
All the horrors which took place in the above-mentioned towns are nothing in com-
parison with what took place at Krementschoug, where the work of destruction commenced
with the entry of the volunteer troops into the town. The cries of grief and lamentation
arose on all sides. All the Jewish houses were sacked and pillaged.
350 women were registered as violated, neither children of twelve years nor old women
of sixty being spared. After being violated the little girls were thrown into the water.
closets.
THE POGROMS OF FAsTOV.
A terrible pogrom organized by detachments of Denikin broke out in this town at the
end of September, 1919.
The pogrom took place during the occupation of the town, and afterwards, the bodied
of those killed were left lying for several days in the streets. Thousands of people, gravely
wounded, died without anyone being able to bring them any help. The dogs and piga
gnawed at the bodies killed and wounded.
A great number of women and girls were violated. It was with truly bestial fury that
the soldiers threw themselves on young girls and violated them before the very eyes of their
helpless parents.
Partic ilarly revolting scenes took place in the court of the Synagogue where the Jews
had sought refuge. The whole court was strewn with bodies of old men, women and
children and violated girls. Many people went mad.
Many Jews sought shelter in the Church. but the soldiers surrounded it and killed the
sixty Jews in it, and then burned all the Jewish houses in the town. More than two hundred
houses were thus given up to the flames.

VI.
FRENCH APPEAL TO HUMANITY
In the name of human conscience, in the name of the moral responsibility,
which every man bears towards his fellow men: the undersigned appeal to
all people of the world and more especially to the French people.
A cry of terror and of poignant grief reaches us from Eastern Europe,
from the Ukraine, from Poland, from Lithuania, and from Galicia: a whole
people cries out despairingly for help.
The Jews who, for centuries, have been settled in Eastern Europe, have
become the innocent and pitiful victims of struggles, national, political and
social. A
The rival ambitions of peoples, governments and parties, and all the
folly of civil war satiate themselves to-day upon the unhappy Jewish
minority with criminal cruelty.







16 THE UKRAINE TERROR.
The pogroms of Tsarism, even the massacres of Kishineff have been
surpassed by these recent atrocities.
In Bessarabia, occupied by the Rumanian troops, the military authorities
tolerated wicked outrages against the Jews. In Eastern Galicia a wave of
pogroms followed the Polish invasion, and at Lemberg the terror was at its
height. The horrors of Pinsk, Lida and Vilna, added a page of tears and
blood to the tragic annals of Jewish history.
In more than a hundred towns of the Ukraine, frightful pogroms have
taken place and tens of thousands of victims have perished. The most
terrible days of the Inquisition have returned, for the massacres have been
accompanied by the most cruel tortures and the most terrible moral and
physical torments. At Proskenow, thousands of Jews were massacred.
At Filchtine, Jitomir, Balta, Ouman, Habidievka, Bobry (a Jewish agri-
cultural colony), Litine, Kamenenetz-Podolsk, Kitaigorod, Trostinetz, etc.,
the number of victims is enormous. In the Ukraine the pogroms are still
being carried on and threaten the Jews with complete extinction.
Millions of men, women and children, are suffering indescribable misery,
and are handed over defenceless to death and dishonour. What the war
has spared of the modest possession of the Jews is now systematically
pillaged and destroyed.
In the very midst of civilized Europe, at the dawn of the new era for
which the world awaits its charter of liberty and justice, the existence of a
whole population is threatened. Such crimes dishonour not only the people
that commit them, but outrage human reason and conscience.
The undersigned appeal to all peoples of the world against the unheard
of crimes of which a single people is the victim.
Everywhere Committees for the defence of the Jews of Eastern Europe
must be organized, and these Conunittees must unite for prompt and
vigorous action against the oppressors.
Public opinion must be stirred up by the protest of the masses and by
the great organ of the press which is at last fully and correctly informed.
Let the voices of the peoples' representatives in all the parliaments of
the world be raised against these heinous iniquities. The duty is incumbent
upon free peoples and responsible governments, to put an end to this
monstrous violation of the rights of man.
We ask for the speedy organization of Committees of defence against
persecution, Committees invested with every authority which belongs to
their high mission. Millions of oppressed Jews have no other safeguard than
the consciousness of the moral solidarity of the civilized world, and they
have put their supreme hope in the sacred right of all men to life and liberty.


Signed:--
Anatole FRANCE.
Paul APPELL, Membre de 1'Institut.
A. AULARD, Professor a la Facult6 des
lettres de Paris.
Henri BARBUSSE.
Charles BERNARD, Depute.
Emile COMBES, Senateur, ancien Pre-
sident du Conseil.
Michel CORDAY.
L. DISPAN DE FLEURAN, Professeur
agreg6 au Lyc~e Lakanal.
Georges DUHAMEL.
Elie FAURE.
Charles GIDE, Professeur a la Facult6
de Droit de Paris.
Ferdinand HEROLD, Vice-President de
la Ligue des Droits de l'Homme.
Gustave HERVE.
L. LAPICQUE, Professeur k la Facult6
des Sciences.
F. LARNAUDE, Doyen de la Facult6
de Droit de Paris.


Signed :-
Ernest LAVISSE, de l'Acad6mie Fran-
gaise, Directeur de l'Ecole Normale
Sup6rieure.
Victor MARQUERITTE.
Madame MENARD-DORIAN.
Pierre MILLE.
Wilfred MONOD, Pasteur.
De MONZIE, D6put6, ancien Ministre.
MOUTET, D6pute du Rh6ne.
A. PRENANT, Professeur a la Facult4
de M6decine, Membre de l'Acad6mie
de M6decine.
Henri ROGER, Doyen de la Facult6 de
M6derine.
Gabriel SEAILLES, Professeur a 1'Uni-
versit6 de Paris.
Ch. SEIGNOBOS, Professeur a la Facult6
des Lettres de Paris.
Albert THOMAS, D6put6, ancien
Ministre.
Abb6 VIOLET.









Telephone: GERRARD 8245. Telegrams: UKRARELIEF, LONDON.

FEDERATION OF UKRAINIAN JEWS,
In Aid of the Pogrom Sufferers in the Ukraine.
(Registered under the War Charities Act, '916.)


Central Offices :
26a, SOHO SQUARE, W. 1.


Clothing Department:
33, BROAD STREET, W. 1.


presfbent
The Very Rev. Dr. J. H. HERTZ, Chief Rabbi.

lWicespresidents
Sir STUART 31. SAMUEL, Bt. HERBERT BENTWICH.


Haham Dr. I3. GASTER.
NAHUM SOKOLOW.
ISRAEL ZANGWILL.
Sir ADOLPH TUCK, Bt.
Prof. A. BUCHLER .
Dr. R. N. SALAMAN.


Iatronl
Sir ROBERT WALEY COHEN, K.B.E.
SOLOMON J. SOLOMON, R.A.
Dr. S. BRODETSKY.
NATHAN LASKI.
B. S. STRAUS.


Chairman
Dr. D. JOCHELMAN.

lice=Cbairien
Dr. 31. PINES. 1ORRIS M'YER.

Creasurers
JOSEPH PRAG, J.P. I3. SCHALIT.


tbon. Secretary
S. GOLDENBERG.


ZEecutive Commlittee
ELKAN ADLER. J. KIPERNICK.
Rev. 1IICILEL ADLER. B. KOGAN.
2M. BAGRIT. MI. LIEBERMAN.
B. BERNSTEIN. J. LANDAU.
J. CAPLAN. J. MIACHOWER.
Dr. S. DAICHES. LAURIE MAGNUS.
Rev. L. GEFFEN. Rabbi I. I. 3IATTUCK.
M1. GRosS-LMN. Dr. M1. SCHWARZMAN.
L. HUT. L. SCHEN.
31. KAUFMAN. A. TARLO.
I. KALMNIENSON. Dr. I. TRIVUS.


Secretary
A. 31. KAIZER.











The following messages of sympathy were received at a Public
Meeting held in London by the Federation of Ukrainian Jews in
April, 1921 :-

From LORD PARMOOR :-
There is much misery in many European districts, and I wish
that we in England could do mqre to help in the work of relief and
restoration. I know that the Jews in some districts have suffered
in a special manner, and I cordially would support your endeavour
to awaken public opinion.

From LORD WEARDALE:-
I am sorry it will be impossible for me to be present at your mass
meeting on Sunday next. I should. have been interested in hearing
the reports from representatives upon their visit to the pogrom areas
of the Ukraine. I fear, however, that they can hardly be anything
but most distressing, for passions have been running riot in all those
districts, and although newspaper reports are not always reliable,
there can be no doubt that cruel sufferings have been inflicted upon
the Jewish inhabitants of those regions. The war seems to have
greatly deadened the public conscience, or perhaps the existence
of widespread disorders in so many parts of the world has rendered
it painfully callous. We see what is now going on close to our own
shores in Ireland, and, alas, we have no Gladstone among us who
would rouse the public to condemn these terrible proceedings, both in
Ireland and elsewhere. I rejoice to learn you are taking action at
Mile End, and I trust that a powerful appeal will proceed from your
meeting, calling upon all civilised Governments to intervene to save
the unfortunate Jews of Eastern Europe from the appalling attacks
upon them.

From COL. JOSIAH C. WEDGWOOD, M.P.:-
The martyrdom of the Ukrainian Jews, culminating in the
massacres of the last two years, must rouse the deepest indignation of
all right-minded people in the world. By reason of our protectorate
over Palestine, the British Government should exercise some restraining
influence over these Polish, Russian, and Rumanian butchers. At
least let the half-savage Governments know that our sympathies are
with the Jews and not with the half-breed Dagos who persecute
our friends.