RELIGIOUS BOOK INDUSTRY
AS SUBMIITTED ON AUGUST 24, 1933
REGISTRY No. 1653--03
The Code for the Hebrew and Jewish Religious Book Industry
in its present form merely reflects the proposal of the above-mentioned
industry, and none of the provisions contained therein are
to be regarded as having received the approval of
the National Recovery Administration
as applying to this industry
UNIV. OF FL LIB.
D OC U ENT'rS DE~PT.
Do OUR PART
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1933
r or enle by the Superintendent of Dormuanens, Washington. D.C. - Pirce 5 cents
NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION
C ODE OF FAI R C OMPE TIT ION
HEBREW AND JEWISH
CODE OFi FAIR COMIPET1ITION ADOPTED BY DEALERS
IN~ HIEBREW AIND JIEWISH RELIGIOUS BOOKSS AND
In attemllpting to establish~ principles of fair competition within
this line of business, without curtailing; the numnber1 of hours dur~ingr
wIphich stores shall be open, we recognize the fact that the public
first buys the necessuries of life before it expends any mlone? in the
purchanse of merchandise sold by us, and -we further recognize that
most of the~t destructive. practices which have grown up in competi-
tion aind which have made business unprofitable and which have
seriously~ a~ffected the producingli industries and their labor, have
centered. about ignorance of actual operating~ cost, the fall in the
general price level, and destructivre wage or price cutting.
In the code which we herewith submit, we hnav9e confinedl our-
1. Providing a fair de~al for employees through-
).~ The, right, tor norga~nize! andl blrgain collectively;
b. A minimum wage;
c. Milaxim~um working hours.
2. Control of unfair competition.
3. Rtegulattion of advertising statements.
4. A practical method of administering this code.
Nothing in the restraints imposed Iby this code is of a discrimninn1-
tory nature. All restraints proposed mn this code are to pr~otec~t the
conlsumers, competitors, employees, anid others, and are in fur~ther-
ance of the public interests.
No provision will stifle the initiative of any business conforming
to these _fair-competition practices. The association which pre-
senlts this code imlposes no inequitable recstr~ictio~ns on adlmission to
mnembership> in its organization and is truly representative of the
entire t~rade. This code, which it offers, is not designed to promote
monopolies or to eliminate or oppress small eniterprisies and will
not operate to discriminate against them.
It is our conviction that this code w\\ill tend to effec-tuate the policy
of Title I of the National Indu~strial Recovery Act.
Any book dealer or wholesaler may participate. in this code or
in an revisions or amendments thereto and receive the benefits
thereof bacreptn the proper pro rata? shIare of thne cost and re-
sponibiity f ceatng and administering it, by either becomilnga
mebr fthe a~ssac-,ition or by paying a sum equal to that paidii
by members of the association.
Being mn sympathy w~ith the spirit and purpose of the National
Inldustrial Recovery Act, the dealers in Hebr~ewT and Jewish reli-
gious books andc articles dlesir~e to present, this code to thne P~resi-
detnt, the better to forward the program looking towardt the economic
and bus~1iness~ recovery of the Unitedl States,. the necessity' for which
is stated in TIitle 1I, Section. 1, of this Act.
1. The term cost price ", as herein ment ioned, is the pu~c~hase
price and does not include carrying charges or ov\er1hea~d expend ~es.
Overrrhead expenses have been computed b~y thne Code Drafting Com-
mittee of this association as being 20%0 of or in advance of thre cost
price, so that, by way of example, where a m~inimumn profit of 2;5%
has been fixed, 20%r is to be dedulcted~ therefrom. as and for the over-
head expense, leaving a net minimum profit of only 5%r on. said item.r
2. TPhe term book dealer as used herein, includes any natural
person, partnership, association, firm, or corporation regularly and
not temporarily or se~nsonnlly, engagedl in the retail selling of Hebr~ew
and,/or Jewish books, religious articles, synagogue and temple
3. The terml whol~;lealer as used herein, includes any natural
person, partnership, association, firm, or corporation engaged in. the
publishing, printing, manufacturing, or importing of Hebrew, Jewish,
or religious books and/or articles to be sold to the book dealers as
A. C'eLLIECITIVE BARGAINING
In conformnity with the provisions of Sec~t ion 7 (a) of Title I of
the National Industrial Recovery Atct, the attitude of this line of busi-
ness with recspetct to the labor of employees shall be as follows:
1. That employees shall have the right to organize and bargain
collectively through r~11epresenatives of their own chnoosingr and shall
be free from the interference, r~est mint, or coercion of employers of
labor or their agents in, the designation of such. representatives or
any self-organ~ization, or any other conserted activitiess for the pur-
p~ose of collc~tivet bargaining or for mutual aid or protectio-n.
2. That no employee and no one seeking employment shall be re-
qunired, as a, condition of employment, to join any company uln on
or to refrain from joining, orga~nizing~, or assisting a labor organiza-
tion of his own choosing; and
3. That emprlloyvers s~hall com?plly with thle maximum hlours of
laborr, minimum rates of pay, and other condlitio~ni of emplloyment
app~3rovedl or prescribed by the Presidesnt.
TIhe! relations ho~t ween~r emp~loye~r andc employees''' c~ in this business
are andi have been for manly yearnls on a mutuaflnlyS satiSfootoryl'S basris,
and nothing contained in this code shanll be constr~uedl as reqc~uiring
or cotn~tntem latin a chlngfe in these~ retla~tions.
1. TIhe mlaximxunl mnubner of wolll~rkin hours for any emplllo~yee in
this line of busliinesc shall be forty (40) hours per w-eek, exclusive
of the peak enandll~l period from SepItr m~embe 1st to October 15th.
2. Sh1ouldl there be a needrt for addtitioinal emiployees more~t emn-
p~loyees shanll be emp~loyedl on anorthe~r shift.
3.All book; dealers shall be open frm9 A .M. to : ] P .M.or fEiromay
Sundy toThusday incusi e, from 9 A P.M. to 4 P.MI. on Friday
between October1 1st and Aipril 3~t~h, andl from 9 A.M. to 7 ]P.M.
on Fridal~ys, bel~-tween Mrlch 1st and11 Septemlber 30th, except that.
dlur~ing the seasonal peak periodl from~ Septemlber 1st to October
15th all booke dealers shall close their place of business not later
thanl~ 11 P.Mr. from Scunla~ys to Thursdays,, inclusive.
4. All book dealers shlall have their place of business c~losedl each.
Saturdac~y and all Jewishl holidays.
5. ~No minors ulndler the age. of 16 shall be employ~ed, except tha~t
minors between th~e age of 14 and 16 mnay be emlployedt for :runningi
errands all' nd asking deliveries between thne hours of 7 a.m. andi 7
p.mn., provided that the saidl hours do not inter~fer~e with their at-
tendunce at day~ school.
C. MIINIMUM~~ C.OnIPENS.1TION
The minimum comlpensationl for all emlploy3ee~s wrher~ever~ employred
in. this line shall be $15.00 per week. This does not include errand
boys~i used solely for the pur1pose of makingf deliveries anrd running
A. UNFAIR c~OMrPETITIONT
1. It shall be unfair comp~letitio- n for anyone to sell, offer to sell.
or adv\er~tise~, in anyT form to the public: at retail any Hebrew or
Jewi~sh r~eligaions, text, or school boo~ks. either domestic: or imported,
at less than the cost price to the book dealer plus 2550 to insure
that labor costs shall at least be partially cove~edl.
2. It sh~all be unfair competition for an~yonle to sell, offer to sell,
orI adv\ertise, in any form to the public at; retail anly HebrlewT, JewFPish.
or app-ur~tenan t literature at less than the cost. price to the book~l seller1
3. It shall bie ulnfair competition for anyone to sell, offer forl sale,
or advertise, in any m-anlner to the public at retalil aIny Hebrewc\ cal-
endlars, greetings cardcs, n~ovelties, an-d allierl articles, exrcepting~ syn~n-
gogue ne~tal~-lware, which is hereinafter r~eferr1edl to, at less thanl the
c~ost price to the book: dl~eale plus 40'" innsmluch~ as these items are
soldl, either ranrel, :infr~equ~ently, uIncdor senlsonall~y.
4. Since the prices for phy'lacter~ies a7nd' do(or scrolls. c~lllommon
k~nown as L"tfilinl "' andL "mezu1zas ", r~esp~ectively-, fluc'fl~tute, it shafll be
un11falirI compll etitfion for anyone to rell. offer to se~ll. or a dv\er~tise in anyl
ma1l~nner to the pu~blic at retail a set of any~ unlpolish~ed phy$lacnteries
at Iless than $2.00, p~olish~ed phylnte riesa at less than $3.00 and- dloor
scrIolls at less than 15(! eachr.
5. It shall be ulnfair compettitonl for anyronet to sell, offer to sell,
or adver~tise in any manner to the public at retail anly p~rayer shawls,
emnbroidered articles, excepting altar drapes or cuirtains better known
as "' porochuasen and sk-ull caps at less than the cost price to the
book dealer pluls 40%c.
6. I~t shall be an act of unfair competition for anyone to sell, offeer
to sell, or advertise in any manner to the public at retail, synagogue
metal ornaments anld porochasen at less than the cost price plus
7. In order to promote better relations between the wholesaler and
book dealer, it will be deemed an act of unfair competition for a~ny
wholesaler to advertise in any form to the public at retail any prod-
ucts without inserting a, clause therein. that this product is obtainable
also at the store of any retail dealer in Hebrew and Jewish religious
books and articles.
8. In order to protect the wholesaler from unfair competition, and1
the consumer from being sold inferior goods, it shall be deemed an
acet of unfair competition for any book dealer to buy the merchan-
dise of any individual importer and/or manufacturer not regularly
and solely engaged in thne business of importing and/or matnufactur-
ing such merchandise. It is deemed proper that such importers
and/or manufacturers sell their wares to th~e wholesalers only, who
ar~e, at the time of the drafting of this code:
Wh~olesa~lers of books, articles, and novelties, both domestic &~
I:. Mr. ALTER.
BEHIRMANi'S JEWISHE BOOKZ HOUSE.
BLOCH P'UBLSusNo COMPANY.
I)EPARTMENLT OF SYNAGOGUIEs & SenooL EXTIENSIONT.
HIEBREW PUnuIsmNo COMPANY.
HALPERIN S IMPORTED BOOKZS.
JEWISH PUBLICATIONS SOCIETY.
STAR PTJnusm-Iho COMPANY.
HMebrew prayer sklanch7, silverzoare, en lboid/~cery, phylacteries, and
Palestinzian ,r~od uct~is & i!i~ttils p, atos
PALESTINE: IFOOD & NOVELTY CO.
PALESI~TINE IMPORTING CO.
Thle term "L wholesaler as used in this clause shall also apply to
any book: clealler wFho is today the sole American agent, representa-
tive, Illgallnu'f 1tureI, producer, or any particular or individual bo~ok
The above clause 8 does not apply to individual, 051secnd
hnndl, andl/or rare boo~k- and articles from pr.ivate colle~ctions~ and
9. Should any book dealer or whlolesaller all, offer for salle, or
adv\er~tise in any manner to the public at re1tail any article which~ is
racle, dtamagberl, or in, any w~ay sp-ecial, at a redlucedr or a, special price,
it shall be anl act of unfair completitionl for sucllhbook dledercl or
wholesaler not to be ready and willing to sell and refuse to sell such
article to any other bookr dealer at his or her request at a d~i c~ounlt
from such r~edulcedl or special sale or advertisiedl price of 20$
1i0. It shall be deemed an act of unfair competition for any whlole-
saler to sell, offer to sell, or advertise to any peddler, Jobber, sex-
ton, school, synagogue, congregation, temple, group, association, indli-
vidual, partnership, or corporation, other than book dealers regu~l-
larly engaged in this line of business, any merlchandise used in this
line at anly price or rate lower than the cost price to the book dealer,
plus the percentages of profit fixed by and u~nder this code.
11. ]It shall be unfair practice for wholesaler~s to discriminate in
price between book dealers by paying or allowcping or giving rebates,
refunds, premiums, commi~nssions, dliscoulnts, prizes, special prices or
ADMINISTRATION OF FAIR COMPETITION
A.Q To assist in carrying out the provisions of the National Indus-
trial Recovery Act and of this code, and the rules and regulations
made pursuant thiereto, and for the formulation of suchL other fur-
ther or amendatory code provisions, as may be necessary to insure
far competition, and effectuate the provisions of the code, thie Eixecu-
tiv Committee of this association or any such successor comm~itteer
or committees as may hereafter be constituted by the action of thle
association, is set up as a, Fair Competition Board for these pur~lpo-ses.
BE. Such, board .may, from time to time, present to the. National
Recovery Administration's recommendations, ba~sedl on conditions
in this line of business as they may developh from ie to time, which
will tend to effectuate the provisions o h oeadteplc
olf the NJational Industrial R~ecovery Act.
1. Should this code or any part thereof be broken or evaded in
any manllner or form by anyT wholesaler or book dealer, such wholesalers
or book dealer shall be compelled to attend a hear~inga before the
]Fair Competition Board, and if found guilty of such act, shall in
addition to any fine or penalty imposed through the National Indus-
trial Recovery Administration, not be traded or dealt with in any
way by either wholesalers or book dlealer~s, and shall pay a fine of
not more than $500.00 to this association.
2. Should any book dealer advertise or offer in any manner a
premium, present, gift, prize, gratuity, rebate or any~ other induce-
ment to any consumer for the purpose of evading in any manner
the letter or spirit of this code, he shaUl be compelled to attend
a hearing before the Fiair Clompetit~ion Board, and if found guilty
of such, shall in addition to any fine or penalty which may be im-
posedl through the NIational Indulstr!ill Re -ove\ ry Admnsl~r~ trionl,
nlot be traded or dealt with in any way~ by either wholesalers or book
dlealers, and shall pay a fine of not more than $~o.r00.0 to this
3. Should any book dealer or wholesaler sell, offer to sell, or
advertise in an mnne~r any religious article which under the Jrewish
Law~s and customs is not Li kosher ", he shatll be compelled to attendcl
a hearing before the Fair Clompetition Board and if found guilty
of such act., pay a fine of not mor~e tha~n $1_,000.00 to th~is asrsociatioln.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08855 5536
CHABNGE, OR MODIFICATION
For the purpose of effectuating the provisions of Title I of the
National Industrial Recovery ALct, supplements to this code or' atddi-
tional codes not inconsistent herewith, may fr~om time to timle be
submitted for the approval of the President, and the Presidlent may,
fromt time to time, cancel or modify any order, app)'C\roval ru~le, or
regulation issued hereunder.
This code shall be effective on the 1st Sunday after it shall have
been approved by the President and shall continue inl force until
the President shall, by proclamation, or th~e Congress shall, by joint
resolution, declare that the emergency recognized by Title I of this
Act has ended.