For sale by the Superintendent of Docmnents, Washington, D.C. - Price 5 rents
Approved Code No. 15--Amendment No. 2
Approved Code No. 118--Amendment No. 1
Registry No. 216-- 1-06
Registry No. 217--1-06
r WE Do OUR PART
1. Executive Order
2. Letter of Transmittal
COVERNMlENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1933
NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION
CODES OF FAIR COMPETITION
MEN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY
COTTON GARMENT INDUSTRY
AS APPROVED ON DECEMBER 18, 1933
ThJis publicationl is for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Government
Printing Ome~e, Wanshingtc:on D.C., and by district offices of the Bureau of
Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
DISTRICT OFFICES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
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Approved Code No. 15---Amendment No. 2
Approved Code No. 118---Amendment No. 1.
CODE OF FAIR CO'MPETrITI[ON
MEN'?S CL;OTHEING INDUJS'~LJTR AND) COTTL1CON
As Approved on D~ecemnber 18, 1933
]E x ecutivTe Order
A. A Code of F~air Competition for the Men's Clothing Industry
was approved by me on August 26, 1933. A public hearing having
been held by the Aldministrator on due notice, with respect to certain
ammenlnents to the said code, the Administrator having recommended
the modification of my app~rova\l of said code accordingly, the
amendments being as follows:
1. That the first paragraph of article I of the code be amended
to read as follows:
"I The term Clothinga Industry as used herein is defined to mean
the mannufaccture of men's, boys', and children's clothing, uniforms,
single knee pants, single pants (except work pants or single pants
when mlade in work-clothing factories), and men's summer clothing
exceptt men's wclash suits of one hundreds percent (1009'o) cotton con-
tent, when made in wor01k-clothing~r factories in, conjunction with. work
e. That the second paragraph of article II of the said code be
dleletedl, which paragraph reads as follows:
'' The minimum wage paid by employers to employees wTorkiing on
single-knee pants shlnl be at the ralte of thirty-seven cernts (37C) per
3. That there be substituted for the above paragraph. the following:
"' The minimnu m wTage paid by employers to empJloyees w~orking on
single-knlee pants and/or single pants shall be at thle rate of thirty-
four cents (34() per hour when employed in the southern section of
the industry, and thirty-seven cents (34~) per hour wh]en employed
in the northern section of thle industry."~
41. Thant th~e fo~llow-ing paragra~ph be added to article II, which shall
be the t hi Ir parIagra ph of sa id a article :
"'11 The inimuml wage paid by employers to employees working
on maen's washjl suits of one hlundr~ed percent (100Sn0) cotton content,
shiall be at th~e rate of thirty--four cents (344) per hour in the southern
sctionl of th~e indlustryv, and1 thirty-seven cents (37$) per hiour in the
northern section of the indlustry; the mninimnum w~age paid by em-
ployers to emnploeess worlkinga on mnen's summer clothing (other than
men's wansh suits of one hundtredl percent (1004%) cotton content)
shall be at the rate of thir~ty-seven cents (37#) per "hour in the
southern section of the industry, andl forty cents (40 ) per houlr in
the northern section of the indlustry." f~pdd t rn sfolwi)
5. That paralgra3ph (a') of articleIIeam ddtordasflo :
On andt after the effective date, the minimum wage which shall
be paid to cutter's shanll be at the: rate of one dollar ($1.00) per hour,
and the m~inimumii wnge w-hich srhall be. paid to off-pressers shall be
at the ra~te of seventy-five cents (r5cI) per hour; except that in the
southern section of th~e industry the miinimum wag~e which shall be
paid to cutters of all men's washl sulits and/or summer clothing
sh-all b~e-at t~e ra~te of eigrhty-five cents (85Q) per hour, and the
minimum wngice whlich shall be panid to off-presser~s of such garments
sh~all bt at thle rate of sixtyg cents (609~) p~er hour."?
B. A C'ode of Fair Competition for the Cotton G~armlent Indlustr y
w~as approv~c~ed by! mie on November 17, 1033. A~ pubilic hearing having
been held by the Ad~tministr atoro l onl due notice, pursuant to the second
parag~raphl of section A of article II of the snid codle, which para-
graph reads as follows:
Thie products covered by section A, parlagraphs 8, 10, and 14,
are included in this code pending the prompt. holding of such fuir-
thler hearing onl such notice as thle Admlinistrator in his discretion
ay- fix, and thle final determination of wh~eth~er the definitions of
any of them shall be modified or elimiinated or whether any of the
subdiviisions shanll continue to be included in this code."'
Paragraphs 10 and 14, to which the foregoing refers, include:
"L(10) m~en'!s and boys' pants inl chief content of cotton;' "(14) men's
cotton washl suits."!
The Admiinistrator hav-ingr rendered his report together with his
recommnendations a nd find ings wi th respect to the following a mend-
ment to thle said code:
Th,7t section A of article II be amnend-ed to read as follows:
"A~s ulsed in th~is code th~e termi Cotton Garment Indlustry means
and includes th~e production by any of the following processes: (a)
cuttilg,, (b) creasing, (c) sewfing (all or part of the garmentt, (d)
trimmrning (e) pressing, (f) finishing, (g) examinin~g and inspecting,
(h) boxing, or all of them, of any article or garment known as (1)
work clothing, work garmllents, work pants, andc children's play
suits; (2) men's shir~ts, including knitted outer shirts and polo
shits;(3)boys' shirts and blouses; (4) boys' waRsh suits; (5) work
shirts of any material, including flannel shiirts; (6) pajamas and
niighitshirts; ('i) men's collars; (8) cotton wash dresses; (9) oiled
cotton garments; (10) men's and bo~s' pants, when made in workr
clothing fnetor~ies; (11) sheep lined and leather garmlents; (12)
nurse-s' and maids' aprlons and uniformls; (13) washable service ap-
parel; (14) mlen's wash suits of one hundred percent (100%o) cotton
content, when made in w~orki-clothning factories mn conjunction with
NOWV, THEREFO]RE, I, FEranklin D. Rojosevelt, IPresident of the
United States, purrsuant, to the authority vested in me by title I of
the National Industrial Recovery Act, approved June 16, 1933, and
othlerwise, do approve the foregoing amnendments, on. the following
1. That. no manufa~ctur~ing employee engagedl in the production of
mlens wash suits of one hundred percent (100%o) cottonl content
and/:or men's and boys' pants when either of the foregaoinga is made
in work clothing factories in conjunction with work clothing or
workr pants, shall be paid at less than the rate of thirty-four cents
(344C) per hour in the southern section of the indrustryS, or less than
t~hirty~-seven cent.s (37$) per hour in the northern section of the
2.It is hereby ordered that an Inter-Code committee of seven (7)
persons shall be appointed byy the Admlinistrator, three (3) of whom;
shall be chosen from. thle Cot~torn G-arent Industry, with the advice
of t~he chnairmnan of its Code Authlor~ity, and three (3) of whom. shall
b~e chosen from t.he M~en's Clothing Industry, with the advice of thle
c~hairmlan of its Clode Authority, and the seventh (7th) member shall
be chairman ojf the said committees. The committee is hereby author-
izedl to administer and supervise enforcemienlt in respect. of cotton
wash suits and,or single pants. The said committee, may, on its
owrn initiative, or upon reference by either Code Authority con-
cerned, recommend to the Administrator, changes in maximum
hours or differentials or changes in the minimum wage to be paid
employees enngaged in. the production of single pants and/or cotton
wash suits, andt issue interpretations of this order with, respect to
such garmnents.i All questions arising from the operation of this
Order shall be referred to the Inter-Code Comnmittee for determina-
tionl. Interpretations or determinations made by the said committee
shall be subject to an appeal to the Administrator.
On or before June 30, 1934, the Inter-Code Committee shall re-
por~t to the two Code ALut~horities concerned, and to the Admninistra-
tor, as to wFhether these provisions should be changed or modified by
The Administ~rator shall arrange with the two Code Authorities
for an equitab~le basis of contribution to cover the necessaryg expendi-
tur~es for administration by the Inter-Code Commnittee.
It is hereby ordered thnat the final appr~ovazl of the Code of Fair
Comnpet it ion for the Men's Clothing Industry, con~tainedl in my- Execu-
tive ordcer, dlated August 2i, 1933, and that the final approval of the
C'ode of Fair Competition for the Cotton Garment Industry, con-
tained in my~ Execuntive order, dated November 17, 1933, shall be
modifiedl to the foregojing effect on and after January 2, 1934.
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT.
AlpprovalH r~ec~ommenn ded::
HUGH j. JOHNSdON,
THE 1VHITE HOUSE,
D ce m k r 1 8, 19 J.
DECEMBER 12, 1933.
The Wh2ite House.
SmE: The Cotton Garmlent Code includes in its definitions (Ar-
t~icle TII Section A, Subdivisions 1, 10, and 14), work clothing, w~ork
garmlents, w~ork~ pants, and children's play suits; ", "~ Men's and boys'
pants in chief content of cotton ". and "L men's cotton wash suits."
They were so includled subject to a final determination b~y the Admin--
istrantor of whether the definitions "' shall be modified or .. shall
continue to be includedl in this Code."' The M~en's Clothing Code
inlclud~es as a pa rt of its definition of the Indlustry, single knee pants,
single ~ants, and men's summer clothing exclusivee of cotton wa~shi
suiits). The Clotton Garmnent Code provides minimum~ wages of
thirty cents (30$) an hour for the South and thirty-twfo and one hialf
cents (32%(C) an hlou~r for~ the North, a maximum week of fortyF (40C)
hours, and no classifiedl scales. The M~en's Clothiingr Clode provides
mninimumi wages of thir~ty-seven cents (374)j per hour in the South
and forty cents (40() an hour in the North, a maximum week of
thirty-six (36) hours, and classifications for cutters andt off-pressers.
A large part of the Cotton Gaarmtent Industry has grown up around
the mlanlufacturel~ of overalls atnd ror~k clothing. These factories have
added~~ many lines of merchandise which coucldbe maide without chalng-
ing their plant equipment, personnel, or organization. This results
in grleater continuity of emiploymient. All these lines are sold largely
through the same channels of dlistr~ibu~tion. The South is a bigr
muarket for this mer~chandise.e
Single pnlts and cotton wazsh! SulitS conStitute an important part
of such hines. ~What wepre flrmerly~ wonrk pants, through develop-
ments of materials becamer rather extensivelyv used for sport and
dress purposes. The mien's walSh suits ma7de in w-ork clothing fac-
tories are mostly of the seersuck~er type. These are distributed
in competition with flnes of single pants aind summnerr clothing
mande in the nlen's Clothing Indlustry.v
UCntil a few ~ear~s ago the competition between these industries
on these lines was not serious. Recently the trend of fashion and the
downwarrd trend of prices have brought them into sharp competition.
During the p~ast tw~o seasons the competition has been unusually
The Rfen's Cllothing~ manufacturers believe that their business is
veryserousy treaene bythe difference in wages, hours, and
classifications provided in thtoCoessrouinfttha
right at the present moment the single pants manufacturers working
under the Clot'hing Code are' said to be organnizing* a "' shut.-down "
until the competitive situation accentuatedl in the two Codes could
be stranightened out.
The difficulties in definitionls wTere clearly set forth in the Ad-
mrinistrator's report submitting the Cilothing Code and the Cotton
Gnrmnent Code to thle Piresident for his appr~loval. Many hlearings
and conferlenc~es have b~een held, th~e last hlenrings being held on
Mlond'ay andl Tuesday, Novembler 27 andc 28. Successive conferences
failed to produce an agr~eemnent, and it became nIec~essaryy to leave
thre mnatter for determinationl by the A~dministrator, as provPided inl
the Cotton Garment Code. In the vnrlious conlfer~ences it was con-
ceded by all parties tha~t -or~k pants should be made undter the pro-
visions of the Cottonl G;1nrmen t Code and that pants which are part
of men's suits, and separllate pants made of wool for dress use should
be made undcer the provisions of thie M~en's Clothing Code. Between
these twoP~ extremecs there were irreconciliable differences regarding
A~ll parties were in agreement. upon the d~esirabnlilit~y of avoiding
jurisdiction by both Code Authorities in one factory.
WTiith particular r~efer~ence to summer c~loth~ingr and men's wash
suits, the Men's Clothing malnlufacturerss claimed protection against
unfair comlpetitIon, and a brleaki-down of their standards from the
sale of mlenl' cotton wash suits under the Cotton Grarm!ent Code.
After' hlerings held on Septemlber 26 and 27 conferences were held,
wrhic'h resulted in an agreement between the NPJew Orleans manu-
facurelrsl~ and others represeni~ltinr a, substantial part of the industry
making wash suits. This agr~eemlent. was put in the form of a
-recommrendlation by the Administrator for an Exrecutive Order mrak-
ing the necessary amendments to include the manufacture of wash
suits ais a part of the Mlen's Clothing Industry. The submis-:--sion of
these rec~omme nda~tio nsi was held p~endling final action on the Cotton
Garment. Code. During the final conferences precedling thne sub-
mnission and adoption of this Codle, r~eprese.t ntatives of the work cloth-
ing factories who manufacture andr distribute inexpe~nsivre cotton
wash suits, pr~incipally of the see~Irsuckrer type, claimed that they
we~re not boulnd by the agreement enter~ed into by the New Orleans
manufacturers. TChe definition of m~en's wash suits was ilc~ludedl in
the Cotton Garment, Cod~e subject to a later hearing and final deter-
mlination by the Adm~inistlra!to r, as explained above. Heearings and
various con~f~erences were~ heldl on Novem~ber 27? at which all par11ties
were asked to show cause wchy the agreement entered into in Septem-
ber should not be made effective through~ the pr~oper amendments to
the C'lothinu anld Cotton Garm!1ent Codes:
Wirthl reference to single pants it is muy conclusion thatt:
1. Work pants as included in Sub~division 11, Palragraph A, of
.Article II, covers a ~field of mlerchandise not in competition with the
1Men's Clothing Industry, and can be defined for the p~urpose~s of
2. There are lines of one hundred percent (100ro) cotton trousers
manulfactur~edl irn work< clothing factories, which are used in. sub~stan-
tial~ quantities for sport and dress occasions andc do constitute an
important factor of competition with trousers now made as a part
of the Men's Clothing Industry. Manufacturers should be allowed
to continue mlanufactulre under both Codes, with an inclreased minii-
mum in the Cotton Garment Code which will, in eflFect, ope~ratle to
reduce the difference in minima between th~e twro Codes.
3. With the exception of certain very' cheap manterials used for
the manufacture of wor~k clothing, trousers made of wool and woolen
mixtures shouldl largely be reserv-ed for manufacture under the
Mien's Clothing C'ode, but that where made in Cotton Garment. fac-
tor~ies, should be madle under an increased minimum,
WYith reference to mnen's cottoni wash suits, it. is miy conclusion
1. Wash suits miade fr~om linens, Palmn Beaches and similar mate-
rials are competitive writh summiier clothing made in the .Men's
Clothing Industry, and should be produced under the provisions -of
2. 1\fen's wash suits of onie hundred percent (100%) cotton content,
particularly of the better grades, do compete with other summer
clothing, and the minimna in th~e two Codes should be equalized. Such
wash suits mlanufactur~ed in work clothing fac~tor~ies and in conjunc-
tion with work clothing are genlerallyv so low in price as to constitute
a less important factor of competition, and should be allowed to be
made under the provisions of the Cotton Gar~ment Code, with a, higher
3. That the products of the New Orleans manufacturers are in
substantial compIetition writh summer clothing produced in Mien's
Clonthingr fac~rtories, andl that. no cont~rollingr reason was shown why
the agreement entered into by the representatives of the New Orleans
and other manufacturiers,, withl representatives of the M~en's Cloth-
ing Industry, should not. stand substantially as covered in the pend-
ing recomimendations of Deputy Admiinistrator Lindsay Rogers.
NOTE.-Recommnendedl amlendmntes carry a slight. modlification of
rates in the interest of simplification of rates in the same factory.
It is recomnmendled that the necessary amendments be mande to the
Codes of Fair Comnpetition for the Mien's Clothing Indlustry and the
Cotton Grarment Ind~usitryv which w-ill in effect provide:
1. That wlork~ pants as dlefned~ andl interpreted by the Inter-Code
Committee shall be produced under the wRage anld hour provisions now
provided in the C'otton Grarmient Code.
2. All other single pants shiouldl be allowed to be made under
the terms of both~ Codes; at a mniinimum hourlyr wage of thirty-four
cents (34$) in the South andt thirty-seven cents (37#)t~ in the North.
3. That men's wa~sh suits of one hundred percent (100%r) cotton
content, when made in w~ork clothiing factories in conjunction with
work clothing, may be made ulnder the Cotton G~arment Code, sub-
ject to a minimumn of thir~ty-foulr cents (349) an hour inl the South
and thirty-sevjen cents (37<~) per hour in the N~orth.
4. That all wash suits,, other than mlen'ss wansh suits of onie hundred
percent (1000~) cotton content w~hen made in work clothing fac-
tories in conjunction with~ work clothiing, be made under the pro-
visions of the Mlen's C'lothiing Code, provided (a) that this Code
carriy a special mninimumn of th~irty-four cents (344) per hour in
the South and3 thiirty'-seveni cents (374) per hour in the North for
men's wash suits of one hundred~- percent (lnS100) cotton content,
(b) That a minimum of thirty-seven cents (374) per hour in the
South and forty cents (~140) pecr hour inl the Nor~th be provided for
men's washl suits madle of malterials other than one hundred percent
(100%r) cotton, andl (.e) Trhat there be lower differentials for cutt.ers
and off-presser~s engagedl in the mraniufacture of wash suits made in
Clotht-ing factories in the South.
For Administration I reconuinendl an Inter-Code cosmitiiitee be
appointed by the Admninistrator to observe the effects of comlpe~titionn
betw~eenl the malnufa~ctur~ers of single pants and mlen's wash suits
operating under the two Codles, with authority to supervise enlfor~ce-
ment, make interpretationls, and study the need for redefinitionrs
necessary to establish, and maintain fair competitive conditions.
:'The expense of the admilnistration for this committee should be
ar~ranrged by the two Code Authorities, and labels should be re-
quired for all single pants (other than work~ pants), and wash
clothing Irmade unde~tr both Cod~es as a means of enforcement.
On or before June 30, 1!,34, the Inlter-Codle Committee should
be required to report to the two Code Authorities with recommenda-
tions as to whether these amendmetlntsl to the Codes should be
continued or modified.
In ac~colrdance. with, thne above, the approval of the attached
Exe~cutive Order is r~ecollnu:ndended
Hoon S. Jo-Nxson,
ApplroveId Colle No. 15-A~~mendmentt No. 2.
Reg~istry' No. 216j-1-06.
Apprroved~ Code No. 118-Amllendmenlr t No. 1.
Registry No. 217-1~-06j.
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