NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION
CODE OF FAIR COMlPETITION
RAILWAY BRASS CAR AND
LOCOMOTIVE JOURNAL BEARINGS
AND CAST ING S M AN UFACT DURING
For sarle by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. - Price 5 centts
Registry No. 1414L-03
Approved Code No. 233
AS APPROVED ON JANUARY 29, 1934
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]Joreign and Domestic Commerce.
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Approved Code No. 233
CODE OF FAIR COMPETITIIION
R A IL W~TA Y BRASS CAIR AN~D LOCOMOTIVE
JOURNAL BEARINGS ~AND CAtSTINGS
MAN UFAC TURNING INDUSTRY
As Approved on January 29, 1934
APPROVING= CODE OF FAIR COMPETITION
]RA I L WA Y BRASS CAJR AND
JOURNA~tL B~ E iA. RINGS AND
MLANUF~AC TTURING INDU-BSTRIY
C A STFI N GS
An application. having been duly made pursuant to and in. full
compliance with the pro-visions of T~itle I of the National Industrial
Recovery Act, approved June 16, 1933, for approval of a Code of
Fair Competition for the Railway Brass Car and Locomotive Jour-
nal Bearings and Castings Manufacturing Industry, and hearings
having been duly held thereon and the annexed report on said Code,
containing findings with respect thereltlo, having been made and
directed to the Preside~nt:
NOWC, THI3EREFiORE, on behalf of -the President of the United
States, I, Hugh S. Johnson, Administrator for I~ndustrial Recovery,
pursuant to authority vested in me bly Exnecutiv~e Orders of the
President, including Executive Order No. 6543-~A, dated Decemnber
30, 1933, and otherwise; do hereby incorporate by reference said
annexed report and do find that said Code comzplies in all respects
with. the pertinent provisions and will promote thle policy and pur-
.poses of said Title of said Ac~t; and do hereby order that said Code
of Fair Competition be and it is herebcy approved, subject to the
(1) That the Byv-Lawrs of the Association of Manufacturers of
Railway. Brass Car and Locomotive Journal Bearings and Castings
shall be changed in accor~dance with the report of the Legal Division
dated De~emiber 20, 1933, within thirty (30) days of approval.
Hocu S. JoHNaon,
Adm~ainistpfrator~1 fo' /Indus'tlral2 2C R eovey.
Appr~ovall recolnunended :
Janzullay 99, 1r934.
T2he White HiouCse.
SrR: This is a report on the Code of Fair Competition proposed
for the Railway Brass Car and Ltocomotive Journal Bearings and,
Cast~ingrs Manu~facturing Industry, and on the hearing conducted
thereon in Washington, D.C., on December 6i, 1933, in accordance
with th~e provisions of the National Industrial Recovery Act.
RESUM~E OF LABOR PROVISIONS
Thle Code provides a normal workI day of eight (8) hours for all
employees a nd no employee shall work in excess of forty (40) hours
pe~r weekr, except that during peakr production perIiods employees may
work not to exceedl forty-eight (48) hours p~er week for not more than.
four (4) weeks in any sixr (6) months' per~iodt. Time and one half
shall be paid for work; in. excess of eight (8) hours per day or forty -
(4)hours per week.
Noemployee shall be paid less than at the rate of forty (40) cents
per hour in the N~orth and thirty-two (32) cents per hour in the
South. These minimum wages shall apply to common labor; other
classes of labor, including piece workers, shall be compensated at rates
above these minima. Office employees shall be paid not less than fif-
teen dollars ($15.00) per weekr, except that a limited number of office
boys or girls may be paid not less than twelve dollars ($12.00) per
There are no female production employees, and no person under
eighteen (18) years of age m~ay be employed in the Intdustry.
This IndustryS is engaged in the manufacture of brass and bronze
steam and electric locomotive and railway car journal bearings and
castings. It includes the relining of worn journal bearings and
ca~stinesr. T'he members of the Association of Mianufacturers of Rail-
way Brass Car and Locomotive Journlal Bearings and Castings, the
appliennt group, manun~fac~ture ninety-se~ven prce~~tnt (97%0) of the
pl~rouc~ts of the Industry which are sold to customers.
The followninlg statistics indicate the magnitude and the condition,
of the Industry:
19 29 19 3 2 A ngUm t
Invested capitall. .......................................$20 828, 328 1$18, 226, 763 $19, 862,640
Sales .. .~ .. ................. ....... .... $3,161,761 $7,307,159 $1, 642, 021
Bales...... .. ...... ..................... .onnag 186, 246, 882 85, 252, 360 13, 100, 000
Number employees ............ -_-__ .. 2, 609 1, 672 2, 100
Average monthly pay roll.... .. .. _.... .... .-_ $312, 490 $159, 344 $215, 816
]Minimumn wage, North. __ ._ .. .. ........ 0. 40 0. 35 0. 40
10 ini mu m wage, South ............ ... .. ............... 0. 25 0. 20 0. 80
lblazim u mu hours ..... ..... ...... ..... ...... ..... ...... .. .. 52 52 40
It is estimated that operations under the Code will effect an
increase over the figures for :1932 of approximately twenty-three
percent (23t%) in, thne number of employees andi of eighteen percent
(18%0) in th~e total pay' rolls.
Thle Depulty Adlminisitrato in. his final report to me on said Code
having found as herein set forth anld on f~th bas~is of all the pro-
ceedings in this mnatterl;
I find that :
(a) Said Code is well designed to plcnromtee the policies and pur-
poses of Title I. of the National Indusltr~ial Recover~y Act., including
removal of obstr~uctionls to the free flow o~f interstate and foreign
commerce which tend to diminish the amount thereof and will pro-
vide for the general welfare by promllotingf the~ organization of indus-
try for thne purpose of cooperative actionr among th~e trade groups,
by inducing and m~aintaininlg united aIctioni of labor and management
under adequltee govetrnmlental sanctions and supervision, byl elim-
insting unfair competitive practices, by~ promollting the fullest possi-
ble utilizatio:n of the present prodlc~tive capneity~ of industries, by
avoiding undue restriction of p~rod'uction exceptt as maly be tempo-
rarily required), by increasing, ..._. the consumnptio n of industrial and
agricultural products through inc~reasing purchasing power, by re-
ducingr and- relieving unemploy mentn by improv\ing standards of
labrandbyotherw-iset rehanbilitating industry.
(b)~ Said InduIStrY normally emlploys not more than 50,000 em-
ployees; and is not classified by me as; a ma1jorl industry.
(c) The Code~ as approved comnplie~s in all r~espect~s with thre perti-
nent provisions of said Title of salid Act., inc-luding w~ithoult limnita-
tion. Subsection (a) of Section 3 Subs:,ectionl (a) f Section 7,
and Subsection (b) of Section 10 thecrreof: anl t~hat the applicant
group is an indusltrial group truly representative of the aforesaid
Industry; and saidgroup imposes no inequitable restrictions on
admnls ion to memllbersilp terein.
(d) Th~e Code is not designed to and w~ill not p~ermiiit monopolies
or mo-nopolistic practices.
(e) TPhe Code is not designed to anld will not elimiinate or oppress
small elt~er~pr~ies and will not operate to~ disc~riminate against. them.
(f) Those engaged in other steps of the~ ec~onomie process have
not been dlepr~ivedl of the right to b~e hieard prior to approval of
For these recasons, thelrefor~e, I have appr~lovedl this CodHe. sulbjct to
the following condition:
(1) That the ByT-Law~s of th~e Associadtion of M~anufacturers of
Railway Brass Car and Locomotive Journal Bearingas anid C'astings
shall be changed in ac~cor~dance with the report of the Legal Division
dated D~ecember 20, 1933, within thirty (30) days of approval.
Hea S. JonNson,
Jmxunxr 29, 1934.
CODE OF FAIR COMPETITION
RAILWAY BRASS CAR AN~PID LOCOMaOTIVE JOURNAL;
BEARINGS AND CASTINGS IMANIvU F A CTUJR I NG
An-rICLEF I--FUP~ RPOISES
To effectuate th~e po-licies of Title I: of the N1Iational Industrial
Recovery Act, the following prov-isions are submitted as a Code of
Fair Competition for thle Railway Brass Car and Locomotive Jour-
nal Bearincgs and Cas~tingss Manufacturing Industry, and upon ap-
proval by tlie PresidZent shall be the standard of fair competition for
such Industry andr shall be binding upon every miemiber thereof.
L\RTI( LE II -DEFINITTINSS
The term Industry as used herein means and inc~llues the
business of prodlucing in the United States,
(1) Brass and,/or b'on1ze
( )ste mll metal castiase rn et C fings.-
(c) journal bear~ings, lined or unlined
all for steam and~ electric railroadl ears and lo~com~otives- (except as
produc~ed by a comlpanly engaged' in bulildinlg locomortives in plants
where such locomo-tie~s are~ built, and except rough castings for street
railways); th~e termn Iall include such related branlches or subdivi-
sions as may~! fromll timel to time be included under~ thne provisions of
this Code by thle Pr~esidlent after such notice and heari ng as he may
prescribe. Thle pr~oduction of such castings consists prmecipally o
the conversion o~f scrapn~ metals of the railr~oads~' own. aeccumlulatio n
supplied to the memlberss; of the indu~try for conver~sion into cast-
ings as above detfiinedl nd the relining of yvearing metal castings
removed fromn service by thle railro~nds. and surpplied to the members
of the industry for that pur~pose.
The term "1\~lember o~f the Industry "' includes, but without limi-
Itation,, any mndividual, partner~slup, assocKiation, corporation or
oth~er fonrm of enlter~prise engaged~ in the Industry e-ith~er as anl em-
ployer or on his or its owvn behalf.
The word "~Association as hlereinafter uspd, means the Associa-
tion of MCanulfactur~ers of Railway Br1ass Car andl Locomotive Jour-
nal Bearings and Castings, Room 721, 80 East Jackson Bouleva~rd,
*see section 1 of paragraph 2 of order appr!oving this Code.
The term L"Emlploy~ee as used herein, means and includes n
and all persons engagedl in the Industry, hlowrever compensated,
except a mlemaber of the Industry.
The term "( Emnployer "" as used herein includes anyone by whom
such emlployee is compl-ensa~ted or emp~loyed.
The tntllls "President ", Act ", and '"Admlinistrator ", as used
herein. shanll mean resp~ectively the Pres~id~ent; of th~e Unitedl States
the National Industrial Recovery Act, and the Administrator o4
TIitle I of said Act.
SEC'TION 1. 2t41.finitH1). holi,'(8.-- O employee shatll be permitted to
work in excess of forty (40) hours in any one week or eight (8)
hours in any t-wenty-four (24) hour period beg~inninlg at midnight,
except as herein otherwise provided. A normal work day shall not
exceed eight (8) hours.
SEC. 2. The provi ions of this Article shall not apply to travelinlg
salesmen or to p~ersons empllloyed in a mannaeril~~ or executive capac-
ity who earn not less than $3:5.00 per week.
SEC. 3. No employer~l shall knowingly permit any employee to work
for anly timle whTichl, wh~en totaled with that already performelld wFith
anly other employer or employers in the Industr~y, exc~eeds the
maxrimumn perm~itted herein.
SEc. 4. The maximum hours fixed in Section 1 of this ALrticle shall
not apply to any emlplo~yee on emiergbencyS mainternance or emergency
repair work involving breakj-downs or proutectionl of life or ~r~oper~ty,
but in any such special case, at least one anrd one half (1%2) times
the regular rate shall be paid for hours worked in excess of, the
maximum providedl in S~ction 1.
SE(.. 5. The Il~sma xinu hours fixed in. Section 1 of this Article shall
not apply for four (4) weeks in anyT twecnty-sixr (26) weeks' period,
during which overtime shall not exrceedi light (8) hours in any one?
week. In any such sp~c~ial casec, at least one and one half (1%
times t~he regular rate shalll be paid for hours worked~~I in excess o
eight (8) hours in any tw~nty1-fouzr (24) hour period, or in excess
of fory (40 hour in ay sevn (7) day period.
Sof 6.rt Watchmers n hall not be pI-ernalttedc to work: in. excess of
fifty-six: (56) hours per week~l.
SEO. 7. T~he mnaximum hours fixedl in Section 1. of this Article
shall not apply to melters, engineersl', andl~ firemen who ma b pr
mitted to work~ not in exceess of one (1) hour per day above theb er
maxsimiu m hours fi?;td~ in ~Sectclionl 1 of this Ar~ticlle, prov,\i~ledl that
at least one and one half (11%) times the regullar rate shanll be paid
for hours wcrkdc~ in excess of the maxninuanli provided in Stc~tio~n 11.
ARTICLE IV- -'FAGES
SEC.TrmS 1. .7(~1/ininw ~FTrlra.-.-No emplloy\ee~ sha~ll be paid in any
pay period less thann at the. rate of for~ty c.en~ts (40 .) per hour in the
North and thirt!-two cents (:+4)~) pecr. hour in the Sounth, except. as
otherwise~t herein, provided~. Th~lese minimlum wage~s shall apply to
common labor; otherl classes of labor, inrchurlinlg piece w~orklers, shall
be compensated at rates above these minimna. The South is defined
to mean the States of Nor~th Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia,
Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, Arkansas, M~ississippi, andl Louisian~a.
In the States of V'irgoinia, Texas, and Okrlahoma the minimum rate
shall be thirty-five cents (35C) per hour. The Nort comlpr~ises all
of the United States not namned above.
SEC. 2. NO person employed in cle~ic~al or office w~or~k shall be paid
less than $15.00i per week.
(a) Proviledl, hoeve\r, thant office boys or girls may' be paid not
less than 8059 of such minimlum wage, but the total number of such
office boyrs or girls at such reduced rate shall not exceed in any cal-
endar month five (5) percent of th~e total number of all employees
covered by the pr~ovisions of Sec~tion 2 of thiis Atrticle, provided that
each such employer may emnploy one office boy or girl.
SCEC. 3. This Article establishes a mninimuma rate of pay which
shanll apply, irr~espective of whether an employee is actually com-
penisated on a time-rate, piecetwork, or other basis.
S~EC. 4. NO employee now employed at a rate in excess of the mini-
lmum shall be discharged and reemployedl at a lower rate for the
purpose of evading the provisionls of this Code.
SEO. 5. Based upon changes mn minimum pay necessita~ted b~y thne
foregoinga paragrlaphs of this Article, eachL employer shall in each
establishment makie fair and~ equitable retadjustmnent of all pay sched-
ules. Mlember~s of t~he Indtustry shall report to the Code ALuthority,
within ninety (90) days, all such readjustments whether made prior
to or subsequent to the approval of this Code.
SEc. 6. A person whose earning capacity is limited because of age
or physical or mental handticap mnay be employed on light work at a
wage below the minimumn established by this Code if the employer
obtainis from the. State Authority designated by the United States
Department of Labor a certificate authorizing h~is employment at
such wages and for such hours as shall be sta~ted in the certificate.
Each emlployer shall file with the Code Aulthor~ity a list of all such
persons employedl by him.
ARTICLE V-G-~EN ERA~L LABOR IPnov\ISIONs
SECTION 1. No person under eighteen (18) years of age shall be
employed in the Industry.
SEC. 2. In compliance with, Section 7 (a) of the Act it is provided:
(a) That employees shall have the right to organize andZ bargain
collectively, through representatives of their own choosing, and shall
be fr~ee from interference, restraint, or coercion of employers of
labor, or their agents, in the designation of such representatives or
in sel'f-organization, or in other concerted activities for the purpose
of collective bargaining or other mutual aid or protection.
(b) That. no employee and no one seeking employment shall be
required, as a condition of employment, to join any company umion,
or to refrain fromt joinmng,orazngorsssngaaorrgm
zattion of his own choosing, andnaii~, o ssstn ao rai
(c) That employers shall comlply with the maxuitmu hours of
labor, minimum rates of pay, and other conditions of employment
approved or prescribed by the President.
SEC. d. NO Otmployer shall :reclassify employees or duties of occu-
pations performledl for the purpose! orf defeating the p~rovisions of
the Act or of this Code.
SEC. 4. Every employer shall provide for the safety and health
of his emplloyees at the place and~ during the hours of their employ-
men in acc~ordalnce with Stante and or F'ederal Regulations.
SEC. 5. No provisions in this Code shall supersede any State or
Federal lawcP which imposes more stingent reqyuirem~lent s on emlploy-
ers as to age of emlploy'eesS wages, hours of work;, or as to safety,
health, sanitary, or general working conditions, or insurannce or fire
protection, than are! imposed by this Code.
Slic. 6. All emp~loyers shatll posit complete copies o~f this Code in
conlspicuo3us places accessible to all employees.
ARTICLE VTI--OHGANIZATION, Polv'ERS, ANDIL DIYTIES OF THE CODE
SECTION 1. Organ~i; caionr.--There shall for~thwith be established a
Code Authority consisting of five (5) ml~l~embes to, be elec~tedl by the
members of the Industry who assenlt to this Code, the mlethodl of elec-
tion to be determninedc by the Code Committee of the Association, sub-
Jeat to the approval of the Administrator. In addition the Admin-
1strator may appoint nrot to exceed three (3) members to the Code
ALuthiority, without vote, w\cho shall serv\e for terms of from six (6)
months to one (1) year, and whose terms of appointment shall be so
arranged that they do not expire at the same time.
The repretse~ntaitives appointed by the Aldministrator shall be given
notice together with the Admninistrautor and may sit at all mIleetings
of the Code Authority.
SEO. 2. In order that the Code Authnority shall at all times be
truly representative of the Industry3, andi in other respects comply
with the provisions of the AIIct, the Atdministrator may provide such.
hearings as he may deeml proper; and thereafter if he shall find that
the Code Authority is not trulyg repr~ese~nta~tiv or doesi not in other
respects comply with the provisions of the Act, m~ay require an ap-
propriate modification in the method of selection of the Code
Authority, or anly subcode authority.
SEO. 3. Any member of the Inldust ry subject to the jurisd-ictio~n of
this Code and receiving the benefits of th~e Code and/or the benefits
of the activities of the Code Authority shall pay to the Code Atuthor"-
ity his equitable proportionate share of thne expense~ of formlulatinga
and putting into effect and administeringll this Code, and anyT other
costs which mnay be incur~red- in the preparnlation anrd/or aminilistrau-
tion of the Code by said Code Auth~ority. The part of such expenses
which shall be assessed against, such members of the Industr~y hall
be asts~esse by the Code A~uthorit-y, which Aiuthtority in mankingr suc~h
assessment shall tackle into necioult, the number of employees, the vol-
ume and class of bus~iness and an tquita~le consiiderantion of any and
all matters which should be taken~l inito account in dtete~rmining~ th~e
Failure of' the member of the Industry to pay3 any such assess-
ment for a period of thirty (30) days after the dlate on which it
shall become payable shall entitle the Code Authority to deprive such
member of his participation in the administration of t~he Codte as
therein or herein provided, and such member shall continue to be
liable for his proportionate share of all due and unpaid assessments.
SEC. $. NOthling contained in this Code shall constitute the mem-
bers of the Codle Author~ity partners for any purpose. Nor shall
any member of the Code A'uthority be liable in any manner to any-
one for anyi act of any other miemb~ri. officer, agent, or em~ployee of
the Code Aunthority exercising Iresnaunble diligence in the conduct
of his dutiesj heireunder, nor be liable to anyone for any. action or
omission to act under the C'od-e, rxccpt for his owTn willful miis-
fensance or nonfenwance.
SEC. 5. Any action taken by the Codel~ Authlor'ity' relitive to the
administration of this Codle, excep~lt wlrle mladle stbjecit t~o the ap-
provaol of the Administentor, ma? inl the dlisc~retionl of thec C'ode
Authiority, be submit ted to the Adlmin istra torl for a pprva~l and shall
mn anyS case be subject to the d-isapprova'\'l olf thet AdmllinicstrIator.
SEC. 6. Each trade or indcusitrial association, dir~ectly or indirectly
participating mn the selection or netivities o~f thle Codle Authlority, may
im pose no mnequitable r~estri~ctions onl membershi p and1 sha1 ~lll sbit to
the Administrator true copies of its Ar.tic~les of As-ociatio~n. Evbws
regulations, and any omendmnentsrrrll whn de thelreto, together wri~th
such other infor~matio~n as to mlemlbership, o~ganiizatio~n, and ac~tivi-
ties as the Adm~inistrantor mov deem necessaryl to effectuate the~
purposes of the Act.
SEC1. $. POlrcir'8 GW/rt Dltic-P.--The Code Aulthlority Iall have'c the
following powers and duties in addition to those cle\lsewhre provided
in this Codle.
(a) To a~dopt. bylawrs andl rules andt I~~regulationsi for. its prloc:edlure
and for the administration andl enforcement of th~e C'ole.
(b) To obtain frorm members of the Industry? suchl information
andl reports as ar~e required for the admlinistrantion o-f thet C'ode and
to provide for submisionil byr memnbers of suchl informatiotio n and
r~eport~s as the Admlinistrator mayZ dleem nec~essry for the purploses
recited in Section 3 (a) of the A~ct, which1 informatnionl andl reporltss
shall be subm~it~ted by members to such admninist~ra~tive and/:or govern-
menit agencies as the Admlinistrator may! designate; pr~ovided that
nothing in this Code shall relieve any mnemiber of the Industlry of
any existing obligations to, furnish' reports to any. government
agencyg. No individualrprt hll be disclo:,sedt to any other
member of the Industry or anyr other p~arty excptl' to such govern-
mental agencies as may be directed by the Admlinistra;tor.
(c) To receive complaints of violations of this Code. make in-
vestigations thereof, provide hearings ther~eon, andi adjust such com-
plaints, and bring to thel attention of the Admninistrator, for pr~ose-
cution, recommendations, and information relative to unadjusted
violations; but in no event shall the Code Authority proceed to
prosecute without notice to andi approval by the Administr~ator..
(d) To use such trade groups andi other agencies as it deems
proper for the carr~yinga out of any of its activ.ities provridedl for
herein, and to pay such trade groups and agencies t~he cost thereof ;
provided that nothing her~ein shall reliev-e t.he Code Authority of its
duties or responsibilities undler this Code, and that such trade groups
and agencies shall at all times be subject. to and comlply with thie
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
||lil illll II lIII IIII II III111 lll l lllll li llll llll~
520 3 1262 08855 6674
(e) To make recommendations to the Admlinistrator for the co-
ordination of the administration of this Code with such other codes,
if any, as may be r~ela7ted to the Industry. yI.
(f) To cooperate with t.he Administrator in regulating the use of
the NRA. Code insignlia so~lely by those employers whlo have assented
to andl aPre complying with this Code.
(g) TCo initiate, consider, and make recommendations for the
mnodification or amlendmnent of this Code.
ARTICLE V II-M~ODI FICTION S
SIECTION 1. This Code anid all the pirovisions thereof are, expressly
miade subject to the righlt of th~e Pr~esideltnt, in accordance with the
provisions of subseectoio (b) of Section 10 of thle National Industrial
Recovery Act, fromi timne to timne to cancel or modify any order, ap-
pr~o-a~l, license, rule, or regulationI issuedl under Title I of said Act,
and specifiedlly, but without limitation, to the right of the President
to canicel or mo'dify his approval of thlis C'ode or~ anly conditions im-
posed by him upon hiis approval thereof.
SEC. 2. This Code, except, as to p~rovisions I~reuir~ed by the Act, may
be modified on the bansisi of experience or changes in circumstances,
such modification to be bas.ied upon application to the Administrator
and such notice and hearing asj he shall sp~ecify and t~o become e~fec-
tive on aIpprlovnl of the Pr~esident.
ARTICLE V~III--ATONOPOLIES, ETc.
No provision of th~is Code shlul be so applied as to permit mnonopo-
lie3s or monopolistic pranctiCes, or to eliminate, oppress, or discrinli-
nate against small enterprises.
ARTICLE IX--PRICE INCREASES
W~herens the policy of the Act to increase real purchasing power
will be made mor~e difficult of consummation if prices of goods and
services increase as5 rapidly as wages, it is recognized that price in-
creases, except such as mnay be required to meet individual cost,
should be dehived. But wFhen ma~de, such increases should, so far
as possible, be lim~it.ed t~o ac~tual additional increase- in the seller
All provisionls of this Code and any modifications thereof shall
cease to be in effect, after June 16. 1935, or sooner if the President
shall by pr~oclama~tion, or t~he Congress shall by joint resolution, de-
clare! that the emergency r~ecognizedl in Section 1 of the Act has
ARTICLE XI--EFFEC.TIVE DA\TE i:i
This Code shall bccomne effe~ctive at. 12:0)1 o'clock A.1\f. on thle sec i~
ond Iondta~Sy after its approval by thle Pr~esident. ri
App'lrovedt Code No. 233.
Registry No. 1414--03.