NATIONAL RECOVERY ADeMINiISTRATION
CODE OFi FAIR COMPETITION
COTTON GARMENT INDUSTRY
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Approved Code NIo. 114--Rteprint
Registry No. 217--1--06
AS APPROVED ON NOVEMBER 17, 1933
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Approved Code No. 118
CODE OF FAIR COMIPETIITION
COTT~LON GARMENT T INDUSTRY
As Approved on Novemnber 17, 1933
An application having been duly made, pursuant to and in full
compliance with the provisions of Title I of the National Industrial
Recovery Act, approved June 16, 1933, for my approval of a Code
of F'air Competition for the Cotton Garment Industry, and hearings
having been held thereon and the Administrator having rendered his
report containing an analysis of the said code of fair competition to-
gether with his recommendations and findings with respect thereto,
and the Administrator having found that the said code of fair com-
petition complies in all respects with the pertinent provisions of Title
I of aid ~Act and that the requirements of clauses (1) and (2) of sub-
se~ction (a) of section 3 of the said act have been met.
NOW THIEREFiORE], I, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the
United Atates, pursuant to the authority vested in me by Title I of
the National Industrial Recovery Act, approved June 16, 1933, and
otherwise, do hereby adopt and approve the report, recommendations
and findings of the Admninistrator and do order that the said code of
fair competition be and it is hereby approved, subject to the followi~ing
A. A committee appointed by representatives of several of the
States having heretofore drafted a tentative code or compact con-
cerning prison labor, th~e purpose of which is the establishment of
fair competition between the products of prisons and the products
of competing private industry, and containing provisions the in-
tention of which is substantially the same as is hereinafter referred
to, thie code or compact shall be deemed to be satisfactory under the
requirement in article VTIII C of the within code if and so long as
the compact or code adopted by the States provides for and accom-
plishes the following in relation to the manufacture, sale, and distri-
buztion of products made in wsyhole or in part by prisoners:
1. T'he hours of labor of prisoners shall not be greater than. the
hours prescribed in the code of fair competition of the competing
private domestic Industry.
2. Prison products when sold by the prison or through a con-
tractor, whether sold direct or through any agency, shall be sold nlot
lower than the current price prevailing in the market in which the
product is customarily sold--to wholesalers, retailers, or consumers
as the case may be.
3. Unless it requires a higher price than specified in paragraph 2,
the State shall be paid on all contracts for thle labor of prisoners an
amount equal to the cost per unit for labor and overhead of the com-
parable product necessarily paid in competing domestic private
4. T~he hours of operation of productive mnachninery shall be not
more than is prescribed in the code of the competing private domestic
5. Nothing in said compact, or code shall affect in any way any
Federal act relating to prison-made products, or any State act passed
or effective under any such Federal act, if said acts are held con-
stitutional and valid.
6. A code authority set up in the compact shall have the power
to administer, supervise, and enforce said code and establish the
prices and costs of prison-made goods as required in paragraphs 2
and 3 above after conferring with the code authority of the affected
industry, from which decision an. appeal shall be allowed to thne
President of the United States.
7. The code authority set up in the compact, after an investiga-
tion which shall include a consideration of economic, trade, and
market conditions, shall (1) formulate such regulations as may be
consistent and lawful and as mnay be necessary to assure a diversifica-
tion of the output of prison, industries in fair proportion to the
production, of any competing private domestic industry affected,
and (2) prohibit the expansion of any existing prison industry which
is causing a disproportionate competition wCith any private domestic
8. Such other provisions as will assure a fair basis of competition
not inconsistent with the above.
B. That the application of section G of article IVT be and hereby
is stayed as to members of the industry located in the State of ]Ken-
tuck3y and inJ those counties inl the States of Illinois and Indiana
which border on the Ohio River for such period as the Acdminis-
trator shall determine, which period shall not exceed four (4)
months from and after the effective date of the aforesaid Code of
Fair Competition for the Cotton G~arm~ent Industry, that daring such
period the said members of the industry located in the State of
Kentucky and in those counties in the States of Illinois and Indians
bordering on the Ohlio River shall be included in the southern sec-
tion of the industry for the purposes of thle aforesaid article IV,
that during such period the administrator shall hoeld such hearings
and cause such investigations to be made as he may deem necessary
to determine the classification of the above area for the purposes of
the aforesaid article IV and that prior to the termination of such
period, the Admainistrator shall determine the classification of the
said area for thae purposes of said article IV of the said Code of
Fair Competition for the Cotton Garment Industry.
FIRANKELIN D>. ROOSEVELT.T
Approval recommended :
HUGHr S. JoENwSOn,
THE: KIITE HOUSE,
November 17, 1933.
THE PRESIDENT, OEBR,19.
Tlhe WThite House.
SIn: A proposed code of fair competition for the Cotton Gurament
Industry w~as submitted to thne ALdministrator on. July 20, 1933, and
public hearings were held on August 2nd and 3rd. The revision of
the code was then, begun. by thne principal interested parties and a
number of subsequent hearings were held. Revised versions of the
code were resubm~itted on Septemaber 6thn, Sep~ltember1 19th, and S4ep-
tember 25th. The long delay which resulted before the code could be
recommended for approval has not been due to an irreconcilable
differences of opinion with contending factions refusing to give
ground. The delay has resulted almost entirely from the fact that
th~e Cotton Garment Inldustry has many ramifications and that time
has been required to work out code provisions which could equitably
apply to the different parts of a colmplicated structure and, more
particularly, which would reduce so far as possible con~ficts of
The sponsoring organization for the code was thre Internadtional
Association of Garment Manufacturers, whiich is also a federa~tion of
smaller associations which represent subdivisions of the industry.
At the time of the hearings the International Association of Garment
Manufacturers hnad more than 275 members wvho were gvroupedfc in the
~Work Garment IManufacturers Division.
Union-M~ade Garment Manufacturers Division.
PMen's Shirt Manufacturers Division.
Men's WPash Suit Manufacturers Division.
W~orkr Shirt Manufacturers Division.
Pajama M~anufacturers Division.
Athletic Under wear Ma manufacturers Division.
Men's Collar Manufacturers Division.
Cotton Wash Dress Ma nufacturers Division.
Boy's Shirts and Blouse Manufacturers Division1.
Waterproof Cotton Garment Manufacturers Division.
Heavy Cotton Outerwear and Combllinationl Leather Garmnt~n
Thre number and variety of the articles thus mannufne~tured seemed
sufficiently great. Since the first public hearings, however, the asso-
ciation, through. direct membership or affiliations, has come to rep-
resernt oiled cotton garments, nurses' and maid's unliformsl~ washable
service apparel and pants (chiefly of cotton content). T'he Code,
according to the terms of Article II, covers the mnuolfacture of
fourteen articles or garments. TIlhe Internal~tio nal Assoc~iation of
Garment Manufacturers appears to :replresenrt mor~e thenl 7570 of
the production of each article. It now ha~s 303 members, withl 110
applications for membership on file, and claims that the total vol-
ume of business of its members amounts annually to $332,000,000,
approxrimattely 8070 of the total production.
As was pointed out at the conclusion of the first hearings, the
Cotton Garment Code was presented for a trade association rather
than for an industry. Indeed, it woas doubtful whether there should
be sulch an industry, at least with definitions as broad as those in the
Code. There were nlo codes for the Woolen Garment Industry or the
Silken Garment Industry. Codes had been presented for men's
clothing, for coats and suits and for dresses. The manufacturers
under those codes use wool, silk, and cotton. From the operation of
these codes the proponents of the Cotton Garment Code sought to ex-
clude all manufacturers whose products were chiefly of cotton, content.
Even if disinterested efforts are madelt to put industries and their
subdivisions as logically and as fairly as possible under appropriate
codes, difficulties are certain to arise. Definitions cannot be written
so clearly and comprehensively as to eliminate all doubts and contro-
versies as to jurisdiction. Special difficulties are invited, however,
when a code is presented by a trade association which is a federation
of other trade associations and which naturally wishes to bring into
its membership as many units as possible. During the hearings such
a, federation was justified on the principle that all articles which
would be manufactured under the aegis of the federation would con-
tain cotton and that the number of codes for the garment industries
would be reduced in number by grouping together a number of
industries or subdivisions.
One important reason, however, for the popularity of the Cotton
Garment Code--that is to say for the desire of certain industries to
come under it--was the expectation that the Cotton Garment Code
would be less onerous on manufacturers than any other code which
was adopted for any one of the needle trades. The hours proposed~-cl'
were high, and the wagnes proposed were low. ]It is these hour and
wPage provisions wFchich have been responsible for the marriage de
convenance between cotton dresses and leather clothing, between
pants and nurses and maids uniforms, between pajamas and woork
clothing and between children's play sixits and oiled cotton gar-
ments.Much of the delay exper~ienlced in the completion of this
code is attributable to the heterogeneous coverage of the Code and
to the fact that difficulties as~ to jurisdictions and prospects of unfair
competition have become apparent before thle Code goes into effect.
Three examples of these difficulties may be cited: cotton wash suits,
pants, and linen dresses.
On the first twro questions a number of hearings were held. Thne
third question will hav~e to be dealt with shor~ltly, for the maker1s of
cotton wash dresses have been accustomed to make linen dresses.
Linen dresses, however, will probably be under the Dress Code. This
difficulty -will have to be dealt with later by putting all dressest under
the same code withn appropriate wage differentials covering the man-
ufacture of wash dresses which requires less skill than does the
manufacture of more dressy dresses.
The difficulty was much the same in thle case of men's wash suits.
These, wnhen chiefly of cotton content, were excluded from the Men's
Clothing Code which went into effect on September 11th, anld the
expectation was that they would be covered by the Cotton Garment
Code. It appeared, however, that many men's clothing manufac-
turers made cotton wash suits. They would thus be under two codes.
It appeared also that the cotton waish suit manufacturers, located
largely in New Orleans, made linen suits which were cut and sewn
at the same time as their cotton suits. After several conferences and
hearings, thle New Orleans and other wash suit manufacturers joined
with the Men's Clothing Code Aluthority in urging the desirability
of the Men's Clothing Code covering all men's summer clothing,
washable and nonwashable, with appropriated~ wage di~fetrentials
recognizing that a different class of labor from that employed in the
manufacture of woolen suits can be used in the manufacture of
summer clothing anld that the seasonal nature of the summer cloth-
ing industry may require tolerance in certain periods, in respect of
the number of hours per week that may be worked.
The difficulty as to pants does not lend itself to such an easy
solution. W~ork pants and mnen's and boys' pants in chief content
of cotton. are under the Cotton Garmnent Code. Single knee pants
and single pants are under the Men's Clothing Code. Proptly
as the Men's Clothing Code went into effect, on September 11th,
complaints were made by manuufacturers under the Men's Clothing
Code that other manufacturers making precisely similar articles
claimed that they were chiefly of cotton content and therefore came
under the Cotton Garment Code, with forty instead of thirty-six
hours as the maximumn week and 321/2 instead of 400 per hour as
the minimum wage. Some of these manufacturers, it should be
noted, h~ad been members of one of the associations proposing a,
M~en's Clothing Code. They were then men's clothing manufac-
turers but when it appeared that the Men's Clothing Code would
have high standards they became cotton-garment manufacturers.
This di~ffculty, it appeared, could not be satisfactorilyg dealt with
by a change of definitions. Manifestly the object of the Rtecovery
Act--the spread of employment and thre increase of wcages--would
be negatived by placing all pants manufacturers on a forty hour and
32%4/ basis. MSanifestly, also, employers could not be expected to
continue under the M1en's Clothing Code if other employers in, direct
competition and producing the some article wFere hperfmitted to oper-
ate under a code which was more favorable to te.That wCould
be unfair competition of a most vicious character.
It was proposed, therefore, that thne Administrator dlesignlate a
pants expert who would investigate the extent and character of the
manufacture of pants under the Men's Clothing Code and the extent
and character of the maanufacture of pants which the Men's Clothing
Code Authority claimed wcpas unfair competition and thtn, make
recommendations as to administrative determinations in particular
cases--that is, determinattion as to whether individual manufact urers
were properly under the~ M~en's Clothning Code or under the Cotton
Garment Code. Such an appointment has been made. This action
does little more thanl anticipate the action contemplated by Article
II, Section D of the Cotton Garm~ent Code, which provides that if
there is a dispute as to whether an employer is subject to the provi-
csions of the Cotton Garment Code or another code, the dispute shall
be settled by the two code authorities involved, and in th~e event of
a disagreement, by the A~dmin~istrator. In this case, because quick
action was desirable, it was assumed that the code authorities would
be unable to agree and steps have been taken to secure the expert
advice which will mak~e it possible for the Administrator to render
equitable decisions. It may be added that this procedure was sug-
gested three weeks before it was accepted by the representatives of
the International Association of Garment Manufacturers, who in-
sisted on two hearings before they consented to an. investigation by
In this connection attention should also be called to the provision
of Article II of the Code which specifically provides for prompt
hearings for the further review of the status of cottonl wash dresses,
cotton wash suits, and cotton pants, in order to determine whether
the definitions shall be modlified or eliminated, and the disposition
to be made of these subdivisional industries. That the Administra-
tor is empowered thus to act is the inarticulate premise of any- code,
but because of the considerations set forth above it is proper in. this
case to mnake the premise articulate.
It is not possible here to discuss in detail all the matters which
were relevant to determination of what, for the time being, the Cotton
Garment Code should cover. Illustrations have been given of the
more important problems which had to be settled. After the hear-
ings an~d while the code was in process of final formulation, a code
was presented for aprons and nurses' uniforms. It was evident,
however, that manly manufacturers in the International Association
of Garment M~anufacturers made aprons and nurses' uniforms, and
that a separate code for these articles would mean that some manu-
facturers of them would be under one code and some manufacturers
under another code. TChis particular problem was easily solved by
the affiliation of the Apron and Nurses' Uniform Manufacturers'
Association with the Internationazl Association of Garment Manu-
facturers. The pajama and shirt problems had been settled the sam73e
way, with thhe respective trade associations retaining their identity
and having representation on the Cotton Garmenet Code A-iuthorit~y.
For a time the IRain Wear Industry sought to come under the Cotton
Garment Code on the theory that rain wear has a cotton content.
Some of the principal manufacturers of rain wCear do the bulk of
their production in rubber articles which are not wearing apparel,
and a designation of manufacturers of rain wear as manufacturers
of rubber seemed more satisfactory than any other solution.
H-OUrRS AND WAGES
It is obvious that with the difficulties described above in respect
of definitions, the determination of thne mninimumn wages and maxi-
mum. hours was not a simple problem. It would not have been
simple even if there had not been made any demands for differentials
and preferential treatment.
In most branches of the industry long hours have been worked
and low w~agfes have bee~n paid. The earnings of shirt workers have
been the subject of a spneciatl investigation by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics. In 1927 the average annual earnings of shirt workers
were $752; in 1931 they wICere $574; and in 1932, $48S6. The wages
are so low that the proposed minimum for the northern section of the
country of $13.00 per wTeek; is 78%o higher than the median weekly
wage reported by thne ]Bureau of L~abor Statistics and should affect
75%o of all the workers. Iri thne Heav~y Ouxter G~arment Industry
wage levels are higher. In the Work Shirt Industry wage leels
are even lower than in shirts and the Code provides that the Work
Shirt D~ivision shall have an opportunity to make out a case for it
nrotbeing able to ayits employees the minimum which the Code
proide. avein hecase of the Sheep Lined and Leather Gar-
ment Industry it seemed impossible at the present time to differenti-
ate in respect of minimna for unskilled w~orklers or to afford any
protection to skilled workers above the minimum scale.
There are no accurate estimates as to the exte~t, of unemployment
which has existed in the Cotton Gnr~menlt Industry and no figures
which would indicate the number of workers who would be unemp-
ployedd as a result of a limitation of the number of hours. Conse-
quently the number of hours per week has been fired rather arbi-
trarily at forty. In certain sections of the country this will be a
drastic reduction for some of the subdivisions have been working
fifty and sixty hours per week. Thne Code Authority is asked to
report promptly on thre reemployment which, results from the reduc-
tion to forty hours so that the Administrator may decide whether
there should be a further reduction.
It was necessary, in the Cotton Garment Code, to make provisions
for both learners and incapacitated employees so that there could
be some deviation from the minimum wage3 scale. W~ithn respect to
the first group it was argued that employers could nlot afford to pay
the minimum to unskilled workers; that the increased labor costs
wFShich would result from a minimum for skilled workers was as
much. as, and perhaps more, than the industry could bear. Unless
carefully limited, however, permission to employ learners will result
in widespread evasions of the minimum-wage provisions. Conse-
quently thne Code, as recommended, limits the number of learners
that mnay be employed in any one establishment at the same timne,
to 10%o of the total number of employees; defines learners as those
that have not been engaged in the industry for more than six weeks
and stipulates that if on a piecework: basis the learner e~arnls more
than the 75% of the minimum wage to which hie is entitled during
the learning period, then he shall receive his earnings.
The problem, of substandard and incapacitated employeess also had
to be dealt with. If no provisions hadl been inserted in the Code, the
tendncy would have been for employers to dismiss substandard and
aged employees in order to sec-ure more efficient workers who, on the
basis of the,"Pjh ''" Pprevailing piece rates, would be able to earn the minimum
whic th Coe stipulates. Obviously such a result should be
avoided and the code, therefore, permits 10% of the total number
of employees to be in a substandard class.
These provisions as to learners and substa~ndiard employees were of
great interest to Southern manufacturers. The International Asso-
ciation of Garinennt, Manufact ue~rs has many members in, the Sjouth
and at the public hcar~ings spoke for the entire industry with its truly
representative chllarater not challenged. The only voice of pr~otest,
raised at the public h~ear~ings was on behalf of Kentucky and its in-
clusion in the Southern sc~ction of the country.
ThCle delay which occurred betwcleen the conclusion of the public
hearings and the recommendation of the Code for approval afforded
an opportunity for Southern protests to gain in number and volume.
The protests came from individual manufacturers and fromll the
Southern GaI~rment Mnu[nrfacturers Association, which claimed to be
much more representative of Southern manufacturers than was the
International Assocation of Garment Manufacturers. These protests
alleged that the unproductiv-e nature of Southern labor warranted
a larger differential than 219' per hour, which the Code proposed
to allow. There was a strong dlemand also for a liberalization. of the
learner and substandard employee provisions. It was alleged that
the employees of manly Southern manufacturers are, in. comparison
with employees of Nor~thelrn manufacturers, so inefficient that if on.
the same piec~e-ratet basis a N;ort~hern employee earns the minimum
the Southrcln employee will not, and the difference will have to be
made up by the emlon~l:yer.
Individual Southern manufacturers anrd the Southern Garment
Manufacturers Association were given several hearings and every
opportunity to present data in support of their allegations. Little
data was presented~. There were many general allegations that
Southern manul~facturersr as a class would find it hard to operate
under the Code, but in no case was it shown convincingly from payl
rolls or production methods that an employer needed more than 10%o
learners or 10%o substandard employees or that his average workers
were less productive than Northern workers. Alt the same time, the
Administrator received, many protests from individual Southern
manufacturers agarlilst any further differential for the Sou-~ thl. These
manufacturers said that they were able to operate successfully under
the provisions w~Phich were contemplated an~d that if other Sjouthnern
manufacturers found these provisions onerous, the reason was their
own inefficiency and not the severity of the provisions.
In the absence of de~finite data there was nothing before the Adl-
ministrator to justify any more preferential treatment of Soulther~n
manufacturers than that which was acceptable to the International
Association of Gamnt~l~t Manufacturers. TIhe Code as recommended,
however, instructs the Code Authority to make prompt investigations
and to report to the Administrator the effects of operations under
its provisions. Specifically in the case of substandard employees it is
provided that "' the Cotton Garmlen~t Code APuthorityT shall report to
the Administrator, from time to time, as to the effects of the opertionlt ,l
of this provision both generally and in cases of individual hardship
so that the Administrator may determine whether or not the pro-
visions of this section shall be changed or exceptions granted' here-
under." This, it is believed, affords Southern na nulfac~tuIrers--
and other manufacturersr as well--a way of securing relief if, be-
cause of peculiar situations, they are entitled to relief and their
securing it will not permit them to compete unfairly.
The same principles apply as to the line which is drawn between
the NJorthern and Southern Sections of the country. The line Im-
tween North and South, as drawn in the code, is the line proposed to
the Admninistrator as the considered judgment of the manufacturers
represented on the Code Commnittee of the International Association
of Garment Manufactuxrers with one exception: The inclusion. of cer-
tain fac~tor~ies in. thne vicinity of Padluenh, K~entu~cky~, in the Southern
section for a six months' period. The original definition omitted
Kentuckny from the! South and mnany protests were received. Pro-
tests were also received against the meclusion of M/aryland in. thre
North. On1 the other hand, if Maryland had been included in the:
South there would have been protests from Pennsylvania manu-
facturers. If Kentucky were in the South, there would be protests
from Indiana, Missouri, and W~est Virginia. Protests have already
been received against the temporarily arrangement for ]Paducah.
Alny line which is drawn will be subject to criticism; for no matter
where the line is drawn manufacturers a few miles on either side of
it, employing the same class of labor and making the same kind of
articles, will have wage scales which differ by the amount of thne dif-
ferential whLich the Code allowcps. There were no data before the
Administrator which justified him in disregarding the recommen-
dation of the International Associationl of G~arment Manufacturers
in its code as submitted and arbitrarily ruling that the South should
include certain states. The~ Code as recormmended, however, in-
structs the Code Authority to report to the Administrator with re-
spect to differentials between the Northernl and Southern sections of
the country and the Adminmistrator may determine whether or nlot
the line should be redrawn. The South which is entitled to a dif-
ferential is not the historic South, the climatic Southn, or the Solid
South. It is the South inr which labor is less productive than in the
North. A line can be drawn intelligently only if data on3 lower
productivity are available. If Southern. manufacturers present ade-
quate data to the Administrator, then the Administrator can elimi-
nate anyz injustices which nowc exist. On the basis of the sentimental
and historic arguments which were maade at the hearings, it was
impossible to act.
At one of the later public hearings the Southnern Garment Manu-
facturers Association raised the questions as to the truly representa-
tive character ofe the International Association of G~arment Ma~nufac-
turers in respect of the South. T'he Southern Garment M~anufatc-
turers Association asked for an amendment of the Code so that the!
South~ would be represented on the Code Authority.
It would seem undesirable to write inr the Code any provisions for
sectionral representation. The Administrator, under the Code, re-
serves full powers to re-examine the constitution of the Code Author-
ityT and to order its reconstitution so as to m~ake it more representa-
tive. The A~dministrator has authority to appoint one or more
members to the Code Authority and he will exercise that power to
appoint for thre time being to thie Code Auth-orityr, a representative
of the Southern Garment Mannufacturer~s Association so that this
Association will be in a position to bring to the attention of the
Administrator anyr situation which will warrant the latter in usmng
the powrjer which he reserves to himself under Article IX, Section D,!
of the Code.
THE~r CODE AS REVISED AND RECOMMENDED
The Code, as revised and recommended, may be summarized as
Article I states the purposes of the Code.
Article II gives the definitions.
Article III establishes forty hours as the maximum number of
hours per weekr for manufacturing employees in the IndustryT and
Article IV provides a minimum wage of 321/2& per hour in. the
Northern section. and 301C per hour in the Southern section, with
special provisions for operators and cutters in the Sheep Lin~ed and
Leather Garment Industry and with carefully drafted safeguards
covering the exceptions of learners and substandard employees. It
also defines the Southern section of the country and provides for
various inves~tigantions as to the effects of the wage and hour provi-
sions of the Code.
Article V limits the use of productive machinery, except cutting
machinery, to one shift.
Article VI contains thfe Code's general labor provisions and sets
forth the mandatory provisions of Section 7 (a) of thne National
Industrial Recover~y Act.
Article VI1I abolishes home work after three months, with one or
two minor exceptions.
Article VIII deals with the sale of prison-mnade goods.
Article IXL sets up the Cotton _Garmenlt Code Authority and
confers on it certain powers.
Article X contemplates the presentation of additional codes of
fair-trade practices for the subdiv~isional industries under the Code~.
~Article XI sets forth certain unfair-trade practices.
Article XtII permits the Code Authority, upon approval of the
~Administrator, if it is deemed necessary, to put into effect certain
provisions withn reference to NRA labels.
Article XIII reserves to the Presidenrt the right to amenld, cancel,
and modify any provision of the Code.
~Article XIV declares that nothing in the Code shall be construed
to promote monopolies.
Article XV permits applications for exemptions from or a stay
of the Code.
Article XVI warns against unnecessary price increases.
AQrticle XIVII: makes the effective date of the Code the first Mon-
day followiPing the first W~ednesday after the date of approval by
The Code as submitted by the International Association of G~ar-
ment Manufacturers contained a provision prohibiting members of
the industry from manufacturing or causing to be manufactured,
or acquiring, selling, or distributing prison-made garments and from
purchasing textiles or raw materials from penal, correctional, or
reformatory institutions after certain date.
Protests were received from various prison officials and at least
one Governor against including in a Code of Fair Competition
any provision interfering with the sales and distribution of prison-
mae goods. TChe protestants argued that it wnas essential from
a social point of vPiew that prisoners~ be taught a trade and be kept
busy; that the provision ~r~opo edt was an indirect attempt to regu-
late functions of a State which are exclusively within the pre~rog-
atives of a State; that it was impossible for a Code under th~e
National Industrial Recovcery ALct to interfere with a manner in
which Staltes attempt to care for the hiealth~ and well-being of their
wards and that the proposed provision wo(uld~ unfairly dlepr~ive the
States of a proper source of r~evenlue and dlirec~tly des~troy the value
of a large amount of invested capital in the form of a plant, good
will, and general investment.
On the other hand, the proponents of the Code argued that the
competition of prison-m~ade goods with goo~ds made by free indiujtr~y
was suffciently large and so concentrated in cer~ltain cases as to permit
prison producers to dictate the price of certain articles anud thus ad-
versel~y to affect the wages, hours, and conditions of labor in the free
branch of the industry. Two examples adduced byT the proponents
of the Code to show the extent of the concentration of prison pro-
duction were those of work shirts and work pants. In. 1932 prisons
produced and sold on the open market almost 20,000,000 work: shirts.
The free factories in that year produced 62,000,000 workr shirts, or
about 75%o of the total. In the same year, prisons produced almost
7,000,000O work pants, while the free factories in the industry pro-
duced 27,000,000 work pants, or about 80%o of the total. It was con-
tended by the International Association of Garne~ltno Mnufacturers
that the prison products in each case naturally affected market prices
and wPere in a large measure responsible for the substandard labor
conditions in the industry.
The interested prison, officials did not refute the contention that
prison competition inevitably undermines s~tndarulds prevailing in
te free branch of the industry, nor that such continued competition
would endanger the success of a Code of FaLir Comnpetition which.
aimed to raise standards higher than they are at the present time.
Certain prison officials presented their cases with an eye on, their
own special problems anld leaned on the broad shoulders of States'
Rights and the plea ad hominem that idleness leads to moral break-
dowFPn and violence.
Thne proponents of the Code, onl the other hand, al'rguedl that they
were making no aIttempt to limit the State in its activities or to do
more than bind those properly subject to their Code of Fair Compe-
tition. TIheyT conceded idleness of prisoners to be an evil but argued
that their proposed provisions did not shut the door to educational
and vocational training and all other prison nectivities which did not
compete with free industries. In this connection it should be noted
that nine states at present do not sell prison pl~rouc~ts in the open
market. These states include such thickly populaltedl areas as New
Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Massachusetts. Nine .S~ttes have
adopted the system of producing for State use alone. Therein lies
one solution to the problem. Other solutions which have been put
into practice, are the diversification of products made in prisons and
mecreasing emlphasis on tr~uly eduentional and \ocntioinal activities
instead of on unfair profit seeking factory production.
The proponents of the Code have an unassailable position in argu-
ing that it would be impossible for manufacturers under the Code
to stay in business if prison goods continue unfairly to compete with
goods produced in free plants; that this competition in the past has
led to sweat-shop and substandard conditions in the open branch of
the industry and that unless checked it will be impossible for manu-
facturers to meet the standards of operation of the Code and stay in
business. The proponents of the C:o~de are on unassailable ground
as well, in arguing that the elimination of prison competition in Cot-
ton Garments will not make more acute social problems which many
prisons have seriously attempted to solve but which. other prisons
have been holding up as a shield to cloakr profit seeking and
The A-?dministrator finds that:
(a) The Code complies in all respects with the pertinent provisions
of Title I of the Act, including without limitation subsection (a) of
Section 7 and subsection (b) of Section 10 thereof ; and that
(b) The International Association of Garment Manufacturers
imposes no inequitable restrictions on admission to membership
therein and is truly representative of the Cotton Garment Industry;
(c) TIhe Code is not designed to promote monopolies or to elimi-
nate or oppress small enterprises and will not operate to discriminate
against then, and will tend to effectuate the policy of Title I of the
National Industrial Recovery Act.
I recommend that the Code be approved.
HoUG S. JoIINwson,
CO'CTTO~N GARMEN INDUSTRY
To effectuate the policy of Title I: of the N~ational Inrdustrial Re-
covery Act and aid in. reducing and relieving unemlploymnent., improv-
ing the standards of labor, and eliminating comp~et.it~ive practices
destructive of the interests of the public, employees, and employers,
the following provisio-ns shall constitute the Code of Fair Comlpeti-
tion for the Cotton Garment ]Industry and shall be binding upon
every member thereof.
A. As used in this code the term Cotton Garment Industry "
means and includes the production by any of the followin;~zg processes:~
(a) outting, (b) creasing, (c) sewing (all or part of the garment) ,
(d) trimming, (e) pressing, (f) finishing, (g) examining and in-
epecting, (h) bowcing, or all of them, of any article or gai~~nrmet known
as (1) work clothing, wlork~ garments, work% pants, and children's play
suits; (a) men's shirts, including knlitted:! outer skirts and polo
shirts; (3) boys' shirts and blouses; (4) boys' wash suits; (5) work:
shirts of any material, inc~l~udinrg flannel shirts; (6) paljamias and
nightshirts; ~) men's co7illars; (8) dresses of lines, or of chief contendt
of cotton se szng at wholesale to the re~talk r up to andl! including
$99.50 per dlozen; (9) oiled cotton garmentciis; (10) men's and boys'
poants, wrhen madie in wrork clothing factories; (11) seep lined anrd
leather garments; (18a) nurses' and maids' apron~rs and uir;forms,~; (1'3)
washable service apparel; (11,) men's wash suite of one hundred~l~ per-
cent (1i00%o) cotton content, when made in woork~-clothing factories in,
conjunction. with work~ nothing; (15) wromen's and misses' pajamas,
sleeping wear, and ucndergarments of ooue~n fabrics (other th~an the
so-called athletic type), when such garmenilts, iic7du-sire of trim~.ii.ilngsa,
are matde of one hundred percent (100%f~) cotton, fabrics.l
B. The terna'm ashable Service Appar~el as used herein is de-
fined to mean cotton coats; trousers; waitresses', nursess, and mlaids'
service garments, aprons, service caps, anld other kindred s~er~vice
garments manufactured for direct distribution to linen supply service
companies, hotels, hospitals, institutions, and other conlsumner~s
C. If and when, because of the character of any product made by
any employer, or by any subdivisional industry, there arises any
x Italicized words added by Amendment No. 1, approvedl Dec~. 18, 1933; Amendment
No. 4, approved M~iar. 22, 1934; and Amendment No. 8, approved'~ Sept. 27, 1'J34.
CODE OF FAIR COMIPETITILION
dispute as to whether such product is covered by the provisions of
this or another code, the code authorities concerned will1 report to
the Administrator t~he code under which such product properly
belongs and inl the event that the code authorities are unable to
agree within a reasonable time, the Administrator may, after notice
and hearing, decide under which code the product or subdivisional
industry manufacturing the same is covered.
D. The term member of the industry includes anyone engaged
in the industry as above defined, either as an employer or on hnis
E. The term Mlanufacturer as used herein means anld includes
(1) anyone who buys miaterials; and manufactures them. under the
processes named in subsection A of Article II: hereof into finished
garments, (2) anyone who buys the materials and performs the
cloth-cutting operation and contracts other operations, retaining
legal title to the goods, or (3) a contractor who receives materials
in cut form and does the sewing operations and any additional
operations (except cutting)
F. The term "' contractor as used herein means and includes any-
one engaged in the Imak~ing of cut materials into finished products
suitable for use but not intended for his own distribution, who owns
and operates his own plant, hires his own labor for that purpose,!
but who receives cut-piecec goods from another for the purpose of
making same into ~finished garments and who in the operation of
his business renders this service mn the course of an independent
occupation, the relationship! being such that legal title to the goods
to be manufactured is retained by the one for whom the contractor
is ~finishing the product.
G. The term -" manufacturing employees e" as used herein means
and includes anyone who is engaged in (a) cutting, (b) creasing,
(c) sewing (all or part of the garment), (d) trimming, (e) pressing,
(f) exammnmg, (g inspecting, or (h) finishing, of any garment
produced in the industry.
H. The term "' nonmanufacturing employeee as used herein means
and includes all persons engaged in the Ctton Garment industry,
but not included in any of the classifications of subsection HR above.
I. The term employer means anyone by whom any such em-
plo ee is comapensate~d or employed.
J. The terms "L President ', "Act ", and "Administrator as used
herein mean respectively the President of the United States, the
NJational Inldustrial Recovery Act, and the Administrator of said
A. On and after October 1, 1934, no mzanufacturinrg employee
shall be permitted to work% in excess of thi~rty-s~isL (36~) hours in any
one week nor in excess of eight (8) hours in any one day, elccept as
herein, otherwise prrovide~d. The Industrial Commzittee, to the ewlent
provided in Article LX-V hereof, may makie suoch determinations of
applications for exceptionrs an~d/or ememptions from the provisions
of this Sectiorn as it may deem proper and necessary, subject to the
disapproval of the Admrinistrrator as provided the~rein. No onr-
maznufactufr~ing emnployee sh~all be permitted to woorkr in excess of
fortfy (40) hou~rs in an~y one woeek.2
B. No office? employee (including accounting, clerical, and steno-
g~raphic help) shall be permitted to work in excess of 40 hours per
week averaged over anly three months' period. Secretaries, factory
department heads, and executives earning more than $3`5.00 per
week are exempted from this provision.
C. The provision for maximum hours constitutes the mnaxim~umn
hours of labor per week for the employee covered so that under no
circumstances will such an, employee be employed or be permitted
to work for one or more employers in the industry in the aggregate
in excess of the prescribed number of hours in a single dayT or single
A. On, and after December _1, 1984, emce~pt as hereinafter prrovided,
nro employee shall be paid at less thanz the rate of Twcelve Dollars
($19.00) per thirty-s~isr (36) hour week tit the Southernm area, nor
at less than the rate of Thirteen Dollars~ ($13.00) per thirty-sisx (36)
hour week: in the Northern area. Week: workers and/or timle wzcork-
ers receiving above the minimum wrage prior to this aenltsdment
shall be paid at not less th~n, the same wage per thi~rty-sis (36)
hour week that they were paid per forty (40) hour week. Piece
rates shall be increased by not less than 10%~ ovrer and above the
piece rates prevailing as of Mlay 17, _19346, but in no evlen~t shall piece
workTers receive less than the minimum wceek~ly uuage herein pro-
B. On, and after Decemzber 1, 1934, in the Sh.eep-Lined aondi Leathier
Garment Indus8try, no manufact~urin~g employee shall be paid at less
t~a~n the rate of Fourteen Dollare ($14~.00) per wteek. No operator
sha~Gll be paid at less than the rate of 45p per hour; and no short
kEnife outter shall b~e paid at less tharn the rate of 75# per hour.
M~anufacturinlg employees shall receive not less than, thirty-sis (36)
hours th5anz they received for forty (./0) hours. Picea rates sall
be increased by noAt less than 10%~ over and above th7e piece rates
prevailing May 1, 19346.
C. Th~e number of le~arne~r~s em ployed at may time int the Cotton
Garment I'ndrs~try or in a mnud~zfactulrer's plan or faeorll shal not
emoeed ten (10%) percent of the~ total namnber ofmanunfaculrin~g
employees in said plant. A. learner shall be caiedas a person
woho has worked~l in this industry for a period of not morre than twoel~ve
(19f) weeks in whatsoever capaosty. Learners shall be paid not less
th~an the following:
First four wteeks 50%___-----------5 of the mzinimum warge
second; four woeeks _- ___-------- _--- 6 of the minimum wage
Third four woeeks so%--_------ _____ of the m/t;inimum wage"
D. Each member of the industry shall make periodic reports, as
required by the Cotton Garment C5ode Authorit~y, showing in. each
SItalicized words added by A8mendment No. 7, approved Aug. 21, 1934, effective Dec.
1, 1934, and Executive Order No. 6871, approved Oct. 12, 193.
instance the number and names of learners" employed antd the extent
of time so employed.
E. A person, whose earning capacity is limited because of age,
physical or te~ntal handicap, or other injiruity, may be employed
on light wuork at a wtage below the m~inimwum established by this Code,
if the employer obtains from the State Authority, designated by
the United States Department of Labor, a certificate authoriziing his
employment at such wages and for such hours as shall be stated in
the certificate. Such authority shall be guided by the instructions
of the United States Department of Labor in issuing certificates to
s;Uch persons. Each employer shall file monthly wi~th the lode Auz-
thority a list of all such persons employed by him, showing the
wages paid to and the maximumw hours of wiork: for such employee.3
F'. For the purpose of this Article, the states which shall be
included in the southern section are: Alabama, Arkansas, ~Florida,
Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Carolina, Okla-
homa, South Carohna, T~ennlessee, Texas, Vrirginia. All other states
and the District of Columbia shall be included within the northern
section of the industry, except that for a period of not to exceed
six months after the effective date of this Code the northern-section
provisions of this Article shall not apply to factories operating under
this Code which have been established between January 1, 1933, and
September 1, 1933, in the area within 50 miles of the northern bound-
aries of Tennessee and ALrkansas.
G. The Cotton Garment Code Authority shall, from time to timne,
report to the Admzinistrator as to the effect of the operation of Sec-
tion F, so that the Administrator may determine whether or not the
provisions of that section shall be changed. The differentials pro-
vided for in this Article as between the northern and southern see-
tions shall not apply to the Sheep Lined and Leather Garment
H. No changes in piece-rates anld no increases in the amount of
production or work of week workers shall be made for the purpose
of evading the benefits to manufacturing employees prescribed by
this Code in respect of wages and hours of employment. All
requirements in respect of such increases shall be reported to the
Cotton Garment Code Authority and failure to so report shall
constitute a prima facie violation of this section.
I. The WCork Clothing and W~ork Shirt Industries of the Cotton
Garment I~ndustry, may present to the Administrator such mem-
oranda as the said Work Clothing and Work Shirt Industries may
deemn proper in relation to the effect of the minimum wage scale of
this Article and other economic factors, upon the sale price of workr
clothing and work shirts manufactured in such industries, so that
the Administrator, after due notice and hearing, may determine
whether any changes shall be made in the wage provisions of this
Code with respect to the WC;ork; Clothing and Work Shirt Industries.
JT. This Article establishes a minimum rate of pay, regardless of
whether an employee is compensated on a time-rate, pieceworki, or
KC. The Cotton Garment Code Authority shall, as soon as prae-
ticable, set up a committee to investigate thie wage scales for ecutters,
to determine whether the wPages paid said cutters tend to effectuate
the purposes of the National In~dustrial Recovery Aict. T'he said
committee shall also investigate differentials in wages paid to other
employees rec~ei vin g above thle minimum to determine whether such
difrentials permit unfair competition in the Cotton Garment
L. Nothing in this Code shall be construed to interfere with, alter,
change?, or abrogate anly existing contract between employer and
employee in respect of wages above the minimum, or hours below
the maximum herein provide-~d.
ARTICLE V--ATACH~INERY CONTROL
A. No member of the Cotton Garment Industry shall operate pro--
ductive machinery used in any of the processes enumerated in Sec-
tion A of Article II[, except cutting machinery, for maore~ than one
shift of 40 hours per week. I~f any member of the Cot~ton Garment
Industry has customarily operated productive machinery on a double-
shi~ft basis, said member of the Ind~ustry m~ay make representations
to the Cotton Garment Code AL1uthority as to the facts and conditions
requiring more thian~ a sin~gle-shift basis in his particular plant or
plants and may request a special exemption to operate on a double-
shift basis; it being agreed that such application mayT be granted by
the Administrator upon recommendation of the Code Authority,
but only for the purpose of meeting contractual obligations existing
on the effective date, or of preventing discharge of employees, or of
otherwise remnovingf any unusual difficulties or hardships in the
applications of this Article. Any deviations from the provisions of
this section, however, shall be deemed a violation of the Code unless
the said application is made and approved as provided herein.
AuRTIcra VI GENERAL LABOR PROVISIONS
A. No person under 16 years of age shall be emnpl~y~ed in t~he
B. Employees shall have the right to organlize and bargain collec-
tively through representatives of their own choosing, and shall be
free from, the interference, restraint, or coercion of employers of
labor, or their agents, in. the designation. of such representatives or
in self-organization1 or in other concerted activities for the purpose
of collective bargaining or other mutual aid or protection.
C. Ntio employee anld no one seeking employment shall be required
as a condition of employment to join any company union or to refrain
from joining. organizing, or a.ssisting a labor organization. of his own
D. Employers shall comply with. the maximum hours of labor,
minimum rates of pay, ancd other conditions of em-ploy~ment, ap-
proved or prescribed by the President.
E. Within each State this Code shall not supersede any laws of
such State imaposingr more stringent requirements on employers regau-
latingr the age of employees, wages, hours of labor, or health, fire, or
general working conditions than under this Code.
F`. Employers shall not reclassify employees or duties of occupa-
tions performed by employees so as to defeat the purposes of the Act.
G. Eachn employer shall post in conspicuous places accessible to
employees full. copies of this Code orr all portions of this Code con-
cerning labor and working conditions.
AnnJOrE V;II-Hoxic Wm~ORK:
AL. After three months from, the effective. date, no mrtem-ber of the
industry shall have any sewing-machine wor~rk done on any garment or
any. part thereof in the private home of any worker, but all such
sewmng-machine work shall be done in. the plant of the member of the
industry producing suchn garment; provided, however, that any mem-
ber of the industry may applyt~o the Cotton Garme~nt Code Authority
for exemption from the provisions of this Article for what is known
in the trade as turning collars which have a laundry wash in the
factory before shipping, provided, also, that home work on hand
embroidery, which is incidental to thle manufacture of cotton gar-
ments, mary continue, and that within three months the Cotton Gar-
ment Code Authority shall report on the home-work problem so that
the Administrator, after due notice and hearing, may determine
whether or not this provision shall be changed. Each member of the
industry shall report at once to the Cotton G~arment Code AuthorityJ
the names of any individuals employed under the provisions of this
section and the reasons for such employment, and after thne effective
date, no member of the industry shall increase the number of persons
so emaployed prior to July 15, 1933.
ARTICLE VIII--PnISON Lanon
A. No member of the industry shall manufacture or cause to be
manufactured, acquire, sell, or distribute any garment, textiles, or
supplies produced by prisoners, except prisoners on parole, or pro-
duced in any tax-maintained penal or reformatory institutions;
except that any member of the industry who, prior to September 1,
1933, entered into a bona fide contract for the purchase of any~
garments or textiles made by prisoners, may, until January 1, 1934,
accept delivery of said garments or textiles included within. the
terms of said contract, and may thereafter sell those particular gar-
ments, or garments made from those particular textiles.
B3. Provided, however, that the provisions of paragraph A are
hereby stayed until January 1, 1934, for the purpose of permitting
those states of the United States, which so choose, to formulate,
enter into, and make effective a compact or agreement, and thereby
satisfying the Administrator that merchandise produced in the penal
institutions of any state signatory to the said compact or agreement
withl thie exception of goods, wares, and merchandise produced or
mined by any prison solely for the use of tax-supported institutions,
agencies, departments, or activities of any state or its political sub-
divisions) is manufactured, sold, and distributed only upon a fair
basis of competition with private industry.
C. When and so long as any penal institution, by suibscribing~ to,
complying with, anrd maklngr effective the Code or compact heremn-
before r~eferredl to, or a binding agreement of any other nature, sat-
isfies the Administrator that merchandise produced in wThole or in.
part in such institution or by the inmates thereof is being produced
and sold upon a fair competitive basis with similar merchandise not
so produced, the provTision1s of paragraph A hereof shall not apply to
any merchandise produced in such manner in the institution covered
by such agreement, but otherwise pa~agraph A. hereof shall apply
to such prison-made products.
D. Any member of this industry or subsidiary thereo~f making any
contracts with prisons for labor of prisoners or prison products shall
report the facts in writing: to thle ALIdministrlt~or and file with the
Administrator a copy of any such contract.
E. The Cotto-n G~arment Code Autlhor'ity shall as soonl as practi-
cable after the effective date, mak~Le such rules and regulations as may
tend to effectuatet the policy of thze Nationral Indulstrial Recovery Act
and aid in the observance of the provisions of this Code with respect
to the sale and distribution of cotton garments or parts thereof made
in whole or in part by the inmates of private or semi-public charita-
ble reformator~y institutions other than prisons.
F. Nothing in this Article shall be construed to supersede or inter-
fere with the operation of the Act of Congress approved January 19,
1929, entitled "'An Act to Divest Goods, W~ares, and Mierchandise
MDanufactured, Produced or M~ined by Convicts or Prisoners of their
Interstate Character in Certain Cases", or thre provisions of any
State legislation enacted or made effective thereunder.
A1?. FTurther to effectuate the policy of th~is Act, a Cotton Garment
Code Authority is hereby set up to cooperate with the Acdministrator
in the administration of this Code! and shall be constituted as
B. The International Associations of Garment MIanufacturers,
with. the collaboration of the industries affiliated, shall select as mem-
bers of the Cotton Garment Code Auilthority one representative from
such. of the following associations or subdivisional groups as it mnay
satisfy the Administrator are truly representative and comply wirith
the provisions of Title I of the Nationral Inldust~rial Recovery Act:
1. TChe Nat~ional Association of Shirt Mianufact~urers.
F2. TIhe National Boys' Blouse and Shirt M~anufacturers' Associa-
3. The National Pajama Mlanufactulrers' Council, Inc.
4. The Association of Collar Mianufacturers.
5. TlChe National Work Clothes M~lanufacturers' Association.
6. The Unlion. Madne Garm~ent Ma~nufacturlers' ABssociation.
7. Thle WCork Shirt Mfanulfacturers' Nat~ional Association.
8. Thle National Sheep Lined and Leather Garment Asociation.
9. The Associated Pants M~anufacturers of America.
10. The~ NVationa7 l Associati'on of~ HEouse Dress MIan~ufact~urers, lac.'s
u Itanicized words added by Amrendmen No. 8, approved sept. 2, 1934.
11. The National Oiled Cotton Garment Manufacturers' Associa-
12. The NrJational Association of Nurses and RMaids Aprons and
13. Shirt Institute, Inc.
1.4. The Nationzal Association of Men's Shirts and Boygs' Blouse
15. Associated Manufacturers of Washable Service Apparel, Inc.
16. Association of Co~ttonz U~ndergar~ment a~nd Slee~pingr Garment
And such other associations as may from time to time, with the ap-
provral of the Administrator, be placed under the provisions of this
Code. Alternates mnay be appointed to represent members unable
to be present, but all such mnemlbers and alternates of the Cotton Gar-
ment Code Authority shall in each case be persons actually engaged
in the operation of a, business in the respective industries.
The Administrator may appoint four members on nomination. of
the labor Advisor~y Board.
The Administrator, at his discretion, may appoint not more than
three additional members to represent the Administrator, and addi-
tional members to represent such groups or interests as he m-ay deem
entitled to representation.
C. Each trade or industrial association directly or indirectly~ par-
ticipating in the selection or activities of the Code Authority shall:
(1) Impose no inequitable restrictions on membership, and (2) submit
to the A~dministrator true copies of its articles of association, by-laws,
regulations, and any amendments when made thereto, together with
such other information as to membership, organization, and activities
as the Administrator mayV deem necessary to effectuate the purposes
of the Act.
I). Inl order that the Code ~Aut~hority shaUl at all times be truly
representative of the industry and in other respects comply with. the
provisions of the Act, the Administrator may provide such hearings
as he may deem proper; and thnereaft~er if he shall find that the Code
.Authority is not truly~ representative or does not in other respects
comply with the provisions of the Act, may require an appropriate
modification in the method of selection of the Code Atuthority.
E. TPhe Cotton Garm~ent Code Authiorit~y shall have the power to
make investigations and to conduct hearings to ascertain whether
members of the industry are complying Iwith the provisions of this
F. The Cotton Garment Code ~Authority shall select its chairman,
may employ such personnel as may be required for the effective dis-
charge of its functions, and may set up such administrative com-
mittees as may be necessary to aid divisional industries in the admin-
istration and observance of this Code.
G. Members of thne Industry shall be entitled to participate in and
share in the benefits of the activities of the Code Authority and to
participate in the selection of the members thereof by assenting to
and complying with the requrirements of this Code and sustaining
~Italicisied worlds added by AmmenLoentA Mo. 4, approved Mar. 22, 1934.
their reasonable share of the expenses of its administration. The
reasonable share of thle expenses of administration shall be deter-
mined byT thae Code Authority, subject to r'evCiew7 by the Adminis-
trator, on the basis of v~olumne of business and/or such other factors
as may be deemed equitable to be taken into consideration. 1Exrpendi-
tures authorized by the Code Authority shall not xceed an amount
reasonably necessary for the administration, of this Code.
H. Nothing contained in this Co~de shall constitute the members
of the Code ALuthority partners for any purpose; nor shall anly
members of the Code Authority be liable inl any manner to anyone
for any act of any other member, officer, agent, or employee of the
Codet A-uthority exercising reasonable diligence in the conduct of his
duties hereunder, nor be liable to anyone for anyS actions or omission.
to act under the~ Code, e~txcept for his own willful mnisfeasance or
I. The Code Aluthority shall have the following duties alnd powers
to the extent permitted by the ~Act, subject to the right of the Admin-
istrator on review to veto any action taken by the Code Authority:
(a) To adopt by-laws and rules and regulations for its procedure
and for the administration and enforcement of the Code, mn accord-
ance with the powers herein. granted, and to submit the same to the
Administrator for his approval, together with true copies of any
amendments or additions when made thereto, minutes of meetings
when held, and such other information as to its activities as thle
Administrator may deem neces ary to effect the purposes of the Act.
(b) Set up rules anld regulations governing the making of returns
and reports by members of the industry as to
2. ~Machine hours.
3. Labor hours and pay-roll account.
(The aforesaid reports shall be made not less than every three
months, and at such other times as the Cotton Garment Code Au-
thority may determine; provided that no member of the industry
shall have access to the confidential returns and data reported by the
individual members, but all such data shall be correlated, tabulated,
or otherwise presented in such manner as to avoid disclosure of
individual plant operations, except when its use is necessary to prove
or disprove a complaint or violation of this Code.)
(c) Prepare for, order, receive, collate, and analyze such addi-
tional reports as to anly phase of the Cotton1 Garment Industry as
may be required from time to time by the Administrator for the
purpose of informing thle President as to the observance of this Code
or the situation within the industry wiith respect to the! operation
(d) Set up such commissions, bureaus, or committees as mayT be
1. TPo recommend to the Administrator the establlishment of a sys-
te~m of uniforms cost accounlting, which upon. approval of the AL~dminI-
istrator shall be binding upon all members of t~he industry;
2. TPo investigate and make recommendations to th~e Administrator
concerning control or balancing of production, distribution, and con-
sumption of products of the industry and tlhe stabilization of the
industryT with. respect to production a~nd employment;
3. To report to the Administrator with respect to differentials
betw-een the northern and southern sections of the industry;
4. To investigate and report to the Administrator on the subject of
differentials as between urban and rural wage minimums or such
adjustments as may be necessary in connection therewith;
5. To aid in the adjustment of contracts made prior to August 1Ist
for future delivery where the costs of executing same are increased
through the operation of the National Industrial Recovery Act or the
provisions of this Code, it being interpreted as equitable and promo-
tive of the purposes of the Act that appropriate adjustments of such
contracts to reflect such increased costs be made. Any dispute arising
under this provision should be settled by amicable agrement, or if
that is not possible, should be referred to arbitration, and the Code
Authority shall offer all assistance possible;
6. To investigate and report to the Administrator, with such ree-
ommendations as may be deemed necessary, looking to the control in
this industry of undue expansion of productive machinery capacity;
7. To investigate and make such recommendations to the Presi-
dent as may tend to esffectuate the National Ilndustrial Recovery) A-ct
and the provisions of this Code in. respect to imports, or, upon
investigation to make application to the President to exercise his
authority as to imports under Section 3 (e) of the National Industrial
8. To collaborate with members of the industry and with the
Administrator for the purpose of recommending from~ time to time
changes in or additions to this Code;
9. To prepare and present to the President for his approval such
additional Codes of fair trade practice as may be necessary or
expedient in the conduct of the industry or any of t~he particular
industries subject to this Code;
10. To do and perform all other acts necessary to carry out any
of the provisions of this Code or the provisions of the National
Industrial ]Recovery Act or the requirements of the Administrator
in, connection with this Code;
11. To recommend to the Administrator through the Divisional
Code Authorities uniform systems of cost accounting which shall
be designed to effectuate fair competition in the divisional industries
subject to the aforesaid Code Authorities.
12. The Code Authority may recommend to the Administrator
provisions regarding the use of an N.R.A. label or insignia other
t~han that provided for in ~Article II and rules or regulations with
respect to the issuance and use of such insignia.
J. Except where otherwise provided herein, all recommendations
made b~y the Cotton Garment Code _AuthorityT shall, upon approval
of the President, become part of this Code and shall thereafter be
binding upon all those engaged in the industries subject to this Code.
3K. Atll data, records, statistics, information, or other material
gathered by the Cotton Garment Code Authority shall at all times
be available to the Administrator. I~n addition to the information
required to be submitted to the Code Authority, there shall be fur-
nished to government agencies such statistical information as the
A~dmzinistrator may deem. necessary for thme purposes recited iln See-
tion 3 (a) of the Act.
L. Any power or authority delegated herein to the Code Aulthorityr
shall be subject to the right of the Ad~ministrator to review and veto
any action taken by the eode Authority; any particular provision or
implied~ delegation herein to the contrary notwfithstanding.
M. The C'otton Garment Code Aucthority may, upon submissJIion to
and alpproval by the Adminis.tr~ator of its proposed Certifcfeat of
Inrcorporattiont and By-L~aues, in~cMorpoate under the latos of any ~State
of the Unir,,te, tae, or f th.e District of Columnbia; such corpora-~
tion to be knoton as the C7otton Gamrment C~ode Authority, Inc. The
powers, objects and pu~lrposes of the saidc2 Corporation shallr2 in all
respaectfs be limited to thie porcers, objects and purposes of the C~otton
Garment Code Auathority, as p~o~vided in th~is C7ode and th~3e exijstence
of the Corpzora~tion s~hall be durzinlg the term/ of the C~ode.6'
AnrTIC;s Xl-ASDDITTIONAL CODES
AL. Such of the provisions of this Code, as are not required to be
includred~ therein by the National I~ndustrial RecoveryS Act mayr~, witht
the approval of the President, be modified or eliminated as changes
in circumstances or experience, may indicate. It is contemplated
that from time to time supplementary provisions of this Code or
additional Codes will be submitted for the approval of the President
to prevent unfair competition in, price and other unfair and destruc-
tive competitive practices and to effectuate the other purposes and
policies of Title I of the National Industrial Recoveryr Act consistent
with the provisions thereof.
B. Codes of F'air Practices may be submitted wriith the approval of
subdivrisional trade associations, and if approved byg the President in.
accordance with Title I of the Nationall~ndustr~ial Recovoery- Act, sulch
Code or Codes shall be administered by such Trade Atssociations.
ARTICLE XZI-U-NFAIR TRADE PRACTICES
A. It shall be deemed an unfair trade practice and a violation of
this Code of Fair Competition for any member of the Cotton GAr'-
ment I[ndustry to hold himself out, or advertisre or otherwise r~epre.-
sent himself as a "Lmanufa7cturer'g unless thle cutting or slewing of
garments is included within the processes of his factory or plant;
provided, however, that nothiner in this section shall be construed
to relieve anyone ~en~gaged in () cutting, (b) creasing, (c) trim-
ming, (d) sewing, (e) pressing, or (f) finishing, or all of them,
from the hour, wage, and pr~oduction and other provisions of this
B. It shaall be anm unfair trade practice, for any member of the
industry to send out work to an~y- contractor to be mnade into a
garment byr said contractor which shall include thie cutting of the
material by said contractor and all work sent to a contractor by
a member of the :industry mulst be cut in the member's owcln factory
or plant. And it shall be an unfair trade practice for any con-
tractor to acc~ep~t from any one any uncut material or textile for the
6 Italicised wpordbs added by Amendment No. 6, approved Aug. 21, 1934.
purpose of producing from same a garment. Provided, however,
that this provision shall become effective January 1, 1934, and that
thereafter only those contractors may cut who obtain express per-
mission from the Code Aut~hority, with the concurrence of the
~Administrator, upon duly showing their financial responsibility and
ability to comply withn the wage and hours provisions of this Code
and further that their continuance of cutting operations will not
tend to defeat the purposes of the National Industrial R~ecoveryr Act
and this Code.
C. It shall be an unfair trade practice and a violation of this Code
for any member of the Cotton G~arment Industry to sell or offer for
sale merely cut but unsewnrl and unfinished garments and anyr person
selling or offering for sale any merely cut but unsewn and unfinished
products, shall be deemed to have violated this Code and be subject
to the penalties provided in the National Industrial Recovery Act.
D. The Standarrds of Fair Competition for the Ind~strry with ref-
erenc~ce to pricing prac~tices are decZlared to be as follows:
* 1. (a) Wilful~ly destructive price cutting is as wafair method of
competitionL and is forbidden. Any member of thle Industry or of
any other industry or the customers of either may at any timze com-
pl7ainz to the Code Authority that any quoted price constitutes unfacir
competition as destructive price cutting, imperiling small enterprise
or tending toward monopoly or the im~Pa~irmen of code wages and
The Code Authority shall writhin five (5) days aiford an opp:or'-
tunity to the member quoting the price to answer such c~ompllaint and
shall within fourteen (14) days make a ruling or adjustment thereon.
If such ruling is not concurred in by either party to the complaint,
all papers shall be referred to thle Research and Plassing D~ivision of
NRA which shall render a report and recommendation thereon to the
(b) When no declared emergency exists as to any given product,
there is to be no 1C~Fed m~inimfumz basis for prices. It is intended that
sound cost estimating methods should be used and that consideration
should be given to costs in the determination of pr~icing policies.
(c) WThen an emergency elists as to any given product, sale below
the started minimum price of succh product, in violation of Section a
hereof is forbi~rdden.
9. E1mergen:)cy Provis~ionl~.-(a) If the Admin~istrato~r, after in/ues-
tigatio~n, shall at any time #ndc both (1) that an emergency has arisen
within the Industry adv~ersely affectin2g small enterprises or wages
or labor con~ditions, or tending toulrrrd monopolyJ or other acute con-
ditions wohich tend to dEefeact the 1purposes of the Act; and (9) thalt
the determination of a stated intzsmum ;p~rce for a speci~e~d product
within the Industry for a limited period is necessarY to m~itigate the
conditions conrtitufi'ng such emfrelrgny and to effectuate the ;Purpooses
of the Act, the O'ode Authority mzay cause an impartial agency to
investigate costs and to recommend to the Administfrator a determin~a-
tion of a sta.ted minri~mum prirce ;of the product affec~tedj by the emzer-
gency and thereupon the Admi7nznstrator may pr1oceedc to determine
such stated minimum price.
(b) When the Administrator shall2 have determined succh stated
msnsmucm price for a specified product for a stated period, wkich
price shall be reasonably calculated to mitigate the conditions of
such emergency and to effectuante the purposes of the National I~n-
dustrial! Recovery Act, he shall publish such price. Thereafter,
during such stated period, no member of the Industry shall sell such
specifed products at a net realized price below said stated mrlinimumrz
price and any such sale shall be deemed destructive price cutting.
From time to time, the Code ALuthority may recommend reviewu or
reconsideration or the Admzinistrator may cause any determination
hereunder to be .revi~ic- lwed~cI or reconsidered and" appropriate action
3. Cost Finding.--The Code Authority shadll cause to be formu-
lated methods of cost finding and accounting capable of use by all
members of the Industry, and shall submit such methods to the
Administrator for rev~iew. If approved by the Administrator, full
information concerning such methods shall be made available to all
members of the Industry. Thereafter, each member of the Indus-
try shall uEtiize such methods to the extentt found practicable. Noth-
ing herein contained shall be construed to permit thw Code AUthLoritY,
any agent thereof, or anty member of the Industry to suggest uniform
additions, percentages of differerztzals or other uniform items of cost
which are designed to bring about arbitrary uniformity of costs or
E. It shall be an, unfair trade practice and a violation of this Code
to attach N. R. A. labels issued hereunder to any garment not specifi-
ca~lly islzcuded within this Code.3.
ARTICLE XII-GARMENT IDENTIFICATION
The Cotton Garment Code Authority may with respect to any of
the products covered by this Code, if deemed necessary, put into
effect the following provisions with respect to anl N.R.A. label or
insignia, upon the approval of the A~dministrator:
A~. 1Every such garment produced bly anly person subject to the
provisions of this Code shall bear an insignia, the purpose of which
shall be to aid as a means of enforcing the purposes of the provisions
of this Code by tracing the garment to its origin. Garments bearing
a recognized tradle-union insignia indicating the origin of said gar-
ment shall not be required to bear thne additional insignia required
by this Section. Every manufacturer engaged in thre industry shall
apply to the Cotton Garment Code Authority for permission. to use
insignia herein provided for, and each application, when approved,
shall be given a registered identificationl and every garment manu-
factured thereafter by the applicant shall bear said registered identi-
fication except as provided above. The Code Authority shall charge
no more than the actual cost of production and distributing of the
dies, labels, or insignia, provided foy herein.
B. The Cotton Ga~rment Code Atuthority, with the approval olf the
Administrator, shall determine thne insignia to be used under the
Italicized words added by Amendme~nt No. 7, approved A8ug. 21, 1934.
sa See footnote 'a, p. gy,
provisions of this article and shall make such rules and regulations
as to the use and location of the insignia onr any particular garment
as ~aly be dee~med practical or necessary. It is under~stood that the
location of the insigmia on the garment is to be in. an inconspicuous
position such as the skirt of a shirt, size label on overalls, etc.
C. The Cotton Garment Code Authority shall set up an Insignia
Registration Burealu for the purpose of carrying out the provisions
of this article.
ARTICLE XIII -1\ODIFICATIONIS
A. This Code anmd all thre provisions thereof are exrpressly made
subject to the right of the 1President, in accordance with. the provi-
sions of Sec~tion 10 (b) of the National Industrial Recovery Act,
from time to time to cancel or modify any order, approval, license,
rule, or regulation issued under Title I of said Act, and specifically,
but without limitation, to t~he right of the President to cancel or
modify his approval of this Code or any conditions imposed by him
upon his approval thereof.
A. No provision of this Code shall be so applied as to permit
monopolies or monopolistic practices or to eliminate or oppress
small enterprises or discriminate against them.
ARTICLE XV-OPERATION AND APP-ICATION
A. This Code shall be in operation on and after the effective date
as to the whole Cotton G;Farment Industry as described herein, except
as an exsemption from or a stay of the application of this provision
may be granted by the Administrator to a member applying for
same, in accordance wclith rules and regulations of the administrator.
B. A Committee is hereby established to be k~nown2 as the Indus-
trial Committee, to be appointed by the Administrator on the nom-
inationz of the following: Three members by the Code Authority to
represent the Industry annd three members by the L~abor Advisory
Board of which one shall be without Union affiliation. The sis so
selected shall select a Ch~ail)lrman to be approved by the Adminis-
tr~ator. The powers and duties of this committee shall be as follows:
All applications for exceptions and/or exemptions from any of
the pr~ovisions of this Code shall be considered by the Committee
hereby established and the Committee shall make such determina-
tions as it may deem proper and necessary after due conzsideration.
1. The Industrial Committee shall forward to the Administrator
any and all of its determzinations, and its reasons ther9efor, within~
twenty-four (a4) hours of the time of such determinations, which
shall become effective five (5) days after the date of receipt thereof
by the Admzinistr~ator, unless prior thereto disapproved by the Ad-
ministrator, subject, however, to the further order of the Adcininiis-
trator. All decisions of the Industrial Committee shall be posted at
the office of the Cotton Garment Code Authority at a place regularly
designated for such purpose, together with a notice that all parties
objecting thereto may file their objections with the Admin~istrator.
Bf. The Industrial Comnmittee in making deternbi~na~io~ns on, any
of the labor provisions of this Code shall be boundc by the following:
(a) Anzy overtime period granted: to any mzember of the Indulstr'y
shall be upon the condition that time and osne-hal~f shall be paid: to
any emp~iloyee who WOrkJS is eaecess of the maximum hour permzitted
herein pursvuanlt to the dletermirnation, of the Industrial C3omlmittee.
In~ cases of undue hardship created by virtue of this pCrlovision, the
Committee mary up to forty (40) hours per week: grant this exception
at the regular howrly rate.
3. The Industrial C7ommzittee shall mak~e determinations promptly
upon, receipt of exemptions and/or emoeptions and shall wuithin
twenty-four (4) hourlis after decision report its findilngs to the m~em-
bers of the Industry making such ap~plications."
C. The provisions of this Code shall not apply to manufacturingg
operations carried on outside the C3ontinental portion of the United
ARTICLE XVTI--PRICIE INCREASES
A. Whereas the policy of the Act to increase real purchasing
power will be made impossible of consummation if prices of goods
and serv~ices increase as rapidly as wages, it is recognized that price
increases should be delayed and that, wrhen made, the same should,
so far as reasonably possible, be limited to actual increases in the
ARTICLE XYVII--EFFECTIVE DATE
A. The effective date of this Code shall be the first MSonlday follow-
ing the first WCednesday after the date of approval by the President
of the United States.
Article XVIII--L~abels *
Ac. In accordance with the provisions of this Article all garments
mtade in, the Industry as defined! in paragrtaph A of Article II of
the Cod~e shall bear an N.R.A. label to symbjolie to purchases~ of
said grmlents the conditions under which they roleve srmanufacturled.
Th~e Code Authority shall have thde exclusrive right in the Cotton, Gar-
mlent Indlu.tr~y or s~ubdiv~isions thereof to issue6 and furnish said labels
to the ~memzbers thereof.
The Code Authority, sub ject to the approval of the Adm~nistrator
and in, accordance with his egulrations on, the usee of labels, shall
establish rules and regulations and& appr~opria.te! ma~chery for the
issuance of labels and the inspection, eixamin~ation and su~perywt~on
of the practices of employers using such labels. The Code Authority,
subject to the appr~ovall of the Admnzistrator, shall also set u~p suchi
rules an~d regulations as may be deemed advisable to gov~ern the
isavanclce, distribution and~ use of distinct: lbels forp arry scubduivisional
indulstr~ies subject to the pr~ovwions of th~is Code as listed in para-
graph A of Article II of the Code or as said paragraph m;ay be
amended from tinw~ to timez, said special labels to be ~issu~ed only by
the Code Aurthority.
B. The L~abel requiredE hereund~er shall be sewced to the garment
and remain, attached thereto wahen sold, shipped or distributed by any
Italicised words added by Amandment No. 7, approved Aug. ~21, 1934.l-0 apoe
"* rticle XVIII etredtive Mayr 1, 1934. See AdministrativeOdrN.184,apoe
Mar. 30, 1934.
member of the Industry. Any and all members of Mhe Industry
may apply to the Code Authority for a permit to use such N.R.A.
label wohichL permit shall be grantfed only when the application for
use thereof shall be accompanied by a certi icate of compliance with
this C~ode signed by the applicant thereof in such manner and form
as shall be determined by the rules and regulations of the ~Code
Authority approved by the Admlini~strat:or, and which permit to
use the label shall contfinule in, force only so long as the recipient of
said permit shall comply with the Clode and the rules and regulations
of the Code Authfor~ity rlat7tinlg to labels.
C. All goods made prior to Mhe effective date of the rules and
regulations of the Code AullC~orit~y relating to the issuance and use
of labels shall havle securely attached to the bow, cover, peakciage,
container or other wc~nrappng of said garments, a sticker or label in
such form as may be determined by the Code Authority in its rules
D. The charge made by the Code Authority for such labels aind/
or stickers shall at all times be subject to the supervision and regu-
lationsp of" the Administrator and shall be not more t-han an amount
necessary to cover the cost of said labels and/or stickers, including
printing and d~istributlion, and the reasonable cost of~ the admi~n-
istrationz and supefrvis~ion of the use thereof as hereinbefore set forth.
E. The rules and regulations set uip by the Clode AButhority pur-
suant to this Article shall become binrdin~g upon all members of the
Industry when, approved by the Administrator and violation thereof
shall be deemed a violation of the Code of Fair Competition of this
Fi. This Article shall become effective upon the date specified by
the Admi~nistrattor, it being understood that tes, (10) days' notice
shall be given to the Induzstry of the effective date of this Article.
Section 1. To fur~tther remnove obstruction, to the free flow in,
industry and comme~r~ce in, th~e otton Garment Indu8triy and the
subdivisional industries thereof, to eliminate unfair compye~i~tivle
practices, to improve standardsa of labor, to rehabilitate the industry
and more fully effectzuate the policy of Title I of the National
I~ndustrial Rejcover~y Act, Mhe follow~ing shall constitute fair trade
practices under the Code:
Section 9. Nothing in this Article with respect to fair trade prac-
tices shall be construed for any purpose or unLder any oirrumstance
as superseding the provilsions of this Code as am~en~ded, but it shall
be construed as supplem~entatl to this C~ode as amended and any pro-
ridion1 of this Article made a part hereof, found to be in c~onfic~t with
any of the prov~isions of this Code as amended shall be allZ and void.
Section 3. The respective trade associations for the industry shall
be the agencies to coope'a~te with the Code Au1thority and the Ad-
ministrator in the administration of this Article, provided, however,
(a) The Code Auth~ority under such Rules and Regu~lations as
may be approved by the Admzinristrator may assign to the trade
associations the general supervision, sub ject to reviewo by the Code
A~uthorityt of the administration, of this Airticle, or any part thereof.
(b) The ~ode Aut~hority immnediaztely upon, the approval of this
ArIt icle shall notify the respective tr~ade associations of the Sudb-
divisional industries affected and each such association may file wnith
the Code Authority anz application that such subdiessional trade
association be set up as the administrative agency with respect to the
administration of this Article, or any part thereof.
(c) Any trade a~ssociaxtionz approved both by t'he Code Aut~hority
and the Admi~nistrartor under the Code is can agency in the adnisz-
letrlation of the provisions of th~iS Article and at all times shall be
bound by the Rules and Regulations of the Code Authority, or the
Admiistrtor.No act of any association in the conduct of its duties
shall77 violate any o3f the provisions of this G~ode.
(d) Any act of any trade association, to which there shall have
bee~n assigned by~ the Code Authority any power, duty, or function
under the prouzeions of this Article, shall be at all times subject to
review and disarpprosal By the Code Authority and the Admin-
istrator, and nothing herein, shall be construed as granting to any
trade association, any powerorahoiyeep atpeicll
assgne bytheCod Auhortynor shall any provision ;herein be
conzstruced to relieve the Code Authority of its zcltimzate responsibility
for the proper administration, of the Code.
Section 4. The Code Aulthority may disbucrse to any trade associa-
tion, approved as an aid in the administration of this Article, from
its funds such amounts as from time to time may be necessary and
proper to defray the expenses of such association in the admin/istra-
tion of, and compliance with thlis Article.
Section 5. Inaccurate Advertisi~ng.---No member of the industry
shall publish advertising (whether printed, radio, display or of any
other nature) which is misleading or inaccurate in any material!
particular, nor shall any member in any way misrepresent any goods
(including but without limitation its use, trade-mzark, grade, quality,
quantity, origin, siz~e, substance, character, nature, fguish, material
content or preparation) or credit terms, values, polioses, serywces, or
the nature or form of the business conducted.
Section 6. False B~illing.--No member of she industry shall know~-
ingly withhold from or insert in any quotation, or invoice any state-
ment that makes it inaccurate in, any material particular.
Section, 7. Inaccurate LabelinLg.-N member of the industry shall
sell, brand, malrk or pack any goods in anty manner which is in-
tended to or does deceive or mislead purchasers with respect to the
prices, brand, grade, quality, quan~rZtitY, origin, size, substance, char-
acter, naturre, finish, material content or preparation of such goods.
Section 8. D3efamationz.-Nl~o member of the industry shall defame
a competitor by falsely imputing to him dishonorable conduct, irn-
ability to perform contracts, questionable credit standing, or by
other false representation, or by falsely disparaging the grade or
equality of his goods.
Section 9. Threats of Law Sucite.--No member of the industry
shall publish or circulate un~rjustified or unwarranted threats of legal
proceedings which tend to or have the effect of harassing competitors
or intimidating their customers.
Section120. Bribing Emplyoyees.--No nemzber of the industry shall
give, permit to be given, or ofter to givee, anything of value for the
purpose of ~IP(influwing or reward~!7ingi the arfction of any employee,
agedt, or repre~sentativ~i~ e of another in relation to the business of
the employer of such employee, the pr~lincipal of such agent or the
rlepresentedrc party, without the k~notoledge of such employer, princ~i-
pal or pa~rity. This provision shall not be c;nsrued,~c ~ to prohibit free
and genle~lra distribution of ar~ticles commnonly used for advertising
aiecce pt so far as such articles are actually used for commercial brib-
ery as Ahereinabove dcefned'/.
Xsctio~n 11. Im!7111inU1 Breach ofe Ewistin7g Contracts.-No member
of the ;indurstry shall soilfully induce or attempt to induce the breach
of e'jistingl conZtranCts betweenL competitors and their customers by any
means, or interfere w~ith or obstruct the performance of any such
contractual duties or .w r;r~ics by any means, soith the purpose and
effect of hain pe~l~rinU, injur~ing or embarrassing competitors in their
Section 19~. Consig~nmen~t.-No member of the industry shall ship
or sell goods on open order subject to consignment, or by sales
agencies, or by any other mzethodl shich has the effect of sel77lig on
consignment or mnemorandumn guralrantfeeting retail or scholesale turn-
Bectionz 13. Keeping of Recordls.-AllI members of the industry
and aell agencies thereof shall be required to keep a substantial
record of all transactions.
B'ection 14. Arbitration-.- Anr y question or dispute which may
arise bet weasel or among any persons, or between or among any of
them and other persons, firms, or corporations, for the settlement
of which pr'1~~ovisi has not or shall not have been made in this Gode
may be submitted to arbitration to or under the auspices of any
institution of -/elc~oli.redl standing havinzg adequate facilities for the
conduct of such arbitratiorz; provided all parties involved agree to
such method of arbitration, and the decisions of such arbitration,
shall be fial and binding upon all parties.
Section 15T. Commission on Contractors.-The Adminfistrator shall
forthwith appoint a commission of three persons, one of schom shall
represent labor and shall be n~ominatted by the Labor Advisory
Board of NHA, one of whom shall represent the manufacturers and
one the contractors, to investigate all industries engaged in the dis-
tribution of work: to contractors. The commission shall study and
investigate the conditions within the indul~stry in order to determine
what shall be a fair compensation to be paid by the manufacturers to
contractors, and the entire qucesti'on of the relationship between man-
o~facturer and contractor. The commission shall study the above
mentioned subject and report thereon to the Administrator within
three months after the approval of Article XIX of this Code. Upon
receipt of the report, the Administrator may hold hearings to cont-
sider such report. The decision, rendered by the A-dmirnistrator as
a result of the said hearing shall be effective as of the date approved
by the Administrator. The C.i,'rpense of the said com millss;ion shall be
paid by the C~ode Aluthority, pro rated among such subdivisional
industries as affected by this Section.
Section 16. Standavrds.--The Fair Trade Practice C~omplacin~ts
Conuiittee hT~ierefter to be set up in accordance with NRZA Bulletin
No. 7 entitled "' Man/ual for the Adjustmen/t of Comnplaints "' may set
up an, agency to work: in conijunrction, with the Bu~eauu of StandardTs
of the United States Governmenzt to prioml~llgae regzldationis to pre-
sent mzliserrepr fentaion, and submit to the Code Autlfhor~ity for sub-
mission to the Admclin2istirator for his approval a set of standards,
which, upon their approval, shall become part of this Code an vio-
lations. will be sub ject to the penalties of the Act.
Section 17. Returned Goods.--No merchandise purchased and
shipped in, good faith and iln accordance with the buyer's specifi~ca-
tions within the specified time shall be permitted to be rletu~rned to
the seller after ten, days after its receipt by the purchaser, emoept on
account of clerical or delivery error or faulty merchandise. T"his
Section, sh~all be construed as suplei~ menttary to special provisions
in the schedule for subdivisional industries hereinafter set forth.
Section 18. Advertising Allowa/nces.- No1 member of the industry
shall give any advertising allowance to a customer in emoees of fifty
per cent of the cost of said advertising for the purpose of promoting
the resale of products of said member. Nor shall any member of the
iindustry give any adver~tisinzg allowance to0 any customer for the ~pwr-
pose of promoting the resale of said member's products below the
price at which said member has sold his products to the customer.
This shall! not be construed to prohibit the giving of display matter.
No member of the industry shall give any advertising allowance to
a customer for any advertising which is intended to promote the
resale of any products of any person other than that of said member
of the indulstry.,
This' provesson shall not apply to the Oiled C~otton Garment
Section 19. Rebates.-No rebate, bon~s~, excess discount, freight,
or other allowance shall be allowed unless the same are madne avai~l-
able to all customers under like terms and conditions.
This provision shall not apply to the Nurses', Maide' and Women's
Apron* and Uniformn Manufacturing Industry.
Section 9~0. Elimination of Cut, M~ake and Triml.-No man~ufarc-
turer or contractor shall make products of his subdivisional industry
from fabric and/or other materials owned or supplied by a jobber, a
retail distributor, or the agelzt, representative, or corporate subt-
sidiary or af)Elia~ite of any such retail distributor; nor shall he manzt-
facture such products from fabric and/or other materials, the pzcr-
chase of which is made upon the credit of, or payment for which
is guaranteed by,~ such retail distributor or agent, replrresentative
or corporate sucbsidiary or affiliate of such retail distributor.
The provisions of this Section, shall apply only to:
The M1e72's and Boys' Shirt anid Blrozse Industry except wor
shirts with the exception of shirt makers makinilg shirte to measure
for retailers' custom71 shirt departments.
The M~en's and Boys' Pajama and NVigh~t Shirt Indutstry.
The Sheep Lined and Leather Garment Indcustry.
The C7otton Unmdergarmente and Sleeping G~rme~nt ~IndUStrY .
The WGork: Shirt Macnupfactuvrinzg Industry.
The WIork~ Clothes Manufacturing Industry.
Section f1. Shipme2nt of Prison, Made Goods.--No member of the
industry shall7i ship any mer:1chandr~ti...; is or goods manufactured by
prison labor into any State where the sale of said goods is prohibited
or restricted by State law, and in, the event that State laws shall
r~equiret other CconditJfiios such as biranigi, then the same member of
t-he indlustryr shall conzformz with~l all of the local r'equirement-li s of the
The uiola~tionz of any of the: provisions of schedules hereinafter
set forth by any member of the .subdiv~-7isi.~onial industry affected shall
constitute an unfair trade practice, and shall be deemed to be a, vio-
lationz of this codelt. It shall also be an unfair trade practice and a
violation, of this code to (.defr into any agreement, arrangement or
understfandliing, the result of which shall be to avoid or violate any
pr~ov~iiond of this code, or to employ any subterfuge whatsoever to
avoid, evade or circumvent any provisions hereof.
Men's and Boys' XSirt and Blouse Industry Emoept TF~ork~ Shirts
Section Ba. Terms.--No terms ofe sale shall be in excess of 3/10
days E.O.Mlr., or 9/10-60 extra. No extra dating shall be allowed
nor shall any other subterfuge or change in these terms be used
emoept that merchandise shipped on or after the 6th of any month
may be dated as of the first of the following month. In no ease
shall anticipation of payment exceed 6 per cent per a~nrnum.
Section/ 83. Misrep~resentatilon, and Irregulars.--(a) Manu~factucr-
ers shall not designate lmaterimal on any shirts waless it represents
a major portion of the fabric of such shirt.
(b) Manlufaturersl'~ Shall place on shirts not of first quality such
marking as may be directed by the Code Autthority under general
rules and regulations applicable to all manufacturers, indicating
such shirts as '"irregulars in indelible ink on the center of the
nzec~ba~nd of the shirts where it may be seen by purchaser. Ea2ch17
stamping shall be plainly legible.
Men's and Boys' Pajama and Night Shirt Industry
Section, 4. Term~s.--No member of this subdivisional industry
shall give terms of sale in emoess of 9/10-80 embra, or 3/1~0 E.O.M.,
in which latter case declivrci! made after the 5th of any month may
be dated as of the first of the following month.
Sec. 95. No member of this subd7j';ivisiona industry shall affix to
any of his pi'rodt~uc;ts nccratfe:, fictitious or Iinishauding resale prices.
Oiled Cotton Garment Industry
Sec. BO~. Terms.--No member of this su~bdivisionacl industry shall
grant terms in excess of f/10 E.O.M.
Bec. Q7. No memlber) of this subdivisiional industry shall give
customers' labels of any kcind free of charge.
The 17ionr-Mlade Garmtent Industry
Sec. 9t8. Terms- (a) No mzember of this subdivisional industry
shLall grant 1, rmsil in ('ccess'x of net 30 days, or 10 proz. fromt date of
sh~ipmentir ; no extra dating.
(b) Orders for seasonal lierchanrr diser may be skipped prior to
Rh ipping date am/~ inv loice mnay be dated as of tlhe shipping date speci-
fed on, the ordel~r. Seasonal merokandise c~on~si~sts of light garmizents
for Sprinzg an~d heavy garments for the Fall. In, no case shall ship-
ment be made pr;io to 30 days in, advance of shipping date.
Section 929. All secondlts and im perfect gamn tsl~if shall be ifden~ti-
fed as suc~h by rfta,~in in g legibly ~ea~nd indelibl-y the word "L Second "
on the: ticklet and the white poce, or if the garment has no white
po'~lcke, stamping'ir shall be done on some other conspicucous place.
Section 30. Returned Goods. (a) No member of this subdivisional
industry shall accept returned goods of any stock% in, exchange for
(b) The return of used merchandise because of wteak: fabrics and
mtaterials and/or faulty construction will be pennillssible but no gar-
mentl e-hall be accepted inz return if it has been, destroyed or multilated
m)~ral;ic/ioulU~ or damaged by acids, chemicals, oils arnd grease, or dam-
aged through tears, snags, or rips, result of carelessness or damaged
by rotting or mildew or damaged by improper washing, or if the
garmzents have been worn, or ~if the garments are alleged to have
shrunk, emoept where sold as pre-shru~nk, and except for latent
TC~ashable Service Apparel! Industry
/Section 31. Terms.--No member of this subdivisional industry
shall grant cash discounts in excess of 9/0 e.o.m., set 60 days, or
a/30 days, set 60 days, irrespective of quan2tity pwrohases, distribul-
tioni, or extension of delivery dates. Shipments on or after the
95th of any month of e.o.m. terms may be dlated as of the firet of
the following month.
Section/ 392. Fon~rcardl lostracts.-Deleted.
Section 33. Property Ma~rking and Labeling.-No member of this
subdivuisionzal indrustr~y shall mzark or stamtp wizth ink~ any goods for
a lines -supply1 customer. No0 mem~~ beir of this subdivisional industry
shall pay for labels of any kind, for any customer.
Sheep Li~ned and Leather Garmenzat Industry
Section 3a. Terms.--The following are the max~imumn terms to
apply to sales for men,'s and boys' garments tin this industry:
(a) Jobbers, Mail Order Houses and C7hainz Store Termzs.-All
sales of merchandise in Janr~uaryl, February anzd ~UP1 to March 10th
may have dlating as of MZ~arch 10th net 30 days. From Ma1rch 11th
to May 31~st net 30 dacys. June let to August 10th ma have~ dating
as ofe August 10th net j'U, days. After Aug~ust 11th7 net thirty dalys:
(b) Retailers Terms.-Al sales of merchandise from October let
of current year to May 31st of the following year not to <.rceed;~
ac% ten days e.o.mz. After Junme 1st the terms g,,lranted iimy be
9%4~ ten days e.o.m. as of Septem~ber let. Merchandise shipped after
the twenty-fifth (5) day of any month mnay be dated as of the frst
day of the following month.
On sales of ladies' leather garmzents in this subliv~ision2al itdustryJ,
it shall be unfair trade practice to sell at a cash discount in excess
of eight (8%/) per cent ten days e.o.mz., except that merchandise
shipped after the twenty-fifth (B5th) day of any month may be
dated as of the firet day of the following month.
No order shall be accepted without stipulating the? sale price,
terms and date of shipment. No sale shall be made by a~ny member
on any other terms emoept those expressly set forth in the order, con-
tract of sales, or the invoice pertaining,~ to such sale.
All orders for jobbers on drop shipments compr)-ising ffty gar-
ments or less shall bear an additional charge of five (5 i2) cents per
The following sizes shall be the standard pi.:rz of garments in
this subdivisional industry:
(a) Men's and Boys' Garme~nts:
1 Juvenile, Sizes 3-8
9 Boys, Sizes 6-18r
Men's Su~ede Garments, Sizes 34-46~
Men's H7~orsehide and Sheep Llited Garmnents, Sizes 34-48
(b) Ladies' Garments:
1 Juvenile, Sizes a-6i
9 Girls, Sizes 8-14
3 Misses, Sizes 1r4--90
4 Ladies, Sizes 346--4
It shall be an unfair trade practice to sell garments)~f of sizes larger
than the standard sizes hereinabove set forth at less than, the addi-
tional cost for such larger sizes.
Section 35. All manufacturers who let out or cause their garmzents
to be made by contractors shall fle with the Cotton, Garment Code
Authority the names and addresses of all such contractors.
Section 36. All sales must be f.o.b. factory emoept for shipments
within, metropolitan, districts from factories located within that area.
Section 37. No member of this subdivisional industry shall give
customers' labels of any kind free of charge.
Cotton Wash Dress Indzustry
Section, 38. Terms.-All members of this subdirh7iv.;isiona industry
shall sell merchandise on the shipping terms of f.o.b. city of za~nu-
factucre, or one central shipping point, wh7icheuer the manufacturer
elects and which election shall apply to all transactions but shall
include free delivery to any shipping or forwarding point or one
central shipping point or store within the city in which the manu-
facturer is located or in which the onie central shipping point is
located. In case of disputed claims on return merchandise tra~nspor-
tation charges shall be paid by whichever disputant loses the decision,
Section 39. Terms and Discounts.---It shall be unfarir trade prac-
tice to sell merchandise at a cash dliscountrf in ecus~ of 8 prcientf 10
days e.o.m., except that merchandise shipped after the B5th day of
any month may be dated as of the fret day of the following m~onth.
Anticipation shall not be allowed at a rate in emoess of 6 percent
Section, 40. Returned Goods.--No member of this su~bdiv~isional
industry shall accept returned merchandise for credit under aIny cirP-
cumzstanctes emoept in accordance with the following:
(a) M~embers of this subdivisional iliduzstriy may accept sner-
chandise for credit which has been shipped by a customer within.
feve WOrkcinfg days from the date of receipt by the customer in, his
store, only for the following reasons: Errors in shipment, delay in
delivery, defective material or workm~a~nship or anUy breach of conr-
tract. Members of this subdivisional industry shall not accept mer-
ch7andise for credit unless accompanied by a letter or regular return
formn mailed by t-he customer to the manufacturer and received by
the manufacturer prior to the arrival of the merchandise, starting
the contents of the package, reason for the return and the date on
which the merchandise was received. Any dispute may be subject
to arbitration, in accordance with procedure agreed upon by the
Cotton, Garment Code Authority and the N~ationzal Retail Code
(b) Mliembers of this subdivisional industry s-hall not accept mer-
ohacndise for credit shipped after the stated wie working dy s
less accompanied by a letter or regular return form mailedbth
customer to the manufacturer Wherein;l he states that~ a duplicate
has been mailed to the Cotton Garment Gode Authority, at 40 -Worth
Street, New Yo7rk, N. ~Y., and received by the manufacturer prior to
the arrival of the mzerchanzdise, stating the contents of the package,
the reason, for the return and the date the merchandise was received,
and no such return shall be accepted except for breach of contract,
or defect not discoverable on reasonable inspection.
(c) Merchandise returned after the started five days' period in
areas designated by the Code Authority shall be held intact or uln-
op~ened by the manufacturer, subject to examination by an impartial
representative of the Cotton, Garment Code Authority, who shall
direct the acceptance by the manufacturer or the return of the mer-
chandise to the customer. Anty appeal from the decision, of the
impartial repese~ntative shall be subject to al~rbitration in, accordance
with procedure agreed Upion? by the C~ode Authority of the Cotton
Garment Industry and the National Retail~ Code Aut~hority. This
provision shall not become effective until the Code Aucthority shall
have completed organiizationl to admlinistl;er the same.
Section, dl. Exchanged 2Merchandise.---t shall be an, unfair trade
practice for anty member of this subdivtis~ional! industry to accept
returned merchandise for the purpose of exchange.
Section. 4. Cax~ncellatiozs.--No encinher7,') of this su.Zblivi'jrion3al inz-
dustry shall sell merchandise emoept under conitrnct; which shall
(a) That no purchase order for merilchandise~~~ shall be sub ject to
cancellation before the sp~ecified and agreed upon shiypping date
written on said order
(b) That no purlChasI- e border shall be subjectf to cancellation
after the agreed!- upon 4h~!ipping date unless !rrll/trion is in writ-
ing, and it permits the matnufacture~r three additifonlr7 woorkcing days
from the date of receipt of such canrceltrlatio to complete and ship
any and all mr~erchiandisee in, workE at that time;
;(c) T~hat if no notice of canilcellat~oio is received by the manu~zfae-
turer from the customer, all merchandise remaining~ic on, order shall
be cancelled by the manufacturer two (2) wueeks after the expilratrion
date of order.
Section ~43. Retail Selling.--It shall be an unfair trade practice
for those mzembers of the Cotton Wash Dress I~ndulstry, normally
selling to the trade for res~ale, to sell mzerchandisex l to anyone except
to established and recognzized wholesale or retail ditr;fibutors. This
shall not prevent, however, bona fide sales by members to their own
employees of merchandise which is for the personal use of such em-
ployees, or to retail buyers for their own personal use at not less
than the ,c!regularr wholesale prices, pr~lolided', the buyers are employed
in the department in schich the merchandise of the members of the
industry is usually sold.
Section 44. Payment of L~abe~ls.-No member of this subdiF,/is.ionalE
industry shall give customers' private labels of any k~ind free of
Cotton Undergaren~L~t and Sleepoing Garmzent Manufacturing
Section 45. Terms.---No member of this subdivisional industry
shall grant cash discounts in excess of 8/10 e.o.m. All merchandise
shipped from the first of the month to the 94th of the month inclu-
sive shall be due and payable on the tenth (10t-h) of the following
month. Bills for melrlchAndirie shiippedl on or after the twentiiy-fifth
(25~th) of the month will carry dat7fing as of the first (1st) of the
fololowinlg month. There shall be no adtrl/~ional7 dating nor shall it
be pe)rmiftted to build up terms inl excess of 8/10 e.o.mn.
Manufacturers of flannelettes, mai!nufacturing goods for Fall de-
livery, may have the privilege of granting sterns for flannelette wear
as of August 1Ist, 8670--10 days e.o.m., makin~rg said invoice payable
No member of this subdivisilonal industry shall ship goods on terms
other thanL f.o.b. point of or~igin~ or central shipping poinLt. Mem-
bers of this subdivisional industry may, however, mak~e free deliveries
within the confines of the city limits of the pointf of origin, or central
de ippng point .
Section 46. No bonus or other consideration other than quantity
discount at time of invoice may be granted in conzsideration, of a
specfife volume of business. No allowance of free goods or consid-
eration of any other nature whatsoever other than the quantit~y disr-
cownt referred to above may be granted in emohange for volume of
Section 47. No member of this subdivisional industry shall ac-
cept the return of any stock: in exchange for new stock.
Section 48a. No member of this sucbdiv~isionacl industry shall give
CuLstomeCrs' labels of a/ny kind~ free of charge.
IST~7 chule! I
Work Sh~irt Mailnufo!rturingl~; IndustRry
Section, &9. All m1el'lrchndise3 Shall be sold and billed f.o.b. shi~p-
pigpon.The term "' shipping points~" is delfined' to m~ean the place
where manufacturing pt~tlan or stock: room is m~aintainled for the
actual dlistrib utfion of wir'i'-hanll~ldie. In anyr city wh~ere a manzL-
faturei~lr~ has a sh~~iping point, it shall be optional w/ith the malcnu-
facturer l/h!fther or not therec. shall be charges for delivery within
that metrfropolioita distliric.
Slctf;ion 50. IlTlerms.--No member of this subdnivisionarl indulst~y
shall grant cash dis.crountis in, ejxces of 1/10 met 60 days to the
recognzized jobbig tl~radl, mail order houses, and chain stores oper-
ating tenl or m~ore stores, nor in excess of a/10 net 30 days to retail-
ers, ojthe r than those mentioned above. Anticipation for prep~aymnent
shall not exceed sim (6%0) per cent per annum.
Section 51. No membenr) of this subdivisional industry shall give
or accept listings.
Section 59. No member of this subdivisional industry shall give
or accept options.
Nurses', M~aids', and WoF7men,'s Apron and U~ni~f~omL Manufacturing
Section 53. Terms.--No member of this subdivisional industry
shall girant cash discounts in excess of 8/10 e.o.ml.
Shipments madrre! on or after the twenty-fifth (a5th) day of any
month may be dated as of the first day of the following month.
Se ctiion 54. No member of this sutbdivlsiosnal industry shall falsely
de~silnatec as job lots m~erchand~ise which does not consist of dis-
conitlinued2 ,rtyle7s or seconds.
S!.ction. 55. No wlideri~( 1 of this ,Subdtiv.l~~i'Cional industry shall pay
to an y purchaser of merchandise or purchaser's agent any commes-
sion unless it be a regular salesman -or sales olgrganization em~ploy!d
by the manufacturer.
Section 56. N~o member of this subdivisional industry shall give
customers' labels of any kind free of charge.
Section 57. Rebates.--No rebate, b)onus1, or emoess discowat shall be
WVork: Clothes MZan~ufacfcturing Industry
Section, 58. Terms.-No member of this subdivisional industry
shac77 ll grant cash discounts in excess of net 30 days.
Section 59. A42l~lmer~chandise shall be shzipped~ f.o.b. factory.
Section, 60. Stand~ardT sizes on open stock for this subdivision
shall be as fo77llows
1. Y ouths' sizes shall not exceed! age 16 (or size 34) on al~l gar-
ments except shirts. Shirt sizes shall not exceed size 14%.z
93. M~en's extra sizes shall begin w~ith:~ Wa.;st $4 for ovel'ralls, pa~nta,
and breeches. Size 48 for coats, combiinatlon suite, blaers, wind-
br~cakers, vests anid other s~imiilar~ garmnciits. Size 171/ for shirts.
3. It shall be an unfair trade practice to sell garments of sizes
larger than the standard sizes hereinzabove set forth at less than
cost for such larger sizes.'
Italicis8ed words added by Amendment No. 5.-Aung. 16. 1936.
Approved Code No. 118.
Registry No. 217-1--06.
1. No manucfac~tuirin employee engaged isn the production of men's
and boys' pants when made of (a) cor~durloy other than, those shades
set forth below, or (b) cloths other than those set forth below,
whether or not made in work clothing factories, shall be paid at less
than the rate of thirty-four cents (34 ) per hour in t-he southern, see-
tionz of the Industry, or less than thirty-seven cents (37 ) per hour in
the northern section of the Industry, as such sections are defined in,
the Cotton Garmnent Code and amend~mentts thereto.
Nto manufactur~ingl employee engaged in the production of men's
and boys' pants made in, zoork clothing fact~or~ies in conjunction with
woork clothing or work pants, w~he~n made of 100%~ cotton, content and
when m1ade entirely from carded cotton, yarns without synthetic
yarn, silk: or mercerizedl yarn decoration, and when such pants are
maade of (a) denimes, plain or printed or woven, including those
dlen~imse known as Hick~ory or empress stripes, or (b) molesk~ins, or
(c) pin checks, or (d) carded seersuck~ers, or (e) coverts, or (.f) plain
dyed or bleached ducks, twcills or drills, or (g) cottontades, exceptS
cotton worsteds, or (h) dark drab, seal brown or natcy blue cordsc-
roys, or (i) heavy carded cotton whipcords, shall be paid less than
at the rate of thirty cents (30 ) per hour in, the southern section of
the Industry, or less than thirty-two and one-half cents (3a1/ ) per
hour in the northern section of the Industry, as sucoA sections are
defined in the Cotton Garmnent Gode and amzendmnents thereto.
B. The Inter-Code Commnittee provided for in Condition Number &
of the Emeoutivie Order of December _18, 1933, amzendi~ng the Cotton,
Garment Coder, is hereby terminated and all powers and dztfies
delegated to the C~ommittee in said Co~nditizon~ are hereby transferred
to the Special Administrator hereinafter provided. It is hereby
ordered that a Special Administrator shall be designated to serve
until July 1, 1934i, who shall administer and supervise enforcement
in respect of cotton wash suits of 100%o cotton content and/or single
pants, shall determine all questions in respect of the appropriate
minimum wage to be paid by any member of the Industry pursuant
to this Order, shall! make ~ltiniiterprtaionis of the pr~o cisions of this
Order, shall have the power to add to, alter or reclassify any of the
definitions or classes 8 of materials set forth in this Order, and shall
determine all questl~oion ariisingl from the operatcioni of this Order.
Hlis detfermn~inaction and endings shall be Ignal, and spending danL U~appa
to the Administrator shall be b~rtindin until disapoproved
The Special AdmIiniisii~trator shall makelt a survey andA study of the
Pants Indusztaryl, and shall prepare a report and riecommeni~r datfions
prior to Julne 30, 1934, wAith respect to changes in, maximurm hourls,
differentials, or changes in the minimiumi wage to be paid em~ployees
engaged in the p~~olrodction of men's and~i boys' plants, andl w~ith~
respect to am~irlllendment to the Cotton Garmzent Code concerning
defnirtionis, wage rates and/or mawtimuzm hour~s.
8. No manufacturing employee engaged in the production of men's
wash suits of 1000/'o cotton, content when made in WOrk: clothing fac-
tories in conjunction with work% clothing shall be paid at less than
the rate of thirty-four cents (34 ) per hour when employed in the
southern sectioni of the Industry, or less than, t~hirty-seven cents
(374~) per hour when employed in the northern section of the Indus-
try, as such sections are defined in the Cotton Garment Code and
antendmentt~n s thereto. Tihe Special Adm7,Linistcfrator hereinabove pro-
vided for shall have the same powers a~nd duties with respect to such
cotton wash suite as are die 7-llefated to himn by this Order with respect
to men's and boys' pants.0
a Italicise~d words added by A~mendment No. 3, approved Mar. 15, 1934.
Approved Code N~o. 118--Amendments 1-8 incl.
Registry No. 217-1-06
CODE OF FAIR COMPETITION
COTTONS GA]RMENTI1L INDUSTRY
As Approved on November 17, 1933
Page 91, Section Hl, 3rd line, H should be "L G.":
Page 92, Article IVT, Section A, 1st line, Change December "
Page 92, Section B, 6th line, change than to "' for."
Page 92, Article IV, add lower case the numeral 2 ", after sec-
tions A & B.
Page 92, Article IV, add lower case "Lnumeral 3 at end of para-
graph C, instead of "L lower case numeral 2."
Page 92, at bottom of page, add foot-note as follows: lower case
numreral 3, italicized words added byAmenldment No. 7, appr'd
Aug. 31, 1934, effective Sept. 4, 1934."
Page 99, Article IX, Section 12, 3rd line, "Article II should
be "CArticle XII."
Page 102, foot-note 3a should read "L italicized words added by
~Amendment N~o. 8, Appr'd Sept. 27, 1934.'"
Page 104, foot-note 5a should read italicized words added by
Amendment No. 2, Approved March 10, 1934."
W. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICfs 1995
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