Proposed code of fair competition for the retail fur manufacturing industry as submitted on September 1, 1933


Material Information

Proposed code of fair competition for the retail fur manufacturing industry as submitted on September 1, 1933
Portion of title:
Retail fur manufacturing industry
Physical Description:
13 p. : ; 24 cm.
United States -- National Recovery Administration
United States Government Printing Office
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Fur trade -- Law and legislation -- United States   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
At head of title: National Recovery Administration.
General Note:
"Registry No. 911-1-14."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004940051
oclc - 63654911
System ID:

Full Text

nonu PART
Nt) jfl FL LIB.

U.s. DEPOOIrortY

The Code for the Retail Fur Manufacturing Industry
in its present form merely reflects the proposal of the above-mentioned
industry, and none of the provisions contained therein are
to be regarded as having received the approval of
the National Recovery Administration
as applying to this industry


For sale by the Superintendent of Documnents Washington, D.C. - Price~e 5cnt








To effectuate the policy of Tit~le I of the Na.tional Indust~rial Act,
during the period of the emergency, by reducing and reliev-ing un-
employmnent, improving the standards of labor, eliminating competit-
tivee practices destructive to t~he interests of t~he public, employees,
and employers andi othe~rwise rehhabliftating the Retanil Fur Industry
and in other respects, the following provisions are established as a
code of fair comnpetit.iion for the entire Retaril Fiur Marnufact~uring
Industry of the United Statres.

This Code shall become effective ten days after it has been approved
by the President. pursuant to t~he Nat~ional Industrial Recovery Alct.

(a) MlanufJacturing Furriere.--The term "mranufalcturing furriers'"
w~hen used in this Code is defined t~o meanl, and shall include, fur
establishmlents employing labor in the manufacture, of fur garments,
fur pieces, or fur sets for use wholly or in part as wearing apparel.
(b) Retail M~anufacturing Furrier.--The term retailal manufacturing
fu~rrier or "employer when used in t his Code is defined to mea n, and
shall include, any establishment, person, partnership, association, or
corporation emlploying labor, engaged in the manufacture, servicing,
production, cleaning, storing, repairing, or remodeling of fur coats,
fur scarfs, or fur trimmings, and kindred articles made from furs and
skins, andc in making fulr apparel for ready-mlade: sale direct to the
public, to order, or special measure.
(c) Wtholesarle Ma~nluf~acturing Furrier.--The term '"wholesale manu-
facturing furrier" when used in this Code is defined to mean and shall
include any establishment or person employing labor in the mnanu-
facture of wearing apparel made principally of fur and intended for
resale as ready-made merchandise.
(d) Fur Trimmning Mlarsufacturer.--The term "fur t~rimmning manu-
facturer when used in this Code is defined to mean and shall include
any establishment or person employing labor in manufacturing filr
parts such as collars, capes, yokes, sleeves, cuffs, linings, borders,
bands, intended for use as trimmningr upon garments of materials other
than furs, whether suich trimming items are to be sold to the men's
or women's cloth and silk wrearing apparel trades or to stores for direct
sale to the public.
(e) The term worker as used herein, is defined to mnean one who
is engaged in cutting, opera~ting, nailing, finishing, squa~ring, trlping,
or stayig of any garments made out of furs and skins and kindred
articles in the Fur Industry.
9153--33 (1\

(f) The terml "nonmalnufactur~ l~~ing eployTee" a.s used herein, is
defined to mean all persons engalged inl the Retail Fur M~anufacturing
Industry not included in any of the above classifications.
(g) T~he term "'Ret~ail fur malnufact.urer" as used herein, is defined
to include the retail fur mnanufacturer, the fur departments of depart-
ment stores and specialty shops, the repaniring, the remodeling, and/or
cleaning of fur coats, fur scarfs, fur tr~immingss and any wearing apparel
made out of furs and skins, direct to the consumer public or special
SECTION 1. No employers in the Retail Fur M~anufacturing Indus-
try, as defined throughout the UTnited States, shall operate on a
schedule of hours of labor for their employees in excess of forty (40)
hours per week, during the months of April, Mlay, September, Octo-
ber, November, and Decemlber, and thlirtyr-five (.35) hours per week
during the months of January, February, M~arch, June, July, and
August. Recognizing the fact that the retail fur establishments in
some sections have different seasonable peakls of employment and of
production, we request of the Federal Admninistrator that if possible
an option may be allowed of changing the above months, but not the
number of months, on each hourly basis.
SEc. 2. The regular working hours during thle months when Forty
(420) hours shall be the maxim~um hours of or~k per week shall be
from 8 Al.M. to 12 Mf. and from I P.Ml. to 5 P.MI., on the first five
wrorkting days of the week.
SEc. .3. T~he regular workiinga hours during thle months w~hen thirty-
five (35) hours shall be the maximum hours of work per week shall
be fromt 8:30 A.MI. to 12 MI. and from 1 P.MI. to 4:30 P.M~., on the
first five working days of the wreek.
SEC. Li. RTO production work shall be permitted on Saturday or
Sunday of any w~eek;, exception to be a~llowred towards working a
small emergency group of employees on Saturday, providing that the
total number of hours during the week of those employees shall not
be over the miaximumts set forth above, provided, however, that if
any- firm or inzdividual wvishles to work on Sat~urday and not work on
Mionlday that same shall be permitted.
SEC. 5. Overtimle work is expressly prohibited save in cases of ex-
treme emergency aInd then only, if satisfactory, other-than-reg-ular
employees cannot be secured, either o~r both from the Union or other-
wise. In any case, such overtime should not be for more t.han the
emergency purpose of finishing special a~nd particular orders. When
and where this emergency exists and overtime is granted, thle num-
ber of additional hours shall not exceed S hours per week.
SIEc. 6. N\o person or persons under t~he age of sixteen (16) shall
be employed in the manufacture or production of fur garments or fur
SEC. 7. Employers shall not be permnit~ted to manulfactul: or pro-
dulce any fur garments or fur articles, under conditions tha~t., re known
as "inside contracting ", by giving a contrnet. to workers in their
respective factories for the production of same by the employees.
SEC. 8. NI~O employers or emlployees shalll be permitted to take out
work to be performed at the homes of thle employees or employers.

SEc. 9. Employers shall not be permiitted to give out work under a
contract wlith workers for the finishing and lining of garments.
SEc. 10. No manufacturing employee shiall be permiitt.ed to work
for more than one employer at one time or shall be or she be permitted
to work in the aggregate in excess of the maximum number of hours,
in a single week, as established in this Code, except. where an emler-
gency arises and a shortage of labor is definitely established. This to
apply only during: the forty (40) bour week periods and with the
sanction and upon approval of the National Emergency Control
Board of the Retail MIanufacturing Furriers Inc., composed of re-
sponsible impartial furriers, together with a representative of the
Administrator of the Industrial Recovery Administration, or such
agency as he may designate. Under these conditions labor is to be
paid upon the basis of time and a half overtime.
SEc. 11. The labor conditions herein set forth shall also apply to
all retail manufacturers wlho do not employ workers but perform the
work themselves without the aid and assistance of craftsmen workers
in the Industryv and the maximum working hours established in this
Code shall bind and be applicable to all employers and workers alike
engaged in the production, manufacture, remodeling or repairing 6f
fur garments and articles made from furs and skins. Not more than
two members of a firm shall be permitted to actually perform work
in the production of fur garments that are customarilyv and necessarily
performed by the various craftsmen of the industry.
SEc. 12. For all other employees save supervisor employees, ad-
ministrative employees, executives, and retail sales people, the maxi-
mum hours of work shall not be in excess of forty: 140) ours per week.
Retail sales people shall not work on a schedule ill excess of forty-four
(44) hours per week, exception thereof, only when and where a scarcity
of selling force is established. Peculiar to the fur industry, retail sales
people are usually individually sought after by their own respective
following among the public. Furs, in the main, are purchased in
confidence and the public prefers being waited on by their own sales
people, and it would to a great extent handicap both the employee,
who in most instances is working in a large part on a commission basis,
and also the employer if the sales persons were not available during
the major business hours of the day.


SECTION 1. The minimum wage scale to be paid in the 1\letropoli-
tan Area of New Y'ork shall be as follows:
Alinf rurn Rate
Cutters: per hour
First class.... .... .... .... ... ...___ .__ __ ._ __ ~ _....... $1. 42
Second class------------.......... ..................__________ 125
First class.... .... .... .... .._ __ __ ._ __ __ .. 19
Second class __...-- __ -_ _ __ i . . 00
First class... ... ... ... ... ._ ___ _ ,_,_ __ 1. 13
Second class... ... .. ... .. ._ _ __ ............_ 94
First class..... .. .. ... .. .. .. ......___ __ __ .__ ....._ __ 1. 10
Second elass........... ......_ __________ ___ __ __ 88
Throughout the history of the Fur Industryr, geographical w~lage
different tials have existed, due in the main to the difference in living

cost and general economic conditions and the ability adequately to
manage t~he industries in the respective localities. The establish-
mnents in t~he Fur Industryv in the different localities have been devel-
oped under such differences in wages, a~nd after a survey bearing on
such differences in the various sections of the United States, it is pro-
posed that a schedule of compensation be rated in accord with an
agreement or to be computed upon t~he conditions set forth.
SEc. 2. The wage scales in all other sections of the country shall be
in such ratio to t~he scale fixed in the Mletropolitan Area as the
standard of living of' the respective sections varies from the living
scale in t~he M~etropolitnn Area, but should not in any case be. below
minimumn scales prevailing during 1929.
SEC. 3. The second class of cutters, operators, and nailers shall
comprise those working on fur coats, robes, and other articles made
from the following skins, unmely: Angora, Astrakhan (common),
Buffalo, Coneys, Dog, Hamster, Horse, Jackal, Kangaroo, Llama,
Lion, Rlice, M~ultlon. American Opossum, Rabbit (all types), Sheep,
Sw-an, Thibet, WCombat, and Zebra.
SEC. 4. The second group of cutters shall include squarers. The
second group of finishers shall include tapers and stayers on any kind
of garment.
SEC. 5. No piece -work shall be? permilt~ted.
SEC. 6. TNO worker shall be employed below the minimum wage
scales as herein established, except in cases of wages to be paid to the
feeble, the old, and the learner, which shall be governed by mutual
agreement t.. Employees mlay not collectively, however, bargain over
and above the minimu wage scale, as haerein established. All wages
to be paid over and above the minimum wage scale shall be by agree-
ment betw~eenc~ the employer aind thne individual worker.
SEC. 7. The minimum wage scale the t shall be paid by employers
to a.ny of their nonma~nufact~uring employees, shall not be less than
$15 per week in any city of over 500,000 population, or in the imme-
diate trade area of such cityv; nor less than $14.50 per week in a~ny city
of between 250,000 and 500j,000 population, or in the immediate trade
area of such city; nor less thzan $14 per week inl any city between 2,500
anld 250,000 population, or in the immediate trade area of such city;
and in towns of less thawn 2,500 popular tion to increase all wages by not
less than 20 percent, provided that this shall not require wages mn
excess of $12 per week. Population for the purposes of this Code shall
be determined by reference to the 1930 U.S. Census.

There is every hope and expectation on the part of employers and
employees that through the! NSational Indulstrial Recovery Act, steps
will be taken to put into active operation an unemployment insur-
ance fund. Accordingly, such fund wil be undertaken, as soon as the
enforcement of unzionl labor standards and general stabilization have
reached the point at which the provisions for payment of unemploy-
ment contributions canl be generally enforced throughout the entire
retail fur industry. TIhe time wrhenr the conditions in the industry
have reached the point wvhen. such fund mlay be established shall be
determined by the Committee of the National Emergency Contr~ol
Board, hereinafter mlentioned~, anld the Trade Admninist~rator. When

it is established, it shall be in accordance with such provisions as
shall be determined by the said Comlmittee and the Trade Admini-
trator, and not in conflict. wit~h any proviou~s insurance enacted by any
State Agency.

SECTION 1. RetailL Fur EstFabllhishent~ or~ Retatil Fu~rrliera.s.--Te namne
of "furrier" or "'fur. shop" is to be used only by firms employing
labor in producing furs and fur garments, whereas exclusive sellers
of ready-made fur merchandise sh'all not. be permitted to call themr-
selves fulrriersl "1 or "for shops ", since the term. "furrier or "fur
shop implies a fur work shop and practical, miechaniical skil i
executing all manner of fur w~ork. A bona fide practical furrier
who has a shop but emlployes no labor, shall have rightf to call himself
furrier~r, or his establishment a ''fur shop'" upon approval of the
National Emergency Control Board of tbhe Retail hlanufacturing
Furriers of Amnerica, Inc., composed of responsible, impartial furriers
together with a representative of t.he A~dminlistrator of the Industrial
Recovery AIct or such agency as he may designate. This is to
protect the small, legit~imat~e retail masnufacturmn g furrier whlo is a
practical fur craftsman, although employing no labor.

SECTION 1. It shall be unfair competition for any one to sell or
service furs at retail under false pr~etences of any sort, especially
under the guise or impression that the public purchases such gar-
ments or services at. a wholesale price; that. garments are sold as used
samples at a sacrifice, or that, t.he price of slc'h garments or services
is lower t.han that. of other retail manufacturing fur establishments
because the public buys from the mnaker or manufacturer, when every
retail furrier is in fact in large par~t. his owvn malnufatcturer. All such
claims, if wholly or in part fictitious or Inisrepresentative, shall be
deemed unfair competition.
SEc. 2. It shall be unfair competition for anly one to sell or service
furs or to advertise fur merchandise or services at retail at lessthan
net cost. plus 10%o to insure that labor shall at least be partially cov-
ered and protected. Excepted from this rule shall be seasonal clear-
ance sales, and the sales of actually shopwor~n or damaged goods which
must, however, be! plainly marked as suchl, anld which may be sold
below actual production costs, but not more than 25%1 below current
replacement values.
SEc. 3. Advertising statements (wvritt~en, prited, radio, or display)
which m~isr~epresent. merchandise, values, services, or which use false
or misleading fur names; selling methods which tend to mislead the
consumer in any manner, shall be deemed acts of unfai competition.,
SEC. 4. Retail fUrrlers shall be free to advertise their own goods,
services, and prices, but reference to t~he goods, services, or prices of
competing retail fur establishments shall be regarded as an act of
unfair competition. This shall also apply to any wrtten, advertised,
or broadcast. statements which lay claims to a policy of underselhing
compet~i tors.

SEC. 5. Installment plan.--No retail fur establishment shall sell
furs upon the installment plan, unless a carrying charge of at. least 10%0
be added t~o the purchase price of such merchandise. Any contra-
vention of this rule shall constitute an art of unfair competition.
This, however, is not t.o~ apply to legitimate charge account, t.rans-
SEc. 6. Storage.--No person, firm, or corporation shall receive fur
garments for storage unless, first., that it be a fully qualified fur estab-
lishment and that. at. least. one first-class, practical craftsman shall be
in charge and oversee t.he handling of such storage. Second, that
proper facilities shall be maintained for careful and efficient handling
of all garments and t.hat. a suitable fur storage room shall be available
that will properly protect. all garments from moth, filth, and vermzin,
and that it shall be deemed an act. of unfair competition to advertsie
cold storage in connection wit~h storage unless such furs are actually
placed in. storage to hold the garments and subject them to frigid air.
Nothing herein shall prevent a practical furrier or fur shop from
receiving storage and caring for it in the ordinary manner.
SEC. 7. In surance.--Likewise i t sh all be an act of u nfa ir competition
to solicit and accept. furs for storage unless proper and complete
insurance protection accompanies the service.
S~c. 8. Afinimum charge for storage of fur garments shall be 2%0
of a fair vPaluation thereof, and, in any event, not. less than $~3. Small
articles made of fur shall not be st.ored for less than 2%0 of a fair
valuation thereof, and in any event., not less than $1. It shall be
deemed unfair competition to miake charges for Fur Storage which are
not consistent herewit~h. Exception to be made w~hen such furs are
purchased during: t.he period ofnonutilization, and not to exceed
8iscal year.
SEC. 9. Fur cleaning and .seri~cicng.--It shall be deemed unfair
comlpetition for any person outside of a furrier or a fur shop or one
employing a fully skilled first class fur cutter working on the premises
to accept fur garments of any sort, for cleaning or servicing. It is to
be considered that this par~t. of the fur work is a~s essential to the pro-
tection of the public as any other phase of the fur business annd that
an. inefficient. person handling fur garments in this connection is
liable to do irreparabhle damage and t~he public should, therefore, be
protected from such intruders. Also that no fur garments so accepted
for cleaning or servicing shall be subjected to any other method
except as those recommended by legaitim~t~e retail furriers as efficient
and conservant.
SaIc. 10. Cleaning advertising.-M~ust. specify whether furrier's
mieth2od of dry elenning miethodls are used.
SEc. 11. Tradne-jins.-Tra~de-in allowances must not be advertised.
SEc. 12. Tr~ade-in alb lowances.-A-~llowancese on old fur coats must
not exceed the act~unl value of such old furs for repair purposes.
SEc. 13. Free storage and alterations.--The advertising of free
storage and free: alterat~ions of fur gazrment.s shall be regarded as asn
act of unfair compete t.ion.
SEc. 14. Trarde iamesa.--Trldee names convey nothing to- the general
public and t~heir use: in describing simnilated furs must be qualified in
parenthesis imiedtiately follow-ing t~he article namle and are not. t~o be
describ-ed wit~lh astericks requiring a search to determine what it means.

.SEC. 15. Guarantee.--Fur garments are made of skins of animals
and any guarantee in r~ela.tion to their wsear is hazardous. Wh:en an
article is guaranteed such guarantee must be definite and clear and
specific as to thle length of time; any- qualification or reservation in
reference thereto mu~st~ be mentioned.
SEc. 16. Cleanimp~ andl glasingr.-Whe~n t~he mlerchant~s contracts
or offers and i paidn for thel cleaning and glazing of the garm~ient, such
service must be performed in the recognized method of such treatment.
Merely blowing the garment out wit~h air does not constitute cleaning
and glazing.
SEc. 17. S~el'i:Rg by true names.--All furs sold to the consumer
public by anyone are to be sold and billed under their true, names,
specifying whether natural, dyed, blended, or fea there. Any excep-
tion shall be deemed an uinfatir business practice.
SEc. 18. Biddilng ~for emiployees.--It shall be unfair practice to
entice or ween away employees "mannufacturinga and/or nonmanufac-
turing" from competitors or anyone in the fur industry to employ or
seek to employ any employee who is employed in any division of the
SEc. 19. Limritation on sales.--A limitation on the number of sales
to be held during the year shall be determined by mutual agreement
with local Trade Rules.
SEc. 20. Style copy.--It shall be considered unfair competition
to copy styles and pirate designs of other retail manufacturers or
stylists, an'd sell the same under the misrepresentation that it is the
true design of the retail manufacturer.
SEc. 21. Replacement I'arlue.--The cost of production shall be
derived at by a proper accounting systemi and calculating the actual
cost of all materials used in the g~arm;ent ma~nufactured, plus cost of
Intbor, plus overhead and incidental expense incurred in th'e mainte-
nance of t~he business of the retail manufacturer.
SEc. 22. Accounting.--It shall be incumbent upon all retail manuf-
facturerss to keep and maintain accurate calculation and accounting
books which shall be at all times available for inspection by the duly
constituted representatives of the National Industrial Recovery Act.
SEc. 23. Business I~nformation.- Procuring or divulging otherwise
than with the consent of the concern, information concerning the
business of such concern, which is properly regarded as a business
secret, or of confidential origin, shall be deemed an act of unfair
SEC. 241. Materials. -Selling, using, or substituting any material or
materials inferior to the quality sh~own or specified, by the seller to
the purchaser, or inferior methodi of manufacturing, not consistent
with legitimate retail furriers' method, shall be deemed an act of
unfair competition.
SEC. 25. Mi~s~leading Information. -Di~ssmina ting, publlishing, or
circulating any false or misleading information rela tive to competitive
merchandise or the credit standing or Ability of any retail competitor,
shall be deemed acts of unfair competition.
SEC. 26. Gratuities.-1\faking or promising to any puirchaser, or
prospective purchaser, of any article or articles of fur, or to any
officer, employee, purchasing agent., or represenbtative of any such
purchaser, or such prospective purchaser, any bribe, gratuity, gift,
or other payment of any remuneration, dlirectly or indlirectly, shall be
deemed acts of unfair competition.

To further effectuat~e the policies of this Act and the policies of this
industryT, througl1ho ut the U!nit~ed~, it will be incumbent upon
the Retail Mnuln~factur~ing Furrier~s of Amlerica, Inc., to create and
madintain a Committee, known as the National Emergency Control
Board, consistinlg of adequate retpresentation, which will include
representatives of Inbor, retail manufall' ct~urers, fur departments of
departments, stores, specialty shops, and any and all other retail fur
outlets that are governed under the classifient~ions of AIrticle II of this
Code, and shall include proper representation for div-isional, sectional,
and territorial classifications throughout the Unitedl States. This
Committee shall operate and function under tihe jurisdiction of the
Fur Trade Admlinistrla tor or any Governmental appointee. Simlila r
representAtion upon this National Emergency Control Board shall
be given to any and all other retail trade associations throughout the
United States as shall hereafter be formed and who shall participate
and join in the observance of the: prov-ision of this Code. This
Board shall be national in. scope, fulnct~ioningv for the benefit of all those
whro are identified with, or dir~ectly interested, in the Retail Fur
Industry, such as employ _labor and are representative of the Retail
Fur Industry, whoe they represent. This Board shell, in addition to
other powers herein specifically conferred, be designated as a planning
fair practice and cont.rolliner agency for thle Ret~ail Fulr Industry.
Such. agency may, from timle to t.imle, present, to t~he Federal Admlinis-
trator of this Act, recommiendations based upon conditions in the
Industry, as they m~ay develop from time t~o timle, which wsill tend to
effectuate thne operation of thre provisions of this Code and the policy
of the National Ind-ustria~l Rec~overy Act..
(a) Recommendation as to the requirements of such other a~nd
further reports from persons engagedt in t.he Retail Fur Industry
throughout the United States. All1 and any statistical information
and th~e maintaining of uniform account.s as mlay be required to secure
the proper observance of this Code, both in et~ting up of a Service
Bureau for engineering, amoun ting, st~abil iza tion of industrial
employment and compensation consistent with sectional standards
of living, for the making oif additional trade rules as t~o practices,
methods, and conditions of t~radingr, t~he namningr and report.mng of
prices, to prevent and elimlinat~e unfair competitive prices and
practices and any and all other purposes t~hat. will secure and promote
sound stable conditions in the Ret~ail Fur Mainufacturing Indust~ry,
in cooperation with this National Eme~rgency Control Board. When
such recommendations are made by this Cont~rol Board wTit.h the
appr~ovail of the Tirade Administra~tor, same wll halve the same force
and effect as any other provisions of1 this Code. Such agency must
at all times cooperate with the Traide Administ~rator in making any
and all investigations as to the chatnging and obselrvance of a ny of the
provisions of this Code at its ow~n instance or upon complaint. of any
one of the members of the Boa!rd. The said National Emlergency
Control Board shall investigate the Ina; or matters complained of
adad report its findings to thle Admninist rator for appropriate
Si sposi tion .
(b) It shall be the dluty- of the National Emer~gency C'ont~rol Board
to invest~ignt~e and report their findlings of any laxityv relative to the
evasion of the F~ur Mlanufalct urer~' Excise Tax.

SEc. 2~. There shall be a Secretary w2ho will act under t.he Code.
Under the dlirection of t~he Trade Administrator and/or t~he National
Emergency Control Board, he w~ill keep all books (except. books of
account) and records under t~he Codet andt, except. ns suIch Naltional
Emergency Con trlol Board and/'or Admllinistrantor shall otherwise
,provide, shall collect, file and collate all statistics and other infor~ma-
tion required by thJe Natliona~l Emlergencyc Cont~rol Board for t.he
proper administration of t.he Code.
SEC. 3. There shall be a Tr~easurer w~ho will act under thle Code
and under the direction of the Administratorr ;nd/or the National
Emergency Cont~rol Board. He w-ill haver custody of, and have
charge of the disposition of, all funds collected under the Code; and
he sha.11 keep proper books of necoulnt showing the collectionr and
disposition thereof.
SEc. 4. The NainlEme rgency- C'on trIol Board and/or thet
Administrator shall have power fromt t~ime to time to appoint aind
remove, and to fix the comlpensation of, all suchn other officers antd
employees and all such accountants, at~torne?s, and experts, as said
Board shall deem necessary or pr~oper for the purpose of idmiinist~ering
the Code and to fix the compensation of t.he Secretanry and the Trens-
urer for their services in acting under t~he Code.
SEC. 5. The expense of administering the Codie shall be borne by the
members and nonmiembers thereof. The Trade Admninistrator and
the National Emergency Cont~rol Boar~d may' from time to time ma~ke:
such assessments on A~ccount of such expenses against the members
and nonmembers of the Code as it sha~ll dleemi proper and such assess-
ment~s shall be payable as such Control Board and/or Trade Adminlis-
trator shall specify. Failure of any member or nonmember of the
Code to pay the amount of any assessments against such member or
nonmember for a period of t~hirty days after the date onl wh~ich. it
became payable shall constitute a violation of the Code.
SEc. 6. The National Emergency Control ]Board and/or Trade:
Administrator may from time to timue appoint such committees as it
shall deemi necessary or proper to effectuate the purpose of the Code,
he or they may delegate to any such committee generally or mn par~ticu-
lar instances such of the powers a nd du ties under the Najt~ional Cont~rol
Board under the Code, as such duties shall be deemed necessary or:
proper in order to effectuate such purpose. Any member of any such
committee may be a member of t~he C'ode, as the Trade Administrator
and/or Control Board shall deemi proper.
SEC. 7. NOne of the members of the Code shall be liable in any
manner to anyone for any act of any other mremb er of the Fur Industry
or for any member of the Nat~ional Emergency Control Board, or
any committee, officer, or employee appointed under the Code, nor
the Treasurer, nor the Secretary, nor any officers or employee appointed
under the Code, shall be liable to anyone for any action or omission
to act under the Code, except for his willful violation of duty or
SEc. 8. The Nat~ional Emlergency Control Board shall continue in
effect for a period of not less than 90 days a after the termninatfion of the
National Industrial Recovery Act, or any time after the expirantion of
such period as conditions may warrant. Wheln so termlin~t~ed, all
obligations and liabilities under the Code shall cease, except those for
unpaid assessments theretofore made in accordance withl the pro-

visions of the Trade Aldminist~rator and/or Nationa~l Emergency Con-
trol Board and those for liquidated obligations thleretofore accrued
by the Trade Administ~rator and/or the National Emergency Control
Board .

Acny employer may participate in this Code and in any of the revi-
sions of, additions thereto, and receive the benefits thereof, by accept-
ing the proper pro-rat~a share of the cost and responsibility of creating
and administering it, either by becoming a member of the applicants
submitting this Code, or any association that may hereafter become
parties to this Code, or any and all those receiving the benefits of
this Code, throughout the United States, shall participate in fair
proportion of the cost of administration thereof.

SECTION 1. As the stability of the Indust~ry and t~he ability to carry
into effect the purpose and intent of this Act depend entirely upon
the complete cooperation of all those engaged in the manufacturing
branch of the Retail Fur- Industry,, and with a view to effectuating
such complete stabilization, all persons that are members of the appli-
cant associations proposing this Code shall by virtue of their member-
ship be deemed collectively to have been licensed to do business in
this industry under this Act.
SEc. 2. Any and all persons engaged in the business of manufac-
turing, producing, servicing, storing, cleaning, renovating, remodeling,
or repairing of furs made fromt furs or skins, anywhere in the United
States, if t.hey are not members of this association submitting this
Code, or any other applicant association, or of any other duly con-
stituted Association or Associations with, will hereafter become a
party hereto, and are authorized by t.he Admlinistrator to act under
this Code, shall promptly, following the effective date of this Code,
obtain and procure from the Administrator, subject to the approval
of the National Emiergency Control Board, a, license or permit to
engage, conduct or to continue in business, and participate in the cost
of administration of this Code, which will conditioned upon the appli-
cant of such application t~o comply with all and every of the provisions
of this Code and the amnendmients thereto, and such other and further
regulations as may be prescribed by said National Emergency Control
Board together with the Fur Administ~rator.

AlRTICLE XI~-LABOa Provisions
SECTION 1. Pursunnt, to subsection (a) of Section 7 of the National
Industrial Recovery~ Act and so long as the Code shall be in effect,
the Code shall be subject to the following conditions:
(a) Employees shall have right. to organize and bargain collectively
through representatives of their own choosing and shall be free from
the interference, restraint, or coercion of employers of labor, or their
agents, in the designation of such representatives or in self-organiza-
tion or in other concerted netivities for the purpose of collective
bargaining or other mutual aid or protection.

(b) That no employee and none seeking employment shall be
required as a condition of emplloymnent., t~o join any company umion
or to refrain from joninng, organizing or assisting a labor organiza-
tion of his own choosing; and
(c) That emnployers shall comnply w-ith the mlaximlum hours of
labor, minimum rates of pay, and other conditions of employment,
approved or prescribed byr t~he president..
SEC. 2. That there wvill be no discrimination against employee,
because of ra.ce, creed or sex, or any impAirmlent of, or anly
ference of any right of such employee to belong~ or not to belong to
any lawful society, fraternity, union or any other organization.

Any complaint, difference, controversy or question or fair compe-
tition arising under or out of this Code, or relating to standards as
to maximum hours of la~bor, mnuimumn rates of pay or other working
conditions provided for ther~ein, or concerniing the interpretation or
application of any provision thereof, shall be submit.t.ed to arbitra-
tion in accordance w5it~h t.he ruling of t~he A~dmninistratlt~ or, and/or the
National Emergency Control Boatrd of t.he Retail litanufacturing
Furriers of Amnerical, Inc.


SECTION 1. This Code is not. designed t.o plromote monopolies and
shall not be availed of for that purpose.
SEC. 2. The provision of this Cod-e shall niot be interpreted or
administered as to elimiinate or. oppress small eniter~prises or to dis-
eriminate against them.

The AdmrinistratorI is exp~ressly outhor~ized to deputize the comi-
mitt~ee namned her~ein and:.or his or its representative or repr~esenta-
tives, t~o dlo and performs such acts as may be necessairy to carry into
effect the purpose and- intent of this C~ode.

SECTION 1. This Code andi all the provisions thereof are expressly
madie subject to the right of the president, in accordance with the
provision of Clause 10 (b) of the National Industrial ]Recovery
Act, from time to time to cancel or mnodify, any order, approval,
license, rule, or regulation, issuedl under Title I of said act, and spe-
cifically to the right. of the Presidlent to cancel or modify hnis appr~vall
of this Code or any conditions imposed upon his approval thereof.
SEC. 2. Such of the provisions of this Code as are nlot requiredl to be
included therein by the NationllR Industrial Recovery Act may, with.
the approval of the president, be modified or elimnina~ted as changes
in circumstances or experience may indicate. It is contemplated
that. from time to timne, supplemnentary provisions to this Code, or
additional Codes, will be added or substituted for approval of the
President to prevent. unfair competition and price and other unfair
and destructive competitive practices and to effectuate the ot her

purposes and policies of Title 1: of the Natlional Industrial Recovery
Act consistent hereof.

The intrusion of numerous outside elements, utterly unskilled and
with insufficient experience in the peculiar nature of furs and fur
work, necessary for the retention of public confidence in furriers and
f urwork, is an evil which this Code strives t~o ameliorate if not to
eradicate completely.
The ultimate aim of the Reta~il M~a~nufacturing Furriers of America,
Inc., is the licensing, by governmental agency, Trade Administrator or
National Emergency Control Board, of all legitimate retail manu-
facturing fur establishments. As an initial st.ep toward this end, and
for the purposes of this Code, it shall be hereafter deemed an Act or
practice of unfair competition for any person or firm to advertise,
solicite or execu te f ur w-ork or f ur service of any kind, including storage
unless such person or firm is composed of at least one skilled, practical,
retail manufacturing furrier actively engaged in t~he retail fur business
or employs skilled fur help, and unless such person or firm maintains,
upon his or its owsn premlises, skilled fur help in an adequately equipped
fur shop.
Any person or persons, firm or corporation engaging in any or all of
th2e services offered by Retatil Mlanufacturing Furriers of Amnerica,
Inc., shall be governed by this Code of fair competition.
Minor rules and regulations pertaining to special closing hours,
holidays, special price schedules, etc., may be made and evoked by
affliliated associations so long as they do not conflict in any of the
provisions of this Act., and are to be sanctioned by the Trade Adminis-
trator, or his .represent a tive, N national Emergency Con trol Board, or an
impartial committee of retail manufacturing furriers of the Retail
Manufacturing Furriers of America, Inc.

mitting this Code respectfully affirms that it imposes no inequitable
restrictions on admission to membership thberein and is truly represent-
ative of the Ret~ail Fur Mlanufacturing Industry.

National Industrial Recovery Act, Wtashington, D.C.
TurIs Is To CERTIFY that the foregoing Code of Fair Competition for the Retail
Manufacturing Industry of the United States, as required under the National
Industrial Recovery Act, is hereby submitted by the RETAIL 1LIANUFACTURING
FURRIERS OF AMERICA, INC., of 9 East 48th Street., New York, New York.
The above association w~as organized under the laws of the State of New~ York
in the year 1929. Existing as such, it is composed of about a thousand retail
manufacturers throughout the country, taking within it~s fold the following affili-
ates of recognized retail fur manufacturers associations:
Greater New York Retail Furriers Ass'n, New Y'ork, N.Y'.
Fur Manufacturing Protective Ass'n of Phila. Inc., Philadelphia, Pa.
Furriers Guild of Hartford, Hartford, Conn.
State of New Jersey Ret~ail Manufact~uring Furrers Ass'n, Newark, N.J.
Manufacturing Furriers Ass'n of Pitt~sburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Buffalo Fur Mlerchants Ass'n, Buffalo, N.Y'.
Mlilwasukee R~etatil MaI~nufact~uring Fu~rrers Ass'n, Mlilw~aukee, Wise.
Colorado Springs Retail Fur Ass'n, Colorado Springs, Colo.
Individual memberships where no groups are formed, are likewise individually
enrolled. Our Detroit Association is now in process of once again becoming
active, as they have always been a strong unit in our national link of retail
furrier. In the States of Texas and Connecticut w~e are organiizing entire State
affiliation. Similar requests have come to use fromt local groups, such as, Balti-
more, Md., Akron, Ohio, Duluth, Mlinn., Salt Lake City, Utah, Norfolk, Va.,
Middletown, N.Y~. We are also allied With the entire Furriers Guild of Canada,
where one of our Vice Presidents, namely M~r. Charles De Guerre, was former
President of t~he Toronto Furriers Gu~ild.
Some of the nonaffiliate retail for associations, such as Spokane, Baltimore,
Washington, D.C., San Francisco, and others have called upon us for assistance
and advice in drafting their local Codes. M~ost of these associations have
endorsed ouir Code of Fair Practices in its entirety, with the exception of labor,
due to the d difference of t hei r section al and geographical sta ndards of liv ~ing. How-
Code in its revised form, has amply made provisions for this important phase.
By SIDNEY A. HAAS, President.
DATED, NEW YORK, NEW k'ORK, Aucgust SO, 1988.

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