Code of fair competition for the luggage and fancy leather goods industry as approved on October 3, 1933 by President Ro...


Material Information

Code of fair competition for the luggage and fancy leather goods industry as approved on October 3, 1933 by President Roosevelt
Portion of title:
Luggage and fancy leather goods industry
Physical Description:
vi, 6 p. : ; 24 cm.
United States -- National Recovery Administration
United States Government Printing Office
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Leather industry and trade -- United States   ( lcsh )
Luggage industry -- United States   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
At head of title: National Recovery Administration.
General Note:
"Registry No. 907-1-01."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004942863
oclc - 63654903
System ID:

Full Text

Registry No. 907--1-01





For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. - Price 5 cents



of Transmittal

3. Code


This publication is for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Government
Printing Office, W~ashington, I).C., and by distrit offices of the Bur~eau of Foreign
and D~omestic Commterce.

Atlanta, Ga.: 504 Post Office B~uilding.
Birmuingfham, Ala.: 257 Fedteral B3uilding.
Boston, Ma~ss.: 1801 Customhouse.
Buffalo, N.Y.: Chambujer of Commterce Bunildling.
Charleston, S.C.: Chamber of Commerce Building.
Chicago, Ill.: Suite 1706, 201 Nort 'U'ells Street.
Clevelandl, Ohio: Chamnnber of Commnerc~e.
Dallas, Texs.: Chamber of Commlaerce Buildine.
Detr~oit, Mich.: 2213 First National Bankl Building.
Houston, Tex~.: Chamberl~~l of Commerce BuildlinL.
Tudcianlal~cli., Indl.: C'hanber of Commerce Buildling.
Jacksonville, Fila.: Cha~mberr of Conne~rc-e BEiuilding.
Kiansals City, I310.: 10I28 Baltimore Ahvenue.
Los Ange~les, Calif.: 11t53 South Broarlw~ay-.
L~ouisvoille, K~y.: Room 405, 4~217N West Ma ket Street.
Memphis, Tenn.: 2130 Southl Waer B~treet.
M~innolll~:oli;. MSinn.: f213 Fed~cera'l Buiilding.
Newv Orleans, La.: Room 2L'5-A, Customnhouse.
New Yorkr, N.Y.: 734 Customhrouse.
N'orfullk. Va.: 400 Easrt P'lume Street.
Phriladlphiallli;, Pa.: Room 812, Zto~ South F~ifteenth Street.
Pittshprgh, Pa.: ChamberLI~ of Commelltrcet Building.
Portlandi Oreg.: 215 Newv Post Office Buildling.
St. Louis, Mo.: 500t Oliv-e Street.
San. Fram7li'iCoI Calif. : ;310) Customhouse.S
Seattle, Wash.: 1400 Vance Buildling.



An application having been duly~ made, pursuant to and in full
compliance, with the provisions of T'itle I of thie National Iridustrial
Recoer~y Act, approved June 16, 1.933, for my approval of a Code
of F'air Competition for the L~uggage and Fancy Leather Goods
Industry,, and hearings having been held thereon and the Admin-
istrator having rendered his report containing an analysis of the
said Code of Fair Competition, together with. his rcconlnendati onls
an~d findings with respect thereto, and the Admninistentoro~ having
found that the said Code of Fair Competition complies in all respects
with the pertinent provisions of Title I of said Act and that the
requirements o~f clauses (1) and (2) of subsection (a) of section 3
of said Act have been met:
NOW, THEREFORE, I, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the
United States, pursuant to the authority vested in me by Title I of
the National I~ndustrial Recovery Act, approved June 1.8, 1933, and
otherwise, do adopt, and approve! the report, recommendations, and
findings of the ~Administrator and do order that thne said Code of
Fair Competition be and is hereby approved.
October 3, 1983.
Approval recommended :
Huan-rd~ S. JOHNSONI

14248"---133-169 883

The W~lhite Houzse,

MP DEAR nfR. PRESIDENT: This is a report of the hearing on the
CodeP of.Faisrir Com~l-petition -for the TLugrgage and Fancyr Leather Goods
Industry in the U~nited Startes, co-nducted in Washington on Septemz-
ber 8, 1933~, in accordance with thne provisions of the National In-
du~strial Recovery ALct.
T~he following exhibits are includred2 and attached:
(1_) Finlal Codle submitted.
(2) Notice of H~ea ring.
(3~) Sitatistical Analy~sis by Researc~h andn Planning Division.
(4) Tranlscr~ipt of the r~ecords~.
(5) L~ist of W\~itnesses.
Provisions of this code as to wages and hour:

1. No emplo~y~e shall worlk more than 40 hours per week nlor in
< cSi(r s of 8 hou1rs per day except:
(a) Manufalcturers, exrecutives and emnployers wrorkiing in a strictl
malnagerinIi or exec~utiv- e capacity, oultside~ s~l~esmen, watchmlen, and
cltemergenc repnir crews,.
(b) Engineelrs, firemecn, ~hipp~ingr force, andc drivers mnay work
not to exceed~ 48 hours per week; ex-cep~t in7 emeIP~rge ncy whn all hours
worked; in excess of 48 hours per week shlzll be consideredl overtime
and shall be paid for ait no~t less than time andl one~-thirdl.
(c) Cler~ical andl o~ffic~e force shall not be required to workr more
t~han 401 hoursl~i in anyT olne weekl except in (-merg~ency w~hen all hours
wsorkedi in excess of 40 hours per wee\ck shall be considcrel ov-er~time
and paid2 for at not letss than time and one thlirdl. IV--M]Tsrui~r Tor WAE R.\TIES

1. The minim~umn un;rCe of alny emtploye!e inl the inllustryv in thle
States of MaRryland, West Vlirlginin. \irginia, Kerntuckyg, TIennessee
North CaroTine~i South Caro~linn~, Georgiia, Onblnma, Mrsississppi,
Filor~itan, Arlkanllsus, LouisII onI Oklahonin33;. Tex~sn ~New Mex~ico, andl
Arizor na, shazll be 3tZ,, rcentsi per hour~ for male andl 30( cents per
hlourl for female; else\\llchrc 30,' cenlts; per' hour for malle andl 3'1',/3
accent~ per' hour.l for fema~le.
(a) T~:Learnesrs unring a sixr weeks' pecrioll are ececptedc froml the
forego'(ing( mlinillnuml wage'* and1 shall, be~ paid nlot less thian 80 percent
of thec mlinlimumlll wa9ge and1I shall hec limlitedc in numrlber inl anyv factory
to 5 pcrcent of the to~tal numnber of employees in, that fac'tory.
2. Picceenocrkercls shal;l be paid' at raztecs whlich will guara~ntee the
worker vvges per' hour' which ar~e nlot less thann thle mlinianumI-I wage
prescr~ibed7 herecin.

3. On and after thte effective. date of ths Code hourly rates and
piece! rates shall be so adjusted that earning opportunities at the
shlorter hour .provided in this Code shall be at least. equivalent to
those o-btaining under the longer hours heretofore p~rev\ailinig.
4. There shall be no discriminationl in wages by reason of sex,
and. where in any case women do substantially the same wVork, or
per~formn sulbstantllyll the same duties as maen, they shall ~ec~eive
the same rate of wages.

This industry, including as it does, trunks and bags, brief cases,
and various small and fancy leather goods, is essentially.a~ semiluxury
industry involved in the mannufct~ur~e of containers of various sorts.
The gr~eater part of the volume produced is either in lowT~ or medium
quality products in which the proportion. of labor to the final cost is
relatively high. Fiurther~more, with the increase in the use of atuto-
mlobiles it has become, easy to utilize simple car~dboard containers,
secured at little or no cost, in the back of thce automobile in lieu of
luggage. It is apparent, therefore, that any drastic increase in wages
or shortening of hours whrTich would result in a material price increase
of the final product would probably result in a shrinkage in volume
which would tend to offset the expected increases in employment.
The actual wages set up seem to be as high, as can. be safely applied,
and will raise av-erage wTnget levels in this industry well above those
prevailing in 1929.
Due to thle shrinkage of this -industry3, many of the more skilled
leather woc-rkers involv-ed have, on the loss of employment, set up
independent small shops in which they repair and actually produce
a limited amount of luggage. Thne total from this source is suffi-
ciently large to be impportalt in, thne industry. The importance will
be even greater if restriction in hours and increase nm wages is
sufficient to raise the price excessively of goods produced in larger
The wage provisions of the code will immediately raise the wages
an average of 35 percent for practically 90 percent of the unskilled
labor in the industry. This will bring the minimum wage levels
above those received by 75 percent of the unskilled workers in
1929. It can be presumed that the existing differentials between
skilled and unskilled labor will be maintained under the influence
of higher rates for unskilled workers and the requirements in the
code that pay will be at least equal to that prior to the approval of
the code~. Ninety percent of the wage earners of this industry are in
the North and 10%r in the Southn, of which approximately 84%jr n re
male and 16%~o female. Based onl thie foregoing distribution of
workers, the weightedl average minimum wage for the country will
be 341.4 cents an hour, and the 8-percent geographical differential is
well below t.he existing spread in the rates for unskilled labor in
the industry. The female differential is smaller than in codes for
most industries in which female labor is important. The proposed
rate for female workiers seems r~easonable because of the existence
of large groups of same averagring twelve to fifteen years younger
than male employees in the industry now receivingr from 15 cents to

20B cen ts an hlou r. Members of the i~ndusry~ were united in requesting
this differential and testified to thle current existence of a much rider
spread. In view of the avrailable information t~he requested differ-
ential is justified.
WVithout putting too much credence in thre rather inadequate statis-
tiedl data available upon this industry, it seems that under the
provisions of the code emplo-yment in the industry will approximate
thie 1929 avelrn level.
IDue to the fact that the minimum wFage scale wFill be raised to
levels wpell above .1999, and the. unfavorable reaction on demand for
products of this indlustry if prices mount too rapidlyy, it does not
seem desirable to shorten the hours of labor any maor~e than has been

The Admninistrator finds that:
(a) The Code as recommended complies in all -respects with the
pertmnent p~rovisions of T~itl I of the Act, inch~rding, without limni-
taltion, subsection (s) of Section 7 and subsection (b- of Section 10
thereof; anrd th~at
(ib) Thee applicant group imposes no inequitazble. restrictions on ad-
mission to membership therein and is truly ersnaieo h
Luggage and Fancy Leather Industry; and thla~petni o e
(c) The Code as recommendedl is not designed to promote monopo-
lies or to -eliminate or op~press small ent~erprilses and will not operate
to discritainate agarinsit them, and wcill tend to effectuate the policy
of Title, I of t~he Nhational Indiustrial Rtecovery Act.
It is recommended, th~erefore, that thlis.Code be immediately
Respect~fullyv submitted.
HOHua S. JoHNson,
A dm29iretaT&or.



Indw~lt~ry ") as used herein includes all persons engagedl in .the
mnanufacture of Brief Cases, Hand Luggage, Fancy3 and Smanll
Leather Goods, Sample. Cases and ~CSample Trunk~s, and- Trunkhs, exs-
cluding such similar articles as may be covepredl by o~ther3 specific
"Ezp~loytee" as usedl helrein includes any person7 engagedr~( in anyr
phase of the Industry in any capacity in the nature of employee
irrespec-tive-of the method of payment of his icompjensa.~tion.
"E~mployer as used herein includes any one for ws~hose benefit
such aIn emprloy is so engaged, or, who are associated together for
the purpose of producing goods und-er this Code.
Effectice' DLate ais u1sed ~herein; is defined to be 10 danys after the
approval of this Code by th President of the Ufnited States.

1. AHI employers in the industry shall~ comply with the followinga
pr~ovisions of the National I~ndustrial ]Recovery Act:
(a~) That employees shall have the right to organize and bargain
collectively through repesentativets of their own chlcoosing, alnd shall
be free ~Lfrom the interference, restraint, or coercion of emplloy!er~s of
labor, or their agents in the designation of such repr~rellnttivess or
inn self-organnization or in other co~ncer~ted netivitie-; for the prurp~ose
of collective bargaining or other mutual aid or protection;
(b) That no employee and no one sreeking emnploymnent. shall be
required as a condition of em~ploymelnt to jomn a~nyJ comipany 'unicn,
or ton refrain from inolmn, orgumnzinlg, or assisting a ]labor or~ganiza-
tion of his own choosing;
(c) That employers shall comply wvith the maximum. hours of
labor, mninimulm ra-tes of pany, and other conditions of emuploymnent
approved or prescribed by the President.
'2. On and after the effective date employers shall not employ 51ny
minor unde the age of 16 yea rs.
AiRrICE III--HonU s BNo CoxoErrions or EMPLOY MIENT

1. No mpnlloyee shall ~work more than 40 hours prer weeki nor in
excess of 8 hours per dayr except -
(a) Manuufac~turers, executives ~and employers working in a striclltly
mianagaerial or executive capacity, outside saeIme, wartchmnen? n
emergency repair crews.

(b) Engineers, firemen, shipping force, and drivers mnay work not
to exceed 48 hours per w~eek; except in. emer~genlcyv wihen all hours
worked in excess of 48 hours per week sh~all be considered overtime
and shall be paid for at not less than time and one th~ird.
(c) Clerical and office force shall not be r~equiredl to work more
than 40 hours in any one week~ exceept in emergency, when all hours
worked in excess of 40 hours per weekr shall be considered overtime
and paid for at not less than time and one t~hird.

1. The minimum wage of any employee in. the industry in the
Ct~ates of Maryla\ln d, West Virgrinia, Virginia, 1Kentucky, Tennessee,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, M~ississippi
3Flor~idu, Arkansas, Louisiana,~ Ok~lahomaz, Texas, New Mieico, and
Arizona shall be 321/2 cents per hour for male and 30 cents per hour
for female; elsewhere, 35 cents per hour for male anld 321,% cents per
hour for female.
(a) Learners during a six weeks' period are excepted fromt the
foregongnr minimum waRge and shall be paid not less thnan. 80 percent,
of the minimum wage and shall be limited~ in number in any factory
to 5 p'''ercet of the total number of emp~loyees in that factory.
2. Piecewvorkers shall be paid at rates which will gunrantee the
wiPorkier wages per hour which are not less than th~e minimum wage
prescribed herein.
3. On and after thne effective! date of this Code hourly rates and
piece rates shall be so adjusted that earning opportunities at the
shorter hours provided in this Code shall be at least equivalent to
those obtaining under the longer hours heretofore prevailing.
4. There shall be no discrimination in wages by reason of sex, and
where in any case wTomen. do sublstantially the same work, or perform
substantially the same du~ties~ as men, they shall receive the same rate
of wages.

1. Any act of any member of the :industry constitutingr unfair
compe~ttition as defined in. Article VI, or such other provisions as may
be establlishled from time to time, by the Exsecutive Clode Comimittee,
and approved by the Pr~esident, shall be a violation of this Code.
F2. E\ery3 contraet for piecework or for contrneting out work; made
or entered into by a person inl this industry shall intIclud a mlandatory
pr~ovision, thrat the piecew\orkr contractor anid all otherr party or parties
to such a co~ntr~act Inoit comply with all the provisions of this Code.
Said~ contrneit shall contain a provision that suchr p~icework con-
tractor andi/or any of hnis employees shall be dlteemed employees and
be b~oulnd as such. by all the p~rovisions of this Code.
3. Nluo employee shall wo~rk or be permitted to wocr~k for a total
num~ber of hours in excess of the Il~numer of hoc-urs p~rescribed for each
week and day5, \whether empllloyedl by one or mlor~e employecrs.
4. There shlall her no evasion of this Codle hv aIny emlnioyer in this
Inc-us~try by rcclass.ifil.ntio~n of the functions ct employees or workers.
A4n emnployee or workel~l r hall not b~e includedt in one of thle c~lassifica-

tions exempted from the provsions of this Code unless the identical
functions were identicallyl classified on June 15, 1933.
5. Home work in any branch of this industry ishrb rhbtd
nor shall~ any work be perm~itted by the emlpi sloyr to performed
in tenement houses, basements, or in any unsanitary building
6. Within each, state, m~emeeeeeebers of the industry shall comuplyw
any laws of such state imposing more stringent requirements, regu~-
lat~ing the age of employeres, wages, hours of work or health, fire or
general working conditions, than under this Code.

1. The givig of secret rebaltes,.refunds, special services, or privi-
leges is unafair competition.
2. The giving of any advertising atl~lowane, directly orr indirectly,
which brings the price of any product below his cost. of surch product,
is unfair competition.
3. Willful or malicious defamnation. of competitors or the disparage-
ment of: competitors' products, is unfair competition.
4. Commler~cial bribery in the form of gratuities to anyone or the
offering of rewards~i or' premijums to pur'chasers off products of this
industry, is, unfair competition.
5. The nsusai~pprop~r~iato n of at competitors' business by inducingE
breach of contracts, espionag~e, piracy of ~sty~les or designs, or imi&ta-
tion of t~radte name~s, is unfair competition.
6. The substitution of inferior malterials for those unmued in any
contract w~ithout. th~e purchasers' knowledge or permTission, is unfair
7. Frau~dulent and deceptive practices, including false or mnislead-
iang advrtising, mislabelinig, or mnisbrandingnr is uinfair c-ompe~tition.
YJ8. It is unfair cl: competition for any manuflc~turere to furnish mer-
chandise to any mnereantile establishment for dlemo~nstratio n prposlI~'es
without, an outrigh~t sale, or to furnish ~emplo-yees forr dem~nonatstrati
or sales purposes; provided that this shall not prohibit thke prac-
tice of manufacturers furnishings without chlar~ge to retailers samplles
of materials, samlple cross-section miodlels shlowing constr~uc~tion of
merchanndise, and other samples of incompletely finished merlchlandise
for display andl demonstration purposes.
9. It is unfair competition for any manuflcltulrer to place mer-
chatndise on any form of consignme~nt, either directly or ind~irectly.
N~o f~urther merchalndiset sha~ll be shipped an consicglnlent to existinga
consignment. accounts andr all consignm7~rent accounts must be term-
nated within a reasonable length of timae.
10. To sell anny product of thEis indul~stry- below his, cost of -such
product is unfair competition.
(a) For this purpose, cost is defined as the cost of materials, plus
direct labor, plus an adeqguate amount of all over~head and sales ex-
pense a!s determnind by cost accounting methods recognized: in th~e
indurstryr (and approved~ by the Executive Code Committee consti-
tuted for the enforcement o-f this Cod~e as provided in Article VIII),
which cost methods must b~e approved by~. the 'NationdT Rc~iovery~
Ad minister at on.

11. It is unfair competition for a manufacturerr to permit pur-
chasers of his products to supply part or all of the materials, includ-
ing fittings r~equiredl for the manufacturers thereof, without including
in the determnination of his cost of such product an ndequate amount
of all overhead and sales expense as dleterminedt by cost accounting
methods, provided for in Section 10 of this A~rticle.
12. T~he giving of any di-count contrary to the! followinga trade
practices; is unfair competition, except. in. contracts for the export
trade. ,
(a) In the Brief Case, Hand L~uggage, Samnple Case, Sample
Trunk and Trunk Division of the industry, terms shall not exceed
2ql, 10 (1ays', 30 days extra.
(b) In the Fancy and Small L~eathe~r Goods~ DIivision of the in-
dustry, terms shall not exceed 2%0, 10 days, 60 day-s extra, wvith the
privilege of giving Et.O.MS1. (end of moonth) d~t~ina Man fact ure rs
of Fancy and. Small Leather Goods shall be permitted to accept one
order to a customer, shipped after August 1, dat~edl December 1, wit~h
maximiuni terms 39~ E.O.M., and goods shipped on or after the
twelnty-fifth. of the month~ shall be consid~eredl as shippee d on the first
of thre month.
13. T~he sales of drop lines or close-outs in thne course of
a year, in excess of 39- of the mnanulfact~urer's sales in the preceding
calendar y'ear in the Brief Cnse, H~and L~uggEag~e, Sample Case, aind
Sample Trunk: and Trunk D~iviion of the Indlustry, and the sale
of "L drop lines or "L close-outs in the course of a year, in excess
of 5%r of the mal~nufa~c.tulrer's sales in the pr1eceding calendaur year
in the Fancy and Smanll Leather G~oods Division of the industry,
is unlfair competition; providled, thnt, if any adtditional "" drop lines *
or close-outs are offeredcl for sale, p~ermlission must first. be ob-
tainedl from the Exc~utive Code Committee. and notification must
be sent by the Executive Codec Commnittee to all mnemlbers of the
industry, if p~ermissio~n for su~chl a sale is gralnted. Du plicate invoices
of all drop lines or close-out hipmelnts shall be sent to the
Executive Code Committee.


Eac~h mIEmbe'Ir of the indusltr'y, subject to thle jurisdiction of this
CodeJ andt necepnting the benefits of the activities of thle Code Aut~hor-
ity herleunder, shall pay to the Codle Author~ity his proportionate
share of the ammlint~s necessary to pay thre cost o~f as~semblingr, ana-
lyzing~ andl purblicationi of such reports annd data, and of thle miain-
tennwe f th sad Cde Athoityand its activities; said propor-
tiona~te share to b b~aaedl uponte aueo als a heCd
Authority, withn theo ;applroval of the Admnintoistrtor ma~y prescribe.

1. cTo further effectuiate the policies of the National Industrial
Rcrovery ALct, the Exercutive. CodeP Commnlttee. consistingr of-
(a;) The Directors of the Natio~nal Lugg~nae and Leather
Goods Mani nufat ulrers Associat ion, the applicant hlerein;

(b) Th~e President and3 Vic President of the F~ancy alnd Small
Leather Groods Division of t~he National L~ugagrae andl Leathler
Goods M~anufacturers Association;
(c) Three members to be. selected by thie Luggagie andl ~Leather
Goodls Mfanufacturerss Association of Newc York, Inc.;
(d) Two members of the industry at large, app~ointedl by the
President of thle National Lugagage and Leathecr Goods M~anu-
hect urers Association; and
(e) Thnree nonvoting members to be appointed by the Presi-
is set up to cooperate with the Administrator as a Planning and
Fair Prnc~tice Agency for the industry. There shall be no inequitable
restrictions as to m~cembership in the1 trade associations of this in-

2. Such agency may from time to time present to the Admuinistra-
tor rec~:ommenantions based on conditions in the industry as may
develop~~~"o from time to time which will tend to effectuate the opera-
toofthe provisions of thsCode and the policy of the Ntoa
Industrial. RecoveryT Act.
3. Such Agency is also set up to cooperate with the Administrator
in making investigations as to the functioning and observance of any
provisions of this. Code, at its own instance or on complaint by any
person affected~ and to report the same to the Administrator.
4. To provide necessary data for the Administrator of the Na-
tional Industrial ~Recovery A~ct, the members of the industry shall
furnish to the Executive Cobde Committee such information as it may
require from time to time, but through such channels as to elimina~tet
the identification of any individual manufacturer's confidential
5j. Inr addition to information required to be submitted to the Code
Authority, there shall be furnished to Governrment agnenies' such
statistical information as the Administrator may deem necessary for
the purposes recited in Section 3 (a) of the National Industrial
Recoveryg Act.
6. No provision of this Code shall be inlterprIt~eted or applied in
such manner as to-
(a) Promote monopolies or monopolistic practices;
(b) Permit or encourage unfair competitions;;
(c) Elimninute? or oppress small ent~er~prisei;; or
(dl) Disc~riminate against small enterp~r~ises.
7. This Code and all the provisions thereof are expressly made
subject to thre right of the President, in accordance wctith the pro-
vision of stbsecction (b) of Section 1_0 of the National Industrial
Recovery Act, from time to time to cancel or modify any order, ap-
proval, license, rule, or regulation isisued7 under Title I of said Act
and sp~ecifically, but without limnitartion, to the right of the President
to cancel or modify his a-pproval of this Code or any conditions
imposed- byv himn upon his approval thereof.
8. Such of the p~ovisions of this Code as are not Irequil~re to be
included therein by the NaItioin,7 Industrial Recovery Act may, with
the approval of the President, be~ modified or eliminated as changes
mn circumstances or experience mayn indicate. It is contemplated


3 1262 08850 4674

that from time! to time supplementary provisions of this Code or
additional codtes will be submitted for the approval of the President
to preve't unfair competition and other unfair destr~uct~ive competi-
tive practices, and to effectuate the other purposes and policies of
Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Act consistent with the
provisions hereof.
9. This Code shall become effective! 10 days after its approval by
the ]President.