The Code for the
Ecclesiastical Statuary and Church Furnishings Industry
in its present form merely reflects the proposal of the above-mentioned
industry, and none of the provisions contained therein are
to be regarded as having received the approval of
the National Recovery Administration
as applying to this industry
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1933
oar sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. - Price 5 cents
I9 DO OUR PART
Registry No. 1653--02
NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION
PROPOSED CODE OF FAIR COMPETITION
ECCLESIASTICAL STATUARY AND
CHURCH FURNISHINGS INDUSTRY
AS SUBMITTED ON AUGUST 23, 1933
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MANUFACTURERS OF ECCLESIASTICAL
STATJUARY AND CHURCH FURNISHINGS
COD E OF N ACTION AL ASSOCIATIr~ON OF PMAANUTFA~CTURERS
OF ECCLESIASTICAL STATUARY AND) CHURCH FUR-
IN RESPONSE TO THE NATIONAL PROCLAMlATION O]F THE PRESCI-
DENT OF THE UI~NITED STA'PS, CALLING UPON ALL, INDUSTRIES
TO FORRIlULATE CODES OF BUSINESS CONDUCT UNDER THIE
TERMS OF THE NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL RECOVERY ACT
We, the u~nd~ersigned, members of the industry kinow-n as Alan u(-
factuctrers of Ec~clesiacsticalr Statuary arnd Ch~urch Fulll;rn~ihilgs de-
clar~e that wue will adhter~e to the followcPing co~nditiojns and regu-
Intions; for the operation of our r~esp~ective bulsines~ses.
We her~eby mutually agree to be bound by the terms of this cov-
enant dluringo the period in wrhich the Nationall Industrial RecoveryJ
Alct shazll r~emain in force and it, is our intent that each andt i\every
st~ipulatedl tlrade practice approved herein shall be consider~e d manda-
tory upon t~he- siglnatorie~s hereunrto.
SCOPE OFi TNDUSTRY
The indus~ltry herein dec~r~ibed as "' Manufalctureres of Ecc~lesiastiedl
Stat~uar~y and Church ]F'urnish~ing s control about 95'19 of the pro-
duc~tion of religious art for churchC1 andIC home dlecorantion, such, as
statuary, bas-reliefs, statuary grloulps and ornamnentation, mod-elledi,
cast, and d~ec-orated; as well as the creation of altars and other
c~hur~ch ,fur~nishings of both semni-artistic and highllyT artistic natre.
~Our cIienltele is distributed among both homnesj and churches but
most largely among1~ chur~chei and religious institutio~nsi, and ship-
melnts are male for intrastate, interstate, and export trade. 'The
conulnodlities produced in this industry are: sold byr us both. at whole-
sale and retail, stock items being listed injr regularly publiblhed
catalogs show~ing retail prices, while products de-signed and mad1e
to order according ~to special dlesigrns are: quoted at specially esti-
mated prices based upon cost of manufacture.
':"i ii A HIGHLY SPECIALIZED BUSI~NE8S
The mainiufacture of ecclesiastical statuiaryc and church furnisih-
ings is a highly specialized line of business which. requires a rather
intimate knowledge of the rules, ritual, and articles of faith pro-
fessedl by different religious sects who frequently rely solely on t~he
reputation and judgment of memb~lers of the industry for the authen-
ticity and correctness of furnishings recommie~ndedl and installed.
Trained mien are essential to successful business practice as con-
tracts are frequently obtainable only by promotional methods based
on knowledge of religious traditions and religious psychology. Ex-
1oses---as ; i
tensive changes and improvements in religious structures such as
are catered to by this industry invariably involve the application
of creative talent and specialized salesmanship. Not only adminis-
trantive and selling forces but its industrial workers as well must
be trained to understand their particular tasks and cannot readily
be hired already proficient in an open labor market.
Owing to the fact that a wide difference in quality of workman-
ship frequently exists between the works of our various concerns,
depending on t~he degree of skill of workmen and artists employed
in this industry,.there are no set standards or well defined retail
price levels now in vogue, except as maintained by individual manu-
facturers in catering to their particular trade.
Labor scales are necessarilyl dependent. upon the skill and talent
of theg workmen or artists employed. The majority of labor engaged
mayT be termed unskilled and skilled, operating under the super-
vision of master artists, the latter commainding an indeterminate
maximum wage which is affected primarily by individual reputation
and artistic abilityT.
This code is set up for tl e purpose of increasing employment,
establishing fair and adequate wnages, effecting necessatry reduction
of hours, improv~ingr standcards of labor, andl eliminating unfair
trade practices (etc.), to the end of rehabilitating the Ecclesiastical
Statuary and Church Fuirnishing Industry and enabling it to do
its part toward~ establishing that balance of industries which is
necessary to the r~estoration and maintenance of the highest practical
degree of public welfa re.
It is the declared purpose of the Ecclesiastical Statuary and
Church Fiurnishinig Industry~ and adherents t~o this Code to bring,
insofar as may be practienble, the rates of wvages paid within the
Ecclesiastical Statuary and Chur~ch Fuirnishing Industry to such
levels as are? necessary for the creation and maintenance of the high-
est practicable standard of living; t~o restore thle income of enter-
prises within the industryy to levels which will make possible the
payment of such wages andl avoid th~e further depletion and destruc-
tionl of capital assets; and from time to time to revise the rates of
wages in such manner as will-curr~ently reflect the equitable adjust-
ment to variations in the cost of living.
ARTICLE TT DARTICTPATION
Participation in this Code, and any subsequent revision of or
addition to the Code, shall be extended to any person, partnership,
or corporation in the Ecclesiastical and Church Furnishing Industry
who accepts his share of the cost and responsibility, as well as the
benefit, of such participation by becoming a memnber of the National
Association of MaInu~facturer~s of Ecclesiastical Statuary and- Church
Furnishiings or any affiliated organization. No initiation or entrance
fees shall be charged, but there shall be dues levied on the following
Special assessments, am nou nti ng to nlot less than $;25.00 per member,
shall be collected from each member if and when needed, up~on notice
from thle duly elected treasurer and consent of half th~e members.
No oter fees shall be collected unless decidled by major~ity vote
of the members of this industry.
ARTICLE 1--FOWER AND AmUrs~hISTR.\Irro
Thle members of the Ecclesiastical Statuary and Church Furnish-
ing Industry shall set up an Executive Committee for the purpose
of administering the provisions of the Code, to secure arlher~ence
thereto, to hear and adjust complaints, to cocnsider propo~salsi for
lamendmlents thereof a7nd excep~tions thereto, and oth~erwise to carr
o~ut within the industry the purposes of the ~Nationall Ind~ustr~il
Recovery Alct as set forth in this Code.
ALRTIC.LE IV--LABOR CODE
Thre Labor Code of the Ecclesinstical Statuary'S and Chur~ch Fur-
nishing Industry shall provide as follows:
(a) Emplloyees shall have the right. to organize and bargain col-
lecat~ively through repr~esentativese ~ of their own choosing, and shall
be free from the interference, restraint, or coercion of employers
of labor or their agents, in the designation of such r~eprepsentatives
or in self-organization, or in other concertedl actiit~ies for the pur-
pose of collective bargainingr or other mutual aid or protection.
(b) No emlployvee in the Eccles-iastical Statuary and Church Fiur-
nishingr Industry, and no one seeking employment therein, shall be
required as a condition of employment to join any company union
or toc refram; f~rom ;olmng, organizing, or assisting a labor orgramza-
tion of hlis own choosing.
(c) Employers of Inbor in t~he Ecc~lesiastical Statuary and Churcht
Furnishing Indu~str agree to comply (as far as they are able) with
the ma ximum hours of labor, mlinimlum rates of pay-, and other con-
dlitions of e~mployment. approvedl or prescr~ibed by thre President.,
(d.) Specifically, to the end that a uniforml practice. of sound busi-
ness procedure may be maintained, unfair' competition eliminated
andl the pulrchasingr power of labor upheld, we propose individually
and~ collectively to abide. byT an u~nder~stand'ing9 that in the Ecclesi-
asticarl Statuary and Church Furnishing IndustryJ, the minimum
scale of wage-s for industrials employees shall be:
For UnskrillelT Lab~or ___ ____ _____ $0. 35
For Skilled Labor--
M~odellers and Sculptors------------------ ----- .... .80
Model Miakers.._____ _________ _______ ______ .60
Casters, Plaster -,_, ______________,_ --_ .50
'" Cement -- -- __________________.._ .55
Finishers .... ____________ __________ __ ___ .55
D~ecorators,_____ ____,____ __________ ___ 55C
(e) Manr~iniu m.l Hou~s --Undler the terms of the National Indus-
trial Recovery Act., we agree to a maximnum 40-hour w~eek for in-
dustr~ial employees, no worker to be employed longer than 8 hours
per day, except that d-uring the period of 60 days preceding East~er
or Christmnas. when seasonal deliveries are demanded and duly
trained labor is not available, we shall be free to operate on a 50-hour
weekly basis, with a miaximum 10-hour dtaily limit per worker. It
is agreed that this paragr~aph establishes a gauaranteed minimum
rate of p~ay regaardless of whether t~he employee is comnpensated on
the basis of a time rate or on a piecework performance.
(f) Office Employees. W'e agree to pay office employees. including
all clerical help, a minimum wage of $15.00 per week, each week to
contalin a maxsimumin of -10 hours; andl shall refuse to~ employ any
perlson uinder 16 years of age.
ARTIcLE V ClosT CODE
It. shall be an unfair methodl of competition for any mnanufacturer
to sell at pr~ic'es obviou1sly less than cost. of production. In event of
conmpliRnt on this ~harrge. the conicer~n against whoml charge is mande
.-hall dlesignate three membhers of the indulstry~ to act as judglles. The
judges will report their findings to t~he Executive Commiitttee for
ARTICLE VTI--INDUSTRY REGUlLATIONS
A. Tradce plracices ---Rati fiedl andic adopted by t~he members of the
Ecclesiastic-l Statua~ry and Crhurch Furnishinga Indlustry, the follow-
ing rules in trade practice shall be considered as part. of the C'od-e.
1. The basis for t~he sale of standard items at mininiumi retail
prices; shall bep the~ printed price list, or catalogr in use by ind~ividullR
membllers. on July 1st, 1933. Each miember shall use his~r own estalog
to establish the minimum retail list price atb which he shall sell the
proCductsf of hlis own manufacture. No discounts, rebates. or ~edlue-
tions shall be made fr~om these entalog prices to the retail trade and
no special inducements in the form of donations, gifts, or premniumis
shall be offered to prospective customers as an incentive to ob~tain
their business. The term "L retail trade "~ shall be understood to c~over
all sales made direct to clergy, religious, and lay persons other than
It is further agreed that to the wholesale trade the maximum trnde
dliscount front bov~e-mnentionedl printed entalog ~r~ices shall not
exc~eedl the discounts in effect on July 1, 1933.
2. No contract, either for special or catalog products, in any quan-
tity, shall be taken at prices which compel manufacturers to bargain
with employees for production at lower than their regular wages.
;3. All prices to t~he trade, wholesale or retail, shall be quoted f.o.b.
factory or point of shipment. Under no circumstances will the
maunufactulrer agre~e to absorb the freight or express charges.
41. The maximumn cash discount t~o be offered either to wholesale, or
retail trade for prompt payment of bills shall not exceed 3%. Uni-
formi ternis of 3%0 discount. on bills paid by the 10th of the month
following date of invoice, or 30 days net shall be observed.
5. On staple items consisting of statuettes there shall be a minimumii
price, accord'ing to size and decoration of article sold, so that the
pernicious practice of selling belowv cost may be eliminated. The
agreedl upon mnlimiumn manufacturers' list prices onl decorated
st~at~uette- purchased loose in quantities shall be:
size 6** (Ir t herealbou ts. ... ______-_____,____ --- $.).50
Size 8" or thelrenbouts--- --...... ------ ---------- -.. 80
Size 12" of theretholic~ts __------ -..---- ----- 1. 25
s ize 16'' o~r t hereab; Iou te. ... -------------- 21.oo
Size~ 21" or therenh~outs.------ ------- _... .... __ 3. 00
Size 2-1" Ol Ithe'renhout _______- ----_---- ...- ____--- _.... 5. 00
These prices to be figured as f.o.b. facto.ry subject to trade dis-
counts alr~eady~ establishled.
B3. Carfarir Coml.pectitionr.-The members of the indunstry declare
themlselv~es unlequivocalcHI ,ly opposed to unfair trade pac~tices andl sub-
mit below nets o~f compettition forb~iddent under this C7ode.
1. It ~hall be unlfair to solicit orders~ for work of high qua~lity
withI intent. of subs~titultingr simlilalr appearinlg buit in feact inferior
2. No mem~nbe~r of the indrustr~y shall appen1 to the trade with offers
to duplicate thle work of comlpetitorls mentitioned by name at their
establisched~ prices less a substantial dlisico~nt..
3. N~o mct~embe shall solicit business by alproa,;chlin g prospe~lc~tive
pu"rchansers o-f chulrcht furnishings, urging~ them to ob~tain dlesigns and
qulotationsl fromll a competitor, that they in turn maly work: from saidL
designers at p~r~eviously agr~eed~ ulpon lower prices.
-1. It. shall be the duty of members to dliscouragje the practice of
dea lers w \ho, intent u pon a1 rge pro~cfit s. force manufltlacturlers into ruin-
ouls competition by compelling one to bid against another for yearly
supp~lies, using the argumentt that increased volume justifies sales at
5. Mlanufactultrers operating under this code will 'refu~e! tr'ade dis-
counts to chlur~ch goc-ods dlealer~s or bro~cker~s who offerl con~lcessions or
reduction~ fr~om es~tablished prices, thusi in effect und~erseclli ng~ the
p'roducer of thle ,oodls sold.
C. Codeo of H~onor.-1~. We agree to maintain a Code of Honor,
respectingr the rights of compe~ttitors who have cr~neated products of
original design, andl will no-t dettliberately3 copy'3 such1 wFvork for catalog
i llustrant i on pur Iposes.
2. The av-owed policy of th~is Code to stopl all uInfair trade prnel-
tices shall include unfair advertising, such as copyging comlpetitors'
catalogs and trade liter~atur~e with intent of mnisleadling~ recip-ienit and
causing himt t.o believe that id-entic~ally the samne products mayT be
bought at b~ot~h higih and low prices.
ARrICLE VII-MAXIMU~TM SELLING PRICES
So fo r as it, is pralcticable we agree nlot to increase the prlice of any
mierchandise sold after the date hereof over the price of July 1, 1933,
by more than is made necessary by actual increases in production,
replacement., or invoice costs of merchandise. since. July 1, 1933, or
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
6 3 1262 08728 6067
by taxes or other costs resulting from action taken pursuant to the
agricultural adjustment act, and in setting such price increases, to
give (ull1 weight to probable increase in sales volume and to refrain
from taking profiteering advantage of the consuming public.
ARTICLE VIII--CONarrrvrlONAL RIGIFFS
W~e subscribe to the terms and conditions of this Code, individually
and collectively, with stipulations submitted below:
(a) It is clearly understood that nothing in this Code shall impair
in any particular the Constitutional rights of thie employer to pro-
tect h~is business and property from the unlawful activities of others.
(b) It is clearly understood that nothing in~ this Code shall imi-
pair in anyi particular the Const~it~utional rights of the employee and
employer to bargain individually or collectively as may be mutually
satisfatctory to t~hemi; nor imparir t~he jintn right of employee and
employer to operate an open shop.
(c) Nothing in this Code is to impair the Constitutional rights
of emiployers to freedom in selection, retention, and advancement of
(d) Nothing in this Code shall authorize any change in the maxi-
mumi hours of labor', minimum rates of pay, or other conditions of
employment specified in thlis Code, without the agreement of a truly
representative association of the trade or industry, or subdivision
thereof, to, which this Code applies.
Signedl by following manufacturers of ecclesiastical statuary and
Daprato Statuar'y Company, Chicago, Illinois; T. M.
O'Connell &. Company, Philadelphia, Pa.; St. Paul
Statuary Company, St. Paul, Miinn.; Kaletta Statu-
ary Company, St. Louis, M. Catholic Statuary
Company, Chicago, Illinois; European Statuary &~
Art Co., M~ilwaukee, W~is.; Aiinerican Altar &5 St~atu-
ary Co., Chicago, Ill.; Modern Tuscany Art Com-
pany, Phiiladelphia, Pa.; Bernardini Statuary Com-
pany, New York, N.Y.; A. Paladini & Company,
New York, N.Y~.; Berni Co0mpany, Jersey City, N.J.;
A. P. Nardini, Boston, Mass.; Joseph Sibbel Studio,
New York, N.Y.; Biagiotti & Company, New Y'ork,
N.Y.; A. Da Prato Company, Boston, Mass.
Dated, August 15, 1933.