Comparison of yaw characteristics of a single-engine airplane model with single-rotating and dual-rotating propellers

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Comparison of yaw characteristics of a single-engine airplane model with single-rotating and dual-rotating propellers
Physical Description:
16 p., 42 leaves of plates : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Neely, Robert H
Fogarty, L. E ( Laurence E )
Alexander, S. R
Langley Aeronautical Laboratory
United States -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Publisher:
Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Langley Field, VA
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Yawing (Aerodynamics)   ( lcsh )
Propellers, Aerial -- Testing   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references (p. 13).
Statement of Responsibility:
by R.H. Neely, L.E. Fogarty and S.R. Alexander.
General Note:
"Originally issed April 1944 as Advance Confidential Report L4D19."
General Note:
"NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of paper originally issued to provide rapid distribtuino of advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were previously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not technically edited. All have been reporduced without change in order to expedite general distribution."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 003636282
oclc - 54859047
sobekcm - AA00006296_00001
System ID:
AA00006296:00001

Full Text

JMR L4-


ACR No. L4D19


NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS





WARTIllME REPORT
ORIGINALLY ISSUED
April 1944 as
Advance Confidential Report L4D19

COMPARISON OF YAW CHARACTERISTICS OF A SINGLE-EGINE
AIRPLANE MOMEL WITH SIMGLE-ROTATING AND
DUAL-ROTATING PROPELLERS
By R. H. Neely, L. E. Fogarty,
and S. R. Alexander


Langley Memorial Aeronautical
Langley Field, Va.


Laboratory


WASHINGTON
NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of
advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were pre-
viously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not tech-
nically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution.


L 83


DOCUMENTS DEPAK i ici4 I





































Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2011 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation


http://www.archive.org/details/comparisonofyawc001ang




..-qr- s ; 7




NATIONAL ADVISORY CO0T.MTTTEE FO' AEP....M -:: T''~


AT.VAIMc CONFIDETITA~L REPORT :'0. Lt. 19


C^TA'',:':y "a' YA'V CHARkT3TEITT S. OF A 3IILS-EI"h I'E

AIRPLAIJE fODEL ITH $ TIILL-O. f-TI. G AJ

,-UAL- -OT' T-. rI P : FPLLL ,S

By .. H. Neely, L. E. Fo,:grty,

and S. R. Ale..:andrer


SU!U IARY


Tests vwer, made in thie HAr. 1-foot rres.s.re t'.nnel
to determine the ;,-awv characteristics of a I.32-scale
model of a sinle-enrine, fiihter-t-'pe airplane with
six-blade sinlie--rot-ting an:i dual-rotat'ing pr-opellers.
The roroellers used in the investicAition were of the
saT? solidity aind plan form'. Force nd mrnt harac-
teristics of the m,:odel, with the exception of th-,
rollin-mnomient character stics, ar' pre senitedj for
several mooel and nowver conditions. Curv'es .are given
that show estimated rudder-contr-crl c.h ar-ac teL ristics of
the design airplane in steady sideslips.

The most important ;'',er-nce in the yaw charac-
teriotics of -thre airrlan- model 'i,,th sin le-rotatin.;
and dual-rotating. prnnellers was tha, in the low-speed
high-thru.st conditions, large rudjer elections and
forces were required to trim at zero .- aw with single
rotation, and necligible dele c ci:ns andi forces ;,ere re-
quir-ed to trim at zero yaw with uail rotation. For the
high-thrust conditions with the rudder fi::ed, the model
with single-rotating propellers tended t t, be directionally
unstable at large negative angles of yara; whereas, with
dudl-rotating propellers the model w as stable throuZhout
the trim range. For moderate angles of' .aw, a greater
degree o-f rudder-fixed stability; was generally obtained
with single rotation than with dual rotation. The total
range of angle of yaw maintained by' maximum deflection of








NACA ACH NO. L4D19


the rudder was greater with dual rotation. The rudder-
control forces per degree of yaw were two to three times
as great for single rotation as for dual rotation in the
high-thrust conditions.


INPTRO0DUC TIO T


The effects of propeller operation on the stability
and control characteristics of the airplane are becoming
increasingly imp.ort-nt with the present trend toward
engines of greater power. The single-rotating propeller,
used almost exclusively in the past, has an adverse ef-
fect on the lateral-control characteristics of the air-
plane. With power on, the large torque reaction and
the resulting asymnetrical slipstream causes large
lateral-trim changes that involve both aileron and rudder.
A dual-rotating propeller, which for the ideal case has
no resultant torque and produces a syrmm'etrical slipstream,
should eliminate the lateral-control changes due to poker.
Air-flow surveys at the tail of a single-engine airplane
model equipped with a dual-rotating propeller have indi-
cated a symmetrical slipstream (reference 1). It has
been shown, however, by theory (reference 2) and by ex-
periment (reference 5) that the propeller forces due to
inclination of the thrust axis are greater for a dual-
rotating propeller than for a single-rotating propeller;
this effect influences the stability of the airplane
somewhat.

Little is known about the quantitative differences
between the effects of a single-rotating and a dual-
rotating propeller on the stability and control charac-
teristics of a complete airplane. In order to provide
information on the differences between the effects of a
single-rotating and a dual-rotating propeller on sta-
bility and control characteristics, tests were made of a
0.52-scale model of a single-engine, fighter-type air-
plane in the N ACA 19-foot pressure tunnel at Langley
Field, Va. The investigation was confined to the deter-
mination_ of the characteristics in --a1.. with the vertical
tail on a;r:-. with -the vertical tail off. The results of
these tests are believed to be of no direct general ap-
plication but serve as an indication of the character
and '-,-nitude of the effects of the two types of rotation.


CO.IFIDE, TIAL


00CC IDE'r7TA









ITACA ACR To. LD19 COiTIDENTIAL 3


APPARATUS AND T-'STS

Model

"~"e general dimensions of the model are given in
figure 1. The wing was equipped with 0.25c :partial-span
slotted flaps and also with slats on the le.dirCinc ede of
the outer iing panels. Provision was made for air flow
through the c.wl, tne tro w.'ing ducts, and the super-
charger air duct located beneath the cowl. A detail
draw in of the vertical tail surface is presented in
figure 2. The vertical fin was set at 0 and the hori-
zontal stabilizer at 20 for all tests.

The model was equipped with a six-blade propeller
unit r!ade up of two three-blade propellers having a
distance between center lines of .05 inches. The
blades were of the NA-IA -L-0-05 type; blade-form- c.-uves
are presented in figure 5. in the dual-rotating unit,
the front blades were right hand and the e'sr blades
left hand. The propellers -.ere driven th:.'a'u.h a dwal-
rotatir:e -ear box. In the sin.le-rottin'r unit, the
gear box was replaced ob; a solid cou )iing. ;.otl the
front and the rear blades were ri:-u:ht liand and wers
equally spaced about the center of rotation. ,An elec-
tric oi-ctor capable of delivering a torque of 195 foot-
pounds was used to drivs the propeller init.

MCodel configurations for landing and for normal
flight were tested. In the landing configuration shovm
in fi.:ure L, the wing flap's 'e-re deflected 500, the
ailerons were drooped 1.50 the slats were open, the cowl-
exit flap was deflected 250, the oil-cooler and intecr-
cooler exit flap was deflected 22, and the landing gear
was installed. In the normal-flight configuration shown
in figure 5, all the aforementioned surfaces were in the
neutral position and the landing gear was removed.

Tests

The model mounted in the test section of the tunnel
is shown in figures L and 5. measurements s were made of
the six-component forces and moments on the model and of
the rudder hinge moments. Forces were measured directly
by the wind-tunnel balance and norments were computed from
force readings. Rudder hinge moments were measured by
electrical resistance-type strain gages.


C ONFIDEIT IAL







NACA ACR Fo. LlD19


The model was yawed, at selected angles of attack,
through a range of angles of yaw from -100 to 100 for
the dual-rotation tests and from -300 to 300 for the
single-rotation tests. The yaw range was limited to
these values by the model support. All tests were made
with the air in the tunnel at an absolute pressure of
35 pounds per square inch. The test Reynolds number
was approximately 3,000,000, except for a few tests made
at a Reynolds number of L,200,000.

In the normal-flight configuration, the model was
tested simulating full power with the thrust line at an
angle of attack of -0.8b, corresponding to high-speed
level flight, and at an angle of attack of 11.80, cor-
responding to a full-power climb at 107 percent of the
power-off stalling speed. These conditions are here-
inafter referred to as the "hij'-speed condition" and
the "climb condition", respectively. In the landing
configuration, the model was tested simulating 55-percent
full power at an angle of attack of 100 corresponding to
flight at 107 percent of the po,,.r-off stalling speed.
This model and power condition is hereinafter referred to
as the "approach condition". For these three conditions,
tests were made for a range of rudder deflections and
with the vertical tail off. In addition, for each angle
of attack, tests were made with the propeller operating
at approximately zero thrust, simulating an engine-idling
glide, and also with the propeller off; these tests were
made with rudder neutral and with the vertical tail off.

The power conditions of the model tested simulated
those of the design airplane. Full power represents
2250 brake horsepower at sea level and 55-percent full
power represents 1300 brake horsepower at sea level.
The axial component of the slipstream velocity, as
measured by the thrust coefficient Tc, was taken as
the criterion of similitude of the power conditions.
The calculated thrust coefficients for the dual-rotation
case are shown in figure 6. The rotational component
of the slipstream as measured by the torque coefficient
Qc is believed to be adequately reproduced for these
tests. The thrust and torque characteristics of the
model propellers,as determined experimentally with the
thrust line horizontal, are given in figures 7 and 8,
For each model condition, the single-rotating and the
dual-rotating propellers were operated at approximately
the same thrust coefficient. The blade angle at f..
0.75 radius was 230 for all tests. The propeller rota-
tional speed was held constant throughout the yaw range.


CONFIDENTIAL


CONFIDE NTIAL









TNACA ACr ro. LD19


Coeffjic'ents and S -,mniols

mhe ,data are presented in 7;-T form of standard,
nondine.Lnsir,nal coefficients. Te oeffi n-ts and
symbols .arc dctfined as follows:

CL lift coefficient 'L/qS)

CD r-Lrclultatnt drag oIfic ient (D/qS)
Cv later' l-fcr>: coefficient (Y,.'"'S)

Um pitc6-i.-i-momnent coefficle;t ('i,/qcS)

Cn y.vi-inT-.-on.rrent co ffrict ienrt (iQcl5)

Ch r:dde-r hinge-moment. coefficient (ir/,-ibrr- )

T thr-lust disk-1cading coefficient (IT/p2D2)
-J. tor-que coefficient ( ~/p'~D5)

where

L lift

DR r, su. ltant d r a

Y lateral for c

i i pitch'.in; !riol.ent

N yawin, moment

L r rudder-- hlin.ie ro-lent

T effective thrust

. -notor torque

S wing *irca, 38.4 square feet

b 'i:.ngr snan, l1..72 feet

, mean wing zhord, 2.61 feet

b, rudder span


CONFIDE NTIAL


CO' IDETTI.-L








NACA ACR No. LLkD19


-r root.-mean-square chord of rudder

D propeller diameter, L.0 feet

q free-stream dynamic pressure

V free-stream velocity

p mass density of air
and

n propeller rotational speed

p blade angle at 0.75 radius

aT angle of attack of thrust line, degree

W angle of yaw, degree

5r rudder deflection, degree

5e elevator deflection, degree

R Reynolds number p)

Coefficient of viscosity

brr 2 = 0.785 feet

Angle of attack, drag, and pitching moment have
been corrected for the effects of jet-boundary inter-
ference. Approximate corrections have been applied
for the effects of the model s-;.:.ort.

All forces and moments are referred to a system of
axes with the origin at the center of gravity corre-
sponding to that of the full-scale airplane. The
X-axis is the intersection of the plane of symmetry of
the model with a plane perpendicular to the plane of
symmetry and parallel to the relative wind with the
positive direction rearward. The Y-axis is perpendicular
to the plane of symmetry with the positive direction to
the right. The Z-axis is perpendicular to the X-axis
and in the plane of symmetry, with the positive direction
upward.


COI' FI DE:'NTIAL


CO NFIDENTIAL








NACA ACP. 'o. LLD19'


ISB'JI-TS A.'D DIT.C-.S.IO:


".e test data are pxres-inted ":, ,urv-es of lift,
resu.IeS(t-drag, l..teal-force, -aw..n .-- c;"ent pitc-ain -
r-'o..e':t, and rudder hinge-ao;.;ent cotff ic irncs plotted
arai:', i an.'l of yaw. 'o r-ol].in:. r.. nt curves are
nre -red bC -:-..se cf inco:':is tei.-ies i te data and a
wide -'iz .-.rs io:. of test points. at chIarac tr:-.sticc
for a ran",,- of rudder deflection arit -. -esented in
fi t -ur. ? to 14 for the a-r-' c' 'ih, ti clir.'uo, and the
hirh-s:,-ed conditions. Cormnar isons of t'i effects of
rotation. on the ya:w characteristics :'ith the v.:~tic:-
tail on (idd.er neutral) and 'wt.' ih the ver .:;al t-:i l off
are pr'-esentxed in figures l.. tCo '- for tC'.-a ro.ac, t
climb, the 1ii-.h-s ed, and the- -l icy' coni io-s. InT
each c _.: :'rc'e:l ler-off nlat ,r .- -ivcr as oas i for
cornmcarisen.

f.-on f-gurL- s s : to 1,, PSti.:j.tes3 -.s '? een a..e of
the ;:.s,. 'er--cc: tr" o cha.rsc:tereist i-23 .-.f .:: -'.i. air-
pla:e :.n s .Li side lips. T'hi:r- da -: ar;e ;.r .se-tied in
fi i'"lo.c 1r -i. nd 2 r:s c r.' : of re-u ':Mr forc1 and
defiL.: L ion for tri.: .ailt .-i-le of ;,..':. Thei :-.alvin
micnen".t du.i. to ilaron dief i: .:t on wa s n l: 1-.t-L;d ir. all
cases. T'":. co.-,trol fr'c-es w.rr-- c alc.at d ,i:tt' the
assu.,.:tioin .f -a :edal .zo'.".irni of 'i. ~ i-:',el for +200
rudder trow i ;-,'" .. ;,.. lo0di,-i cf :cunds per square
'ooC Lef t rl'uldcrr forces an'd f -eci-in ." cit dual
rotation -.',Ere ust ir,!&ttd by:, a, ss li:, th. at t.E curves
would 'b s3r:.:etrical eabSOLt neo.crL.l ruddar.

;ost of the 1:i.oortant directional Eb'ability and
control c-r.aracteristics for the t-.ree model conditions
are -:. -.:a'ized in table I. Slopes of the yawinj-moment
curvs--,; at zero yaw; for the variouss :uodsl conditions are
rive:n In table II.

.11 data are presented for rLro fin offset and
neut-.al t*.rim-tab setting. A small fin o.f'set -:.ith
s in..le rotation would probably not apprec iably alter
the o, -.s 1 conclusions. The co:nparisos maie with
thi ri..c'' r tri. tab neutral are not entire;l- comnolete
bccausj a tab would ordinaril-, be da flected v.'ith single
rotation, inr some of the flight conditio-s. The de-
fla:cted tab would affect, to sao:-e extent, lost all
di,'ectj.onl.'. stabilit- and conbrc.. characteristics. It
sno-.i'. i' noted that the !:nife-edg_ shape of thie rear
end of the fuselae provides apurrciable fin area even
witi .;-:e vertical tail off.
C OCI' ID .NT IAL


C OIT IDE'T PT.,








NACA ACR No. L D19


Inasmuch as the t'Lrust coefficient and the angle of
attack are nearly tjho same for the a roach and the
climb_ conditions, tihee two conditions differ principally
in that the climb is a flaps-up condition and the ap-
proach is a flaps-dovnr condition. Although the two
model configurations differ in more respects than this
one, the diffeereces in yaw characteristics are believed
to be due primarily to flap deflection.

The discussic of th:( data is devoted almost en-
tirely to static dirpctilonial stability and control.
Although rolling-moment data are not presented, it should
be remembered that there are large lateral-trim changes
requiring the use of ailerons in the high-thrust condi-
tions with single-rotating. propellers. In the comparison
of the results for dual rotation with those for single ro-
tation, the assumption was made that with dual rotation
the curves for left rudder deflections would be similar
to those for right :.,udder deflections.

mhe data show that for the high-thrust conditions,
where the slipstream effects are large, the yaw charac-
teristics are asymmetrical about zero yaw with single ro-
tation and are essentially symmetrical with dual rotation.
For the low-thrust conditions, the yaw characteristics
were nearly asymmetrical about zero yaw for both single and
dual rotation.

Directional trim change.- In the low-speed high-
thrust conditions, directional trim changes are negli-
gible with dual rotation and large with single rotation.
'ith du.al rotation, zero yaw can be maintained with ap-
proximately neutral rudder and zero control force in
both the climb and approach conditions (figs. 2L[ and 25).
With single rotation, a right rudder deflection of 180
is required to hold zero yaw; the estimated rudder fczrces
are 125 pounds and 70 pounds for the climb and the ap-
proach conditions, respectively. The maximum rudder
deflection of 200 would not be sufficient to trim the
airplane at the angle of yaw necessary for straight
flight with wings level (9 = 50). This angle of yaw
is tat-en as the angle at which both the lateral force
and the yawing moment are zero if the yawing moment due
to aileron deflection is neglected. For dual rotation
in all conditions and for single rotation in the high-
speed condition, the wings can be kept level at zero yaw
and little rudder deflection is needed.


C OT'T TT Di'TIAL


CO I "'.E 1 IAL









NACA ACR No. LAD19


'With sin-le rotation and rudder neutral, the model
tri.:s (-C = 0) at an an-ie of a.-r, of about -10 At
zero y-aw, there is a lar; e negative ya-.-:in: .:eo: .t as
sho'vn i: figures 15 and. 17. -'t least half of th:-s mo-
ment is contributed by the '.od'el ..ithout the vertical
tail. (cLee fig 16 and )

Direct ..-. 1 stability, r'uilr- i::Cd. In ch :-' hi.h-
thrust conditions, the Aisp ace.,er.t of" ie. sinc le-
rotatLC n -;,:awin'e-m.r.ent curves to'-r- ':.--ti.'e w- and
negaci-ve *i, resulted in a tendsrncy to'.:ard dir tional
insta':ilit- at nmojerate to Iartre negative an,-.'s of yau.
'"Lith sin-le rotation, instability is indicatedd in the
approach- condition at an an-le of raw of -270 with full
left rui der ( = 200). In th-e cll, condition posi-
tive sta' illtt is shown in the tri,-! i-n e; however, the
slo'e of the v-awin.--"o,':enrt curve rends to 'beco:r.e unstable
at 9"o':t =i O0 for condition s c0nl- slightly out of
tr i:. it doal rotation, stab li-t;- is indicated in the
tri rai-.e -'or booth the clii-m an-rl .-e n:.,roach conditions
e-eyondi t ,-e 2rini rane, reve rsals o e '.v;-,o'ent-
cLu've slices occur in the aolrDi-o;an i 'fla:?s-do"In) condition
but not in :the climb (flaps-u:,) ccn'.it- ion. The reversals
in th- s,-.-,roach condition :.nic;rt l:ad t3o .i-rect onal insta-
bilit:- if th- rur-.ler li'.it v.ere incr-a. se- to a::.out 507 .
For a -reP t'r rudder ranre, the direct ional instability
with sin-le rotation would be a jr.vat.e. It 'ould be
desirable, in this case, tc r-esL-ict the left ra.1-er range
and inc.c-ase the right rudder rant-.

Up to moderateate an g-1le of ne^ati-;e yI'., the stability
was -rea .cer with single rotsat -io;n i-n '.icth c;dual rotation,
except for the glide conlitio.ns (V-o-eller at zero thrust)
where little difference was s'.ovan. At z*-o -,'aw in the
approach, clim-b, and hi-spe-d conditions, the mom.ent-
curv.: slopes :..ere about 15 percent :;or, stable v'ith single
rotation than with dual rotation. In the approach con-
dition (.ri-s. 9 and 10), this difference was essentially
constant uF to = -150 (dual-r-otation curv-.es are assumed
syJ.-.e-trrcal), but for the cli:ub condition (figs. 11 and 12)
consj ierably steeper slopes ,were obtained with single ro-
tation ?.n the region of & = -13. The aforementioned
diffre.',nces in stability should not b- imoiortant except in
marginal cases.


CONFIDENTIAL


COi IDEI'TIAL








-:..C.. ACR No. L-4D19


The more stable moment-curve slopes with single
rotation in the approach and the climb conditions appear
to be due partly to the more stable slopes for the model
without the vertical tail and partly to the greater ef-
fect of the vertical tail.

In the high-speed condition (figs. 19 and 20), where
the lift coefficient and thrust coefficient are low, the
decrease in stability with dual rotation would appear to
be due primarily to the increase in propeller side force
experienced with a dual-rotating propeller (references 2
and 5)- In figure 27 the measured yawing moments due to
the propeller fC C ob-
~propeller on propeller off
tainted from figure 20 are cc-p-red with the yawing
moments calculated by use of the theoretical propeller
side forces determined from the charts of reference 2.
The comparison indicates that the differences in the
yawing moments caused by a single-rotating and by a dual-
rotating propeller wjere somewhat greater from experiment
than from calculation. In addition, measured yawing
mo2-ents due to either type of propeller were greater than
corresponding calculated yawing moments. Measured side
forces due to the propeller, however, are lower than the
theoretical propeller side forces. It is concluded,
therefore, that the effects of the propeller were not
restricted to direct propeller forces but included forces
on the airplane itself, which affected the over-all side
force and yawing moment.

Directional stability, rudder free.- Rudder-free
(pedal-free) yawing moments, obtained by cross-plotting,
are shown in figures 9 to 12. Tn the approach condition,
the yawing moment is stable with dual rotation but un-
stable beyond = -250 with single rotation. The
instability with single rotation occurred in a manner
termed "rudder lock"; that is, as the increasingly un-
stable yawing moment yaws the airplane to the left, the
hinge moment forces the rudder continually harder against
the stop. In the climb condition, the rudder-free mo-
ment is restoring except at .! = -2)4 with single rota-
tion and at 3 = 230 with dual rotation where the
moments are zero. The rudder limit is particularly
critical to the rudder-free stability at larjE angles of
yaw and the stability would be unfavorably affected by a
greater rudder range in all conditions.


COFIDT E'TIAL


CO!TITr PJII. TT~ LXL








I:,CA ..C7 No. LITD19 CO"TFIDEr7I.,L 11


iBuder -control ef.fc-civene s.- In the hi.h-scped and
approach conditions (fis. 24 and 26), the rudder-c-.ontrol
ef'f ct iveness d ,/d6r was Cbcfut 10 percent greater with
dual rotation thsn with single rotation over the straight
portions ,of the curves. Tn the cli:ib condition, the
average effectiveness with dual rctaticn '.,as a':,ou.t t ice
that :.'ith sir,-:l rotation. T ls incres_ e in ed ;ctive-
ness -. a result of the lovw r .veit.h rc::ocl.: a i .lity '.. ith
dual rotatI on. In the. clir.,b co. it L i t:e .an n ]es
yaw mbaintained' by T20O0 rudder deflect tion 'ere -III- ,ith
dual rotation and v:sre 2 and -25 with! sinGle rotation.
Tn the al-orcach condition ngSles of ra-.v :: aita ned by
maxlimu.. rulder defletions e:'.ere -.i for dual rotation
and were 20 and -25-' fori sin l! rotation.

.:ud.der-c ,ntrol force s.- As .ent i ned Jreviously,
the calculat.l. r.id.cZ.r /cr* s r-euired to triL'i at zero
yaw '.1ith 1-: 1 .3 rotation a.r e 123 .cuiz c f.or, the c1i::..
and '1 riou-ndm s f.or the approach *codii on; v.:'th dual o-
t tio:-L the ru-.Li:r f'cic s ar: a ppro:.,manelt-; Z fro.

'?r' rcon-trol lorccs oper ce c f ': J.n .i nroac'
and clizio conditions are .'o to l.r-e a'r-i. r.at-r with
sin le rc-ation than vilth 1ual _-otatioL. in the s Lai-lht-
line6 cir.tin of the cIurves rias. 24. .-und 2 p.., in the
hi:h-n.ced ccrndi ion tfio. 2o), the rorce ..radients were
the sct:-'. Thei dlsrol.cerlmsnt of .he :'-.dc&r-foc:o curves
ir .fi.-iue 2_: should nart hb coni-siier rn- 1i.'icant because
a small error ini rudder-an;-'i- or ;,ire-r:! .eient ieasure:-ernt
would be grecntl: m- as nif' d :..n f ti; for,,c cur.es.

.'t la-qge a~-les of a t ; t c. :"'.re s either are z3ro
or co:'ne s-i.n ,'.ith s i ;_ls rctaiion i- the pi-.roRch and
cli-mb ccndi.ticns and :.n. thA dual rotation in tre cli.T.b cor.-
ditior. A rudder ran.e grea-tr f.a:n 12C would accen-
tuate these foC .r r,;vrsals and '.:~ht eov.s ': r.evrsal
in t': a-roa~ch condition v'ith L.ial .r -?.t ion i the
travel .ere incrsased su' fficisnti-. Since thet ;
trimn rc-i.uirer..nts are less severe v.jit'r- dui.l than v.:ith
sinlce- rotation, it apncars that increased travel vould
not b:. required ;ith dual rotation.

Inasmuch as a tab would nioru;ielly be usm'-. with sinpl.e-
rotatirn ':iropellere to trim out control forces at zero
yevP, cbe variations of force with angle of raw for the
approach and clirb conditions would probably be different
fromir those indicated in figures ?4 to 26.


CONFIDENT IIL







NTAChi ilCR No. L!iD19


Teiscellaneous characteristics.- In the low-thrust
conditions, only small differences between single and
dual rotation were show in lift, drag, pitching moment,
and lateral force. In the high-thrust conditions,
these characteristics were as:ymmetrical about zero yaw
with single rotation and essentially s~:r-etrical with
dual rotation.


C 0~CT TL I CONS


The results presented lead to the following con-
clusions with regard to the yaw characteristics of the
single-engine airplane model with a single-rotating and
a dual-rotating propeller:

1. The most noticeable differences shown were the
large directional trim changes with the single-rotating
propeller and the negligible trim changes with the dual-
rotating propeller. 7'ith single rotation large rudder
deflections and forces were required to trim (On = 0)
at zero yaw in the low-speed high-thrust conditions,
whereas with dual rotation only small deflections and
forces were required.

2. The model with dual-rotating propeller was
directionally stable with rudder fixed throughout the
trim range for all conditions. Beyond the trim range,
reversals of the yawing-mio-ent curves occurred in the ap-
proach condition; these reversals might produce insta-
bility if the rudder range were increased sufficiently.
"Tith single rotation, rudder fixed, the model was un-
stable at large angles of left yaw in the approach (flaps-
down) condition and exhibited a tendency to be unstable
in the climb (flaps-up) condition. The instability in
the a;:rcach condition also occurred with rudder free
and in a manner termed "rudder lock"; that is, as the
increasingly unstable yawing moment yaws the airplane to
the left, the hinge moment forces the rudder continually
harder against the stop.

3. Although of secondary importance for the model
tested, a greater degree of rudder-fixed stability was
generally shown with single rotation than with dual ro-
tation at small to moderate angles of yaw. At zero yaw,
the slopes of the yawing-moment curves were about 15 per-
cent more stable with single rotation in the approach,
climb, and high-speed conditions than with dual rotation.


CONFI D2TT ILL


C COFI Di iTIAL









NACA ACR No. L4D19


!. The rudder-control effectiveness d4'/d5r in
the high-soced condition was about 10-percent greater
with dual rotation than with single rotation. In the
climb condition, angles of yaw maintained by T2010 rudder
were 210 with 'dual rotation, and 20 and -250 with
single rotation. In the approach condition, the angles
of yaw were 11 with dual rotation, and 2S and -25o
with single rotation.

5. The rudder-control forces p:er degree of vyawv
were two to three times as great for single rotation as
for dual rotation in the low-speed high-thrust conditions.


Langley memorial l Aeronsutical Laboratory,
National Advisory Comrmittee for Aeronautics.
Langley Field, Va.





REFEREE COES


1. Sweberg, Harold H.: Air-Flow Surveys in the Region
of the Tail Surfaces of a Single-Engine Airplane
Equipped with Dual-Rotating Propellers. IACA ACR,
March 1935.

2. Ribner, Herbert S.: Formulas for Propellers in Yaw
and Charts of the Side-Fo'rce Derivative. I'ACA ARR
Po. 5Et1, 19t5.

3. Runckel, Jack F.: The Effect of Pitch on Force and
Foment Characteristics of Full-Scale Prooellers
of rive Solidities. IIACA APR, June 19L2.


CONFIDENTIAL


CO NF'IDE NTI AL









NACA ACR No. L4D19 14









0- 0 Id B 0
cm x BD
B PC%1 0 0.S
0 -O A 04





-o. g 9 a

,, o0000 400 0
caOWuV 0.4i a000u N O-

a e

oI-. D D B I



M o 05 M 0 4 0 0
W S t, r4 l l- 4
0 0 *0 4m a 0

S a B h D ma
0 F.me
.0 4 f, 0 00 0 0 0 0 0
O, 4 1,M 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ao 1 z 4 o & rO. e- ,i .4 iu' 11 .-I n iW r-I
UK ( aD N 0
r3 Z
0-0l 0 I 1 I0 0 0 a
00 0 0W H- o (,




a .. a'. 0 Ir E-r
uE o. *--- II I ------
<-- T D 1,0 O




0d 0
E H m 0 O O Oo


C E 4a 0 B 4 .4 C


.4.0 41M* .4
So. e. I f





0 x P N0 0 .0 r
4 1 ->11-0 0 N
o o u a o





E .A U 4 0 B --i

r- !9 4 )- o.
1 0 ------0 Q 1 0
oE0 4 0 4 0 0 a a P






I-D r. UUn
0 It ll
i -i a H 0.4



E- p a a


W E an ,0 01 !
D, I I OeHO O
r, 43 O
to0 & a a0 0
P e 0 V a o O





O O. I


0 0 0
Q 2I 0 00 0
0 .0 .H.0


0 04



0 B a -
00 4 4- 4
*o a 0 s .






411 A
iI 1 0
0 0-



00 0 0 0 0
04 0 0 Go a


-
4-1 II 3 a
<'^ 00 ll^- 0
0 *H*1.- -
J __ _* __* _
00**
i-l (-1 r-l r- o -* L











NACA ACT INo. tL4D19


CI I -- -
I I .,-i .








'0
II I 1
IC 'r




I I



E -I .


SII rLd
I I (




i! H t- .
E-




i cl
,a --. i o ?*
4- I
I a) ; 1 1 rl
] II ,i

Si ; ---i !


TO I *U


i |I
*I H I *.










iI r-
| E











S0 0

o 0 ,
I IL (--


I I I ( -






|r- *- >\4






O o
I1-. 0


CO]TFIDEITTIAL


!'--. dO O r--l
,--1 OQ0
000 O00
000 00

SI I 0 0
I I



C- L- O 0___ L1

000 000









0 0 0 0 1 I1
I I




r-I O I I r-i 0 I I
*i I *H I
4- ___ I I __,
4-' .1-11


' C- 0 J-
- r-. NJ .
,000
000,
iO I






I
000
000





O





Sr-i '

i o -I
i 0
:7>


0 0 C
.000
000



-



1 0J 00
0 0 0
000


S0





0
4- ) 4.1 0

0 cl ,
4-34
SD ) r-.4-'
r-4 0

P, hO,-
I CO 3
fr 0


C OF IDE IT LL


I
~-'---'







NACA ACR No. L4D19


INDEX TO FIGURES


Figure Tnformation in figure


1

2

5
3.


5
6

7
8


Three-view drawing of model

Details of vertical tall

Propeller blade-form curves
Model mounted in tunnel, landing configuration

Model mounted in tunnel, normal-flight configuration

Variation of thrust coefficient with lift coefficient

Characteristics of dual-rotating propeller

Characteristics of single-rotating propeller


Data Flight Model Rotation Remarks
presented condition configuration Remark

9 Yaw characteristics Approach Landing Single O. range

10 Do.---------------- ---do.--- --do.-- Dual --Do.--

11 Do.---------------- Climb Normal-flight Single --Do.--

12 Do.---------------- ---ao.--- --do.-- Dual --Do.--

13 Do.---------------- High-speed --do.-- Single --Do.--
14 Do.--------------'-- ---do.--- --do.-- Dual --Do.--

15 Effect of rotation Approach Landing ------ = Do
on yaw
characteristics
16 Do.---------------- ---o.--- --o.- ----- Tall off

17 Do.---------------- Climb Normal-flight ------ pO = 00

18 Do.---------------- --o.--- --do.- ---- Tal off

19 Do.---------------- -High-speed --do.-- ------- = 0
20 Do.---------------- ---do.--- --do.-- ---- Tail off

21 Do.---------------- Power-off --uo.------- = 0
glide

22 Do.---------------- ---do.--- Landing ------ = 00

23 Do.---------------- ---do.-- --o.-- ---- Tail off


24 Steady sideslip characteristics, approach condition

25 Steady sideslip characteristics, climb condition

26 Steady sideslip characteristics, high-speed condition

27 Comparison of experimental and calculated yawing moments due to
propeller

CONFIDENTIAL


CONFIDENTIAL






Fig. I NACA ACR No. L4D19
F ig. I



.-4


S.





r4
qi ,
) N- i





-VI




















00
____ J
'- 2 :
\ \ "T



"\7 ~~ ~^ -p ^p ^






NACA ACR No. L4D19


Total area 2.79 sq ft
Rudder area
backof hinge 1.28 sqft
Rudder area
in front of hinge .39 sqrf


A


L_


S /.2. 48 ----l- .
Figure 2-- Detal/s of vertical to/l.


CONFIDEtlTIAL


CONFIDENTIAL


Fig. 2






NACA ACR No. L4D19


1.0


.09


.06


.07


.06


.05


.04.


.05


.02


.0/


0


CONFIDENTIAL
4O

.56-----
.32---------------------------------



.__- ------ --- 3 =-0o
^ --------------- ^-


.2--------------

',o/ ]/= 4
:20


.162 -- _-.


-"-- ---"--- -

. I1 -- -/b


04 --------------------

--_


2.0


.6








.4

O


I.-


0 .2 .5 4- .5 .6 .7 .6 .9 10
r/P? CONFIDENTIAL
Figure 5.- Blade-form curves for NA CA 4-308-03
Drope//er D, diameter; R, radius to t/p r, stoaton
radius; b, section chord h, section fhicKness;
p, geometric pi/ch.


Fig. 3


I










NACA ACR No. L4D19 Fig. 4













,-





r)




a,




0
0
I








E-4




0 0
0
0 .o







o



Ocr
.,-.4




i





,,.4













































































































































'N









NACA ACR No. L4DI9 Fig. 5























a,






0








wE-Z
; I 0
z z
C .r..--






E 0
Q

,-4


0 bo



-4
I-


E.


r.d





























































































L.4






NACA ACR No. L4D19 Fig. 6



-J


-- z --------------- -- z
Z
,, I




\ '
LL.-
\





0

---- -- -



_





















z
\\
o----\-- ---









O l I .I.977Jlf
QJ



-----------------------------


\- -- I f




------------------- I






_----------- ------^


0------------- ---i-l-i-i-i-



L 'UQ/3,JaJOD 4fsnljt/J





NACA ACR No. L4D19.


.08 B


.07


S.05


S.04

1-3
c.03

02


.0/


0

0 4.
0"




.2


.


0 0
*.


5-


Advance-diameter ratio, V/nD

CONFIDENTIAL
Figure 7- Characteristlcs of the six-blade


dual- rotating


propeller NAA CA


4-308-03 blades; 6= 28 D=4feet.


CONFIDENTIAL









-2^-- -









llmb condition
_4^- A ,---_





'11 =\






~ \\l i ~ i l l t~


Fig. 7


.6 .7 .8 .9 /.0


/./ 12





NACA ACR No. L4D19


.lO


.09


.08


.07


06 .6


.05

os
S.04


.03


.02


*t"
6'



J
Z -
0 .
^. .<-





.2


.01 /


AI
CONFIDENTIAL












Q1





-I\
-4-------




I -- -

1 Krb c-H1di --,

1 /Cllib condition
,j i I ^ ^ j _


0.
. 5


-Aqpproach condition
n i I I I I


.6 .7 .8 .9 /0


Advance-diameter ratio,


KV-Li


/. .2


V/nD
CONFIDENTIAL


Figure 8. Characteristics ol the six-blade
s/ng/e-rotating propellers A/AcA
4-308-03 blades ; j =238- D-4feet


Fig. 8






NACA ACR No. L4D19


- g8 1 1 1 1 I I1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i l l I I I I I I
32 8 -28 -20 -/6 -/2 -8 -4 b 4 8 /2 16 20 24 28 32
Angle of yaw, pA deg
figure 9.- Yaw characteristics for the approach condition. Single rotation-
landing configurationj 55-percen full power j Tc=O.59; ccxT=/ 0;4,-J
R 3,000,00.


Fig. 9a







NACA ACR No. L4D19


-24 -20 -/6 -/Z -4 0 4 8 /2 /6 20 24 28
Angle of yaw, y deg


Figure 9.- Con clouded.


CONFIDENTIAL


Fig. 9b






NACA ACR No. L4D19


NOa -/O
S-/ / .O -5- 25-



oi ^- '^ C -- --





-2 -8 -4 4 8 / / 2 3 644
Ang/e of gIw,3,, deg
Figure1/.- Yaw characterrhar for 1he approach cond/11on7.Dua/ rota//on-
.anding configuro-on 55dpercent full powerT 0.59fe- o -3.
SCONFIDENTIAL3000000
R 3 ,0 000 0. "


Fig. 10a






NACA ACR No. L4D19


" ( / ,---.[- o- - --__
CONFIDENTIAL












00








0 0
.4 -_



n is w de"

















,An le of w w, I- deg
-l 3re / .- -nclu ded.
rl -- ----_,. .


Fig. 10b






NACA ACR No. L4D19


CONFIDENTIAL

-i /. ----
Q *c
( _


8--


.02



S0-

- =01

02

. =03

o-04.


|-0O
-OB


08 1 1 1 1 1 1 II | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1
-32 -28 -24 -20 -16 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 /2 /6 20 24 28 32
Angle of oaw, 7/, deg
figure / /.- Yaw characteristics for the climb condi fon. Single rotation;
normal-flight configurallon, full power, T=0.55; cr =1/ 8fe=0
Rt3,00q000.


Fig. 1la






NACA ACR No. L4D19


-32 -28 -24 -O -!6 -/2 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 /6 20 24 28 32
Ang e ofrya V) deg CONFIDENTIAL
Figure / I.- Concluded.


Fig. llb






Fig. 12a


NACA ACR No. L4D19


-k











Rudder free
k. 1"_ 0 -J/1L -

03









Rudder free ..'s '



-4 -/Z -& -4 0 4 8 /6 20 24 _8 3Z 36 40
Ar 7/e of gaw, deg CONFIDENTIAL


ST= //.8_; 6,= O _; R- 000,000.
>-^~ I ---------- lJ-----------------I I I
-1 I 6-C04 2/ OZ4 63 64
AnleofLfwz^ dg ONIDNTA
.iue 1-0wc3aceitc o h libcniin u
rotaion nomalfi'/ht onfigratonfl oe ^.J


1.2
8







NACA ACR No. L4D19


- CONFIDENTIAL
.4- -^ -------------




S-4 = =:
:4

.6 ---



- .5 -





8 .z -- --


.4



*1 -- ,,----
C- -----







0 .----------


J 4 5 /6 ZO 20 24 d9 .2 36 4C
An/e '- yvjw, deg
CON IDENTiAL
o~r" /eZ.-Co .cided


Fig. 12b





NACA ACR No. L4D19


.)
o' .
UJ


/04


-0
i

1^0

cz


.OZ


-o0 4 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1
-/6 -/I -4 0 4- /2 /16 ZO 24 28 32
Angle of yaw r deg CONFur N FhAL
Figure /3.-Yaw characteristics for the high-speed
condition. Single rotation; normal-flight configuration;
full power; Tc=0.03; a r=-0.8* 6e 0.3* R-4,200,000.


Fig. 13a






NACA ACR No. L4D19


/2 -8 -4 0 4 8 /2 16 20 Z4 28 32
Angle of yaw, deg CONFIDENTIAL
r3.oncuded CONFIDENTIAL
figure /3.-Concluded.


Fig. 13b






NACA ACR No. L4D19


0=0

.CONFIDENTIAL
I"


--7
---_-_









-6,



S- -40 4 o 0 2-
02 -- -i-












-1 -12-< -4- o 4 8 1Z /6 O eo4 3 36 40A4
,Anl/e of Iap, V, dceqg CONFIDENTIAL
fTgure 14.- Yoaw characteristIcs for the high-speed condition.Duo/
rotaton; normo/-f/ight configuration; full//power; T7 =00; x,=-0.6;
S0.J" R; -4, 00,000.
^ _ ^ >^ -








--Z4 --- -- -- -- 0 -- -- -- --- -- -- --3 40~ti


Fig. 14a






NACA ACR No. L4D19


Fig. 14b


SONFIDENIAL













.3
S -- -------------- -






-- -------"-
KY-- -------------- -----------------_ 0












-- -i

I .,.,



I ii
I -



--8-4 0_48 /2 /- 20 24 28 32 3_ 40

CONFIDENTIAL
,q 're /4. 6Conc/l eo.i






NACA ACR No. L4D19


, ./ CONFIDENTIAL |I
S __ _' 2 OM I_ _
S-3 -- -

-- Dua/ wkh.-/
SS ingle rota/_on





Propeller off -/0.5
S 5ing/e rolaton -d







03 -/
";.OZ--K 0













-32 -28 -24 -20-/ -/2 -4 4 /2 20 4 8 3
Angle of yaw, deg CONFIDENTIAL
f-gure /5. -Effect of rotation on yaw chcrG terl/s/c3
for the' approach condl/lon. Tall on, r~=O" landing
conf/gurct/on/ 55-percent full power, = 0.5,9; c =/QO
R =3, 000, 000.


Fig. 15a







NACA ACR No. L4D19



2.2
CONFIDENTIAL
2O

/8 -




1.4

/.6-










.2




.5 ----

4---

o 3--------

.2--------
IS---------
^-- ----




^^. -- -


Fig. 15b


-7 L J 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1[ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
-32 -28 -24 -20 -/6 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 /6 20 24 28 32
Anqie of yoa: ~;', deeQ
CONFIDENTIAL
fi-ure 15 -Concluded






NACA.ACR No. L4D19


Qy.2
(Z

0


S:2













01
,02






-A
-.05
-lf


CONFIDENTIAL









S-Prope//er off -/0.5
A Single rotation -3












-prop/'r off _
--Sln l rolpoton
SI -- -- ---------
-O -A g le r ott -


_'^ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _I-igertto __ S ^
_ ^ ^ u a ro t tio _


"-32 -8 -24 -20 -16 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 /Z /6 20 24 29 32 36 40
Angle of yaw, p, deg
Figure ld.-Effect of rotation on yaw characteristics for the
approach cond/l/on. Vertical to/l off landing configurca/on;
55-percent full powerF, 7=0.5 a, C-/Oi, RP3,000,000.


Fig. 16a






NACA ACR No. L4Di9


-, t,'-4- LlI I I
"% /4------







-: ro11_ iL '
If







_ __ --_-- _

















-2-
-3'









-2 -4-20-- -de --- ~- -
nggJ/eroe/' aon










..F6ee 11-7-
Prope//er off -135
^-. --;.---- ----------------------iia qqof~g-------





7 2 ---- --- -gle rol- -on _
'-- --------------------------------_________-----____-













CONFIDENTIAL

,32 -&2 -04 -20 -16 -i2 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 '6 20 24 28 32 36 40
An ie -of jow, V deg

Figure 16 -Conclued


Fig. 16b






NACA ACR No. L4D19


0
I -/






I-4
B.I


.0/
o
0



-:02

-03



~:-05

-06


-07
-3


-28 -24 -20 -/6 -/2 -8 -4 0 4 6 /2 /6 20 24 28 2
Angle of gow, V/, deg


Pigure / 7.- Effect of rotation on yaw characteristic for the climb
condition. Tol on; 6,r-=0 normal-flght configuraon; full power,
S= 0.3o, ocrl=//.81, R/3,000,000.


CONFIDENTIAL




_-S/rSIngle rotafton






--- -Tn/ --7Ho






Prope//er off -8
519n/ rotap on



_I I ofL- -




"- /- ingle roto Co1 0











CONFiDENTIAL
-1- S, _,_ _4 --? P'^ i rnt fin ,Q _
^ ^ ^ ^ I I z 7 --- --:
-J^ ___\,__^~~ ~ i .Z Z -

\ ^SZ7
im _^i i immzzz

_ ^ i ^ _ _
===== i ^-===== .===
_ ^ _C ON__ _ _


'Z


Fig. 17a







NACA ACR No. L4D19


7/ .rnt.n









Propeler off -

IT SIngle rooaton 0
3--------------- ---













CONFIDENTIAL
-- ____ -___ --------- --c Propel/er off -8r --
~------------------------------SJ/n9/e ro/taion 0 --











Fgu / 7.Cnc/ud
-- -------------------------



---CONFIDENTIAL

-3Z -Z6 -Z4 -ZO -t6 -/2 -8 -4 4 8 / 12 /6 ZO 24 28 32

Figue /7. -COnc/ucd.d


Fig. 17b






J.


-32 -8 -24 -20 -/6 -12 -8 -4 0 4- 8 /Z /6 20 24 28 32 J6 40
Ang/e of ,a&, 3r deg
figure /8.- Effect of rota/ton on yow characteristics for the climb
condition. Vertical toil off; normal/ flght configuration; full
power T=6.55; ccr=/l.8; /2-3,000,000.


U% 10


Ig'. oa NACA ACR No. L4D19



















0Prope/e r off -8
S lngole rotaaton O






NACA ACR No. L4D19


0
K)'


CONFIDEN TIAL 5 'n,,'e roratihn
_ual ro/athor-






---:)---6--,Igl-- 9ff::








| ---










S_ /lei rot tio 0 --
J,
__ ___ ONropfD9er Nl
ool rotation


Du, o/ 'o '


Ite r 0











--- -- A-- --- Jf- --- ------ ---- -- -
S----------------------





S1 CONFIDENTIAL


-.4 _lI I I I i I I iL I i I | 1._ I I W. I
-2 -28 -24 1 -/ -8 -4 0 4 8 6
AnQ o- aw, y dceg
Figure 18 -Coc/,ded.


I0 4 2i 3 116
20 24 Z8 32 36 40


Fig. 18b






NACA ACR No. L4D19


CONFIDENTIAL



tzP9


S ----------o/~/~ ___1I_______j___? ^^- ______ ---___________
-- / roa/ to







0 -----------1111----- & :_ -__
_(deg) I / _
o Propeller off 0
Single rot/on .3


.04-






.03~N -- --- ---- -- -------I-

,S g__le -- _-- --
.03
%OZ






P e ,/ -- / rnNn
04





-0 ,
.-04. --JLroI
S____ .__._._._.____ ___ __ I '

-/5 -12 -d -4 0 4- 8 12 /6 20 Z4 26 32 36 40 44
Angle of ya v deg CONFIDENTIAL

Figure /9.- Effect of rolta/on on yaw character/j/cr for the high-Jped
condition. To/l on; 650 ; normal- flight configuration;/ul power; I- 0.03
c-q -o~', R-4o00, 000


Fig. 19a





NACA ACR No. L4Di9 Fig. 19b


ILI


S -2I -8 -4


Pr~in~i'/.-r riz-I


CONFIDENTIAL


^.6

-4


o



'S
%K3
< c
II

n^-;


-- -i 1 1~ 4-4 i 1--(


L II I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I L I
0 4 8 Z 16 20 24 28 J2 36 40
Ang,'e of yaow, deg
F-gure /9 -Concrc'dec


CONFIDENTIAL
-- -3nzg root,.on
-ua;' rotation










e)
SPropeller offi
.. __ Sinqg/i rotao.on 0.3


3 I





4-

,- ^ ^ ^ _ _
-.. ^ ^ _ _


4.







k'


:3
-'


4--4-T


I_


I


++H 1


+





NACA ACR No. L4DI9


-/6 -/Z -6 -4 0 4 6 /2 /6 20 24 32 3 J6 40
Angle of yaw, VI deg CONFIDENTIAL

Figure .-Effect of rotation on javw characteristics for the
high-speed condition. Vertical tail off; norma/-fl/ght con-
figuration; full power; T= 0.03; C,=-0.8; R4.4,200,000.


Fig.. 20a






NACA ACR. No. L4D19


-'-3




Qj3


Z9j


-6 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 /2 16 20 24 26 32 36 40
Angle of ya, Vy, deg ...
FIgure 20 -Concduded.


Fig. 20b






NACA ACR No. L4D19g


fZ,



-Q2


o Propeller off-
-o __ SDngle ruIra/on/ -- .
nl04 --_ mron-- ,_


TO7 5 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I L
-32-28 -4 -20 -6 -/I -8 -4 0 4 8 /2 /6 20 24
Angle of ~WW, i', deg CONFIDENTI,


28I I3 I
28 323 6


Figure Z/. Effect of rotation on yaw characteristics for the
glide cond/l/on. Tal/ on; dr=O; norm'o/-flight configuration, Tc=O;
CTc=/1.65 R--3,000,000.


CONFIDENTIAL "+oeaer off



S-ngPle ront--lon----
Dul roktaton -- ,







Propele off -6
SSlngle rota/o -









-0j
.I- -------n -












70/ S g o t\,
r f u _r ttn ^ -.?


12


Fig. 21a






NACA ACR No. L4D19


-A I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I L 1
-3? -Z8 -24- -- -2- O0 4 8 ,2 /6 2 20 24 Z8 32 36 40
Ar.g/e of yav,. O,- oeg

Figure Zi/.- Conccuded


Fig. 21b






NACA ACR No. L4DI9


CONFIDENTIAL










I -I- I Proce//fr off- -10.5--O
....ID -n g- rotal-on 5. 6
I __ i --- I- ir l--












0-6
.0
















Propel/er off-
SiSngle rotafo
.05 1 1/1 r1n 1l on 1 1
-o [-- -- -- -- -
S--i-- i- -- _



^~~ --___ __F-. ------------ -



I I I ---- --- ^ -- ----- ^


-07 I 2 2
-J3 -28 -24 -20 -16


-/2 -8


I I I I I


CONFIDENTIAL


-4 0 4 8 /2 -/6 20 4 8 32 36 A9
Ang/e of aTw, r, doeg


f gu re 22.- Effect of rotation on yow characferifl/cr for the glide concditon.
To/ onr, 6,-O' /and/ing configuration; T =0; cr,-97;I R-J00.(WOn


Fig. 22a






,NACA ACR No. L4D19


J2 36 40


-?32 -Z -24 -Z.C -.. 4 -4 0 4 9 /f2 6 20 Z4
An/gl of vpw, deg
Agure 2z Concl. cea


Fig. 22b






NACA ACR No. L4D19


-32 -28 -24 -20 -/6 -/2 -8 -4 0 4 8 /2 /6. 20 24 28 32 36 40
Angle of yaw, /r, deg

Figure 23.-Effect of rotation on yaw characteristics for the
gl/de condition. Vertical tail off, landing configuration; Tc=Oi
cr,= ,.71 R=-3,00o 000.


Fig. 23a






NACA ACR No. L4D19


-32 -28 -24 -20 -/6 -2 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
Anlqe of iaw, V/, cJe9
FiOure 23 :Concudel.


Fig. 23b





NACA ACR No. L4D19


IC I IA
CONFIDENTIAL


1 t t 4


20


/OC


C


-/0


/0


20


30


Left Angle of yaw, Y deg Right
Figure 24. Steady sides//p characteristics
(C =0) for the approach condition.
V" 2 n6ph.


'


i-1
4Q


+^i.
K
K



ZZ3Q
c^-J


I- nWqs l/eve/,
5/1,n/e ro/cfi/on







/--- ua roto--n-

/-_- /Dual ro/atlon
/ (esftONFIDed)
n/erotafon
/ CONFIDENTIAL
_^ D alr t f o


-Z0





S/0
b
Z_4
0 2',


-30


__


Fig. 24





NACA ACR No. L4D19


/00 I I .
-O /




Sw'/rng. level,
3/C si/ng/e ro/fo/on.

/



O /



/ Dal/ rofo/otn
,( / Dual rotaton

_-J-/nle rotate on


-30 -20 -/0 0 /0 20 30
Left Angle of ywvv, deg Right
Figure 25- Steady sdesl//p characteristics
(C,= O) for the c//mb c- nd/aon. V/=/04r/ph.


Fig. 25





NACA ACR No. L4D19


1%


-10


Angle


/0O


20


of yaw, deq
Right


F/9ure 26. Steady sides/
teristics (C =O) for
speed c on/dton. V=


ip
7he
306


charac-
mph.


20O


CONFIDENTIAL





,7
:i- i-------



/
---1T-- ~-~



S-- Dda/ rotof/on
--S-79inle r/ot7//on







CONFIDENTIAL


/OC


C


^ /OC


-16


I ,
c: )

Z3o
-s-s~


/i


-ZO
-20


Left


Fig. 26


CONFIDENTIAL





NACA ACR No. L4D19


_j

Z on
U.
-0

(Z

Swc

Z
W8
O ^`











?jt
L Q)
OO





O;1^
UO
CC


?) Q-, -
1c P 5j
^t+
96
^^^
|>s .


N -si

u9 !ialladoud 01 anp
. u 9 J aO Ua LOUL- DUIMDA


Fig. 27











3126208104 961 0


Ur:V;'/ERSITY OF FLOR:DA
DOCUY'/iLNTS DE!CRTN.iENT
1;.'0 .-'STOQ i SCIEJCE LIBRARY
P.O. BOX 117011
GAINESVILLE, FL 32611-7011 USA


\