Wind-tunnel investigation of rounded horns and of guards on a horizontal tail surface

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Material Information

Title:
Wind-tunnel investigation of rounded horns and of guards on a horizontal tail surface
Alternate Title:
NACA wartime reports
Physical Description:
9, 70 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Liddell, Robert B
Lockwood, Vernard E
Langley Aeronautical Laboratory
United States -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Publisher:
Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Langley Field, VA
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Airplanes -- Tail surfaces   ( lcsh )
Aerodynamics -- Research   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
Summary: An investigation was made to determine the aerodynamic effects of horn balances with various plan forms and of guards on a horizontal tail surface. The results indicate that rounding the adjacent horn and stabilizer edges caused neglibible changes in the aerodynamic characteristics, except for the changes resulting from the decrease in the area momeent of the horn. The use of guards mounted between the stabilizer and horn was found to increase the slope of the lift curves with angle of attack or with elevator deflection. The negative slopes of the curves of hinge moment against angle of attack and elevator deflection increased as the guard area was increased.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references (p. 8).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Robert B. Liddell and Vernard E. Lockwood.
General Note:
"Report no. L-60."
General Note:
"Originally issued October 1944 as Advance Restricted Report L4J16."
General Note:
"Report date October 1944."
General Note:
"NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were previously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not technically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 003614495
oclc - 71261445
sobekcm - AA00006292_00001
System ID:
AA00006292:00001

Full Text

,J:Ko L- 0o
ARR No. L4J16


NATIONAL ADVISORY. COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS





1WA1RTIME RE PORT
ORIGINALLY ISSUED
October 1944 as
Advance Restricted Report L4J16

WI -TU EL INVESTIGATION OF ROUNDED HORJS AND OF GUARDS
ON A HGRIZOINTAL TAIL SURFACE
By Robert B. Liddell and Vernard E. Lockwood

Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Langley Field, Va.









NACA


WASHINGTON
NACA WARTIME REPORP.TS are reprints of papers originally Issued I... provide rapid -llstrt..uti.n cf
advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort They were pre-
viously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not tech-
nically edited. All have been reproduced without change In order to expedite general distribution.


L 60


00CUMENTS DEPARTMENT






































Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2011 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation


http://www.archive.org/details/windtunnelinvest00






TA.'A ARR 'o. 1J416

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS


ADV.'; ': RESTRICTED REPC.'T


T'I:-D-TU:'':7, INVESTIGATION CF ROUiTDED HCORS AND OF '-URDS

ON A HORIZO:.:-.L TAIL SURFACE

Fy Robert B. Liddell and Vernard E.. Lockwood





An investigation was made to determine the aero-
dynamic effects of horn balances with various r.l.,n forms
and of gElr's on a horizontal tail surface. I'_-. results
indicate that rounding the adjacent horn and stabilizer
edges caused negligible changes in the aerodynamic charac-
teristics, except for the changes resulting from the
decrease in the area moment of the horn. The use of
guards mounted between the stabilizer and horn was found
to increase the slo--. of the lift curves with angle of
attack or with elevator deflection. The negative slopes
of the curves of hin"_-e moment against angle of attack
and elevator deflection increased as the guard area was
increased.


INTR<',"'' "i'c:


An investigation was made in the LMAL 7- by 10-foot
tunnel of the 0.5-scale model of the left horizontal tail
s~.rf-tce of the Grumman TEB-1 airplane with various horn
and stabilizer liodifications. The purpose of the
investigation was to determine the aerodynamic effects
of changing the plan forms of 1::1 horn balance and the
adjacent fixed surface. Test results are included to
show the aerodni-.m naic effects of various .%:-.rd arrrne-
ments that might be used on a horizontal tail having a
horn balance. For convenience, the results presented
in the various figures are listed in table I. Tuft tests
of the outboard end of the model were made to determine
the air-flow characteristics of four horn and stabilizer
modifications.

Inasmuch as this invest. ':tion was general, the
model was tested at higher an,-l:s of attack and with








"'.-.A ARR No. L4J16


elevator deflectioni much Freater than would have been
feasible for the act-al T3F-1 airplane.

7.. LS


CL lift coefficient (L/qS)

CD dra: coefficient (D/,S)

C, pitc!hinr-:ncr nt coefficient about mounting axis


Ch elevator hinEs-.nc.or-nt coefficient about hinge
he axis (Ie/iqbec 2;

L r'.ice the lift of thce s _iispan r .1

D twice the dris of c tn se.-ispn iiodel

S twice the pitching m.nt of the se:misopn model

He elevator ::c ent .bc't 1 .- axis, foot pounds;
positive when it tends to depress elevator
trailing ed;

q Id-:- .*c pressure

3 total Iori ontal-tail area

b span of horizontal tail

be span of left ele ator

c mean chcrd of t'he horizontal tail surface

S root-mean-square chord of the elevator

S total g"lr!'- area (two .- ,':,ds)

a angle of attack of the r odel

5" elevator deflection relative to the stabilizer,
rosltive 'ihen trailing ed, is deflected
-. rd








NACA ARR No. LJlo


T ,l




Ch

ee


ChC

,71 sl e -d

All slope values quoted are for srall values of
angle of attack and flare deflec -;cn.


EC

A se:nmisan r odel was mounted vertically in the
LTJAL 7- by, 10-foot t'unrel (reference 1) with the inboard
end adjacent to the tunnel floor, which thereby acted as
a reflection plane. The model was sru-ortod entirely ty
the balance frame with a small clearance at the tunnel
floor in order that all the forces and moments acting on
The imdel could be measured. T'e flow over the model
simulated the flow over a complete horizontal tail
consistin of the left semispan of tie model joined to
its reflection and mounted in a 10- by 14-foot tunnel.
In order to present results for bte full-span horizontal
tail, the measured values taken for the tests were
multiplied by 2. The test setup is shown schematically
in figure 1.

Provisions were made for changing the angle of
attack and the deflecticn of the elevator of the model
while the tunnel was in or ration. The elevator hinge
moments were measured by means of an electrical strain
iare mounted within the elevator.

The 0.5-scale model of the left horizontal tail
surface for the Tr'-1 airplane was furnished by the








NACA ARR No. LkJL.6


Cru: .a-.n AircraLf Cornoration and conformed to the
dimensions shown in fiure 2. The nmo6.el represented
'.Bab i&rb of the airi~are shoin crosshitched in figure 3.
'e eonet.'i:c characteristic of t-e mcdel are given in
the o1rio o vi ng t -.e :

Icrizonta t ail area, criminal configuration HIS],
3/2, sq, u re feet ........................ ...... 15.69
Horizontal tail span, b/2, feet .................. 5.20
Elevator ar'a aft c" Linge line, square feat .....
:evator root-: ean-s.q e ccrd, e, feet ........ 1.268
Elevator iolemr nt, d agrees ..... ... ..... ........ 536
Guard ar3a, S g
Guard 1, square feCo ......... .............. 0. Oli
Gard 2 (e = 0)C, sque l: t .............. 0. 5
Guara 3, square fto t r.. .. .... .. ....... .. 0.822
Guard 4, square foot ............ ....... .. .., 1+575

Thie odiofi .atio-n aai on the model duringTl the tests
consisted primarily of a s..,te:. atc change in t1he gap
between the horn and otab.llienr Lear the leading edge.
This modifictio.. v:as r.a '' ooriding the rndel wi th
interc'.- 'ea.ble horn- andf s.t.bilizer-tip blocks of
various sihpes,. Figures and. sio:1 3 UCifications
to theo rrod)l and indicate t le -niet.hod adopted to the
designation cf ihe various horn and stabillz.cr shapes.
- r courpara ive 1, urnoses, tests ;ere also :u ide of the
mcdel without a horn and a 'th a full-span stabilizer (HoSo).

Pour different guards v:ere also tested vwith the
original horn configure tion. di mension0 of each
gPard are -:'ven in fi ire o and photographs of the :I C'd
:rranger:ent are -resented as figure 7,

7or most tests, tle o -.. c pressure : i.as maintained
at 16.57 pounds nor square. foct. At some high positive
ang les of attac- and nositve elevator deflections,
values of drag and 'hi;ge someint too large for the
indicating apparatus necessitated a reduction of the
tunnel dynam.?c noressure to 12.55 pound 3 er square foot.
These two dynamic pressures correspc(.. to velocities,
under standard sea-levol conditions, of' b and 70 :,;il.s
per hour ands to test Rcynolds numbers of ,970,000
and 1,720,000, respectively. The eiynolds numbers are
based on a model chord of 2.65 focto (Effective
leynolis nuzn'er = 1esc ;o0 -.olds number x '.ulence
factor. T'. t-uroulenco factoor for the LiAL 7- by 10-foot
Lunnel is 1.6.)








I"- 'A A7?R iTo. IJl. 6 5


GOPe1;?7OKNS


?'-. result ts ihave been corrected for the effects of
the jet boundc.ries. The cor"lctions which wele applied
to the -i-1 of attack :.nd the lift, drac, p.tching-
moment, ;..; hinge-nooent coefficients were:

Aa = 1.48 x CL

AL- = -0.016 x Cx

C, = 0.0)235 x CL



ACh A = C.3)9 x

No corrections h'av been ar:de for the effects of
the gap between the rcot section a'id the floor or for
leakage around the support strut.


,::.,iTS .'.:'- BISCUSDiON


Horn and stabilzer mcdificat'.ors.- Th, aerod -..:.ic
charact- L.- '.::t T -.1: '~i.L7.. -'1 1. arc presented as a
function of angle of attack for two elevator deflections
in fi0.r.'i 8 and as a function of elevator deflection for
two angles of attack in fi.-i.- 9. Little if ..-- si-.fi-
cant change in the lift prodsed. is noted i'or the various
rodifict _ons, except for the tail surface without a
horn (..)oo )

The area of the horn decreased with the successive
horn modifications and caused a proportioonat.e crease
in balancing moment. Thus, ro -r'- .i:: the i'orn increased
slightly the negative slopes of the hinr:-mTmsnt-
coefficient c:"...:s, as is shown in figureC and 9.
No improvement in the hinle-mo" iert elfracceristics is
apparent for a rotn?.::d horn.

Complete data. are presented in fl.'}s 10, 11,
-nd 12 for the model without a horn HoS, for the
or'iginl configuration H131, ..., for modification H3S2,
respectively. T.r- slope of the lift curve for the original








NACA ARR No. rLJJl6


model HI S1 equals 0.055. Tn general, little gain in
lift may be obtained bor deflucting the elevator more
than 206 or by increasing the angle of attack above 160,
except f'or attitudes of the model in which the elevator
deflection anc angle of attack are of opposite s.ign.
Thi: hinge-moment parameters are plotted in figure 1.3
against the ratio of the ara rroomn~it of the horn ;o the
area mor:ent of the elvator. I;.' thit figure, the
contribution cf tho horn to Cha and Ch6e r.oy be
deoerminLed. The values of ACh and ACi obtained
are in good a~:ee:Aent with the values given in reference 2.
Eff'ectt3 of guards.-- The aerodynamic effects
of meo .'. a. i guards on the original :'nodel HIS1
are shown in figj.s 1T and 15. The guards act as end
plates on the ai foil and cause a stall increase in CLr
and CLe as thoe uard area is increased (fig. 16).
-roao
The lift par-"i-c t'-n incOres in i ost.'it proortion to
each otC he- r; o:o ct.. -6r c, of t. 1e : r is
therefore o wn bo e t ons c. w i n in easing g''ard
area.
In.smuch as h and Ohr inc.Fe o.C n .:;gaL.tvely with
an inc2naso in g'nr@ a:'", ( f, .., 'to h-1-r' ar-T would
have to be increased C:)orc:C ly ri,.h t h. i. nc.a nS in
guard aLrea if the hing~r -C!:oi3nt pa:ar n .Crs aro to be kept
constant. Since i, s positive, the hinge-mo'n nt
parameters mav be expected to bocc3ie more positive, as
did the *lift raraieters with increase in guard area.
The opposite is apparently brue 'f a horn i c! loed
to obtain most of the control-surfa tce balance. This
result might be explained in the foll ~ing manner: The
airfoil may be considered as divided into two parts by
the solid guard. The portion oif te airiil inboard of
th- guard ha2- very little balance arena and, therefore,
C!' and Ch6e are negative and would become increasingly
negative with an increase of guard area. Values of
CL and CLe also would become increasingly positive
as the ;u: '.d increased Luhae aspect ratio. The portion
of the airfoil outboard of the guard, however, creasesass
in .sr-'ct ratio with the addition of gu~rd area. This
decrease would cause the positive hinge-rmoient r- uomrteters
for this portion of the airfoil to have little influence
in the determination of the over-all parameter values.








*- A AH 1fo. LrJl6


Ey the use of fi-ures 15 ~nd 16 it -.:ou!d 'e possible
to find the additional area moment of the horn required
for an'- size of -. --.i that we o-ld be used. These curves
vould :;. valid, ow r, only for .g":,,ds nountcd at the
s" ::;.s e station tested. A slid *-._::cd at ay oth13r
sranwlse locati n -.ould affect the lift and h:!n-e-mo::ent
rara2meters if :Terentu .

'"t studies.- ?Te .resu.lts of tuft s- '-'es rmade on
the u:. :-r surface of the cmdel for a series of angles of
attack at various elevator deflections are presented in
-fi- :.s 17 to 20. Thes 3t:dles ve:--e made of the out-
board end of ihe horizontal tail for four horn and
stabilizer -. _'i nations and arr believed to be the first
detail,-.i. tuft st losi male of .:lew cr .:: t!iors around an
unshie l 1--- horn.

.The photo --rs E::o- tfLa, at, ne tlve elevator
deflect;ions, little .i-fference e ists in air filow over
the top surface of the ro02i f*or the various horn and
stabilizer 2odif.catiouns t~sted. At :csitIve e elevator
deflections, however, th offact of' the horn on the air-
flow characteristics is nct localized but affects the
air- : low pattern over ruch of thie surface -.ovw.. Searra-
tion occurs on all r.If e elvato-3 srveyed fhen theo
elevator angle and an'-le of attack are 3. (For
e::... -.e, see fi. le8(e) On the other han, for the
model withoutt a horn at the same ati .' a smooth flow
over the elevator i.s i:catod (fie. 17(,)). The
disturbi'-, effect of the air flw: thro. te horn-
stabilizer .--p and the hinge cut-out r is evident
:nm fil: --s 23 to 23. :u7ndin-i off the stabilizer .hiS2
produces a slight improveon-nt in flow conditions.


CO GL.'I TO


The results of ani invec'ti-tion to detcrm i ne the
aerodynamic effects of var-':-ii the shape of 'rorn balances
on horizontal tail --aces indicate that:

1. Ro, :.,ing the adjacent hIrn and stabilizer edges
had a negligible effect on the aer-,'-..r:ic characteristics
of the tail surfacee except for that caused b-- the decrease
in horn area moment.








NACA ARR No. iLJ16


2, A solid horn guard mounted at the end of the
stabilizer increased the rale of change of lift with
:ng le of att ack nd with el valto-r deflection. fThe rate
of ch i:. o hing e ro.!ent 4iIth angle of attack and with
o3eva10o deflection Incre3asc negatively as the Giiard
area was increased.


Langley ~smorial Aeronautical La:cratoi:.
National Advisory Co-'mnitte3 for Aeronautics
TLangley Pieid, Va.























1. Wenzingar, Carl J., and `arris, Thomas A.: i7ind-
T-nn el Inve s t- iga ion of 3an i,. .A., 25312 Airfoil
with Various Arran i r. nts of Slotted Flaps. IACA
Rep. No. 661, 1959.

2. Lowry, John G.: Iesd'n 6 of i'9;__:--- onent Data for
.i welded 'orn-Balanced Control Surfacos. ITACA
R3 Ho. 5F'cI, 1943.








._ : ARE To. T!.:..J6


rZL.TS IN VARIOUS FIGMY-T 3


NATICT'.L ADVISC:,;
C "T'-I FOR AERONUIO .CS


TA- -7 I









NACA ARR No. L4J16


NATIONAL ADVISORY
CUMMIIIEE FOR AERONAUTICS


f/ire I .- 5chemoat/c diagram of lest insta//t/on.


Fig. 1






NACA ARR No. L4J16


3.6 0 0 S -


9.25 1360
^L / | ~T-^^ ^^
S\5

9-7 --- 5.75 ---- 1.95
44.97
NATIONAL ADVISORY
/-Gop=-'/OCOMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS


TYPICAL SECTION
Figure 2.- The O.6-scale mode/ of TBF-/ /eft
hor/zontol / i// surface. A// d/misions are
/i //,,)hCs.


Fig. 2





SNACA ARR No. L4J16


Panel tested


NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS


Agu7re 3 .- Plan form of the Grummron TBF-/
airp/ane.


Fig. 3


~E-~J~t~--






NACA ARR No. L4J16


i--



So Ho

A.





Section A-A Full span ,sfabi/izer
NAIiONAL ADVISORY with no horn
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS
figure *. Details of horn and stabi/irzr modificall/ons
Sested on the 0.5- sca/e model TBP/ left-
horizonto/ ail/ Jurface. 0(, Origo/l torn
and sfabi;;zer).


Fig. 4








NACA ARR No. L4J16


(a) HoSo.

Figure 5.- Photographs of 0.5-scale semispan model of
horizontal tail surface of TBF-1 airplane showing con-
figurations tested-


Fig. 5a


r
r
F.



r







NACAARR No. L4J16


(b) H1S1.


Figure 5.- Continued.


Fig. 5b







NACA ARR No. L4J16


(c) H2S1.


Figure '5.- Continued.


Fig. 5c







NACA ARR No. L4J16


(d) H4S1.

Figure 5.- Continued.


Fig. 5d







NACA ARR No. L4J16


(e) HIS2.


Figure 5.- Continued.


Fig. 5e







NACA ARR No. L4J16


(f) H2S2

Figure 5.- Continued.


Fig. 5f







NACA ARR No. L4J16


(g) H3S2.


Figure 5.- Continued.


Fig. 5g







NACA ARR No. L4J16


(h) H4S2.


Figure 5.- Concluded.


Fig. 5h






NACA ARR No. L4J16


,arfd


'N


) 6arda / ; //6- -ic t ste/ ; ye4rd
a//tcheod to &/fd///zr.


NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS
() 6adrd 2; /1/6 -/6ch stee/; oae p/dte
on /hor and one o7n sfatdi /zer

/r/are Detai/s of guards ftestef/ o7 5-
scale mInde/ 7F-I left hdr/zonfl/ ta//
sor/ace /t/'/ ar/Yii// ta/id orn /, (/.


Fig. 6a,b






NACA ARR No. L4J16


6adrd 3


A-A


/C) Gura J ; -//7nch /aa/'/te ; or
o017~n


Saird 4


Section A-A


} 6Saaord 4 ; //4 / 76 /ason/ife ; geard
a f ach/?d to Ao/? aond e/eaf Or.


NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS


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NACA ARR No. L4J16 Fig. 7a


















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NACA ARR No. L4J16


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NACA ARR No. L4J16


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NACA ARR No. L4J16


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Fig. 16b








iACA ARR No. L4J16


a = 00


a = 80


a 240


a = 160


a = 320


(a) Se = -320.

Figure 17.- Tuft study over upper surface of 0.5-scale model
of TBF-1 left horizontal tail surface. Modification HoSo;
q = 16.37 pounds per square foot except for tests with
asterisk in which q = 12.53 pounds per square foot.


Fig. 17a


a = -8







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -80


a = 80


a = 240
(b) 8e -16
(b) 8e -16 o


Figure 17.- Continued.


a = 00


a = 160


a = 320


Fig. 17b







NACA ARR No. L4J16


4- i11 t
V


a = -80


a = 80


a = 240


a = 0


a = 160


a = 320


0
(c) Se -8


Figure 17.- Continued.


Fig. 17c







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -8


a = 8


a = 240


a = 160


a = 320


(d) Se & 0


Figure 17.- Continued.


Fig. 17d







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -8


a = 80


a = 240


(e) Se = 89


Figure 17.- Continued.


a = 00


a = 160


a = 320


Fig. 17e







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -80


a = 00


a = 8


a = 160


a = 240


a = 320


(f) Se = 160.


Figure 17.- Continued.


Fig. 17f







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -80


a = 80


a = 00


a = 160


a = 240


a = 320


(g) Se = 320.


Figure 17.- Concluded.


Fig. 17g







NACA ARR No. L4J16


'j H t "f
-1W
4A


a = -80


It I,


a = 80


a = 240


(a) e = -320.
(a e


Figure 18.- Tuft study over upper surface
of TBF-1 left horizontal tail surface.
HIS ; q = 16.37 pounds per square foot
with asterisk in which q = 12.53 pounds


of 0.5-scale model
Original surface
except for tests
per square foot.


A. i


a =00


a = 160


a = 320


Fig. 18a







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -8


a = 80


a = 240


(b) Se = -16o.

Figure 18.- Continued.


a = 00


a = 160


'I


a = 320


Fig. 18b







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -80


a = 80


a = 00


a = 160


a = 24


a = 320


(c) e = -8.


Figure 18.- Continued.


Fig. 18c


i l-r ;r






NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -80


a = 80


a = 00


a = 160


I"'







it


a = 240


a = 320


(d) Se 00.


Figure 18.- Continued.


Fig. 18d







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -80


a = 00


'


a = 80


a = 240


a = 320


(e) Se = 80.


Figure 18.- Continued.


Fig. 186


--j


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~l.-~"~~"Y







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -80


a = 00


a = 160


= 32
a = 320


(f) Se = 160.


Figure 18.- Continued.


a = 8


a = 240


Fig. 18f







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = 00


a = 160


a = 24
a ~240


Ig) eS


a = 320


= 320.


Figure 18.- Concluded.


a = -80


a = 80


Fig. 18g


~







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -8


a = 80


a = 240


a = 00


a = 160


a = 320


(a) Se = -320.

Figure 19.- Tuft study over upper surface of 0.5-scale model
of TBF-1 left horizontal tail surface. Modification HIS2;
q = 16.37 pounds per square foot except for tests with
asterisk in which q = 12.53 pounds per square foot.


Fig. 19a







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -80


a = 80


a = 240


a = 00


a = 160


a = 320


(b) 8e = -160.


Figure 19.- Continued.


Fig. 19b








NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = 00


I I
( |'






a = 16


a = 320


(c) e -80.

Figure 19.- Continued.


a = -80


a = 80


a = 240


Fig. 19c







NACA ARR No. L4J16


I







a = 00


a = 80


a 240


a = 160


a = 320


(d) Se 00.


Figure 19.- Continued;


Fig. 19d


a = -80








NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -80


a = 00


a = 8


a = 160


a 240


a = 320


(e) Se 80.


Figure 19.- Continued.


Fig. 19e







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -80


a = 80


a = 240


a = 00


a = 16


a = 32


(f) be = 160.


Figure 19.- Continued.


Fig. 19f







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = 80


a = 240


(g) Se 320.

Figure 19.- Concluded.


a = -80


a = 00


a = 160


a = 320


Fig. 19g






NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -80


a = 00


1


a = 80


a = 240


a = 160


a = 320


(a) 8e = -320.
Figure 20.- Tuft study over upper surface of 0.5-scale model
-of TBF-l left horizontal tail surface. Modification H3S2;
q = 16.37 pounds per square foot except for tests with
asterisk in which q = 12.53 pounds per square foot.


Fig. 20a


I
KI; g!







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = 00


a = 160


a = 320


(b) Se w -160.


Figure 20.- Continued.


a = 80


a 240


Fig. 20b


a = -8








Fig. 20c


NACA ARR No. L4J16




k-
*^ _^l


1& : a ;"'


a = 00


a = 160


a = 320


(c) e = -8.
(c e


Figure 20.- Continued.


a = -80


a = 80


a = 240


:I
;
s;i~r
I~arsna:i







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -80


a = 80


a = 240


a = 160


a = 320


(d) 8e 0.


Figure 20.- Continued.


Fig. 20d


a = 00







NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -8


a = 80


a = 240


(e) 8e = 80


Figure 20.- Continued.


a = 00


a = 160


a = 320


Fig. 20e








NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -80


a = 00


Ir'
t1t


a = 80


a = 160


I !
ai



I






a = 320


a = 240


(f) Se = 160.


Figure 20.- Continued.


Fig. 20f








NACA ARR No. L4J16


a = -80


a = 80


a = 00


a = 160


71


a = 240


(g) Se = 320.


Figure 20.- Concluded.


Fig. 20g


















































































































































iii





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