Effect of elevator-profile modifications and trailing-edge strips on elevator hinge-moment and other aerodynamic charact...

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Material Information

Title:
Effect of elevator-profile modifications and trailing-edge strips on elevator hinge-moment and other aerodynamic characteristics of a full-scale horizontal tail surface
Alternate Title:
NACA wartime reports
Physical Description:
14, 23 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Schueller, Carl F
Korycinski, Peter F
Strass, H. Kurt
Langley Aeronautical Laboratory
United States -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Publisher:
Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Langley Field, VA
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Elevators (Airplanes)   ( lcsh )
Aerodynamics -- Research   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
Summary: Results are presented of tests of a full-scale horizontal tail surface made to determine the effect of elevator-profile modifications and trailing-edge strips on the elevator hinge-moment characteristics for elevators having fixed plan form and constant balance.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references (p. 13).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Carl F. Schueller, Peter F. Korycinski, and H. Kurt Strass.
General Note:
"Report no. L-111."
General Note:
"Originally issued June 1945 as Confidential Bulletin L5F01."
General Note:
"Report date June 1945."
General Note:
"NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were previously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not technically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution."

Record Information

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 003614296
oclc - 71252539
sobekcm - AA00006274_00001
System ID:
AA00006274:00001

Full Text
L-I\\


N^r


NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS





WARTIME REPORT
ORIGINALLY ISSUED
June 1945 as
Confidential Bulletin L5F01

EFFECT OF ELEVATOR-PROFILE MODIFICATIONS AND TRAILIMG-
EDGE STRIPS ON ELEVATOR INGE-MOMENT AND
OTHER AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A
FULL-SCALE HORIZONTAL TAIL SURFACE
By Carl F. Schueller, Peter F. Korycinski,
and H. Kurt Strass

Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Langley Field, Va.


I,.


NACA


WASHINGTON
NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of
advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were pre-
viously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not tech-
nically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution.


L 111


DOCUMENTS DEPARTMENT
U, "


II

I;



th~,


CB No. L5F01



































Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2011 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation


http://www.archive.org/details/effectofelevator001ang









NACA CEB No. L5F01 CCOFID.7ITIAI

nATIOQTAT ADVISORY CC'.Y'ITTEE FCR AFRCITAUTICS


CO0FIDE71TIAL BULLETT IF


EFFECT CF ELE"ATCR-PROFILE MODIFICATIONS AND TRATLING-

EDGE STRIDS 0,U ELEVATOR HINGE-r cENT AIND

OTHER AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A

FULL-SCALE HORIZONTAL TAIL SURFACE

By Carl F. Schueller, Peter F. Korycinski
and H. lEurt Strass


SUMM ARY


Results are presented of tests of a full-scale
horizontal tail surface made to determine the effect of
elevator-profile modifications and trailing-edre strips
on the elevator hinge-moment characteristics for elevators
having fixed plan form and constant balance.

A reduction of 60 in the trailing-edge angle of the
elevator produced incremental changes in the slopes of
the curves of hinqe moment against anZle of attack and
elevator angle of approximately -0.0026 and -0.0015,
respectively. The incremental changes in Ch6 (slope of
curve of hinge moment against elevator deflection) due
to elevator nose-shace modifications were cf about the
same magnitude as those predicted by the method presented
in IACA ACR No. L4E15; whereas the nose-shape changes had
little effect on the values of Chn (sloe of curve of
hinge moment against angle of attack). By use of a more
blunt nose and a reduced trailing-edge angle, the values
of Cha for the elevator could be reduced from the
unsatisfactorily high value of 0.0020 to 0 without
affecting the values of Ch6. Trailing-edge strips were
found to be very effective in reducing a positive value
of Chn but produced an adverse increase in Ch6. No
appreciable loss in trailing-edge-strin effectiveness in
producing changes in hinge-moment coefficient occurred
up to the maximum test Mach number of 0.65



CO IFTDEITT AL
.









CNACA CB No. L5F01


I.TRODUDCTION


The design of highly balanced control surfaces has
not been sufficiently developed for the desired control
characteristics to be obtained in the first design and,
for that reason, the control surfaces of most new air-
planes usually must be modified.

In an investigation in the Langley 16-foot high-
speed tunnel of -a typical full-scale semispan horizontal
tail surface of a proposed fighter airplane, a number of
systematic profile modifications had to be made to produce
the desired aerodynamic characteristics. The present
report shows the effect of elevator nose shape, trailing-
edge angle, and trailing-edge strips on the aerodynamic
characteristics of the tail surface, the elevator of which
had a fired plan form and a constant ratio of balance area
to elevator area.


CO-FFICIENTS AND SYMBOLS

CD drag coefficient (/)D

Ch hinge-moment coefficient QHb
(L\ ebe
CL lift coefficient (S)

Cm pitching-moment coefficient "--

D drag of entire model

H hinge moment

L lift of entire model

Mc'/A pitching moment about quarter-chord point of
mean aerodynamic chord

b span, feet

c chord, feet
c' mean aerodynamic chord

ce root-mean-square of elevator chord behind hinge
line


COFFIDEUTIAL


CONFIDENTIAL









.AC A CB Io. r. Ol


q dynamic Dr:ssure (' pV 2

S tctal mcel area, square feet

M Mach number

R Reynolds number

V velocity of air, feet per second

x horizontal distance along chord from leading
edgu, percent chord

y vertical distance, from chord, percent chord
a angle of attack of stabilizer, degrees

p mass density of air, slugs per cubic foot
6 ancle of elevator chord with respect to stabilizer
chord positiveve when trailing edge is down),
dtEgrees

Vi included angle at elevator trailing edge, degrees

Parane xers:


C /6CL


(OCh
Cha /

Ch 7 -- \ o


(The subscripts outside the parentheses represent the
factors held constant during the measurement of the
paramr t.crs )

Subscriots-

b balance


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NACA CB No. L5F01


e elevator (back of hinge line)

f flap (balance and elevator)


DESCRIPTION OF MODEL


For the present tests, the left side of the horizontal
tail surface of a modern fighter airplane was used as a
model. The airfoil was made according to the profile of
the NACA 66-009 airfoil. For the metal elevator (the orig-
inal elevator), this airfoil was modified to have a
straight contour behind the 0.72c station. The general
arrangement and geometrical characteristics of the model
are presented in figure 1. Figure 2 is a photograph of
the model installed in the Lanrley 16-foot high-speed tunnel.

Stabilizer.- The stabilizer was of metal construction
and metal covered. All rivets were flush and the surface
had been filled, rubbed with abrasive cloth, and waxed to
increase the surface smoothness; however, considerable
surface waviness existed. The gap between the elevator
and the stabilizer was approximately 1/4 inch and was con-
stant for all elevator angles. In order to reduce undesir-
able air flow through the elevator hinge pockets, cover
plates attached to the top and bottom of each stabilizer
hinge bracket were included.

Elevators.- Four modifications of the metal elevator
were tested. The plan-form dimensions of all elevators
were the same. The hinge line was located at 0,72c and
the elevator balance was 0.h8ce (cb/ce = 0.48). No trim
tab is used on the elevator because the angle of incidence
of the stabilizer is adjustable in flight.

The metal elevator was constructed of aluminum and
had a semielliptical nose and a straight taper behind the
hinge line; this arrangement resulted in a trailing-edge
angle of approximately 150.

The coordinates of elevators 1 to 4 are given in
table I. These elevators were constructed of spruce and'
incorporated systematic modifications to the elevator pro-
file as shown in figure 3. Elevator 1 had a blunt nose
and a strAight taper behind the hinge line with a trailing-
ed-.e angle of 15, the same as the metal elevator.


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NACA CF ;Io. L5F01


Elevator 2 had the same blunt nose as elevator 1 and a
cusped contour behind the hinge line (i = 70). Elevator 3
had a modified blunt nose and the same cusped contour
behind the hinge line ( i = 70) as elevator 2. Elevator 4
had the semielliptical nose profile of the original ele-
vator and the same cusped contour behind the hinge line
(f 70) as elevators 2 and 3.

Examination of the model showed that the stabilizer
bracelets ':ere approximately 3/32 inch above the chord line.
The center line of the hinge pins for the metal elevator,
however, was found to be slightly above the chord line.
The net effect of these constructional defects was to cause
the upper surface of the metal elevator to project approxi-
mately 1/16 inch above the contour of the tail when the
elevator v:aE in the neutral position. These defects caused
the hinge-roment curves to be asymmetrical, but the incre-
mental changes of a given coefficient, which result from
the elevat.r modifications described herein, are believed
to be correct.
1 1
Trailing-edge strips.- Strips of --inch- or l-inch-
diameter tubinr were attached to both surfaces of the metal
elevator at the trailing edge. The method of attaching
the tubing to the elevator is shown in figure 4. The
length of the trailing-edge strips was varied first by
testing the full-span length and then by cutting equal
lengths from the root and tip ends of the strips.
(See fig. 4.)


APPARATUS AND ILTHODS

Yodel installation.- Inasmuch as a semisoan model
was used for the tests made in the Langley 16-foot hi ih-
soeed tunnel, the center line of the horizontal tail sur-
face hal to be located in the plane of the tunnel-wall
flat in order to produce air-flow conditions that approxi-
matei, those of flight. (See figs. 1 and 2.) Labyrinth-
type seals were used at the oper.Inns where the model
suoprrt went through the tunnel-wall flat to minimize the
leakage of air from the test chamber to the tunnel.

Hinge-mnolent measurement.- The elevator control tube
was so extended that it passed through the tunnel-wall
flat and two self-alining' bearings mounted on the


C,' IFIDIT IAL


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NACA CB No. L5FO1


tunnel-balance frame. The elevator hinge moment was
transferred through the elevator torque tube to a 6-inch
crank and then through a jackscrew to the platform of a
scale. The jackscrew was also used to vary the elevator
angle. The platform scale was rigidly attached to the
tunnel-balance frame and, since all other related parts
were also attached to the tunnel-balance frame, the ele-
vator hinge-moment measurements could not interfere with
the measurements of lift, drag, and pitching moment. All
force and moment data were recorded simultaneously.

Elevator-angle measurement.- An Autosyn was used to
measure the elevator angle. The transmitter of this
Autosyn was rigidly attached to the stabilizer at the
inboard hinge cut-out. A small pinion gear on the trans-
mitter shaft was driven by a large sector gear that was
rigidly attached to the root of the elevator. Any elevator
deflection that occurred was therefore multiplied by the
gear ratio (approx. 12:1) and was electrically transmitted
to the receiver. A calibrated dial attached to the
receiver provided a continuous visual indication of the
elevator angle. A template was used to check the zero
reading of the Autosyn indicator. This arrangement is
believed to have measured the elevator root angle within
0.10.

Angle-of-attack measurement.- An inclinometer located
on a reference surface of the model support system was
used to measure the angle of attack of the chord line of
the stabilizer root. The measurements are believed to be
accurate within -0.050.


TESTS


In general test data were obtained for a = -3, 0,
and 53, 6e ='-8 to 8, and'M = 0.55. Some combinations
of the angle variables could not be tested because of the
allowable load limitations on the model. One of the
trailing-edge-strip modifications on the metal elevator
was tested at Mach numbers as high as 0.65.

Tests to determine the aerodynamic characteristics
of the original metal elevator and the effect of trailing-
edge angle (elevators 1 and 2) were made with the original
hinge location; whereas tests to determine the effect of
nose shape (elevators 2, 3, and 4) were made with the


CONIID2IYTI AL


CONFIDIEUTIAL









:.4ACA CB 10. r.LFOl


stabilizer hinge brackets lowered 5/32 inch in order to
locate the hinge line exactly on the chord line of the
tail section.


REDUCTION OF DATA


The data presented herein have been corrected for
tunnel-wall effects by the use of the reflection-plane
theory given in reference 1. The projected frontal area
of the model was such a small part of the tunnel area
that tunnel-constriction corrections were negligible.
Corrections to pitching moment due to model deflection
and balance-frame deflection also were found to be negli-
gible. The corrected data were cross-plotted and the
values used herein are for selected angles of attack,
elevator angles, and Mach numbers. The average dynamic
pressure and average Reynolds number corresponding to the
test vMach number are shown in figure 5. The Reynolds
number is based on uhe calculated mean aerodynamic chord
of h.27 feet. Tests in which the gap around the model
support was varied from 1/4 inch to 0 showed that no
corrections due to end leakage were necessary for this
setup.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Basic Data with Metal Elevator


The variation of hinge-moment, drag, lift, and
pitching-moment coefficients with elevator angle at
M = 0.55 and a = -50, 00, and 3 are presented in
figures D to 9, respectively.

Hinge-moment coefficient.- For the data shown on
figure 6, Ch = -0.0015 and ChO = 0.0020. A construc-
tional defect in the hinge-brackot locations (see section
entitled "Description of .Todel") is the main cause of the
asymmetry of the curves; a slight asym-.etry in the ele-
vator contour is probably also a contributing factor.

Drag Coefficient.- No unusual drag characteristics
(fig. 7) occurred. The minimum value of CD, however, is
0.011, which is 2 relatively high value as compared with the
values for surfaces having, less profile discontinuity.


CONFIDETI AL


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1IACA CB No. L5F01


Lift coefficient.- The lift coefficient varies
linearly with elevator angle for the range shown in
figure 8. The lift parameters CLa and CL6 are 0.058
and 0.0275, respectively.

Effect of Trailing-Edge Angle

Flight investigations have shown that the value of
Ch should be approximately 0 in order to avoid adverse
effects on the stability and control characteristics, par-
ticularly in gusty air, and.that the value of 0.0020
obtained for the original elevator was unsatisfactorily
high. Preliminary calculations based on unpublished data
indicated that a value of Cha = 0 could be obtained by
decreasing the trail in-edge angle from approximately
150 to 7. This change in elevator shape is illustrated
in figure 5, and its effect was evaluated by a comparison
of the results obtained for elevators 1 and 2.

Hinge-momrent coefficient.- The effect of trailing-
edge angle on the elv:tor hinge-moment coefficient is
shown in figure 10 for three angles of attack and for
M = 0.55. The nonlinearity of these curves prevents the
exact use of the usual parameters, but the 6 change in
elevator trailing-edge angle resulted in the following
changes in the parameters: ACh6 = -0.0015 and
ACha = -0.0026. The change in Ch due to a reduction
in trailing-edge angle was of the desired magnitude, but
the accompanying increase in Ch- was undesirable because
the control moment was about doubled for the metal elevator.
The undesirable increase in Ch8 due to a reduction in
trailln-edge angle may be nullified with no appreciable
change in Cha by changing the elevator nose shape
(discussed in section entitled "Effect of INose Shape").
Figure 10(a) indicates a reversal in Ch6 at a = -53.
This undesirable variation is believed to be a result of
the asymmetry of the hinge-bracket location.

Drag' coefficient.- The variation of the drqg coef-
ficient for elevators 1 and 2 (/i = 150 and 70, respec-
tively) with elevator angle is presented in figure 11 for
three values of a and for M = 0.35. The drag coef-
ficient for a given increment of elevator deflection is
slightly greater for elevator 2 (/i = 7) than for
elevator 1 (41 = 130)


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:I.CA CB No. L5F0l1


Lift coefficient.- A decrease in elevator trailing-
edge angle was usually accompanied by a slight increase
in lift. A reduction in trailing-edge angle from 153 to
70 increased CLa from 0.061 to 0.06h. and increased CL3
fro.n 0.051 to 0.052.

Pitchirg-moment coefficient.- Reducing the trailing-
edge angle from 15 to 70 caused a rearward shift of the
center of lift. Vihen the lift was varied by channginr the
angle of attack at 6 = 00, the center of lift shifted
from 22.6 to 2h.2 percent of tiae mean aerodynamic chord;
when te lift was varied by ch..ngi.i the elevator angle
rf a = G0, the center of lift was shifted from 56 to
57.7 perc.-ent Df the r.een aerodynamic chord.
Effect of Jose Shape

hinge-moment data obtained for the various trailing-
ed-e mo:iiic tions indicated that the desired value of
Cha could be obtainedd with a trailing-edge angle of
approximately 7. The reduction in trailing-edge angle,
ho:'ever., caused Ch, to increase from -0.0015 to about
-0.002'. Since th= crigri'al value of Ch6 obtained for
the metal elevator (-0.0015) was considered satisfactory,
it w-s believed desirable to reduce the new value of Ch6.
Reference 3 shows that t.ht value of Ch6 can be changed,
witLout appreciably affecting the value of C0h, by
altering the elevator nose shape. Two alterations were
accordingly made to the n;ose profile (see fig. 5) in an
attempt to obtain a satisfactory value of Ch6* Compari-
son of elevators 2 and 3 with elevator 4 shows the changes
in elevator contour.

Hinge-moment coefficient.- The effect of the nose
modificti cns cr. the hinze-moient coefficient at M = 0.55
is shown in fip-ures 12 )nd 13. Because of the difference
in stru2ti.rol stiffness, between the wooden and metal ele-
vators and because rf tl-.E asymmetry of the metal elevator
(see section entitled "Description of I' del"), elevator 4,
which had a ser..ielliptci-l nose profile the same as that
of the mital elevator, was used as a reference. Figures 12
end 15 indicate that modifying the nose profile of the
rrmtal 3lavator to the rmodlfied-blunt shape (elevator 5)
woulo r:-sult in AChL = 0.0010 and ACha z 0.0002; these
figures indicate also that modifying the nose profile of
the metal elevator to Lhl blunt shape (elevator 2) would


COI'i D1-T 7 AL


CC.FID-,.TIAL









MAC A CB 1o. L5FOl


result in ACh5 = 0.0020 and Cha z 0.0004. An elevator
with a balance-moment area intermediate between elevators
2 and 5 would provide the desired decrease of 0.0015 in
Ch6 and would thus nullify the adverse effect of reducing
the trailing-edge angle to 7. The tests of the wooden
elevators therefore indicate that the desired values of
Ch = 0, ChG = -0.0015 at M = 0.35 may be obtained if the
a 6
profile of the metal elevator is so modified that it has
a more blunt nose (intermediate between elevators 2 and 5)
and a cusped contour behind the hinge line (elevator 2)
with a trailing-edge angle of about 70.

An exact quantitative check of the experimental and
predicted effects (reference 5) of the elevator-nose modi-
fications cannot be made because of the nonlinearity of
the curves of hinge-moment coefficient against elevator
angle. The incremental changes in Ch due to modifica-
tions of the elevator nose, however, are of about the same
magnitude as changes calculated by the method of refer-
ence 3. Very poor agree- nt is obtained when the value of
Ch6 for any one elevator is c-I.culated from unbalanced
section flap data and corrected for balance effects by the
method of reference 5.

Lift coefficient.- The effect of elevator-nose con-
tour on CL6 is shown in figure 14 for 6 = 00, M = 0.55,
and a = -53 to 5. Figure 14 shows that CL6 increases
slightly as the surface discontinuity between the rearward
portion of the stabilizer and the elevator nose is reduced
by making the elevator nose more blunt because, as the
contour of the tail surface approaches that of the true
airfoil, optimum pressure distribution and lift are
obtained.

Drag coefficient.- The effect of elevator-nose con-
tour on drag is also sl.oJn in figure 14. The drag
decreased slightly as the surface discontinuity between
the rearward portion of the stabilizer and the elevator
nose was reduced.

Pitching-moment coefficient.- The effect of elevator-
nose contour on the pitching moment was not appreciable
and no data are presented.


COiIFIDENJTI AL


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NACA CB No. L5FO1


Effects of Trailing-Edge Strips

Test.. were made also to determine combinations of
lenth nrid diameter of trailing-edge strips that could
be used on the metal elevator as a temporary expedient
to obtain Cha = 0 for flight tests of the first experi-
mental airplane having this tail surface. Various lengths
of -inch- and -L-inch-diameter strips were tested at
8 16
M = 0.55 and a = -53, 0, and 50.

Hinge-moment coefficient.- Figures 15 and 16 show the
variation of hinge-noment coefficient with elevator angle
1 1
for various lengths of *-inch- and 1--inch-diameter trailing-
ij 16
edge strips, respectively, at M = 0.35 and at a = -3,
0, and 53. Decreasing the length of the strip decreases
the slope of the hinge-moment curves, and no abrupt
changes in the tr?nd of the curves occur. The data pre-
sented in these figures have been used to obtain the
hin e-moment nar3m-ters Cha and Ch6 shown in figure 17.
The desired value of Cha= 0 can be obtained by using
1
--inch-diameter strips 21~ percent of the span in length
8 1
or ---inch-diameter strl)s 38 percent of the span in
length, but with an sccomoanying adverse increase in Ch6
over the desired value of -0.0015. The effect of speed
on the effectiveness of the trailing-edge strips is shown
in figure [1. 11o serious reduction of hinge-moment coef-
ficient Ch occurs un to the maximum test Mach number
(M = 0.65) with the full- span 1-inch-diameter strips on
8
the elevator trailing-edge.

Lift coefficient.- Figures 19 and 20 show the effect
of the length of the trailing-edge strips on lift coef-
1 1
ficient for --inch- and ---inch-diameter strips, respec-
8 16
tively. The use of strips of either diameter usually
results in an increase in lift at the higher elevator
angles.
Drag coefficient.- Figures 21 and 22 sho. the effect
of the length of traillring-edge strips on the drag coef-
ficient for --inch- and -7-inch-diameter strips, respec-
8 lo
tively. The increase ir, drag due to lengthening the
l-inch-diameter strips is usually twice the increase which

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NACA CB No. L5F01


1
occurred with the ---inch-diameter strips. The maximum
16 1
increase measured with --inch-diameter full-span strips
was 15 percent.

Pitching-moment coefficient.- The change in pitching-
moment coefficient due to trailing-edge strips was negli-
gible and no figures are presented herein. The center of
lift, however, was shifted from 2z percent to 25 percent
of the mean aerodynamic chord for 6 = 00 when the lift
1
was increased by changing the angle of attack for --inch-
diameter full-span strips. The maximum shift in the aero-
dynamic center was from 52 percent to 58 percent of the
mean aerodynamic chord for a = 00 when the lift was
increased by changing the elevator angle.


CONCLUSIONS


From tests made in the Langley 16-foot high-speed
tunnel of a full-scale horizontal tail surface to determine
the effect of elevator-profile modifications and trailing-
edge strips on the elevator hinge-moment characteristics
for elevators having fixed plan form and constant balance,
the following conclusions were reached:

1. A reduction of 6 in the trailing-edge angle
resulted in incremental changes in the slopes of curves
of hinge moment against angle of attack and against ele-
vator angle of approximately -0.0026 and -0.0013, respec-
tively.

2. The incremental changes in Ch6 (slope of curve
of hinge moment against elevator angle) due to elevator-
nose modifications were of the same magnitude as the
changes predicted by the use of methods given in NACA ACR
No. L472E15. These nose-profile changes had virtually no
effect on Cha (slope of curve of hinge moment against
angle of attack).

3. A reduction in trailing-edge angle and an increase
in the bluntness of the nose profile reduced the values of
Cha for the metal elevator from 0.0020, which was unsatis-
factorily high, to 0 without affecting the value of Ch6.
.. Trailing-edge strips were found to be very effec-
tive in reducing a positive value of Cha, but an adverse

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UACA CB No. L5FO1


increase in the values of Ch6 accompanied the use of
these strips. No appreciable loss in the effectiveness
of the trailing-edge strips in producing changes in
hinge-moment coefficient was aoparent up to the maximum
test Mach number of 0.65.


Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Langley Field, Va.


REFERENCES

1. Swanson, Robert S., and Toll, Thomas A.: Jet-Boundary
Corrections for Reflection-Plane Models in Rectangu-
lar "'ind Tunnels. NACA ARR No. 5E22, 1945.

2. Purser, Daul E., and Riebe, John M.: Wind-Tunnel
Investigation of Control-Surface Characteristics.
XV Various Contour Modifications of a 0.30-Airfoil-
Chord Plain Flap on an NACA 66(215)-014 Airfoil.
ITICA ACR No. 5L20, 19)5.

5. Purser, Paul E., and Toll, Thomas A.: Analysis of
Available Data on Control Surfaces Having Plain-
Overhang and Frise Balances. NACA ACR No. LiEl3,
1941.


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NIC CB no. 5P01


TABL" I
CCrRDI':AT-S FOR L:VATVRS 1 TO L IN PWRCrTT c


SElevator
y


1.03
2.06
3.09
!.12
5.14
6.17
1 .20
8*23
.26
10.29
11.523
12.55
1 .~ 7
1.5?
20.53
22.65

32.c,2
57.06
;11.15
1:5.27
4,
5 .50
57.61

6. .?1


o.1
6..42


Elevator
y


-&


Elevator 1
y


0
3.91
.6 26
7.10
.61
. 05
8.23
36
8.62
8.75
8.85
8.91
8.93
8.95
8.99

3 .76
8. 61
3.8
3.05


T.E. radius = 0.05 inch
aDashes indicate straight taper behind 0.321 c.


CCMFIDENTIAL


I -TT ION I I ADVISORY
COMMTTTF" FO F '..FRr,' N1UTICS


Elevator

(a)


0
3.91
6.26
7.10
7.61
8.03
8.23
8.46
8.62
8.75
8.85
8.91
8.95
8.95
8.99
8.95
8.87
8.76
8.64
8.44
8.0o
7.57
7.10
6.59
6.13
5.58
:5.o4
.53

3.01
2.47
2.02
1.56
1.13
.82
.52
.27


x


0
5.19
.19
5.355
6.19
6.71
7.20
7.47
7.75
7.95
.16
8.51
8.45
8.50
8.59
8.63
8.69
8.65
8.6o
8.oi
8.53
8.01
7.55
7.10
6.59
6.13

5.53
4.53

3.01
2.)47
2.02
1.56
1.15
.82
.52
.27


0
2 .47
5.53
5.27
5.80
6.58
6.71
7.ok
7.28
7.57
7.78
7.94
.07
8.25
8.27
8.44
8.44
8.31

7.99
7.55
7.10
6.59
6.13
5.58
4.50
53
5.8
5.01
2.47
2.02
1.56
1.15
.82
.52
.27


COrFIDETTIAL








NACA CB No. L5F01


CONFIDENTIAL


I 100

------------00


10' Dihedral


Root-mean-square of elevator chord behind hinge line, in.-----------13.74
Mean aerodynamic chord, in ..........*************.............................********..... 51.3
Stabilizer area, sq in. ................................................................ 32590
Elevator area, sq in.--.. ......................................................1429.0
Overhang area, sq in .. ------............................................................... 596.0


CONFIDENTIAL


NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FO AMEIOAUTCS.


Figure 1.- General arrangement of the horizontal tail surface
in the Langley 16-foot high-speed tunnel. (All dimensions
in inches and measured in plane of section.)


Fig. 1










NACA CB No. L5FO1 Fig. 2















E-4
z


0
rk.







4.3





-44
: ,'-I









0
,-'1
0














)**-I





.


O-,
ri
Ct
C-)-








NACA CB No. L5F01 Fig. 3









I I
115




II o

I 1 i
rF 2r




l" 1


wI 0
I I | 4--

o / I <







8 I *






Ee
CIC



0







LL. !e
IL -6U) z IL.
8 z
oE
--4










s 'CO.
rci
xE


v --0
0 0



0



U I)








NACA CB No. L5F01 Fig. 4













z 0

E


-J I-






a.
06 0









I. z I
0 "
1 Q >m





c
0. 1 0\






00
- > 0 4 Q

-~~~~- I -a-:=>HI




0 \ 0 1 c


I --

00


I0I
I. 0
*0







1I
V0
\^---__-- ------ L4







NACA CB No. L5F01


.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7


Figure 5 .- Variation of the overage dynamic pressure
and average Reynolds number with lest Mach number.


Fig. 5


17 x 106


16


15


14


13


12 c:


E
C


10 0
>0







NACA CB No. L5F01


.02


0


-.02


I I
(c) a 3.
-4 0


4


8
NATIONAL ADVISORY


d", deg CONNMITTE
Figure 6 .- Variation of hinge- moment
with elevator angle; metal
M= 0.35.


AERONAUTICS


coefficient
elevator.


CONFIDENTIAL










(a) = 3.












(b) _=O0.










CONFIDENTIAL


.02


0


-.02





.02


0


-.02


-8


Fig. 6a-c







NACA CB No. L5F01


Fig. 7a-c


CONFIDENTIAL

\
2 -- -




o(a) C IN-3.


I l I c) a. 3 o.l I I I
-8 -4 0 4 8
NATIONAL ADVISORY
d, deg COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

Figure 7.- Variation of drag coefficient with
elevator ongle; metal elevator. M= 0.35.
CONFIDENTIAL


.04








NACA CB No. L5F01




4


0-


-4 -


-12 -8 -4


Fig. 8a-c


0 4 8 12

, deog


Figure 8 .-Variation of lift coefficient with elevator

angle; metal elevator. M 0.35.


NATIONAL ADVISORY
Ic 3 C COMMITTEEE FOR AEMONAUTICS
CONFIDENTIAL







NACA CB No. L5F01


.01


0


-.01






.01


0


-.01


-,.01


-8 -4


CONFIDENTIAL








(a) a.= -3.













(b) a= 0.O


0
S ,deg


4 8


NATIONAL ADVISORY
CONFIDENTIAL COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS
CONFIDENTIAL constra ron monurrcs
Figure 9.-Variation of pitching-moment coefficient
with elevator angle; metal elevator. M= 0.35.


Fig. 9a-c







NACA CB No. L5F01




.02


0


-02 -


0





E
o


E
Cm


S
x_


.02


0


-02


.02


0


-02


Fig. 10a-c


(b) a= 0 .






00.


L M C = 3 .. I
-8 -4 0


4


Elevator


2


(deg)
13
7


8


6, deg NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS
CONFIDENTIAL
Figure 10.-Effect of elevator trailing-edge angle on elevator hinge-
moment coefficient. M= 0.35.








NACA CB No. L5F01


/



-


(b)o 0. 0 0.







CONFIDENTIAL /
___ ___ __ ___ __ ___ __ / / __ _


Elevator


2-


L.__lJ4c) I 3 I3L

-8 -4 0 4 8
NATIONAL ADVISORY
f, deg COMMITTEE FO AERONAUTICS


Figure II.-Effect of elevator trailing-edge angle on drog

coefficient. M= 0.35.


(deg)

13
7


.03


.02


.01


.03


.02



.01


.V I


Fig. lla-c







NACA CB No. L5F01


.04 i -- i-----i i -
.04 CONFIDENTIAL


0 Elevator

-t04 .---.-L-.i
IIa__ _(a)oc =3 0 2

4-
.04
*c

0





0 -.04
E
(b) =0.



0)





-.04 CONFIDEN-TIAL
-.04 4 2





(c) oc =-E3.


-12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12
S d NATIONAL ADVISORY
deg CO NITTEE FOl AERONAUTICS
Figure /2.Variation of hinge-moment coefficient with elevator
angle for the three nose shapes. M= 0.35.


Fig. 12a-c







NACA CB No. L5F01


0


uJ


C' ro


________ 1~ *1* I


1 1LIw
I


-- 11E'_-


--4----
-- ----z

I 1
If I
0
-n^- u


SK__




c~JJ


.0 0 Q


0


0Ir
Z
t|
I5z
-(


a0)
0*0
e
O i


z

z


0

0
4-




0




4
C







a .
00






co




w
0
a)
(I,


>-;


Fig. 13






NACA CB No. L5FO1


Elevator


-4 -2 0 2 4
cc, deg


CL


cc, deg


Figure i4.-Variation of C D
for various nose shapes.


and GL_ with a
M 0.35,; 0.


Fig. 14








NACA CB No. L5F01


Fig. 15a-c


Length of trolling-edge strips
- (percent ob
50
---------- 25
--- 0


NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FO0 AERONAUTICS


-12 -8 -4 0
J deg


4 8 12


Figure 15.- Variation of Ch with elevator angle for four lengths
of inch-diameter trailing-edge strips. M=0.35.


.08



c .04
.iu
S-
S 0

C
E
o -04
E

C
-r-








NACA CB No. L5F01


CONFIDENTIAL
.Length of trailing-edge strips, percent span
100
------ 50
---- ____n


-8 -4 0 4

d, deg


8 12


NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AEIONAUTICS


CONFIDENTIAL

Figure 16.- Variation of Ch with elevator angle for three lengths

of ---inch- diameter trailing- edge strips. M= 0.35.


.04


0


-.04


0


-.04


-.08




.04


0


-.04


_ (b) M=0 .












(c) oc= 3. 0 --


Fig. 16a-c






NACA CB No. L5F01


.004

0
U


-.004


CONFIDENTIAL

[[IDaee ftaln-desrp


Diameter of trailing-edge strips
t(- in.)
rnH- WiTV


.L I __ _J1/8


0 ,- -------------
0





- -.008 -----
8____ ___1/8
NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOM AERONAUTICS
-.012 2 -1 --1


20


40


60


80


100


Length of trailing-edge strips, percent span


Figure 17.- Effect of length of trailing-edge strips of
-'-inch and-1 -inch diameter on CG and Ch
716 aero h45 0h


CONFIDENTIAL


M= 0.35.


s- L "


Fig. 17







NACA CB No. L5FO1


0 C




a
.-n 0





4). o Q.

o w
= .3
-p -- ---------^^ 0


0
2'




2 _- > .E

- z C

.- E
-- -- --- g L




-oZ oZ- -I
u U0
0
--------4 ^




0'


Sao..
9 I -- -

o 0'.'
U U C


Fig. 18







NACA CB No. L5F01


- CONFIDENTIAL-


deg


9
5


0




_(a) c=-3 .


--------...----- 08
9

5


0

-4

-_-8

(b)r=O .

9
..--- -- 5


0
NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS
I l l -4


- CONFIDENTIAL -
I I


(c) cc=3 0.


0 25 50 75 100
Length of trailing-edge strips, percent b


Figure 19.-Variation of lift coefficient with length of '-inch-

diameter trailing-edge strips. M=0.35.


v


Fig. 19a-c


)








NACA CB No. L5F01


(de
CONFIDENTIAL

-- 9
5











9
5


0

-4












NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

i i ---8

(c) o-= 3 .
0 25 50 75 100


Length of trailing-edge strips,

Figure 20.-Variation of lift coefficient

diameter trailing-edge strips. M=0.35.


percent b

with length of -iL--inch-


*g)


Fig. 20a-c








NACA CB No. L5F01


(deog)


.04 -


.03- _----- 5
NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

.02 CONFIDENTIAL
-4

.01 (c)c = 3
0 25 50 75 100
Length of trailing-edge strips, percent b

Figure 21 -Variation of drag coefficient with length of i-inch-

diameter trailing- edge strips. M= 0.35.


CONFIDENTIAL __----










o1) =-3 .






9 L







---(b) oL = 0 .


*f


Fig. 21a-c








NACA CB No. L5F01


.04


.03


.02


.01




.03


.02
0


| .01


.04



.03



.02


.01


.... -.--- ... -. -






Iiiii
(a) a--3.








(b,.a.- -"


(b) or= O.


CONFIDENTIAL


0 25 50 75 100
Length' of trailing-edge strips, percent b


Figure 22.-Variation of drag coefficient with length of --'-inch-
diameter trailing-edge strips. M= 0.35.


Fig. 22a-c


(deg)
-8




-4
9
0
5





9

-8
5
-4
0








UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 08104 960 2 i.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
DOCUMENTS DEPARTMENT
1 ,'i M.RSTON SCIENCE LIBRARY
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