Report on the special field "interference" to the wind-tunnel committee in February 1945

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Material Information

Title:
Report on the special field "interference" to the wind-tunnel committee in February 1945
Series Title:
NACA TM
Physical Description:
46 p. : ill ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Schlichting, H
United States -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Publisher:
NACA
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Airplanes -- Wings   ( lcsh )
Drag (Aerodynamics)   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
Contains an outline of investigations dealing with interference effects on the static stability of various airplane configurations that were conducted, were being conducted, and were started at the time of this present report. Results of several investigations are presented and discussed briefly. A supplement is attached showing the configurations tested and outlining the various test programs. Suggestions for future investigations are also included.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references (p. 10-11).
Funding:
Sponsored by National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Statement of Responsibility:
by H. Schlichting.
General Note:
"Report date May 1953."
General Note:
"Translation of "Bericht über das Fachgebiet Interferenz vor dem Windkanalausschuss im Februar 1945" Aerodynamisches Institut der Technischen Hochschule Braunschweig, Berict 45/4."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 003772597
oclc - 85873876
sobekcm - AA00006177_00001
System ID:
AA00006177:00001

Full Text
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S' 7 f1 / 2-L f


NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM 1347


REPORT ON THE SPECIAL FIELD "INTERFERENCE" TO THE

WIND-TUNNEL COMMITTEE IN FEBRUARY 1945*

By H. Schlichting


I. INTRODUCTION


I made the last report on my special field "Interference" at the
meeting of the wind-tunnel committee in Bad Eilsen on July 27, 1943.
As I explained then, my field can be subdivided into the two main parts:
interference for the drag problem, and interference for the remaining
aerodynamic forces of the airplane. The first is of significance almost
exclusively for the flying performances; the second, for the flight
characteristics. Demarcation of my special field with respect to various
others is not quite simple. I have arranged with Dr. Kuchemann, who
represents the field "special power plants", that all problems concerning
the mutual interference of TL power plants and the airplane will be taken
up by him. Of the Gdttingen program for investigations of TL power plants,
formerly set up by Dr. Kuchemann (on October 12, 1943), an essential part
has meanwhile been terminated. Pure drag interference is essentially
being investigated by Dr. H6rner (special field: drag). I, myself, have
therefore given most of my attention to the interference phenomena for
the remaining aerodynamic forces on the airplane. A great many points
of contact with the two special fields, longitudinal stability (Multhopp)
and directional stability (Mathias), have been found to exist.

Following, I want to report briefly, first, on the .state of current
investigations which had been started at the time of my last report, then
advise you on recently concluded investigations. Finally, I should like
to report on investigations newly started during the last year and a half,
and to add suggestions for further investigations.


II. STATE OF THE INVESTIGATIONS BEGUN BEFORE THE LAST REPORT


1. For several years a very extensive aerodynamic-center program
has been in progress at the DVL. The tests have the purpose of ascer-
taining the aerodynamic center about the transverse and vertical axis


*"Bericht uber das Fachgebiet Interferenz vor dem Windkanalausschuss
im February 1945." Aerodynamisches Institut der Technischen Hochschule
Braunschweig, Bericht 45/4.






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for wing-fuselage arrangements which are largely adapted to practical
conditions. The fuselage measurements have been published as partial
results in the FB 1516 and 1586. Further results have not been made
known so far; however, all measurements are to be published shortly.

2. At the AVA in the wind tunnel Amsterdam, an extensive inves-
tigation of pressure-distribution measurements on combinations,
wing + fuselage + nacelles in the arrangements, low-, mid and shoulder-
wing monoplane has been started about 2 years ago (fig. 1). The measure-
ments themselves have been begun but have been interrupted by the events
of war in September 1944.

3. At the LFA tunnel Al, a fairly extensive program regarding six-
component measurements on wing-fuselage combinations (fig. 2) has been
worked on likewise for several years. These measurements which resulted
from an industrial commission are similar to the interference measure-
ments performed at the Aerodynamic Institute of the Technical Academy
Braunschweig (AITHB). All combinations are shoulder-wing monoplane
arrangements. On the basis of the results from the AITHB, the program
later was shortened, compared to the original one. The measurements
have not yet been concluded; a report has not yet been published.

4. At the AVA in tunnel A6 an interference program of wing-fuselage
arrangements has been started about 2 years ago (fig. 3) which originally
was planned as a three-component measurement but has recently also been
carried out as a six-component measurement. A fuselage with three differ-
ent thick rectangular wings in the arrangements, low-, mid, and shoulder-
wing monoplane was measured. The Re number was 2.6 X 106. The measure-
ments have been terminated and a report is to appear shortly.

5. Likewise, for about 2 years, a series of drag measurements at
high speed on combinations of wing, fuselage, and nacelles (fig. 4) has
been running in the LFA tunnel A2. The measurements have been approved
by the wind-tunnel committee only a short while ago. They are being
started at present.

6. About 3 years ago, extensive-measuring series of six-component
measurements on a sectional complete model (fig. 5) was performed at the
AITHB. The purpose was a systematic investigation of the stability coef-
ficients with addition of the tail unit, after extensive measurements had
been carried out before without tail unit. The measurements have been
terminated and the report has been published as a preprint for the year-
book 1943 of the German Aviation Research (ref. 1).

7. The extensive systematic six-component measurements on wing-
fuselage arrangements of the AITHB which were made first on wings
without sweepback (ref. 2), have been extended to wing-fuselage
arrangements with sweptback wings (fig. 6). To the arrangements






NACA TM 1347


with wings without sweepback (rectangular and two trapezoidal wings)
three forward-swept wings with constant chord with Cp = 150, 300, and
450, furthermore a pronouncedly tapered trapezoidal wing with pronounced
sweepback (cp = 45) were added. All models were measured in low-, mid,
and shoulder-wing monoplane arrangements as six-component measurements
refss. 3 and 4). I might mention as an essential result that the sta-
bility coefficients of rolling moment and yawing moment are only to a
small degree dependent on the plan form of the arrow-type wing (figs. 7
and 8). Figure 7 shows the additional contribution of the fuselage to
the rolling moment due to sideslip as a function of the sweepback angle
and of the taper. One recognizes that it varies with both comparatively
little. Figure 8 shows the total yawing moment of wing plus fuselage.
Here the arrangements with pronounced sweepback are somewhat more unstable
than those with less pronounced sweepback. This is caused by the posi-
tion of the moment reference axis which lies further toward the rear in
case of strongly sweptback wings.

8. Systematic pressure-distribution measurements on wing-fuselage
combinations also have been made for several years in the AITHB. The
model dimensions are the same as in the former force measurements (fig. 5).
There exists a certain relatedness to the AVA program mentioned in para-
graph 2. The arrangements are low- and high-wing monoplanes without pene-
tration as well as low-, mid, and shoulder-wing monoplanes. The two first
arrangements (without penetration) have been measured also for unsymmetri-
cal approach flow. The rest only for symmetrical approach flow. The
rather extensive program is concluded and described in five partial and
two summarizing reports refss. 5 and 6). Figure 9 shows a result from
these measurements, namely, the distribution of the local lift coeffi-
cients along the span for the arrangements low-, mid, shoulder-, and
high-wing monoplane. For the arrangements with penetration, the break
in the lift distribution is greatest for the low-wing monoplane, smallest
for the shoulder-wing monoplane. This is of high importance for the
effectiveness of the elevator unit situated behind the break.


III. INVESTIGATIONS CONCLUDED SINCE THE LAST REPORT


Since my last report, 11 years ago, a number of further investiga-
tions dealing with this field of problems have been made, which partly
have already been terminated. They will be briefly mentioned here and
enumerated from the viewpoint: coefficients of longitudinal and of
directional stability.

1. A contribution to the problem of longitudinal stability is made
by measurements in the wind tunnel of the Technical Academy Graz which
were carried out in connection with the Braunschweig interference measure-
ments. Whereas the Braunschweig measurements on complete models (see






NACA TM 1347


section II, 6) were performed merely on a model with rectangular wing
without sweepback and a rotationally symmetrical fuselage, in Graz addi-
tional measurements, have been made also on complete models, with a three-
axial ellipsoid as the fuselage, and with a rectangular wing, and with a
trapezoidal one with pronounced taper (ref. 7). These measurements have
been concluded. A preliminary report exists and will be published shortly
as an FB. Unfortunately, several supplementary measurements which had
been planned could not be carried out because the Graz tunnel was con-
siderably damaged by enemy action.

Figure 10 shows a rather interesting result from these measurements:
the displacement of the neutral point of stability about the transverse
axis by the elevator unit. The fuselage is the three-axial ellipsoid;
a rectangular wing without sweepback and a trapizoidal wing z = 0.2
were used as the wing; the tail unit was, selectively, a one- or twig-
keel arrangement. The very considerable difference in the displacement
of the aerodynamic center by the tail unit for the arrangements low-
and shoulder-wing monoplane is striking, particularly for the trapezoidal
wing. The explanation most probably lies in the fact that the break in
the wing lift distribution which is only very slight and the considerable
fuselage lifts for the shoulder-wing monoplane produce very large down-
wash angles in the region behind the fuselage and thus very greatly reduce
the effectiveness of the elevator unit.

2. Within the scope of industry commissions, three- and six-
component measurements on wing-fuselage arrangements with very small
wings and for far rearward position of the wing on the fuselage have
been performed at the AITHB. By enlarging them the industry programs
were complemented into systematic measurements. Figure 11 shows a
remarkable result of these measurements: the displacement of the neutral
point by the fuselage effect for various rearward positions of the wing
and various ratios of wing size to fuselage size. In extreme cases there
results aerodynamic-center displacements in the order of magnitude of
50 percent of the wing chord. The measurements have been compared with
the simple theory of Multhopp. As figure 11 shows, the agreement is
quite satisfactory (ref. 8).

3. When our earlier interference measurements on wing-fuselage
arrangements were extended to sweptback wings, a rather interesting
result was found concerning the stability about the transverse axis,
namely, that the destabilizing aerodynamic-center displacement by the
fuselage effect is for rearward-swept wings considerably smaller and
for forward-swept wings considerably larger than for the wing without
sweepback. Figure 12 shows a measuring result from a report by Moller
(ref. 9). The wing-fuselage arrangements are all midwing monoplanes;
the rearward position of the wing on the fuselage is measured from the
geometric neutral point of the wing. In the present example the displace-
ment of the aerodynamic center is, for the wing without sweepback,






NACA TM 1347


8 percent of the geometric mean-wing chord toward the front; for the
wing with 300 forward sweep, it is about 15 percent toward the front,
and for the wing with 450 sweepback, 1 percent toward the rear.

4. On the mutual interference of fuselage, elevator unit, and
rudder unit extensive systematic measurements have been performed at
the firm Junkers (ref. 10). The effect of the geometric arrangement of
fuselage, elevator, and rudder unit on the coefficients bcaHRaci,
eCag Hl caS /p, and 6caS I was determined there. These coefficients
give the stabilizing and destabilizing effect of the tail units.

Regarding the problem of directional stability the following new
investigations exist:

5. Extensive systematic measurements concerning the induced cross
wind have been carried out at the AITHB (ref. 11). Figure 13 shows a
result from these measurements, namely, the yawing moment due to side-
slip of three complete models which differ only in that the wing is
situated at different heights of the fuselage. The difference in the
contribution of the rudder unit to the directional stability is extraor-
dinarily large. Besides the force measurements, direction measurements
for the induced cross wind were performed (fig. 14); these give informa-
tion on the great local difference in the effectiveness of the rudder
unit.

6. The great destabilizing effect of a shoulder-wing arrangement on
the directional stability must, naturally, exist also for engine nacelles
and thus particularly for a twin-engine airplane with a twin-keel rudder
unit. The former theoretical calculation (FB 1745) regarding the induced
cross wind of a wing-fuselage arrangement was extended to arrangements
wing + fuselage + two nacelles (ref. 12). Figure 15 shows a result of
these theoretical calculations. Behind the engine nacelles where normally
the twin-keel rudder unit is situated, zones with very slight effective-
ness of the rudder unit result. These theoretical calculations were
checked by systematic measurements; two-engine nacelles were added to
the former models (ref. 13). Figure 16 shows a result of these measure-
ments in comparison with the theoretical calculations mentioned. The
agreement is satisfactory.

7. The effect of a jet nacelle attached to the wing on the stability
coefficients is of a character similar to that of the fuselage effect in
shoulder-wing monoplane arrangement. Measurements regarding this problem
were carried out at the AVA (ref. 14), figure 17, for various arrangements
of the jet nacelle (variation in the rearward position of the nacelle and
in fillet). The difference between the various arrangements of the jet
nacelle is in most cases slight.






NACA TM 1347


8. The lift distribution on an elevator unit with twin-keel rudder
unit in sideslip shows peculiarities which have been known for some time
and have now been investigated in detail in a report by Schmitz (ref. 15).
In sideslip the rudder unit, when attached unsymmetrically with respect
to the elevator unit, induces very strong additional lifts on the ele-
vator unit which produce a large rolling moment. The amount of this
rolling moment is a multiple of that of the rudder unit. A simple theo-
retical estimate by Schmitz shows good agreement with the measurements.


IV. INVESTIGATIONS STARTED SINCE THE LAST REPORT AND

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER MEASUREMENTS


The suggestions for new tests to several of which have been started
may be subdivided according to the following viewpoints:

A. "Scale test" (Reynolds number)

B. Measurements complementary to the interference measurements made
so far on wing + fuselage + tail unit

C. Downwash and cross-wind measurements on wing-fuselage combinations

D. Measurements on wing-fuselage--tail-unit arrangements with swept-
back wings


A. "Scale Test" (Reynolds Number)

So far all six-component measurements concerning interference of
the airplane elements have been performed at small Reynolds numbers. In
order to make them applicable to full-scale design it is absolutely nec-
essary to carry out some comparative measurements at maximum Reynolds
numbers. I have been pointing out the necessity of these tests for
several years; however, the wind-tunnel committee repeatedly rejected
them. Recently, these tests have been pointed out by others as well
(see discussion, directional stability, Bad Eilsen on November 15, 1944).
They are now to be carried out in the LFA tunnel A3, however, on several
arrangements for which the measurements at small Reynolds numbers do not
yet exist. These latter are then to be supplemented in the wind tunnel
of the AITHB when required.






NACA TM 1347


B. Measurements Supplementary to the Interference Measurements

Carried Out on Wing + Fuselage + Tail Unit

It has sometimes been held against the Braunschweig interference
measurements that fuselage shapes were used which rather strongly deviate
from practical ones (location of maximum thickness at 90 percent, in most
cases, ellipsoid of revolution). Furthermore, the variety in shape of
the fuselage cross sections investigated so far is not sufficient to
satisfy all practical needs. Finally, an important parameter, the mutual
inclination of wing and fuselage, has not yet been investigated. Thus
the following tests are suggested as supplements to the Braunschweig
interference measurements:

1. Supplementary measurements on wing + fuselage and partly also on
wing + fuselage + tail unit with two further fuselage shapes. (Fuse-
lages III and IV, fig. 8.)

2. Additional measurements on wing + fuselage for two fuselages
with special cross-sectional shape (fuselages V and VI, pear shaped and
rectangular cross section). The combinations contemplated are compiled
in figure 19.

3. Investigation of the effect of the mutual inclination of wing
and fuselage on lateral force, rolling moment, and yawing moment. Six-
component measurements on wing + fuselage and wing + fuselage + tail unit.

The first two measurements suggested have already been started, but
not the third one.


C. Downwash and Cross Wind Measurements on

Wing-Fuselage Combinations

The Graz measurements mentioned before showed an unexpectedly large
influence of a high position of the wing (on the fuselage) on the sta-
bility contribution of the elevator unit. According to this, a very
strong interference must exist between wing + fuselage on one hand and
elevator unit on the other, which probably is caused mainly by the down-
wash and to a lesser degree by the decrease in dynamic pressure. Very
little is known, so-far, about the downwash of a wing-fuselage combination
whereas some information concerning the induced cross wind was obtained by
the new measurements (Jacobs). According to the Graz measurements the
influence of the wing-fuselage arrangement on the downwash seems to be
even larger than the effect of the wing plan form larger, for instance,
than the difference between rectangular and trapezoidal wing; however,
the wake of the fuselage and of the wing-fuselage arrangement is certainly






NACA TM 1347


also of significance for the stability contribution of the elevator unit.
Another new-type interference effect which is of importance for the
dynamics of the airplane is lift due to sideslip and pitching moment due
to sideslip. A few force measurements concerning this effect exist; how-
ever, they must be supplemented by pressure-distribution measurements in
order to obtain more insight into the physical connections. Therefore
the following measurements are suggested:

1. Measurements, supplementing the Graz measurements, on the arrange-
ments wing + tail unit and fuselage + tail unit with various high posi-
tions of the tail unit.

2. Probe surface measurements for determination of the downwash on
arrangements wing + fuselage and wing + nacelle (various high-positions
of the probe surface).

3. Boundary-layer and wake measurements on wing-fuselage arrange-
ments, especially on the rear part of the fuselage.

4. Cross-wind measurements with probe surface on wing-fuselage
combinations.

5. Force- and pressure-distribution measurements regarding lift due
to sideslip and pitching moment due to sideslip.


D. Measurements on Wing-Fuselage-Tail-Unit Measurements

With Sweptback Wings

Because of the importance of the sweptback wing for high-speed air-
planes, the aerodynamic coefficients of wing-fuselage and wing-fuselage-
tail-unit arrangements with sweptback wings are of special significance.
The displacement of the neutral point due to fuselage effect in case of
sweptback wings has been pointed out. (See section III, 3.) Nothing is
known regarding the downwash of sweptback wings alone, let alone of swept-
back wing-fuselage arrangements. About the effectiveness of the rudder
unit in case of wing-fuselage arrangements with sweptback wings, too
little is known as yet. Thus the following tests are suggested:

1. Systematic downwash measurements with probe surface on sweptback
wings alone. Such measurements for the wings indicated in figure 6 have
already been started at the AITHB (Trienes).

2. Three-component measurements on wing + fuselage and
wing + fuselage + tail-unit arrangements with sweptback wings. The
measurements constitute an extension of the measurements by Mller.
(UM 2134) discussed in section III, 3. An aerodynamic-center program






IIACA TM 1347


according to figure 20 for wing-fuselage arrangements and wing-fuselage--
tail-unit arrangements has been started. All arrangements used are mid-
wing monoplanes; however, with the Graz measurements mentioned before
taken into consideration it appears necessary to expand this aerodynamic-
center program so as to include low-wing and shoulder-wing aircraft.
Different from the Braunschweig interference measurements made so far,
a fuselage with the location of maximum thickness at 30 percent was
used in this aerodynamic-center program.

3. It seems to be necessary to carry out for a few arrangements of
the aerodynamic-center program just mentioned, six-component measurements
as well. In the existing six-component measurements on wing-fuselage
arrangements with sweepback (FB 1318/4/5) the rearward position of the
wing, measured as the distance from nose to Zi/4, had been kept constant;
in the present new program the rearward position of the wing, measured
up to the geometric neutral point of the wing, is kept constant and the
tail lever arm also is measured from here which appears more sensible.
Also, six-component measurements on wing + fuselage + tail unit with
sweptback wings do not yet exist; however, in setting up the program for
six-component measurements on wing + fuselage + tail unit with sweptback
wing, the extent of the program has to be limited very strictly.

4. A similar test program on wing-fuselage combinations with swept-
back wings for high-speed measurements has been set up by Mr. Puffert; it
is to be carried out in the LFA-A9-tunnel, and has already been approved
by the wind-tunnel committee.

5. For further clarification of the displacement of the neutral
point due to fuselage effect in case of sweptback wings which are
described above, it appears necessary to perform for one arrangement
pressure-distribution measurements as well and, for instance, for the
arrangement fuselage I with wing z = 1, = 450, e*/a. = 0.4 (midwing
monoplane according to figure 6). Above all, such pressure-distribution
measurements are useful for providing a foundation for theoretical cal-
culations regarding this problem which are now being made.


Translated by Mary L. Mahler
National Advisory Committee
for Aeronautics






NACA TM 1347


REFERENCES


1. Schlichting, H., and Frenz, W.: Systematische Sechskomponentenmessungen
iber die gegenseitige Beeinflussung von Fligel, Rumpf und Leitwerk.
Jahrb. 1943 d. deutschen Luftfahrtforschung. Vorabdruck in den
Techn. Berichten; vol. 11, no. 6, 1944.

2. Moller, E.: Systematische Sechskomponentenmessungen an Flugel/Rumpf-
Anordnungen. Jahrb. 1942 d. deutschen Luftfahrtforschung S. I 136.

3. Miller, E.: Systematische Sethskomponentenmessungen an Flugel/Rumpf-
Anordnungen mit Pfeilflugeln konstanter Tiefe. FB 1318/4, 1943.

4. Moller, E.: Sechskomponentenmessungen an Flugel/Rumpf-Anordnungen
mit einem gepfeilten Trapezfligel (Flu;gel q = 450; z = 0.2;
Rotationsellipsoid 1:7). FB 1318/5, 1944.

5. Moller, E.: Druckverteilungsmessungen am Hoch- und Tiefdecker bei
symmetrischer und unsymmetrischer Anstrcmung. Jahrbuch 1943 der
deutschen Luftfahrtforschung. Vorabdruck in den Technischen
Berichten, vol. 11, no. 5, 1944.

6. Miller, E.: Systematische Druckverteilungsmessungen an Fligel/Rumpf-
Anordnungen (Tief-, Mittel-, Schulterdecker). Bericht 44/22 des
ATTHB.

See also the following individual reports:

Gimmler, G.: Druckverteilungsmessungen am Tiefdecker bei symmetrischer
Anstrimung. FB 1710/1, 1942.

Lochmann, L.: Druckverteilungsmessungen am Mitteldecker bei symmetrischer
Anstrimung. FB 1710/2, 1943.

Mller, E.: Druckverteilungsmessungen an einem Hochdecker. (Erganzungs-
bericht zu Bericht 42/14.) FB 1710/3, 1944.

Moller, E.: Druckverteilungsmessungen an einem Schulterdecker bei
symmetrischer Anstromung. FB 1710/4, 1944.

7. Jaklitsch: Sechskomponentenmessungen an Flugel/Rumpf/Leitwerks-
Anordnungen. Bericht d. Lehrstuhls f. Str'mungslehre d. Techn.
Hochschule Graz, 1944. Erscheint demni7chst als FB.

8. Miller, E., and Trienes, H.: Untersuchungen uber die Neutralpunktlage
von Fligel/Rumpf-Anordnungen. Bericht 44/25; erscheint demnzachst
als FB 2023.






NACA TM 1347


9. Miller, E.: Neutralpunktlage von Fligel/Rumpf-Anordnungen mit
PfeilflUgeln. UM 2134, 1944.

10. Koloska, P.: Ergebnisse von Windkanaluntersuchungen an HEhenleitwerk/
Rumpf/Seitenleitwerks-Anordnungen. UM 7301, 1944.

11. Jacobs, W.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen uber den induzierten
Seitenwind. Bericht 43/18 des AITHB; erscheint demn'chst.

12. Trienes, H.: Berechnung des induzierten Seitenwindes eines Flugzeuges
mit zwei Motorgondeln. FB 1921, 1944.

13. Trienes, H.: Sechskomponentenmessungen an einem Flugzeug mit zwei
Motorgondeln. FB 1921, 1944.

14. Bguerle and Conrad: Der Anbau von TL-Triebwerken an den Tragflu'gel
(3. Teilbericht.) UM 3158, 1944.

15. Schmitz: Auftriebsverteilung und Rollmoment am Hihenleitwerk
infolge Zirkulation um die Endscheiben. UM 8202, 1944.






NACA TM 1347


COMPILATION OF INTERFERENCE SYSTEMATICS AT THE AERODYNAMIC INSTITUTE

OF THE TECHNICAL ACADEMY BRAUNSCHWEIG

(Force and Pressure-Distribution Measurements)

Status: January 1945




Force measurements: Three- and six-component measurements for

a = -4 to +120

3 = -300 to +300


Pressure-distribution measurements: for the same sectors


v = 40 m/sec; vz = 4.2 x 105
V-


Author:

Reviewer:


E. Miller

Schlichting






NACA TM 1347 13






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Ellipsoid of revolution
(fuselage I )




f -
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Three-axial ellipsoid
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b =750


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e = 0.3 to 0.7
a


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1 0o/oo00








20 NACA TM 1347


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Wing: profile NACA 23012
Fuselage:fus-l (NACA 0015)
Tail unit: tail unit I (one-keel)


All arrangements ore midwing monoplanes
GNP =geometric neutral point


02/-30


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e


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r204
b V2 1.04


= 0.4








NACA TM 1347


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Fuselage MI (NACA 0015)


Fuselage IM


Circular cross
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Elliptic cross
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4
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Research order: AVA tunnel NLL Amsterdam


Rectangular wing with fuselage and
nacelles (construction kits)
Pressure distribution measurement



-- -4.61 -


Figure 1.-


According to drawing L-10001

Profile NACA ,
0015-_64_;:



AVA pressure-distribution measurements on combinations:
wing + fuselage + nacelle. Dia. 1661.








28 NACA TM 1347













(A) Fuselage quadrangular
Profile NAGA 2415 b'/F=7.5
56 o'

(1) Voriation of the rearward position of ahe wing
Reward positions of the leading edge of the wing
x/m Q=35,Q70,1.05, .40,175
135 135 135

70 255 200 270 270 70
7X/Lm=O35







4 xAm- 0.70




tArm 105





28





Elliptic wing Rectongaor wing Trapezoidal wing Traopezoidol wing Trapezoidol wing
:2 (y= 0) tI2.(y-10) 1:2 (y-200)
(2) Rototion of the wng rectangularr wing)
"Am= 070 m 1.40

es= e* =10* <5" E=lo0
(B) Fuselage rototionally symmetrical (ellipsoidl:~47)


Take over the various model arrangements from the quadrongular fuselage
(C) Fuselage rototionolly symmetrical (ellipsoid 1:7)


Take over the various model arrangements from the quadrangular fuselage



Figure 2.- LFA program; six-component measurements on wing-fuselage
arrangements. Dia. 1659.






NACA TM 1347


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NACA TM 1347


Measurement


Groz


R = Rectangular wing Moment reference point
T= Trapezoidal wing
0 Without tail unit
1 One-keeled tail unit
2 Twin-keeled tail units

Aerodynamic- center position of wing-
fuselage arrangements


Figure 10.- Displacement of the neutral point for the arrangements wing +
fuselage + tail unit (measurements Graz).







NACA TM 1347















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NACA TM 1347


10/-30 Np _H 06/-3 02/-30- GNP




to10/0 06/00 02/00


63-* 0


10/o 2 02/3
--H -


450 NP

tO/45 06/45 02/45


Wing: profile NACA 23012
Fuselage: fuselage In (NACA 0015)
Tail unit: LI one-keeled
GNP = geometric neutral point of the wing
All models are
midwing monoplanes

|e%=o.4 |


T
114











a =
b' =
e*=
'H =
bH=
LH=


0.750 m
0.750 m
0.300m
0.3915m
0.250m
0.068 m


Figure 20.- Aerodynamic-center program for wing-fuselage arrangements
with sweepback.


NACA-Langley 5-12-53 -1050







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