Leaves from Gerard's Herball

The herball, or, General historie of plantes ( Related URL )
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Title:
Leaves from Gerard's Herball
Physical Description:
xii, 305 p. : illus. ; 21 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Gerard, John, 1545-1612
Woodward, Marcus
Publisher:
Houghton Mifflin
Place of Publication:
Boston
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Botany -- Pre-Linnean works   ( lcsh )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Statement of Responsibility:
arranged for garden lovers by Marcus Woodward; with 130 illustrations after the original woodcuts.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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oclc - 01022497
lccn - 31028563
ocm01022497
sobekcm - AA00006122_00001
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lcc - QK41 .G32
ddc - 580
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AA00006122:00001


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GERARD'SHERBALL

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Leaves from Gerard'sHerballarranged for Garden LoversbyMARCUSWOODWARDwith130illustrations after the original woodcutsDOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC.NEWYORK

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ThisDoveredition,firstpublishedin1969, isanunabridgedandunalteredrepublicationoftheworkoriginallypublishedbyGeraldHowe,London,andHoughtonMifflinCompany,Boston,in1931.Theworkuponwhichthepresentvolumeisbased,TheHe1'ball orGeneral HistorieofPlantesbyJohnGerard,wasoriginallypublishedin, A secondeditionenlargedandamendedbyThomasJohnsonwaspublishedin1633,andreprintedin1636. Standard BookNumbe1';486-22343-4 Library ofCongress Catalog Card Numbe1-;79-82-793ManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaDoverPublications,Inc,180 VarickStreetNew York, N.Y, 10014

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HEvery friendly reception accorded toGerard's Herball: The Essence thereof,published in1927,andnowoutofprint, has suggestedthatthere may be a place for a new edition, popular in formandprice, yet no mere buta full booksuchas all loversofherbsandgardens would wish to haveathandatevery seasonofthe year. By compressing the text and omittingJohnson'scommentsandall cross headings, it has been found possible not only to preserve all the most characteristic passages, fullofGerard's 'slyhumourand well-flavouredEnglish',given before> buttoaddseveral chaptersofgreatinterestanddelight, notably those which discourseoftrees.Thentheentire book has been rearranged so as to form asitwere a garden calendar, the plants beinggroupedaccording tothetimeoftheir floweringorespecial appeal. (Some allowancemustbe made for climate,andstill more forthevagariesofourAuthor).Forthemostparttheflowersandshrubs are the favouritesofGerard's day,andofours too, in spiteofthe botanical discoveriesofthreehundredyears.Butwho would be so heartless as to exclude the Barnacle Goose, and some few othersthatare unlikely to be grown with success inourcold climateandwith cold reason? Forthefull storyoftheHerballandits sources, together withtheLifeofGerard, the reader is referred to the1927volume.Theeditor has however included some notes to help in identifyingthevarieties described, andtherehas beenaddedabrieftableofsomeofthemoreimportant'vertues'.v

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TABLEOFCONTENTSPREFATORYNOTETHEEPISTLEDEDICATORIETHEHERBALSPRINGAPRILMAYJUNEJULYAUGUSTAUTUMNWINTERTHENOTESANDTABLESNOTESTABLEOFSUNDRYVERTUESALPHABETICALTABLEOFPLANTSVllPage" "" VIXI20S294 142 186244 274

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TOTHERIGHTHONORABLEHISSINGULARGOODLORD&MASTER,SIRWILLIAMCECILKnight, BaronofBurghley, Masterofthe CourtofWards&Liveries, Chancellorofthe Universitie of Cambridge, Knightofthe most nobleOrderofthe Garter, oneofthe Lordsofher Majesties most honorable Privy Councell, andLordhigh TreasurerofEngland.AMONGthe manifold creaturesofGod (right Honorable, and my singular good Lord) that haveallin all ages diver sly entertained many excellent wits, and drawn them to the contemplationofthe divine wisdome, none have provoked mens studies more,orsatisfied their desiressomuchasplants have done, and that uponjustand worthy causes: forifdelight may provoke mens labor, what greater delightisthere thantobehold the earth apparelled with plants,aswith a robeofembroidered worke, set with Orient pearles and garnished with great diversitieofrare and costly jewels?Ifthis varietie and perfectionofcolours may affect theeie,it is such in herbs and floures, that noApelles,noZeuxisever could by anyartexpresse the like:ifodours oriftaste may worke satisfaction, they are both so soveraigne in plants, andsocomfortable that no confec tionofthe Apothecaries can equall their excellent vertue. But these delights are in the outward senses: the principal delight is in the mind, enriched with theIX

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The Epistleknowledgeofthese visible things, setting forth to us the invisible wisdome and admirable workmanshipofAlmighty God.Thedelight is great,butthe use greater, and joyned often with necessitie.Inthe first agesofthe world they were the ordinary meateofmen, and have continued ever sinceofnecessary use both for meates to maintaine life, and for medicine to recover health.Thehidden vertueofthem is such, that (asPlinynoteth) the very bruit beasts have found itout:and (whichisanother use that he observes) from thence the Dyars tooke the beginningoftheir Art. Furthermore, the necessary useofthose fruitsofthe earth doth plainly appeare by the great charge and careofalmost all men in planting&maintainingofgardens, notasornaments onely,butasa necessarie provision also to their houses.Andhere beside the fruit, to speake againe in a wordofdelight, gardens, especialy suchasyourHonorhath, furnished with many rare Simples, do singularly delight, when in them a man doth behold a flourishing shewofSummer beauties in the midstofWinters force, and a goodly springofflours, when abroad a leafe is not to be seene. Besides these and other causes, there are many examplesofthose that have honoured this science: for to passe by a multitudeofthe Philosophers,itmay please yourHonorto call to remem brance that whichyou knowofsome noble Princes,thathave joyned this study with their most important mattersofstate:Mithridatesthe great was famous for his know ledge herein,asPlutarchnoteth.Euaxalso KingofArabia, the happy gardenofthe world for principall Simples, wrotofthis argument, asPlinysheweth.Dioclesianlikewise, might have had his praise, had he not drowned all his honour in the bloudofhis persecu tion.Toconclude this point, the exampleofSolomonis before the rest, and greater, whose wisdome and know ledge was such,thathee was able to setoutthe natureofx

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Dedicatorieallplants from the highest Cedar to the lowest Mosse. But my very good Lord, that which sometime was the studyofgreat Phylosophers and mightie Princes, is now neglected, except it beofsome few, whose spirit and wisdome hath carried them among other partsofwis dome and counsell, to a care and studieofspeciall herbes both for the furnishingoftheir gardens, and furtherance of their knowledge: among whom I may justly affirme and publish yourHonorto be one, being my selfe one of your servants, and a long time witnesse thereof: for under your Lordship I have served, and that way emploiedmyprincipall study and almost all my time, now by the spaceoftwenty yeares.Tothe large and singular furni tureofthis noble Island I have added from forreine places all the varietieofherbes and flouresthatImightany way obtaine, I have laboured with the soile to make itfitfor plants, and with the plants, that theymightdelight in the soile, thatsothey might live and prosper underourclymat, as in their native and proper countrey: whit my successe hath beene, and what my furnitureis,I leave to the reportofthey that have seene yourLordships gardens, and the little plotofmyne owne espeeiall care and husbandry. But because gardens are privat, and many times finding an ignorantora negligent successor, come soone to ruine, there be that have sollieited me, first by my pen, and after by the Pressetomake my labors common, and to free them from the danger wherunto a gardenissubject: wherein when Iwasovercome, and had brought thisHistoryor report of the natureofPlants to ajustvolume, and had made it(asthe Reader may by comparison see) richer than former Herbals, I founditno question unto whom I might dedicate my labors; for considering your good Lordship, I found noneofwhose favour and goodnes I might sooner presume, seeing I have found you evermyvery goodLordand Againe, consideringXl

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The Epistle DedicatoriemydutyandyourHonorsmerits, to whom may IbetterrecommendmyLabors,thanto himuntowhomlowemyselfe,andallthatIam able in your serviceordevotion to performe? ThereforeunderhopeofyourHonorableandaccustomed favorIpresent thisHerballtoyourLordships protection;andnotas an exquisiteWorke(forIknowmymeannesse)butasthegreatest giftandchiefestargumentofdutythatmylabourandservice can affoord: wherofifthere be nootherfruit, yet this isofsome use,thatIhave ministredMatterforMenofriperwitsanddeeperjudgementsto polish,andto adde tomylarge additions where anythingis defective,thatin time theWorkemay be perfect.ThusIhumblytakemyleave, beseeching God tograntyou yet many daies to live to his glory, to thesupportofthis StateunderherMajestieourdread Soveraigne,andthatwithgreatincreaseof honor in this world,andall fulnesseofglory intheworld to come. Tour Lordships most humbleandobedient Servant,JOHNGERARD.xu

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THEHERBALBULBOUSVIOLETSThebulbous Violet risethoutofthe ground, with two small leaves fiatandcrested,ofan overworne greene colour, betweene the which risethupa smallandtender stalkeoftwo handshigh;atthe top whereof commeth forthofa skinny hood a small white fioureofthe bignesse of a Violet, compactofsix leaves, three bigger,andthree lesser, tippedatthe points with a light greene;thesmaller are fashioned intothevulgar formeofanheart,andprettily edged about withgreen;theotherthree leaves are longer,andsharpe pointed.Thewhole fioure hangeth downe his head, by reasonofthe weake foot-stalke whereonitgroweth.Therootissmall, white,andbul bous. Some call them also Snow drops.ThisnameLeucoium,without hisEpithiteBulbosum,istaken fortheWall-fioure,andstocke Gillofioure, by all moderne Writers.Touchingthefacultiesofthese bulbous Violets we have nothing to say, seeingthatnothingisset downe hereof by the antient Writers, nor anythingobserved by themoderne;onely they are maintainedandcher ishedingardens for the beautieandrarenesseofthefioures,andsweet-Bulbous Violetnesseoftheir smell.I

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SpringVIOLETSTheViolets calledtheblackeorpurple violets,orMarchVioletsofthegarden, have a great prerogativeaboutothers, not only becausethemindconceiveth a certain pleasureandrecreation by smellingandhandling those most odoriferous floures,butalso for that very many by these violets receive ornamentandcomely grace; for there be madeofthemgarlands for the head, nosegaiesandpoesies, which are delightfull to lookeonandpleasant to smel to, speaking nothingoftheir appropriat vertues; yea gardens themselves receive by these the greatest ornamentofall, chiefest beauty,andmost excellent grace,andthe recreationofthe minde whichistaken hereby cannot bebutvery goodandhonest; for they admonishandstirreupa man tothatwhichiscomelyandhonest; for flouresthroughtheir beauty, varietyofcolour,andexquisit forme, dobringto a liberallandgentle manly minde,theremembranceofhonestie, comlinesse,andall kindesofvertues: foritwould beanunseemlyandfilthything(as a certain wisemansaith) for himthatdoth lookeuponandhandlefaireandbeautiful things, to have hismindnot faire,butfilthyanddeformed.Theblackeorpurple Violet doth forthwithbringfromtheroot many leaves, broad, sleightly indented intheedges, rounder than the leavesofIvy;among the midst wherofspringupfine slender stems,anduponeveryonea beautifull flour sweetly smelling,ofa blew darkish purple, consistingoffivelittle leaves,thelowest whereof isthegreatest: afterthemdoappearelittlehangingcupsorknaps,which when they be ripe do openanddivide themselves into three parts.Theseed is smal, long,andsomwhatroundwithall: the root consistethofmanythreddystrings.Thewhite garden Violet hath many milke white floures, in formeandfigure liketheprecedent; the colourofwhose floures especially setteth forththedifference. 2

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VioletsThedouble garden Violet hath leaves, creeping branches,androots like the garden single Violet; differing in that,thatthis Violet bringeth forth most beautifull sweet double floures,andthe other single.Thewhite double Violet likewise agrees with the other of his kinde, differing onely in the colour; forasthe last described bringeth double bleworpurple flours, contrari wise this plant beareth double white floures, which maketh the difference.TheVioletiscalled in Greeke,Ion:in Latine,Nigra violaorblacke Violet,of the blackish purple colourofthe floures.TheA poth ecaries keepe the Latine name Viola, butthey callitHerba Violaria,andMater Violarum:in Spanish,Violeta:in English, Violet.Nicanderbeleeveththatthe Greciansdidcallitlon,because certain Nymphsof Ionia gavethatfloure first toJupiter.Others say itwascalled because whenVioletJupiterhadturnedtheyong damosell 10, whom he tenderly loved, into a Cow,theearthbroughtforth this floure for her food; which being made for her sake, re ceivedthename fromher:andthereuponitisthoughtthat the Latines also calledit Viola, asthoughthey should sayVitula,by blotting outthelettert.Thefloures are good for all inflammations, especially of the sidesandlungs;they take awaythehoarsenesseofthe chest,theruggednesseofthewinde-pipeandjawes, and take away thirst.Thereislikewise madeofVioletsandsugarcertaine plates called Sugar violet, Violet tables,orPlate, whichis3

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Springmost pleasantandwholesome, especially it comforteth the heartandtheother inward parts.SPRINGSAfFRONWildeSaffron hath smallshortgrassie leaves, furrowedorchannelled downe the midst with a white lineorstreak:amongthe leaves riseupsmall floures in shape likeuntothe common Saffron,butdiffering in color; for thishathflouresofmixt colors;thatisto say,thegroundofthe floureiswhite,strippeduponthebacke with purple,anddasht overontheinside with abrightshiningmurrey color; theothernot.Inthe middleofthefloures come forth many yellowish chives, without any smellofSaffronatall.Therootissmall, round,andcovered with a browne skinoffilme like untotherootsofcommon Saffron.Wehave likewise inourLondongardens another sort, like unto the other wilde Saffrons in every point, savingthatthishathflouresofa most perfect shining yellow colour, seeming a far off to be a hot glowing coleoffire.ThereisfoundamongHerbarists another sort,notdiffering from the others, savingthatthishathwhite floures, contrary to alltherest. Loversofplants have gotten into their gardens onesorthereof with purpleorViolet coloured flours, inotherrespects like untotheformer. All these wild Saffrons we have growing inourLondongardens.DAFFODILSThefirstofthe Daffodils isthatwiththe purple crowneorcircle, having small narrow leaves, thicke, fat,andfullofslimiejuice;amongthewhich risethupa naked stalke smoothandhollow,ofa foot high, bearingatthe 4

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Daffodilstop a faire milke white floure growing forthofa hoodorthin filmesuchasthefloursofonions are wrappedin:in the midst or/which floure is aroundcircleorsmall coronetof ryellowish colour,purfledorborderedaboutthe edgeofthesaidringor circle with a pleasant purple colour; which being past, there followeth a thickeknobor button, wherein is contained blackeroundseed.Theroot is white, bulbous or Onion-fashion.ThesecondkindofDaffodillisthatsortofNarcissusor Primrose peerelessethatismost common inourcountry gardens, generally knowne everie where.Ithathlong fatandthickleaves, fullofa slimiejuice;amongwhich risethupa bare thicke stalke, hollow withinandfull of juice.Thefloure growethatthetop,ofa yel lowish white colour, with a yellow crowneorcircle inthemiddle,andfloureth inthemonethofAprill,andsometimes sooner.Theroot is bulbous fashion.Thereare three or foure reflexJunquilia's,whose cupshangdowne,andthesix incompas sing leavesturneuporbacke, whence they take their names.TheDaffodils with purple coronets grow wilde insundryplaces, chiefly in Burgondie,andin Suitzerland in medowes.TheocritusaffirmeththeDaffodils to grow in medowes, in his19Eidyl,or20according to some editions: where he writeth,ThatthefaireLadyEuropaentringwithherNymphsintothemedowes, did gatherthesweet smellingdaffodils; in these verses:5

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SpringWhichwemayEnglishthus:But when the Girles were come intoThemedowes flouring all in sight,ThatWenchwith these, thisWenchwith thoseTrimf1oures,themselves did all delight: She with the Narcisse good in sent,Andshe with Hyacinths content.Butitisnot greatly toourpurpose, particularly to seekeouttheir placesofgrowing wilde, seeing we havethemall&everie oneoftheminourLondon gardens,ingreat aboundance.Thecommon wilde Daffodill groweth wilde in fieldsandsidesofwoods in theWestpartsofEngland.Galensaith,Thatthe rootsofNarcissus havesuchwonderfull qualities in drying,thatthey consoundandglew together very great wounds, yeaandsuch gashesorcuts as happen abouttheveins, sinues,andtendons.Theyhave also a certaine elensing facultie.TherootofNarcissus stamped with honyandapplied plaister-wise, helpeththemthatareburnedwith fire,andjoinethtogether sinuesthatarecutinsunder. Being used in manner aforesaidithelpeth the great wrenchesofthe aneles,theachesandpainsofthejoints.Thesame applied with honyandnettle seed helpethSunburning. Being stamped with the mealeofDarnelandhony, it draweth forth thornsandstubsoutofanypartofthe body.SOW-BREADThecommon kindeofSow-bread, called in shopsPanis porcinus,andArthanita,hath many greeneandroundleaves like unto Asarabacca, savingthattheupperpartoftheleaves are mixed hereandthere confusedlywith6

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Sow-breadwhite spots,andundertheleaves nextthegroundofa purple colour:amongwhich riseuplittle stemmes like unto the stalkesofviolets, bearingatthetop small purple floures, whichturnethemselves backward (being full blowne) like aTurkscap,orTulepan,ofa smallsentor savour,ornoneatall: which being past, there succeed littleroundknopsorheads which containe slender browne seeds: these knops are wrapped after a few daies in the small stalkes, asthredabouta bottome, whereitSow-breadremaineth so defended fromtheinjurieofWinterclose upontheground, covered also withthegreene leaves aforesaid, by which meanesitiskeptfromthefrost, even fromthetimeofhis seeding, which is in September, untillJune:atwhich timetheleaves doe fade away,thestalkes & seed remaining bareandnaked, wherebyitinjoyeththeSun (whereof it waslongdeprived)thesooner tobringthemunto maturitie. Sow-bread groweth plentifully about ArtoiesandVermandois in France,andintheForestofArden,andin7

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SpringBrabant.Itisreported unto mee by menofgood credit,thatCyclamenorSow-brea,d growethuponthe mountaines ofWales;onthehilsofLincolnshire,andin Somerset shire. Being beatenandmadeupinto trochisches,orlittle flat cakes,itisreported to be a good amorous medicine to make one in love,ifit be inwardly taken.MusCARI,0RMusKEDGRAPE-FLOUREYellow Muscarie hathfiveor six long leaves spreadupontheground, thicke, fat,andfullofslimie juyce,turningandwinding themselves crookedly this wayandthatway, hollowed alongstthemiddle like a trough, as are thoseoffaire haired Jacinth, whichatthe firstbuddingorspringingupareofa purplish colour;butbeing growne to perfection, becomeofa darke greene colour; amongst the which leaves riseupnaked, thicke,andfat stalkes, infirmeandweake in respectofthethicknesseandgreatnesse thereof, lying alsouponthegroundas do the leaves; set fromthemiddle to the toponevery side with many yellow floures,everyonemade like a small pitcherorlittle box, with a narrow mouth, exceeding sweetofsmell likethesavourofmuske, whereofit tookethenameMuscari.Theseed is closed in puffedorblowneupcods, confusedly made without order,ofa fatandspongeous substance, wherein is containedroundblacke seed.Theroot is bulbousoronion fashion, whereunto are annexed certaine fatandthicke strings like thoseofDogs-grasse.Theseplants came from beyondtheThracianBos phorus,outofAsia,andfromaboutConstantinople,andbythemeansofFriends have beenbroughtinto these partsofEurope,whereofourLondongardens are possessed.Therehathnotas yet anythingbeene touched concerningthenatureorvertuesofthese Plants, onelytheyarekeptandmaintained in gardens forthepleasant8

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Winde-fiouressmelloftheir floures,butnot for their beauty, forthatmany stinking field floures do in beautie farresurpasse them.WIND-FLOURESThestocke or kindredoftheAnemonesor Winde-floures, especially in their varietiesofcolours,arewithout number,orattheleastnotsufficiently knowne untoanyonethathathwrittenofplants.Myselfe have in my garden twelve different sorts:andyet I do heareofdivers more differing very notably from anyofthese: every new yearebringingwithitnewandstrangekindes;andeverycountryhis peculiar plantsofthissortwhich aresentuntous from far countries, in hope to re ceive from ussuchasourcountry yeeldeth.Thefirst kindeofAnemoneorWinde-flourehathsmall leaves verymuchsniptorjaggedalmost likeuntoCamo mile,orAdonis floure:amongAnemonewhich risethupa stalke bareornaked almost untothetop;atwhich place is set twoorthree leaves liketheother:andatthetopofthestalke commeth forth a faireandbeautifull floure compactofseven leaves,andsometimes eight,ofa violet colour tending to purple.Itis impossible to describethecolour in his full perfection, consideringthevariable mixtures.Theroot is tuberous or knobby,andvery brittle.9

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SpringThesecondkindofAnemonehath leaves like totheprecedent, insomuchthatitishardto distinguishtheone fromtheotherbutby the floures onely: for thoseofthis plant areofa mostbrightandfaire skarlet colour,andas double astheMarigold;andtheothernot so.ThegreatAnemonehathdouble floures, usually calledtheAnemoneofChalcedon (whichisa city in Bithynia)andgreat broad leaves deep ely cut intheedges, notunlike to thoseofthefield Crow-foot,ofan overworne greene colour: amongst which risethupa naked bare stalke almostuntothetop, where therestandtwoorthreeleavesinshape liketheothers,butlesser; sometimeschangedinto reddish stripes, confusedly mixed hereandthereinthesaid leaves.Onthetopofthestalkestandetha most gallant floure very double,ofa perfectredcolour,thewhich is sometimesstripedamongsttheredwith a little lineortwoofyellow inthemiddle; from which middlecommethforthmany blackishthrums.Theyfloure fromthebeginningofJanuarie totheendofApril,atwhattimetheflours do fade,andtheseed flieth awaywiththewind,iftherebe any seedatall;thewhich I could never as yet observe.Anemone,orWind-floure, is so called, forthefloure doth never open it selfebutwhenthewinddoth blow, asPlinywriteth.WALL-FLOURES,ORYELLOWSTOCKEGILLOFLOURESThestalksoftheWal-floure are fulofgreene branches,theleaves are long, narrow, smooth, slippery,ofa blackishgreencolor,andlesserthantheleavesofstocke Gillo floures.Thefloures are small, yellow, very sweetofsmell,andmadeoffoure little leaves; whichbeingpast,theirsucceedlongslender cods,inwhichiscontained flat reddish seed.Thewhole plant isshrubby,ofa10

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Wall-fioures wooddy substance,andcan easilyendurethecoldofWinter.Thedouble Wal-flourehathlongleaves greeneandsmooth, setuponstiffe branches,ofa wooddy substance: whereupon doe grow most pleasant sweet yellow flours very double; which plant is so well knowne to all,thatit shall be needlesse tospendmuchtimeaboutthedes cription.Ofthis double kinde we have another sortthatbringethhis flouresopenallatonce, whereastheotherdoth floure by degrees, by meanes whereof it islonginflouring.Thefirst growethuponbrickeandstone walls, inthecornersofchurches every where, as alsoamongrubbishandotherstony places.Thedouble Wall-floure groweth in most gardensofEngland.They floure forthemostpartalltheyeere long,butespeciallyinWinter,whereupon the people in CheshiredocallthemWinter-Gillofloures.TheWall-floure is calledinLatine, Viola lutea,andLeucoium luteum: inEnglish,Wall-Gillofloure, WaIl floure, yellow stocke Gillofloure,andWinter-Gillofloure.Theleavesstampedwitha little bay salt,andboundaboutthewrestsofthehands,takeawaytheshakingfitsoftheAgue.WATERCROW-FOOTWater Crow-foothathslender branches trailing far abroad,whereupongrowleavesunderthewater, most finelycutandjagged:those abovethewater are somwhat round, informenotunlikethesmaltenderleavesoftheMallow,butlesser:amongwhichdoegrowthefloures, small,andwhiteofcolour, madeoffine little leaves,withsome yellownesse inthemiddleliketheflouresofthestrawberry,andofa sweet smell.Theroots be very small hairy strings.II

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SpringWaterCrowfoot growes by ditchesandshallow springs,andin other moistandplashy places.WaterCrow-footCUCKOWPINT,ORWAKE-RoBINArumorCockowpinthath great, large, smooth, shining, sharpe pointed leaves, bespotted hereandtherewithblackish spots, mixedwithsome blewnesse:amongwhich risethupa stalke, nine inches long, bespeckled inmanyplaces with certaine purple spots.Itbeareth also a certainelonghoseorhood,inproportion liketheeareofan hare: inthemiddleofwhich hood commethfortha pestleorclapperofa darkemurryorpalepurplecolour: which being past, there succeedeth in place thereof abunchorclusterofberries in mannerofabunchofgrapes, greeneatthefirst,butafter they be ripeofa yellowishredlike corall,andfullofjuyce, wherein lie hid oneortwo littlehardseeds.Theroot is tuberous,ofthebignesseofa large Olive, whiteandsucculent, with somethreddyadditaments annexed thereto. Cockowpintgroweth in woods neere unto ditches under hedges, every whereinshadowie places.Theleaves12

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Frogge-bitFROGGE-BITThere fiotethorswimmeth upontheupperpartsofthewater a small plant, whichweusually call Frog-bit, hav ing littleroundleaves, thicke and fullofjuyce, very like to the leavesofwallPeniwort:the floures growuponlong13Cuckowpintappeare presently afterWinter:thepestell shewethitselfeoutofhis huskeorsheath inJune,whilesttheleaves are in withering:andwhen they are gone,thebunchorclusterofberries becommeth ripe, which is inJulyandAugust.Thecommon Cuckowpintis called in Latine, Arum :inEnglish, Cuckow pint,andCuckow pintle, wake-Robin, Priests pintle, Aron, Calfes foot,andRampe;andofsome Starchwort. Beares after they have lienintheir dens forty daies without any mannerofsustenance,butwhat they getwithlickingandsucking their owne feet, doeassoone as they comefortheattheherbe Cuckow-pint,throughthewindie nature thereof thehungrygutis openedandmadefitagain to receive sustenance: for by abstaining from food solonga time,thegutisshrunkeordrawne so close together, that in a manner itisquiteshutup, asAristole, .lianus, Plutarch, Pliny,and others do write.Themostpureandwhite starch is madeoftheroots of Cuckow-pint;butmost hurtfull tothehandsoftheLaundressethathaththehandlingofit, for it choppeth, blistereth,andmakeththehandsroughandrugged, and withall smarting.

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Springstems among the leaves,ofa white colour, with a certain yellowthrumin the middle consisting of three leaves:instead of roots it hath slender strings, which growoutof a short and small head,asit were, from whencetheleaves spring, in the bottomofthe water: from which head also come forth slopewise certain strings, by which growing forth it muItiplieth it selfe.Itisfound swimming or floting almostinevery ditch, pond, poole, or standing water, in all the ditchesaboutSaint George his fields, andintheditches bytheThames side neere to Lambeth Marsh, where any thatisdisposed may see it.Itflourishethandfloureth most partofalltheyeare.Itisthought to be a kindeofPond-weed (or ratherofWaterLillie).LITTLEDAISIESTheDaisie bringeth forth many leaves from a threddy root, smooth, fat, long, and somwhatroundwithall, very sleightly indented about the edges, forthemostpartlying upon the ground: among which rise up the floures, everie one with his owne slender stem, almost like thoseofCamomill,butlesser,ofa perfect white colour,andvery double.ThedoubleredDaisieislike unto the precedentineverie respect, saving in the colorofthe floures; for this plant bringeth forth flouresofa red colour;andthe other white as aforesaid.Thedouble Daisies are plantedingardens: the others grow wilde everywhere.TheDaisieiscalledofsome,Herba Margarita,orMargarites herb: in French,Marguerites:InEnglish, Daisies,andBruisewort.TheDaisies do mitigate all kindeofpaines,butespecially in the joints,andgout,ifthey be stampedwithnew butter unsalted,andapplied uponthepained place:14

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Daisiesbut they worke more effectuallyifMallowes be added thereto.Thejuiceofthe leavesandroots sniftupintothenosthrils,purgeththe head mightily,andhelpeththemegrim.Thesame given to little dogs with milke, keepeth them from growing great.DaisieTheleaves stamped take away bruisesandswellings proceedingofsome stroke,ifthey be stampedandlaid thereon; whereupon it was called in old time Bruisewort. The juiceputintotheeies cleareth them,andtakethawaythe wateringofthem.Thedecoctionofthefield Daisie (whichisthe best for physicks use) made in water and drunke,isgood against agues.GROUND-Ivy,ORALE-HOOFEGroundIvyisa low or base herbe;it creepethandspreads upon thegroundhitherandthither all about, with many stalkesofanuncertaine length, slender,andlike those of the Vine: whereupon grow leaves something broad and round: amongst which come forth the floures gaping like little hoods, not unlike to thoseofGermander,ofaIS

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Springpurplish blew colour: the whole plantisofastrongsmellandbitter taste.Itisfound as well in tilledasin untilled places,butmost commonly in obscureanddarke places,uponbanksunderhedges,andbythesidesofhouses.Itremaineth greene not onely in Summer,butalso inWinteratany timeofthe yeare:it floureth from Aprill till Summer be far spent.Itiscalled in English Ground-Ivy, Ale-hoofe, Gill go by ground, Tune-hoof,andCats-foot. Ground-Ivy, Celandine,andDaisies,ofeach a like quanti tie, stampedandstrained,anda little sugarandrose waterputthereto,anddropped with a feather -intotheeies, taketh away all mannerofinflammation, spots, webs, itch, smarting, or any griefe whatsoever in the eyes, yea althoughthesight were nigh hand gone: itisproved to be the best medicine in the world.Theherbes stampedasaforesaid,andmixed with a little aleandhoney,andstrained, take awaythepinneandweb, or any griefeoutoftheeyesofhorseorcow,orany other beast, being squirted intothesame with a syringe,orImighthave saidtheliquor injected intotheeies with a syringe. But I list not to be over eloquent among Gentlewomen, to whom especially myWorkesare most necessarie.ThewomenofourNortherneparts, especially about WalesandCheshire, doturnetheherbe Ale-hoof into their Ale;butthe reason thereof I knownot:notwith standing without all controversieitis most singular againstthegriefes aforesaid; beingtunnedup in aleanddrunke,italsopurgeththehead from rheumaticke humors flowing fromthebraine.GROUNDSELLThestalkeofGroundsellisround, chamferedanddivided16

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"GroundsellGroundsellinto many branches.Theleaves be green, long,andcut in the edges almost like thoseofSuccorie,butlesse, like in a manner totheleavesofRocket.Thefloures be yellow,andturnto down, whichiscarried away withthewind.Theroot is fullofstringsandthreds. These herbs are very common throughoutEnglandanddo grow almost every where.Theyflourish almost every moneth of the yeare. GroundseliscalledinLatineSenecio,becauseitwaxeth old quickly.TheleavesofGroundsel boiledinwine or water,anddrunke, healethepaineandach ofthestomacke that pro ceedsofCholer. Stampedandstrained into milkeanddrunke, they hel pe the red gumsandfrets in Children.Dioscoridessaith,Thatwith the fine pouderofFrankincenseithealeth wounds in the sinues.Thelike operation haththedowneofthefloures mixed withvineger. Boiledinale with a little honyandvineger,itprovoketh vomit, especiallyifyouaddethereto a few rootsofAsarabacca.DANDELIONThehearbe which is commonly called Dandelion doth send forth fromtheroot long leaves deeply cutandgashed intheedges like thoseofwild Succorie, I7

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DandelionSpringbutsmoother:uponevery stalke standeth a floure greaterthanthatofSuccorie,butdouble,&thicke set to gether,ofcolour yellow,andsweetinsmell, which isturnedinto arounddowny blowbalthatis carried away withthewind.Theroot is long, slender,andfullofmilky juice, when any partofitis broken, as istheEndiveorSuccorie,butbitterer in tastthanSuccorie.Theyarefoundoften in medowes neereuntowater ditches, as alsoingardensandhigh wayesmuchtroden. Theyfloure most times inthe .;,J yeare, especiallyifthewinter be not extreme cold.LETTUCEGardenLettucehath a long broad leafe, smooth,andofalightgreene colour:thestalke is round, thicke set with leaves fullofmilky juice, bushedorbranched atthetop:whereupon do grow yellowish floures, whichturneinto downethatis carried away withthewinde.Theseedstickethfastuntothecottony downe,andflieth away likewise, whiteofcolour,andsomewhatlong:theroothathhangingonit manylongtoughstrings, which beingcutor broken, do yeeld forth in like manner as doththestalkeandleaves, a juice like to milke.Andthis isthetruedescriptionofthenaturall Lettuce,andnotofthe artificiall; for by manuring, transplanting,andhaving a18

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Lettuce regard to theMooneandother circumstances,theleaves of the artificiallLettuceare oftentimes transformed into another shape: for either they are curled,orelse so drawne together, as they seeme to be like a Cabbageorheaded Colewort,andtheleaves which be withinandinthe middest are something white,tendingto a verylightyellow. Lettuce delighteth to grow in a mannured, fat, moist, anddungedground:itmustbe sowen in faire weatherinplaces where there is plentyofwaterandprospereth best if it be sowen very thin.Itmay well be sowenatany time of the yeare,butespeciallyatevery first Spring,andso soone asWinteris done, till Summer be wellnighspent. GardenLettuceis calledinLatine, Lactuca sativa,ofthe milky juice which issueth forthofthewoundedstalks and roots. Lettuce cooleththeheatofthestomacke, calledtheheart-burning;andhelpeth it whenitis troubled with choler:itquencheth thirst,andcauseth sleepe. Lettuce maketh a pleasant sallad, being eaten raw with vineger, oile,anda little salt:butifit be boiled it is sooner digested,andnourisheth more.Itis served in these daies,andin these countries inthebeginningofsupper,andeaten first before anyothermeat: which also Martiall testifieth to be done in his time, marvelling why some did useitfor a serviceattheendofsupper,inthese verses:Tellmewhy Lettuce, whichourGrandsires last did eate, Is nowoflate become to bethefirstofmeat? Notwithstandingitmay nowandthenbe eatenatboth those times tothehealthofthebody: for being taken before meatitdoth many times stirupappetite: and eaten aftersupperitkeepeth away drunkennesse which commeth bythewine;andthatis by reasonthatit staieththevapours from risingupintothehead.19

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Field Cowslip April COWSLIPSThefirst, whichiscalled in English the field Cowslip, is as common as the rest, therefore I shal not need to spendmuchtime about the description.Thesecond is likewise well knowne by the nameofOxlip,anddiffereth not from the other save that the floures are not so thickethrusttogether, and they are fairer, and notsomanyinnumber,anddonot smellsopleasantasthe other:ofwhichkindwe have one lately come intoourgardens, whose floures are curledandwrinkled after a most strange maner, which our women have namedJack-an-apes on horsebacke. DoublePaigle, the English gar den Cowslip with double yellow floures, is so commonly knowne that it needeth no description.Thefourth is likewise known bythenameofdouble Cowslips, havingbutone floure within another, which maketh the same once double, wheretheotherismany times double, called by Pena, Geminata, forthelike nesseofthefloures, which arebroughtforth as things against nature,ortwinnes.Thefifth beingthecommon whitish yellow field Primrose, needeth no description.Thesixth, which is our garden double Primrose,ofalltherestisofgreatest beauty,thedescription whereof I refer unto your owne consideration. 20

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FieldPrimroseCowslipsTheseventh is also very well known, being aPrimrose with greenish floures somwhat weltedabouttheedges. CowslipsandPrimrosesjoyinmoistanddankish places,butnot altogether covered with water: they are found in woodsandthebordersoffields.Theyflourish from Aprill totheendofMay,andsome oneorotherofthem do floure allWinterlong.Theyare commonly calledPrimula veris,because they are the first among those plants that doe floure intheSpring,orbecause they floure with the first.Thegreater sort, called for the mostpartOxlipsorPaigles, are named of diversHerba S. Petri:in English, Oxlip,andPaigle. A practitionerofLondonwho was famous forcuringthe phrensie, after hehadperformed his cure bythedue observationofphysick, ac customed every yeare inthemonethofMayto dyet his Patients after thismanner:Taketheleavesandfloures of Primrose, boilethema little in fountaine water,andin some roseandBetony waters,addingthereto sugar, pepper, salt,andbutter, which being strained, he gavethemto drinke thereof firstandlast.TherootsofPrimrose stampedandstrained,andthe juice sniffed intothenose with a quillorsuch like,purgeththebrain,andqualifieththepainofthemegrim.21

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AprilAnunguentmade withthejuiceofCowslipsandoileofLinseed,curethall scaldings or burnings with fire, water,orotherwise.BEARESEARES,ORMOUNTAINECOWSLIPSThisbeautifullandbrave planthaththicke, greene,andfat leaves, somewhat finely sniptabouttheedges,notaltogether unlike thoseofCowslips,butsmoother, greener,andnothingroughorcrumpled:amongwhich risethupa slenderroundstema handfull high, bearing atuftofflouresatthetop,ofa faire yellow colour, notmuchunlike totheflouresofOxe-lips,butmore openandconsistingofone only leafe like Cotiledon:theroot is very threddy,and like untotheOxe-lip.Theygrow naturallyupontheAlpishandHelvetian mountaines: mostofthemdo growinourLondonGardens.Eithertheantientwriters knew not these plants,orelsethenamesofthemwere not bythemortheir suc cessors diligently committeduntoposterity.Matthiolusandotherlater writers have given names according tothesimilitude,oroftheshapethatthey beareuntootherplants: theythatdwellabouttheAlpes doe callitby reasonoftheeffects thereof; fortheroot isamongstthemingreat request forthestrengthningofthehead,thatwhenthey are onthetopsofplacesthatare high, giddi nesseandtheswimmingofthebraine maynotafflictthem:itistherecalledtheRocke-Rose, forthatit growethupontherockes,andresembleththebrave colouroftherose.ThosethathuntintheAl psandhighmountaines after Goatsandbucks, do as highly esteeme hereof asofDoronicum,by reasonofthesingular effectsthatithath,but(as 1 said before)oneespecially, eveninthatit preventeththelosseoftheir best joynts(Imeane their22

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Pasque flouresneckes) if they take the roots hereof before they ascend the rocks or other high places.PASQUEFLOURESThe firstofthese Pasque floures hath many small leaves finely cut or jagged, like thoseofCarrots: among whichriseup naked stalkes, roughandhairie; whereupon doegrowbeautifull floures bell fashion,ofa bright delaied purple colour: in the bottome whereof groweth a tuftofvellowthrums,andin the middleofthe thrums it thrust eth forth a small purple pointell ; when the whole floureispast there succedeth an head or knob compactofmany gray hairy lockes,andin the sollid parts of the knobs lieth the seed flatandhoary, every seed having his owne small haire hangingatit.Therootisthickeandknobby, of a finger long, running right downe,andtherefore not unlike to those of theAnemone,whichitdoth in all other parts very notably resemble,andwhereof no doubt thisisa kinde.Thewhite Passe floure hath many fine jagged leaves, closely couched or thrust together, which resembleanHoly-water sprinckle, agreeing with the other in roots, seeds, and shapeoffloures, savingthatthese areofa white colour, wherein chiefly consisteth the difference.ThePasse-floure groweth in France in untoiled places: in Germany they grow in roughandstony places,andoftentimes on rockes. Those with purple flouresdogrow very plentifully in the pasture or close belonging to the parsonage houseofasmallvillage six miles from Cambrige, called Hilder sham: the Parson's name that livedatthe impression hereofwasMr.Fuller,a very kindandloving man,andwilling to shew unto any man the said close, who desired the same. They floure for the most part about Easter, which23

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AprilhathmoovedmeetonameitPasque-Floure,orEasterfloure:andoftentheydoe floureagaineinSeptember.InCambridge-shirewheretheygrow,theyarenamedCoventriebe1s.ThereisnothingextantinwritingamongAuthorsofanypeculiar vertue,buttheyserve one1y fortheadorningofgardensandgarlands,beingflouresofgreatbeautie.SWEETSAINTJOHNSANDSWEETWILLIAMSSweetJohnshaveroundstalkes as havetheGillofloures,(whereoftheyarea kinde) acubithigh,whereupondoegrowlongleavesbroaderthanthoseoftheGillofloure,ofagreenegrassie colour:theflouresgrowatthetopofthe stalkes, very likeuntoPinkes,ofaperfectwhitecolour.WehaveinourLondonGardensakindehereofbearingmostfineandpleasantwhitefloures,spottedvery confusedlywithreddishspots,whichsettethforththebeautiethereof;andhathbintakenofsome(butnotrightly)tobetheplantcalledofthelaterWritersSuperba Austriaca,orthePrideof Austria.ThegreatSweet-Williamhathroundjoyntedstalkesthickeandfat,somewhatSweet-Williamreddishaboutthelower24

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St.ockeGillo-flouresjoynts, a cubit high, with long broadandribbedleaves likeasthoseofthePlantaine,ofa greene grassie colour.Theflouresatthetopofthestalkes are very like tothesmall Pinkes, many joyned together in onetuftorspoky umbell,ofa deepe red colour. These plants arekeptandmaintained in gardens more for to pleasetheeye,thaneitherthenoseorbelly.Theyare not used either in meat or medicine,butesteemed for their beauty to deckeupgardens,thebosomesofthebeautifull, garlandsandcrownes for pleasure.STOCKEGILLO-FLOURESThestalkeofthegreat stocke Gillo-floureistwo foot highorhigher, round,andparted into divers branches.Theleaves are long, white, soft,andhavinguponthemasit were a downe like untotheleavesofwillow,butsofter:thefloures consistoffoure little leaves growing all alongtheupperpartofthebranches,ofa white colour, exceeding sweetofsmell: in their places comeuplongandnarrow cods, in whichiscontained broad, flat,androundseed.Therootisofa wooddy substance, asisthestalke also.Thepurple stocke Gillo-floureisliketheprecedent in each respect, savingthattheflouresofthis plant areofa pleasant purple colour,andtheothers white, which setteth forththedifference:ofwhich kinde we have somethatbeare double floures which areofdivers colours, greatly esteemed forthebeautieofthefloures,andpleasant sweet smell. These kin desofStocke Gillofloures do grow in most GardensthroughoutEngland.Theyfloure inthebeginningoftheSpring,andcon tinue flouring alltheSummer long.TheStocke Gillofloure is called in Latine,Viola alba:in Italian,Viola bianca:in Spanish,Violetta blanquas:25

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April inEnglish, Stocke Gillofloure, Garnsey Violet,andCastle Gillofloure.Theyare not usedinPhysicke, except amongst cer taine EmpericksandQuacksalvers, about loveandlust matters, which for modestie I omit.WHITEANDBLEWPIPEPRIVETThewhitePipegroweth like an hedgetreeor bushyshrub;fromtheroot whereof arise many shoots which inshorttime grow to be equall withtheold stocke, whereby in a little timeitincreaseth to infinit numbers, like the commonEnglishPrimorPrivet, whereof doubtlesse itisa kinde,ifwee consider every circumstance.Thebranches are covered with aruggedgray barke:thetim beriswhite, with some pithorspongie matter inthemiddest like Elder,butlesse in quantitie.Theselittle branches are garnishedwithsmall crumpled leavesoftheWhitePipeshapeandbignesseofthePearetree leaves,andvery like in form:amongwhich come forththeflours, growingintufts, compactoffour small leavesofa white colour,andofa pleasant sweet smell;butin myjudgmenttheyaretoo sweet, troublingandmolesting the head in very strange manner. I oncegatheredtheflouresandlayedthemin my chamber window, which smelled more strongly after they had lien26

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PipePrivettogether a few houres, with such an unacquainted savor that they awakedmeoutofsleepe,sothatI couldnotrest till Ihadcastthemoutofmy chamber.The flou;res being vaded,thefruit follows, which is small, curled,andasitwere compactofmany little folds, broad towards the upper part,andnarrow toward the stalke,andblack when itisripe, whereiniscontained a slenderlongseed.Theroot hereof spreadethitselfe abroadinthegroundafterthemanneroftherootsofsuch shrubby trees.TheblewPipe groweth likewise in mannerofa small hedge tree,withmany shoots rising fromtheroot liketheformer, asourcommon Privet doth, whereof itisa kind.Thebranches have a small quantityofpith inthemiddle of the wood,andare covered with a darke blacke greenish barkeorrinde.Theleavesareexceeding greene,andcrumpledorturneduplikethebrimmesofa hat, in shape very like untotheleavesofthePoplar tree:amongwhich cometheflours,ofanexceeding faire blew colour, com pactofmany smal floures in the formofabunchofgrapes: each floureisin shew like thoseofValeriana rubra Dodontei, consistingoffour parts like a little star,ofanexceeding sweet savourorsmell,butnotsostrongastheformer.Whenthese floures be gon there succeed flat cods, and somwhat long, which being ripe areofa light colour, with a thinne membraneorfilmeinthe middest, wherein are seeds almost foure square, narrow,andruddy. These trees grow not wild in England,butI have them growing in my garden in very great plenty.Theyfloure in AprillandMay,butasyet they have not borne any fruit in my garden,thoughinItalyandSpain their fruitisripein September.Thelater Physitians callthefirstSyringa,thatisto say a Pipe, becausethestalkesandbranches thereof whenthepithistakenoutare hollow like aPipe:itisalso many times syrnamedCandidaorwhite,orSyringa Candidaflore,orPipewith a white floure, becauseitshoulddiffer 27

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AprilfromLillach,whichissomtimes namedSyringacceruleaorblew Pipe.PLUMTREETowriteofPlumsparticularly would require a peculiar Volume,andyettheendnotbe attained unto, northestockorkindredperfectly known, neither to be dis tinguishedapart:thenumbersofthesorts or kinds arenotknown toanyoneCountry, every clymathathhis own fruit, farre differing fromthatofother places: my selfe have sixty sortsinmy garden,andall strangeandrare: there be inotherplaces many more common,andyet yearly commeth toourhands others not before known.ThePlumorDamsontreeisofa _bignesse, itiscovered with a smoothbarke:thebranchesarelong, whereon do grow broad leaves morelongthanround,nickedintheedges:thefloures arewhite;theplums do differ in colour, fashion,andbignesse, they all consistofpulpandskin,andalsoofkernell, whichisshutupin a shellorstone. Some plums areofa blackish blew,ofwhich some be longer, others rounder, othersofthecolourofyellow wax, diversofa crimson red, greater forthemostpartthantherest.Therebe also green plums,andwithall very long,ofa sweetandpleasant taste: more over,thepulpormeatofsome is drier,andeasilier separatedfromthestone;ofother-someitis moister,andcleaveth faster.OurcommonDamsonis known to all,andtherefore not to be stoodupon. .TheMirobalanPlumtree groweth totheheightofa great chargedwithmany great armesorboughes, which divide themselves into small twiggy branches, by means whereofityeeldeth a goodlyandpleasant shadow:thetrunkeorbody is coveredwitha finerandthinnerbarkethananyoftheotherPlumtrees:theleaves do somewhat resemble thoseoftheCherrie tree, they are28

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Plumvery tender,indentedabouttheedges:thefloursbewhite:thefruitis round,hanginguponlongfoot-stalks pleasant to behold, greeneinthebeginning,redwhen it is almost ripe,andbeeing fullripeitglistereth like purple mixedwithblacke:thefleshormeat is fullofjuice, pleasantintast:thestone is small,orofa meane bignesse:thetreebringethforth plentyoffruitevery other yeare.TheBullesseandtheSloe tree are wildekindesofPlums, which do vary in their kind, even asthegreater andmanuredPlumsdo.OftheBullesse, somearegreater andofbetter tastethanothers. Sloes are someofonetaste,andsomeofothers, moresharp;some greater,andothers lesser;thewhich to distinguish withlongdescrip tions were to small purpose, considering they be allandeveryofthemknowne even untothesimplest: therefore this shall suffice for their severall descriptions.ThePlumtrees growinall knowne countriesoftheworld: they require a loose ground, they also receive a difference fromtheregions where they grow, not onlyofthe forme or fashion,butespeciallyofthefaculties.ThePlumtrees are also many times graffed into trees of other kindes.ThewildePlumsgrowinmost hedgesthroughEngland.ThecommonandgardenPlumtrees do bloome in April:theleaves comeforthpresentlywiththem:thefruitisripe in Summer, some sooner, some later. Plummesthatbe ripeandnew gathered fromthetree, what sort soever they are of, do moistenandcoole,andyeeld untothebody very little nourishment,andthesame nothing goodatall. Dried Plums, commonly calledPrunes,are wholesomer, and more pleasant tothestomack, they yeeldmorenourishmentandbetter.

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AprilCHERRYTREETheEnglish Cherry tree groweth to an highandgreat tree, the body whereofisofa mean bignesse, which is parted above into very many boughes, with a barke some what smooth,ofa brown crimson colour, toughandpliable; the substanceortimberisalso brown in the middle, and the outer partissomwhat white: the leaves be great, broad, long, set with veins or nerves,andsleightly nicked about the edges: the floures are white,ofa mean bignes, consist ingoffiveleaves, and having certain threds in the middleofthe like colour.TheCherries be round, hanging upon long stemsorfoot stalks, with a stone in the middest whichiscovered with a pulp or soft meat; the kerneIl thereofisnot un. pleasant to the taste, though somwhat bitter.Thelate ripe Cherry tree growethuplike unto our wild English Cherry tree, with the like leaves,Double-flouredCherrybranchesandfloures, sav-ingthat they are somtimes once doubled: the fruitissmall, round, andofa darke bloudy colour when they be ripe, which the French-men gather with their stalkes, and hang themupin their houses in bunchesorhandfuIls against Winter, which the Physitions do give unto their patients in hot and burning fevers, being first steeped in a3

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Cherry little warme water,thatcauseththemto swellandplumpeasfullandfresh as when they didgrowuponthetree.Thedouble floured Cherry-tree growesuplikeuntoan hedge bush,butnotsogreatnorhighas anyoftheothers;theleavesandbranches differ not fromtherestofthe Cherry-trees.Thefloures hereof are exceeding double,asarethefloursofMarigolds,butofa white colour,andsmelling somewhat liketheHawthornefloures; after, which come se1dome or never any fruit, although some Authors have saidthatitbeareth sometimes fruit, whichmyselfe have notatany time seen; notwithstandingthetree hath growne in my Garden many yeeres,andthatinan excellent good place by a bricke wall, whereithaththereflectionoftheSouth Sunne, fit for a treethatisnotwilling to bearefruitinourcold climat.Myselfe with divers others have sundry other sortsinour gardens, one calledtheHartCherry,thegreaterandthe lesser; oneofthegreat bignesse,andmost pleasantintaste, which we callLuke WardesCherry, because he was the firstthatbroughtthesameoutofItaly;another we have calledtheNaples Cherry, becauseitwas firstbroughtinto these parts from Naples:thefruitis very great, sharpe pointed, somewhat like a mans heart in shape,ofa pleasant taste,andofa deepe blackish colourwhenitis ripe, as it wereofthecolourofdried bloud.Wehave anotherthatbringeth forth Cherries also very great, biggerthananyFlanders Cherrie,ofthecolourofJet, orburnishedhorne,andofa most pleasant taste, as witnessethMr.Bull,theQueenes Majesties Clocke maker, whodidtasteofthefruit(the tree bearing one1y one Cherry, which he did eate,butmyse1fenever tastedofit)attheimpression hereof.Wehave also another, calledtheAgriotCherry,ofa reasonable good taste. Another we havewithfruitofaduncolour,tendingto a watchet.Wehave oneofthedwarfe Cherries,that31

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Aprilbringethforthfruitasgreatas mostofourFlanders Cherries, whereasthecommon sorthathvery small Cherries,andthoseofan harsh taste.Theseandmany sorts morewehave inourLondongardens, whereof to write particularly would greatly enlargeourvolume,andto small purpose: therefore what hath beene said shall suffice.TheCherrie-trees bloome inAprill;somebringforththeirfruitsooner; some later:theredCherries be alwaies betterthantheblackeoftheir owne kinde.ManyexcellentTartsandother pleasant meatsaremade with Cherries, sugar,andotherdelicat spices.PEARETREETowriteofPearesandApplesinparticular, would require a particular volume:thestocke or kindredofPeares are not to benumbred:every country hath his peculiar fruit: my selfe knowes one curious in graffing&plantingoffruits, who hath in one pieceofground,atthepointofthree-score sundry sortsofPeares,andthose exceeding good,notdoubtingbutifhis minde had been to seeke after multitudes, hemighthave gotten togetherthelikenumberofthoseofworsekinds:besidesthediversitiesofthosethatbe wilde, experience sheweth sundry sorts:andtherefore Ithinkeitnot amisse to set downe one generall description for that,thatmightbe saidofmany, which to describe apart, were to sendanowle to Athens,ortonumberthose things which are without number.ThePearetree is forthemostparthigherthantheAppletree, having boughes not spread abroad,butgrowingupinheight;thebody is many times great:thetimberorwooditselfe is very tractable or easie to bewroughtupon, exceeding fit to make mouldsorprints to be graven on,ofcolourtendingto yellownesse: the leafeis32

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Pearesomewhat broad, finely nickedintheedges, greene above, and somewhat whiter underneath:thefloures are white:thePeares, thatisto say,thefruit, are forthemost part long, andinforme like aTop;butin greatnesse, colour, forme, and taste very much differing among them selves; they be also covered with skins or coatsofsundry colours: the pulpe or meate differeth,aswell in colour as taste: there is contained in them kernels, blacke when they be ripe:theroot groweth straight downe with some branchesrunningaslope.ThewildePearetree growes likewise great, upright, fullofbranches, for the most part Pyramides like, orofthefashionofa steeple, not spred abroad as istheApple or Crab tree: the timberofthetrunkeor bodyofthetreeisvery firmeandsollid,andlikewise smooth, a wood veryfitto make divers sortsofinstruments of, as also the haftsofsundrytooles to worke withal;andlikewise serveth tobecut into many kindesofmoulds, not only such prints as these figures are made of,butalso many sortsofpretty toies, for coifes, brest-plates,andsuch like, used amongourEnglish gentlewomen.Thetame Peare trees are planted in Orchards, as be the apple trees, and by grafting,thoughupon wilde stockes, come much varietyofgoodandpleasant fruits.Thefloures doe for the most part come forthinAprill, the leaves afterwards: all peares are not ripeatone time: some be ripe in July, othersinAugust,anddiversinSeptemberandlater. Wine madeofthe juyceofPeares called in English, Perry,issoluble, purgeth those that are not accustomedtodrinke thereof, especially whenitis new; notwith standing itisas wholesome a drinke being taken in small quanti tie as wine;itcomfortethandwarmeth the stomacke, and causeth good digestion. 33

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AprilSPERAGEORASPARAGUSThemanuredor garden Sperage, hathathis first risingoutofthegroundthicke tender shoots very softandbrittle,ofthethick nesseofthegreatest swans quill, in taste likethegreen bean, having atthetop a cer taine scaly soft bud, whichintime groweth to a branchoftheheightoftwo cubits, divided into divers other smaller branches, wheron are set many little leaves like haires, more finethantheleavesofDill:amongst which come forth small mos sie yellowish floures which yeeld forththefruit, greenatthefirst, afterward asredas Corall,ofthebignesseofGardenSperagea small pease;wherein is contained grosse blackish seed exceeding hard, which isthecausethatit lieth solonginthegroundafter his sowing, before itspringup:theroots are many thicke softandspongie stringshangingdowne from one head,andspredthemselves all about, wherebyitgreatly increaseth.Ourgarden Asparagus groweth wilde in Essex, in a medow neere to a mill, beyond a village calledThorp;andalsoatSingletonnotfar from Carby,andinthemedowes neereMoultoninLincolnshire. Likewiseitgrowes in great plenty neere Harwich,ata place called Bandamar lading,andatNorthMoultoninHollandapartofLincolnshire. 34

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Horse-taileThebare naked tender shootsofSperagespringupinAprill,atwhattime they are eaten in sallads; they floure inJuneandJuly,thefruit is ripe in September.Itis named Asparagus,oftheexcellency, becauseasparagi,orthesprings hereof are preferred before those of other plants whatsoever: for thisLatinewordAsparagusdoth properly signifiethefirstspringorsproutofevery plant, especially whenitis tender,andbefore it dogrowinto anhardstalk, as arethebuds, tendrels,oryongspringsofwild Vineorhops,andsuch like.Thefirst sproutsornaked tender shoots hereof be often times soddeninfleshbrothandeaten;orboiled in faire water,andseasoned with oile, vineger, salt,andpepper, then are servedupasa sallad: they are pleasant tothetaste.HORSE-TAILEORSHAVE-GRASSEGreat Horse-taile risethupwith aroundstalke hollow within like a reed, a cubit high, compactasitwereofmany small pieces oneputintotheendofanother, som timesofa reddish colour, very rough,andsetatevery joint with many stiffe Rush-like leaves,orroughbristles, which makeththewhole plant to resemblethetaileofa horse, whereofittooke his name. Smallandnaked Shave-grasse, wherewith Fletchers and Combe-makers doerubandpolish their worke, riseth outofthegroundlikethefirst shootsofAsparagus, jointed or kneed by certain distances liketheprecedent, but altogether without such bristly leaves,yetexceeding roughandcutting:theroot groweth aslope intheearthlike thoseoftheCouch-grasse. DodontCus sets forth another Horse-taile, which he called climing Horse-taile,orHorse-tailofOlympus.Belloniuswritesinhis Singularities,Thatit hath bin seen to be equall in height withthePlanetree. Shave-grasseisnot without cause namedAsprella,of35

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Aprilhis ruggednesse, whichisnot unknowne to women, who scoure their pewter and wadden thingsofthe kitchen therewith: and therefore someofour huswivesdocallitPewter-wort.Dioscoridessaith, that Horse-taile being stamped and laid to, doth perfectly cure wounds, yea although the sinues be cut' in sunder,asGalenaddeth.Theherb drunke either with waterorwine,isan excellent remedy against bleeding at the nose. Horse-taile with his roots boiled in wineisvery profitable for difficultieofbreathing.COLTS-FOOT,ORHORSE-FOOTTussilagoor Fole-foot hath many white and long creeping roots, somewhatfat;fromwhich rise up naked stalkes (inColts-foot3 6

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Hearts-eau the beginningofMarchandAprill) about a spanne long, bearingatthetop yellow floures, which change into downeandare caried away withthewinde:whenthestalkeandseed is perished, there appearespringingofoutthe earth manybroadleaves, greene above,andnextthegroundofa white hoarie or grayish colour, fashioned like anHorsefoot; for which causeitwas called Fole-foot,andHorse-hoofe: seldome or never shall you find leavesandflouresatonce,buttheflours are past beforetheleaves comeoutoftheground;as may appeare bythefirst picture, which setteth forththenaked stalkesandfloures; and bythesecond, which pourtraiteththeleaves only. A decoction madeofthegreene leavesandroots,orelse asyrrupthereof, is good forthe coug11. Thefumeofthe dried leaves takenthrougha funnell or tunnell,burnedupon coles, effectually helpeth thosethataretroubledwiththeshortnesseofbreath,andfetchtheirwinde thickeandoften. Beingtakenin manner as theytakeTobaco, it mightily prevaileth againstthediseases afore said.HEARTS-EASE,ORPANSIESTheHearts-easeorPansiehathmanyroundleavesatthefirst commingup;afterward they grow somewhat longer, sleightly cut abouttheedges, trailing or creepingupontheground:thestalksare.weakeandtender, whereupongrowfloures in form&figure liketheViolet,andforthemost partofthesame bignesse,ofthreesundrycolours, whereof it tookthesyrnameTricolor,thatis to say, purple, yellow, and whiteorblew; by reasonofthebeautyandbraverieofwhich colours they are very pleasing totheeye, for smel they have littleornone at all.ThereisfoundinsundryplacesofEnglanda wilde kinde hereof, having flouresofa feint yellow colour, withoutmixtureofanyothercolour, yet having a deeper37

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Aprilyellow spot inthelowest leafe with foure orfiveblackish purple lines, wherein it differeth fromtheother wilde kinde: and this hath been takenofsome youngHerbarists to betheyellow Violet.TheHearts-ease growethinfields in many places,andin gardens also,andthat oftentimesofit selfe: itismore gallant and beautifull than any ofthewilde ones.CROWNEIMPERIALLTheCrowne Imperiall hath for his root a thicke firmeandsolid bulbe, covered with a yellowish filmeorskinne, fromthewhich risethupa great thicke fat stalke two cubits high, inthebareandnaked partofa dar ke overworne dusky purple colour.Theleaves grow confusedly aboutthestalke like thoseofthewhite Lilly,butnarrower:thefloures grow atthetopofthestalke, incompassing it round, in formeofanImperiall Crowne, (whereof it tooke his name) hanging their heads downward as it were bels; in colour itisyellowish; or to give youthetruecolour, which by words otherwise cannot be ex pressed,ifyou lay sap berries in steep in faire water for the spaceofCrowne Imperialltwo houres,andmix a little saffron in that infusion,andlay it upon paper, it sheweththeperfect colour to limne or illuminethefloure withall.Theback side ofthesaid floureisstreaked with purplish lines, which doth greatly set forththebeauty therof.Inthebottomofeachofthese bels there is placed sixe dropsofmost cleare shining sweet water,intaste like sugar3 8

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Great Celandine resembling in shew faire orient pearles;thewhich dropsifyou take away, there do immediatly appearethelike: notwithstandingifthey may be suffered tostandstillinthe floure according to his own nature, they will never fall away, no notifyou striketheplant untillitbe broken. Among these dropstherestandethouta certain pestel, as alsosundrysmall chivestippedwith small pendants like thoseoftheLilly: abovethewhole flourestheregroweth a tuftofgreen leaves like thoseuponthestalke,butsmaller.Mterthefloures .be faded,therefollow. codsorseed-vessels six square, wherein is contained flat seeds tough & limmer,ofthecolourofMace:thewhole plant,aswel roots as floures do savororsmell very like a fox.Astheplant groweth old, so doth it wax rich,bringingforth a Crowneoffloures amongsttheuppermost green leaves, which some make a second kinde,althoughintruththey arebutoneandtheselfe same, which intimeisthoughtto grow to a triple crowne, which hapneth by the ageoftheroot,andfertilitieofthesoile.Thisplant hath beenbroughtfrom Constantinople amongst other bulbous roots,andmade denizonsinourLondon gardens, whereof I have great plenty.ItflourethinAprill,andsometimes inMarch,when as the weather is warmeandpleasant.GREATCELANDINEORSWALLOW-WORTThegreat Celandinehatha tender brittle stalke, round, hairy,andfullofbranches, set with leaves not unliketothoseofColumbine,buttenderer,anddeeper cutorjagged,ofa grayishgreenunder,andgreene ontheothersidetendingto blewnesse:thefloures grow atthetopofthe stalks,ofa gold yellow colour, in shape like thoseofthe Wal-floure: after which comelongcods fullofbleak or pale seeds:thewhole plant isofastrongunpleasant smell,andyeeldeth a thicke juiceofa milky substance,39

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AprilofthecolourofSaffron:therootisthickeandknobby, with some threds anexed thereto, which beeing brokenorbruised, yeeldeth a saporjuiceofthecolourofgold.Itgrowethinuntilled places by common way sides,amongbriersandbrambles, about old wals,andin the shade ratherthanin the Sun. Itisgreene all the yeare:itfloureth from Aprill to a good partofSummer:thecads are perfectedinthemean time.Itiscalled in LatineChelidonium majus,andHir undinarium major:inEnglish, Celandine, Swallow wort,andTetter-wort.Itiscalled Celandine not becauseitfirstspringethatthecomming inofSwal lowes,ordieth when they go away, (for as we have said,itmay be found all the yere)butbecause some hold opinion,thatwith this herbthedams restore sight toGreatCelandinetheiryangoneswhenthey cannot see.Whichthings are vainandfalse; forCornelius Celsus, lib.6. witnesseth,Thatwhenthesightoftheeiesofdiversyangbirdsisputforth by some outward means,itwill after a time be restoredofitselfe,andsoonestofallthesightofthe Swallow: whereupon (as the sameAuthorsaith)thetale grew, how thorowanherbthedams restorethatthingwhich healethofitselfe.Thevery same dothAristotleall edge,lib.6.deAnimal.The4

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\Vood SorrellWood SorrelleiesofSwallowes (saith he)thatarenotfledge,ifa mandoprickethemout, do afterwards grow againeandperfectly recover their sight.Thejuiceofthe herbeisgood to sharpenthesight, for it clensethandconsumeth away slimie thingsthatcleave abouttheballofthe eye,andhinderthesight,andespeci ally being boiled with honyina brasen vessell.Theroot being chewed is reported to be good against the toothache.Therootcutinto small piecesisgood to be given untoBauksagainstsundrydiseases, wherunto they are subject.WOODSORRELL,ORSTUBWORTOxysPliniana,orTrifolium acetosum,being a kindeofthree leafed grasse, is a lowandbase herbewithoutstalke;theleaves immediately rising fromtherootuponshort stemmesattheir first comming forth folded together, but afterward they dospredabroad,andareofa faire light greene colour, innumberthree, liketherestoftheTrefoiles,butthateach leafe,hatha deep cleftorrift in the middle:amongthese leaves comeupsmallandweaketendersterns,suchasthe leaves do grow upon, which beare small starre-like flouresofa white colour, with some brightnesofcarnation dasht over the same:thefloure consistethoffive small leaves ; after which come littleroundknaps or huskes fullofyellow ish seed. These plants grow in

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Aprilwoodsandunderbushes, in sandieandshadowie placesinevery countrey.WoodSorrellorCuckow Sorrell is called inLatineTrifolium acetosum:theApothecariesandHerbarists callitAlleluya,andPanis Cuculi,orCuckowes meate, because eithertheCuckow feedeth thereonorbyreason whenitspringethforthandf10ureththeCuckowsingethmost,atwhichtime alsoAlleluyawas wont to besungin Churches. SorrellduBoisorWoodSorrell stampedandused for greene sauce, is good for them thathave sickeandfeeble stomackes; foritstrengthneththestomacke, procureth appetite,andofall Sorrell sauces isthebest, not onely in vertue,butalso inthepleasantnesseofhis taste.DocKEThegreat water-dockhathvery longandgreat leaves, stiffeandhard, not unliketothegardenPatience,butmuchlonger.Thestalke risethupto a great height, oftentimes totheheightoffive foot or more.Thef10uregrowethatthetopofthestalkinspoky tufts,brownofcolour.Theseed is contained in chaffie husksthreesquare,ofashiningpale colour.Theroot is very great, thick, brown withoutandyellowish within.Thesmal water-Dockhathshortnarrow leaves setupona stiffe stalke.Thef10ures grow fromthemiddleofthestalke upwardinspoky rundles, setinspacesbycer tain distancesroundaboutthestalk, as arethef10uresofHorehound:whichDockeisofallthekinds most com mon,andofleast use,andtakes no pleasureordelight inanyonesoile or dwelling place,butis found almost every where, as wellupontheland asinwaterie places,butespeciallyingardensamonggoodandwholsome pot herbs,beingtherebetterknowne,thanwelcome or desired: wherefor Iintendnottospendfarther time about his description. 42

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DockeThegarden Patiencehathverystrongstalks furrowed or chamfered,ofeightornine foothighwhen it groweth in fertile ground, setaboutwith great large leaves like to thoseofthewater-Docke, having alongstthestalkes towardthetop flouresofalightpurple colour declining to brownnesse.Theseed isthreesquare, contained inthinchaffie husks like thoseofthecommon Docke.Therootisvery great, browne withoutandyellow within, in colour and taste likethetrueRubarb.Bloudwort is best knowne unto allofthestockeorkindredofDockes:ithathlongthinleaves sometimesredin everypartthereof,andoftenstripedhere&therewith linesandstrakesofa darkeredcolour:amongwhich rise up stiffe brittle stalkesofthesame colour:onthetopwhereof come forth such flouresandseed asthecommon wildDockehath.Theroot is likewise red,orofa bloudy colour.TheMonksRubarbiscalled Patience, which word is borrowedoftheFrench, who call this herbPatience:ofsomeMonksRubarb,because asitseemes someMonke01other hath usedtheroot hereof in steadofRubarb.Bloudwortorbloudy Patience is calledofsome,SanguisDraconis,ofthebloudy colour wherewiththewhole plant is possest:itisofpot-herbsthechiefeorprincipall, havingthepropertieofthebastardRubarb,butoflesse force in hispurgingqualitie.MonksRubarborPatienceisanexcellent wholsome pot-herb, for beingputintothepottage in some reason able quantitie, it helpsthejaundice,andsuchlike diseases proceedingofcold causes.IfyoutaketherootsofMonksRubarbandredMadderof each halfe a pound, Sena foure ounces, Anise seed and Licoriceofeach two ounces, ScabiousandAgrimonie of each onehandfull;slicetherootsoftheRubarb,bruisetheAnise seedandLicorice, breaketheherbs withyourhandsandputtheminto a stone pot called a43

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April stean, with foure gallonsofstrongale, to steeporinfusethespaceofthree daies,andthendrinke this liquor asyourordinarydrinkforthreeweeks togetherattheleast,thoughthelonger you take it, so muchthebetter;providingina readinesse another stean so prepared,thatyoumay have oneunderanother, being alwaies carefull to keep a good diet:itpurifieththebloudandmakesyongwenches look faireandcherry-like.Therehave not bin anyotherfacultiesattributedto this plant, eitheroftheantientorlater writers,butgenerallyofallithath bin referred totheother: DocksorMonksRubard:ofwhichnumberI assure myse1fethis isthebest,anddoth approch neerest untothetrueRubarb.Otherdistinctionsanddifferences I leave tothelearned PhysitionsofourLondoncolledge, who are very well able to search this matter, as athingfar above my reach, being no Graduat,buta Country Scholler, asthewhole frameofthis historie doth well declare:butI hope my good meaning will be well taken, considering I do my best:andIdoubtnotbutsomeofgreater learning wil perfectthatwhich I havebegunaccording to my small skill, especiallytheice beingbrokento him,andthewood rough-hewn to his hand. Notwithstanding Ithinkeitgood to say thusmuchmore in my own defence,Thatalthoughtherebe many wantsanddefectsinmee,thatwere requisite to performesucha worke;yetmay my long experience by chancehappenuponsome onethingorotherthatmay dotheLearnedgood.DUCKSMEATDucksmeat is asitwere a certain green mosse, with very littleroundleavesofthebignesofLentils:outofthemidst whereofonthenether side grow downe very fine threds like haires, which are tothemin steadofroots:ithathneither stalke, fIoure, nor fruit.44

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Cuckow-FlouresItisfound in ponds, lakes, city ditches, & other standing waters every where.ThetimeofDucks meatisknown to all. Duckes meatiscalled Ducks herb, because Ducksdofeed thereon; where upon also itiscalled Ducks meat. Ducks meat mingled with fine wheaten floure, and applied, prevaileth much against hot Swell ings.CueK0W-FLO-uRESThefirstoftheCuckow flours hath leavesathisDucksmeatspringingupsomwhat round,&thosethatspring afterward growjaggedlike the leavesofGreek Valerian; among which risethupa stalk a foot long, set withthelike leaves,butsmallerandmore jagged, resembling thoseofRocket.Thefloures growatthetop in small bundles, whiteofcolour, hollow inthemiddle, resemblingthewhite sweet-John: after which come small chaffie huskes or seed-vessels, whereintheseediscontained. These floure forthemostpartinAprillandMay, whentheCuckow begins to sing her pleasant notes with out stammering. They are commonly calledinLatineFlos Cuculi;andalsosome call themNasturtium aquaticum minus,orlesser water-Cresse:ofsome,Carda mine :in English, Cuckow4S

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Aprilflours: in Norfolk, Canturbury bels: at the Namptwich in Cheshire my native country, Lady-smockes.BROOMEBroomisa bush or shrubby plant,ithath stalksorrather wooddy branches, from which do spring slender twigs, cor nered, green, tough, andthatbe easily bowed, many times divided into smal branches; about which do grow little leavesofanobscure green colour,&brave yellowf1oures,andatthelength flat cods, which beeing ripe are black,asare thoseofthe common Vetch, in which doe lie flat seeds, hard, something brown ish,andlesser than Lentils.TheSpanish Broome hath likewise wooddy stems, from whence growupslender pliant twigs, which be bareand naked without leaves,orat the least havingbutfew smallSpanish Broomeleaves, set hereandthere far distant one from another, with yellowf10uresnot much unlike thef10uresofcommon Broome,butgreater. Small leafedorthin leafed Broome hath many tough pliant shoots risingoutofthe ground, which grow into hardandtough stalks, which are divided into divers twiggy branches whereon doe grow very small thin leaves,ofa whitish colour; whereupon some have called itGenista alba,white Broome: thef10uresgrowatthe topofthe stalkes, in shape like thoseofthe common Broom 4 6

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Broomebutofa white colour, wherein it specially differeth from the other Broomes.Thecommon Broome groweth almost every where in dry pasturesandlow woods. Spanish Broome growethindivers kingdomesofSpaineandItaly; we have it inourLondon gardens.TheWhiteBroome groweth likewise in Spaine and other hot regions; itisa stranger inEngland;of thisTitus Calphurniusmakes mention in his second Eclogofhis Bucolicks, writing thus: See Father, how the Kine stretch out their tender sideUnderthe hairy Broome, that growes in field so wide. Broome floureth in the endofAprillorMay, and then the young budsofthe floures are to bee gathered and laid in pickle or salt, which afterwards being washedorboyled, are used for sallads,asCapers be, and be eaten with nolessedelight.TheSpanish Broome doth floure sooner, andislonger in flouring. There is madeofthe ashesofthe stalkes and branches dryed and burnt, a lie with thin white wine,asRhenishwine,whichishighly commendedofdivers forthegreene sickenesseanddropsie; but withall it doth by reasonofhissharpe quality many timeshurtand fret the intrailes. The young budsorlittle floures preserved in pickle, and eatenasa sallad, stirre up an appetite to meate.Thatworthy Princeoffamous memoryHenry8. King of England, was wont to drinke the distilled waterof floures, against surfets and diseases thereof ansmg. SirThomas FitzherbertKnight,waswont to cure the blacke jaundice with this drink onely.Takeasmany handfulls (as you thinke good)ofthe dried leavesofBroome gatheredandbrayed to pouder in the moneth of May, then take unto each handfullofthe dried leaves,onespoonful and a halfeofthe seedofBroome brayed47

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Aprilinto pouder: mingle these together,andletthesicke drinke thereof each day a quantity, firstandlast, untill he finde some ease.Themedicine must be continuedandso long used, untillitbe quite extinguished: foritisa disease not very suddenly cured,butmustby little and little be dealt withal!.FURZE,GORSSE,WHIN, OR PRICKLEYBROOMETherebe divers sortsofprickely Broome, calledinourEnglishtongue bysundrynames, according to the speechofthecountrey people where they doe grow: in some places,Furzes;in others, Whins, Gorsse,andof some, prickly Broome.TheFurzebushisa plant altogether aThorne,fully armedwithmost sharpe prickles, without any leaves at all except in the Spring,andthose very fewandlittle,andquickly falling away:itisa bushy shrub, often risingupwith many wooddy branches to the heightoffoure orfivecubitsorhigher, according tothenatureandsoile where they grow:thegreatestandhighestthatI did ever see do grow about ExcesterintheWestpartsofEngland, where the great stalks are dear elyboughtforthebetter sortofpeople,andthesmall thorny spraies forthepoorer sort.Fromthese thorny branches grow little floures like thoseofBroome,andofa yellow colour, whichinhot regions undertheextreme heatoftheSunneareofa very perfect red colour: inthecolder countriesofthe East,asDanzicke, Brunswicke,andPoland, there is not any branch hereof growing, except some few plants and seeds which my selfe have sent toElbingotherwise called Meluin, where they are most curiouslykeptin their fairest gardens,asalsoourcommon Broome, the which I have sent thither likewise, being first desiredbydivers earnest letters.

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WillowWehave inourbarren groundsoftheNorthpartofEngland another sortofFurze, bringing forththelike prickly thornesthattheother have: the onely difference consistethinthecolourofthe floures; fortheothersbringforth yellow flouresandthoseofthis plant are as white as snow. PettyWhin(growing uponHampsteadheath neere London,andin divers other barren grounds, where, in manner nothing else will grow) hath many weakeandflexible branchesofa wooddy substance: whereon doe grow little leaves like thoseofTyme:amongwhich are set innumberinfinite most sharpe prickles,hurtinglike needles, whereofittooke his name.Thefloures growonthe topsofthe branches like thoseofBroome,andofa pale yellow colour.WILLOWTREEThe common Willowisanhigh tree, with a bodyofa meane thicknesse,andrisethupashighasother treesdoeifitbe not topped inthebeginning, soone afteritisplanted;thebarke thereof is smooth, tough,andflexible: the wood is white, tough,andhardto be broken:theleavesarelong, lesserandnarrower than thoseofthe Peach tree, somewhat greeneonthe upper sideandslipperie,andonthenether side softerandwhiter:theboughes be covered either with a purple,orelse with a white barke:thecatkins which growonthe toppesofthebranches come firstofall forth, being longandmossie, and quicklyturneinto whiteandsoft downe,thatiscarried awaywiththewinde.TheOziarorWaterWillowbringethforthofthe head, which standeth somewhat out, slender wandsortwigs, with a reddishorgreene barke, good to make basketsandsuch like workes of:itis planted bythetwigs or cads beingthrustintotheearth,theupperpart whereof49

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Aprilwhen they are growne up,iscutoff, sothatwhichiscalledthehead increasethunderthem, from whencetheslender twigs doe grow, which being oftentimes cut,thehead waxeth greater: many times alsothelong rodsor wands ofthehigherWithytrees be lopped offandthrustintothegroundfor plants,butdeeper, and above mansheight:ofwhich do grow great rods, profi table for many things, and commonly for bands, where with tubsandcasks are bound.TheSallow treeorGoats Willow, groweth to a tree ofCommon Willowa meane bignesse: the trunkeorbodyissoftandhollow timber, coveredwitha whitishroughbarke:thebranches are setwithleaves somewhat rough, greene above, and hoarieunderneath:amongwhich comeforthroundcat kins,oragletsthatturneinto downe, which is carried awaywiththewinde.TheRose Willow growethuplikewise totheheightandbignesseofashrubbytree;thebody whereofiscoveredwitha scabbyroughbarke:thebranches are many, whereupon do grow very many twigsofa reddish colour, garnished with smalllongleaves, somewhat whitish: amongst which comeforthlittle floures, or rather a multiplicationofleaves,joynedtogetherinformeofa Rose,ofa greenish white colour, whichdoenot only make a gallant shew,butalso yee1d a mostSo

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Larch cooling aireinthe heatofSummer, being setup In houses, for the deckingofthe same. These Will owes growindivers placesofEngland: the Rose-Willow groweth plentifully in Cambridge shire, by the rivers and ditches there in Cambridge towne they grow abundantly about the places called ParadiseandHell-mouth, in the way from Cambridge to Grand chester.Thegreene boughes with the leaves may very well be brought into chambers and set aboutthe bedsofthose that be sickeoffevers, for they doe mightily coole the heateofthe aire, which thingisa wonderfull refreshingtothe sicke Patients.Thebarke hath like vertues:Dioscorideswriteth,Thatthis beingburntto ashes, ahd steeped in vineger, takesawaycomesandother like risings in the feetandtoes.LARCHTREEThe Larch is a treeofno small height, with a body growing straightup:the barke whereof in the neither part beneath the boughesisthicke, ruggedandfullofchinkes; which being cut in sunderisred within,andin the other part above smooth, slipperie, something white without:itbringeth forth many boughes divided into other lesser branches, which be toughandpliable.Theleavesare smallandcut into many jags, growing in clusters thicke together like tassels, which fall awayatthe approchof \\Tinter: the floures,orrather the firstshewesofthe conesorfruit be round,andgrowoutof the tenderest boughes, being at the lengthofa brave red purplecolour: the cones be small,andlike almost in bignesse to thoseofthe Cypresse tree,butlonger,andmadeupofa multitudeofthin scales like leaves: under which lie small seeds, having a thin velme growing on them very like to the wingsofBeesandwasps: the51

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Maysubstanceofthe woodisveryhardofcolour, especiallythatin the midst somewhat red,andvery profitable for workesoflongcontinuance.Itisnot truethatthe woodoftheLarchtree cannot be setonfire,asf7itruviusreportethofthe castle made ofLarchwood, which Cesar besieged, foritburnethin chimneies,andisturnedinto coles, which are very profitable for Smithes.Thereisalso gatheredoftheLarchtree a liquid Rosin, very like in colourandsubstance to the whiter hony, asthatofAthensorofSpaine, which notwithstandingissueth not forthofitselfe,butrunnethoutofthestockeofthe tree, whenithath beene bored even totheheart with a greatandlongaugerandwimble.Ofall the Cone treesonely theLarchtreeisfoundtobe without leavesintheWinter:in the Spring grow fresh leavesoutofthesame knobs, from which theformer did fall.Thecones are to be gathered beforeWinter,sosoonasthe leaves are gone:butafter the scales are loosedandopened, the seeds drop away:theRosinemustbe gathered in the Summer moneths.WHITETHORNEORHAWTHORNETREEThewhiteThornisa greatshrubgrowing often to theheightofa peare tree, thetrunkorbodyisgreat, the boughesandbrancheshardandwoody, set with long sharp thorns: the leaves be broad,cutwith deep gashes into divers sections, smooth,andofa glistering green colour: the floures grow upon spokyrundIes,ofa pleasant sweet smell, somtimes white,andoften dasht over with alightwashofpurple, which have moved some to thinke a difference in the plants: after which come the fruit, beingroundberries, greenatthe first,andredwhen they be ripe; whereinisfound a soft sweet pulpe and52

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LillyoftheValleycertaine whitish seed: the root growes deepe intheground,ofahardwooddy substance.TheHawthornegrowethinwoodsandin hedges neere unto highwaies almost every where.TheHawthornefloures in May, whereupon many docallthe treeitselfetheMay-bush, as a chiefe tokenofthe comminginofMay:the leaves come forth a little sooner: the fruitisripeinthe beginningofSeptember, andisa food for birds inWinter.LILLYINTHEVALLEY,ORMAYLILLYTheConvall Lilly,orLillyofthe Vally, hath many leaves likethesmallest leavesofWaterPlantaine;amongwhich risethupa naked stalke halfe a foot high, gar nished with many white floures like little bels, with bluntandturnededges,ofastrongsavour, yet pleasantenough;which being past, there come smallredberries, much like the berriesofAsparagus,whereintheseediscontained.Therootissmallandslender creeping far abroadin the ground.Thesecond kindeofLillyoftheValleyMayLilliesisliketheformer in every respect; and herein variethordiffereth,inthatthis kindehath53

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Mayreddish floures,andisthoughtto have the sweeter smell.Thefirst groweth onHampstedheath, foure miles from London, in great abundance: neere to Lee in Essex,andupon Bushie heath, thirteene miles from London,andmany other places.Theother kinde with theredfloureisa stranger inEngland:howbeit I have the same growing in my garden.Theyfloure in May,andtheir fruitisripe in Septem ber.TheLatines have named itLilium Convallium:in French,Mugue/:yetthere is likewise another herbe which they callMuguel,commonly named in English, Woodroof.ItiscalledinEnglish, Lilly of the Valley,orthe Convall Lillie,andMayLillies,andin some places Liriconfancie.Thefloures of the Valley Lillie distilled with wine, and drunke the quantitieofa spoonefull, restore speech unto those that have the dumb palsieandthatare falne intotheApoplexie,andare good against the gout,andcom fort the heart.Thewater aforesaid doth strengthen the memory that is weakenedanddiminished; it helpeth also the inflam mationsofthe eies, being dropped thereinto.TheflouresofMayLilliesputinto a glasse,andsetina hillofants, close stopped forthespaceofa moneth,andthen taken out, therein you shall finde a liquor that appeaseth the paineandgriefeofthe gout, being out wardly applied; whichiscommended to be most excellent.ENGLISHJACINTH,ORHARE-BELLSTheblew Hare-bellsorEnglish Jacinthisvery commonthroughoutall England.Ithath long narrow leaves leaning towards the ground,amongthe which spring up naked or bare stalks loden with many hollow blew floures,54

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Jacinthof a strong sweet smell somewhat stuffing the head: after which come the codsorroundknobs, containing a great quantitieofsmall blacke shining seed.Therootisbulbous, full of a slimie glewish juice, which will serve to set feathersuponarrowesinsteadofglew, or to paste bookes with: hereofismadethebest starch next untothatofWake-robin roots.Theblew Hare-bels grow wilde in woods, Copses,andinthe bordersoffields every where thorow England.OurEnglish Hyacinth is calledHyacinthus Anglicus,forthatitisthoughtto grow more plentifullyinEnglandthan elsewhere.Theroots, after the opinionofDioscorides,being beatenandapplied with white Wine, hinderorkeepe backe the growthofhaires. Two Feigned PlantsI havethoughtitcon venient to conclude the his torieoftheHyacinths withFalsebumbastJacinththese two bulbous Plants, received by tradition from others,thoughgenerally holden for feignedandadulterine.Theirpictures I could willingly have omitted in this historie,ifthe curious eye could elsewhere have found themdrawneanddescribedinour EnglishTongue:butbecause I findethemin none, I will laythemdowne here, to theendthatitmay serveforexcuse to others who shall come after, which list nottodescribe them, beingasI said condemned for feined55

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ThefloureofTygrisMayandadulterine nakedly drawne onely.Thefloures (saiththeAuthor) are no lesse strange than wonderful!.Theleavesandroots are like to thoseofHyacinths.Thefloures resembletheDaffodilsorNarcissus.Thewhole plant con sistethofa woollyorflockiematter:which description with thePicturewas sent unto Dodonus byJohannes Aicholzius.Thesecond feigned picture hath beene takenoftheDis covererandothersoflate time, to be a kindeofDragons not seene by anythathave written thereof; which hath moved them to thinkeita feigned picture like wise; notwithstanding you shall receivethedescription thereofasithathcome to my hands.Theroot (saith my Author) is bulbousorOnionfashion, outwardly blacke; fromthewhich springuplongleaves, sharpe pointed, narrow,andofa fresh greene colour: inthemiddestofwhich leaves riseupnakedorbare stalkes,atthe top whereof groweth a pleasant yellow floure, stained with many smallredspots hereandthere confusedly cast abroad :andinthemiddestofthefloure thrustethforthalongredtongueorstile, which in time groweth to be the codorseed-vessell, crookedorwreathed, whereinistheseed.Thevertuesandtemperature arenotto be spoken of, consideringthatwe assuredly per suadeourselvesthatthere are no such plants,butmeere fictionsanddevices, as we terme them, to give his friend a gudgeon.

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WhiteLilliesWHITELILLIESThe white Lilly hath long smoothandfull bodied leavesofa grassieorlightgreen colour.Thestalks betwocubits high,andsomtimes more, setorgarnished with the like leaves,butgrowing smallerandsmaller toward thetop;anduponthem do grow faire white flouresstrongofsmell, narrow toward the footofthestalke whereon theydogrow, wideoropen in themouthlike a bell.Inthe middlepartofthem doe grow small tender pointals tipped with a dusty yellow colour,ribbedor chamfered on the back side, consistingofsix small leaves thickeandfat.Therootisa bulb madeofscaly cloves, fulloftoughandclammy juice, wherewith the whole plant doth generally abound.Thewhite LillyofConstantinople hath very large&fat leaves like the former,butnarrowerandlesser.Thestalke risethupto theheightofthree cubits, setandgarnished with leaves also like the precedent,butmuchlesse.Whichstalke oftentimes doth alteranddegenerat from his naturall roundnesse to a flat forme, asitwere a lathofwood furrowedorchanelled alongst the same, as it were ribsorwelts.Thefloures growatthe top liketheformer, savingthatthe leaves doeturnethemselves more backward like theTurkscap,andbeareth many more floures thanourEnglishwhite Lilly doth.OurEnglishwhiteLillygroweth inmostgardensofEngland.Theothergroweth naturally in Constantinopleandthe parts adjacent,from whence wehadplants forourEnglish gardens, where they flourishasin their owne countrey.TheLillyiscalledinLatine,Rosa Junonis,orJuno'sRose, becauseasitisreporteditcameupofher milke that felluponthe ground.Butthe Poets feign,ThatHercules,whoJupiterhadbyAlcumena,wasputtoJuno'sbreasts whilest shee was asleepe;andafter the sucking there fell away aboundanceofmilk,andthatonepartwas 57

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Mayspiltinthe heavens,andtheotherupontheearth;andthatofthissprangthe Lilly,andoftheother the circle intheheavens calledLacteus Circulus,ortheMilkyway, or otherwiseinEnglishWatlingstreet.S.Basilin the ex plicationofthe44Psalmsaith,Thatno floure so lively sets forththefrailtyofmans life astheLilly.Therootofthe garden Lilly stamped with hony gleweth together sinuesthatbecutin sunder.Florentinusa writerofHusbandrysaith,Thatifthe root be curiously opened,andtherein beputsome red, blew,oryellow colourthathathno causticke orburningqualitie,itwill causethefloure to beofthe same colour.MOUNTAINELILLIESThegreat mountain Lilly hath a clovedbulbor scaly root, yellowofcolour, very small in respectofthegreatnesseoftheplant; fromthewhich risethupa stalke, som times twoorthree, according to the ageoftheplant, whereofthemiddle stalke commonlyturnethfrom his roundnesse into a flat forme, as thoseofthe white LillyofConstantinople.Uponthese stalks do grow faire leavesofa blackish greene colour, in roundlesandspaces astheleavesofWoodroofe, not unlike totheleavesofwhite Lilly,butsmalleratthetopofthestalkes.Thefloures be innumberinfinite, oratthe leasthardto be counted, very thicke setorthrusttogether,ofan overworne purple, spottedontheinside withThegreat mountaine Lilly58

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Persian Lillymany smal specksofthe colourofrusty iron.Thewhole floure dothturneitselfe backward at such time as thesunhath cast his beamesuponit, like unto theTulipaorTurkscap, as the LillyorMartagonofConstantinopledoth;from the middle whereof do come forth tender pendants hanging thereat,ofthecolourthefloure is spotted with.Therehath not bin anythingleft inwriting eitherofthe nature or vertuesofthese plants: notwithstandingwemay deem,thatGodwhich gavethemsuchseemely and beautifull shape,hathnot leftthemwithout their peculiar vertues,thefindingoutwhereof we leave tQ thelearnedandindustrious searcherofNature.PERSIANLILLYThe Persian Lillyhathfor his root a great white bulbe, differinginshape from the other Lillies, having one great bulbefirmeorsolid, fullofjuice, which commonly each yere setteth offorencreaseth one other bulbe,andsome times more, whichthenext yere after is taken fromthemother root,andso bringeth forth such floures astheold plant did.Fromthis root risethupa fat thickeandstraightstemoftwo cubits high, whereuponisplacedlongnarrow leavesofa greene colour, declining to blewnesse as doe thoseofthe woad.Thefloures grow alongst the naked partofthe stalk like little bels,ofan overworn purple colour,hangingdown their heads,everyonehaving his own foot-stalkeoftwo inches long, as also his pestellorclapper fromthemiddlepartofthe floure; whichbeingpastandwithered, there isnotfoundany seedatall, as in other plants,butis encreased onlyinhis root.ThisPersian Lilly groweth naturally in Persiaandthose places adjacent, whereofittooke his name,andisnow(by the industryofTravellers into those countries, loversofplants) made a denizon in some fewofourLondon gardens.59

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MayThereisnot anythingknownofthe nature or vertuesofthis Persian Lilly, esteemedasyetfor his rarenesseandcomely proportion; although (if Imightbeesobold with a stranger that hath vouchsafed to travell so many hun dredsofmiles forouracquaintance) wee haveinour English fields many scoresoffloures in beauty far excelling it.DAYLILLIETheflouresoftheDayLillie be like the white Lillie in shape,ofanOrenge tawny colour:ofwhich floures muchmightbe said which I omit.Butinbriefe, this plant bringeth forthinthemorning his bud, whichatnoone is full blowne,orspredabroad,andthe same dayinthe eveningitshutsitselfe,andin ashorttime after becomes as rottenandstinkingasifithadbeenetroddenin a dunghill a moneth together,infouleandrainie weather: whichisthe causethatthe seed seldome followes,asin the otherofhis kinde, notbringingforth anyatall that I could ever observe; according to the old proverbe, Soone ripe, soone rotten.TheseLilliesdogrowinmy garden,asalsointhe gardensofHerbarists,andloversoffineandrare plants;butnot wilde inEnglandasinothercountries.Theydofloure somewhat beforetheother Lillies. Itisfitly called, Faireorbeautifull for a day:andsoweinEnglish may rightly tearmeitthe Day-Lillie, or Lillie for a day.Therootsandtheleaves be laidwithgood successeuponburningsandseal dings.TURKIEORGINNY-HENFLOURETheChecquered Daffodill,orGinny-hen Floure, hath small narrow grassie leaves; among which there riseth60

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Ginny-hen Floureup a stalke three hands high, havingatthetop oneortwofloures,andsometimes three, which consistethofsixsmall leaves checquered most strangely: wherein Nature,orrathertheCreatorofall things,hathkepta very wonderfull order, surpassing (asinallotherthings) the curious est paintingthatArtcan set downe.Onesquare isofa greenish yellow colour,theotherpurple, keep ing the sameorderas wellonthe backsideofthefloure as onetheinside, although they are blackishinone square, andofa Violet colourinanother; insomuchthatevery leafe seemeth to bethefeather of aGinnyhen, whereofittooke his name.Theroot is small, white,andofthebig nesseofhalfe a garden beane.TheGinnyhenfloure is calledofDodonus,FlosMe/eagris:ofLobe/ius, Lilionarcissusvariegata,forthatit hath the floureofa Lilly, andtherootofNarcissus:ithath beene calledFritillaria,of the tableorboorduponwhichmenplayatChesse,Fritillariewhich square checkersthefloure doth verymuchre semble; somethinkingthatitwas namedFritillus:where of there is no certainty; forMartialseemeth to callFritillus, Abacus,ortheTables whereon men playatDice,inthefifth bookeofhisEpigrams,writingtoGalla.Thesad Boy now his nuts cast by, Is call'd to Schoole by Masterscry:61

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MayAndthedrunkeDicer nowbetray'dBy flattering Tables as he play'd,Isfrom his secret tipling house drawne out,AlthoughtheOfficer he much besought,&c.InEnglishwe may callitTurky-henorGinny-hen Floure,andalso Checquered Daffodill,andFritillarie, according totheLatine.Ofthefacultieofthese pleasant floures there is nothingsetdowneinthe antientorlaterWriter,butthey are greatly esteemed for the beautifyingofourgardens,andthe bosomsofthebeautifulI.TULIPA,ORTHEDALMATIANCAPTulipaortheDalmatian Cap is a strangeandforrein floure, oneofthenumberofthebulbedfloures, whereof there besundrysorts, some greater, some lesser, with which all studiousandpainefullHerbaristsdesire to be better acquainted, becauseofthatexcellent diversitie of most brave floures whichitbeareth.Ofthistherebe two chiefeandgene raIl kindes, viz.Prtcox, and Serotina;theone doth beare his floures timely,theotherlater.Tothese twowewill adde anothersortcalled Media, flouring betweeneboththeothers.Andfrom thesethreesorts, as from their heads, allotherkindes doe proceed, which are almost infiniteinnumber. Notwithstanding,myloving friendMr.James Garret, a curious searcher of Simples,andlearned ApothecarieofLondon, hathundertakento finde out,ifitwere possible, their infinite sorts,bydiligent sowingoftheir seeds,andby planting thoseofhis owne propagation,andbyothers received from his friends beyondtheseas forthespaceoftwenty yeares,notbeing yet able to attaine to theendofhis travel, forthateach new yearebringethforth new plants ofsundrycoloursnotbefore seen; all which to describe62

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Tulipa particularly were to rolle Sisiphus stone,ornumberthesands.Sothatitshall suffice to speakeofanddescribe one, referringtherest to somethatmeane to writeofTulipa a particular volume.TheTulipaofBoloniahathfat thickeandgrosse leaves, hollow, furrowedorchanelled,bendeda little backward,andasitwere foldedtogether:whichattheir firstcommingupseeme to beofa reddish colour,andbeing throughly growneturneinto a whitish greene.Inthemidstofthose leaves risethupa naked fat stalke a foot high,orsomthingmore;onthetop whereofstandethoneortwo yellow floures, somtimes threeormore, con sistingofsix smal leaves, after a sort like to a deepe wide open cup, narrow above,andwideinthebottome. Afterithathbeen some few dayes floured,thepointsandbrimsofthefloureturnback ward, like a DalmatianorTurkishCap, calledTulipan,Clusius hisgreaterTulipTolepan,Turban,andTur-fan,whereofittooke his name.Thechivesorthredsinthe middleofthefloure be somtimes yellow, otherwhiles blackishorpurplish,butcommonlyofoneoverworne colourorother,Natureseeming to play more with this flaurethanwith anyotherthatI do know.Thisfloureisof a reasonable pleasant smell,andtheotherofhis kinde have littleorno smelatall.Theroot is bulbous, and very like to a common onionofS.Omers.63

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MayWehave likewise anotherofgreater beautie,andverymuchdesiredofall, with white floures dashtonthe back side, with alightwashofwatched colour.Tulipagroweth wildeinThracia, Cappadocia, andItaly;inBizantiaaboutConstantinople;atTripolis and AleppoinSyria.Theyare now commoninall theEnglishgardensofsuchas affect floures.Theyfloure fromtheendofFebruarie untothebeginningofMay,andsomwhat after: althoughAugerius Busbequiusinhisjourneyto Constantinople, saw be tweeneHadrianopleandConstantinople, great abound anceofthemin floure everie where, eveninthemidstofWinter,inthemonethofJanuarie, whichthatwarmeandtemperat clymat may seeme to performe.ThelaterHerbaristsby aTurkishorstrange name callitTulipa,oftheDalmatian cap calledTulipa,the forme whereoftheflourewhenitisopenseemeth to represent.Itis calledinEnglishafter theTurkishname Tulipa,oritmay be called Dalmatian Cap,ortheTurksCap.WhatnametheantientWritersgaveitis not certainly knowne.FLoUREDE-LUCEThecommon Floure de-Iucehathlongandlarge flaggy leaves like the bladeofa sword with two edges, amongst whichspringupsmoothanaplaine stalks two foot long, bearing floures towardthetop compactofsix leavesjoynedtogether, whereof threethatstanduprightarebentinward one towardanother;andinthose leaves thathangdowneward there are certaineroughorhairy welts, growingorrising from the netherpartofthe leafe up ward, almostofa yellow colour.Theroots be thicke, long,andknobby, with many hairy threds hanging thereat.

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Flaurede-IuceThewater Floure de-luce,orwater Flag,orAcarus,is like untothegarden Floure de-luce in roots, leaves,andstalkes,buttheleaves aremuchlonger, sometimesofthe heightoffoure cubits,andaltogether narrower.Thefloureisofa perfect yellow colour,andthe root knobby liketheother;butbeing cut,itseemes to beofthecolourofraw flesh.Thewater Floure de-luceoryellow Flag prospereth well in moist medowes,andin the bordersandbrinksofRivers, ponds,andstand ing lakes.Althoughitbe a watery plantofnature,yetbeing plantedingardensitprospereth well.TurkyFlourede-lucehathlongand narrow leavesofa blackish green likestinkingGladdon;amongwhich riseupstalks two foot long, bearingatthe topofeach stalke one floure compactofsix great leaves: the threethatstanduprightare confusedlyandvery strangely striped, mixedwithwhiteanda duskish blacke colour.Thethree leavesthathangdownward are like a gaping hood,andare mixedinlike manner,(butthe white is nothing sobrightasofthe other) and are asitwere shadowed overTurkyFloure de-Iucewith a darke purple colour somwhatshining;sothataccording to myjudgment,the whole floure isofthecolourofa Ginny hen, a rareandbeautifull floure to behold.TheFlourede-luceofFlorence, whose rootinshops and generallyevery wherearecalledfreas,orGrice(whereof sweet waters, sweet pouders,andsuch like are made)isaltogether like unto the common Floure de-luce,65

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MaysavingthattheflouresoftheIreosisofa white colour,andtheroots exceeding sweetofsmell,andtheotherofno smellatall.Thegreat Floure de-IuceofDalmatiahathleaves much broader, thicker,andmore closely compact togetherthananyoftheother,andsetinorderlike wingsorthe finsofaWhalefish, greene towardthetop,andofa shining purple colour toward the bottome, even totheground:amongstwhich risethupa stalkeoffoure foot high,asmy selfe did measureofttimes in my garden: whereupon doth grow faire large flouresofalightblew,oras wetermeita watchet colour.Thefloures do smell exceeding sweet,muchliketheOrengefloure.Theroothathnosmellatall.Therootofthecommon Floure de-Iuce cleane washed,andstamped with a few dropsofRose-water,andlaid plaisterwiseuponthefaceofmanorwoman, doth in two daiesatthemost take awaytheblacknesseorblew nesseofany strokeorbruse;sothatiftheskinneofthe same womanoranyotherperson be very tenderanddelicate,itshall be needfullthatye lay a pieceofsilke, sindall,ora pieceoffine laune betweenetheplaisterandtheskinne;for otherwiseinsuchtender bodies it often causeth heatandinflammation.Thereisanexcellent oyle madeofflouresandrootsofFloure de-Iuce,ofeach a like quantitie, calledOleum Irinum,made afterthesame mannerthatoyleofRoses, Lilliesandsuchlike be made: which oyle profitethmuchtostrengthenthesinewesandjoynts, helpeththecrampe proceedingofrepletion,andthedisease calledinGreekePeripneumonia.PEIONIEPeioniehaththickeredstalkes a cubitlong:the leaves be greatandlarge, consistingofdivers leaves growing orjoynedtogetheruponone slender stemmeorrib, not66

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Peioniemuchunlike the leavesofthe Wallnuttree bothinfashionandgreatnesse:atthe topofthe stalkes grow faire large redde floures very like roses, having alsointhe ) midst, yellow thredsorthrums like theminthe rose calledAnthera;which being vadedandfallen awaytherecomeinplace threeorfoure great codsorhusks, which do open when they areripe;whereiniscontained blacke shiningandpolished seeds,asbigasa Pease.Apuleiussaith,thattheseedsorgrainesofPeionie shine in thenighttime like a candle,andthatplentyofThedouble Peionieitisin thenightseason foundoutandgathered by the shepheards. k:lianus saith,thatitisnot pluckedupwithoutdanger;andthatitisreported how hethatfirst touched it,notknowing the nature thereof, perished. Therefore astringmust be fast ned toitinthe night,andahungrydogtiedtherto, who being allured by the smellofrosted flesh set towards him, may pluckeitupby the roots. Moreover,itisset downe by the said Author,thatofnecessitieitmustbe gatheredinthenight;forifanymanshall pluck offthefruitinthe day time, being seeneofthe Wood-peeker,heisindanger to lose his eies.Thelike fabulous tale hath been set forthofMandrake.Butallthese things be most vaineandfrivolous: fortheroot of Peionie, as alsotheMandrake, may be removedatany time ofthe yeare, dayorhoure whatsoever.67

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MayButitis no marvell,thatsuch kindesoftrifles,andmost superstitiousandwicked ceremonies arefoundinthebooksofthe mostAntientWriters;for there were many things in their time very vainly feinedandcoggedinfor ostentation sake, as by the .!Egyptiansandothercounterfeit mates, as Pliny doth truly testifie.Itis reportedthatthese herbes tookethenameofPeionie,orP .can, ofthatexcellent Physitionofthe same name, who firstfoundoutandtaughtthe knowledgeofthis herbe unto posteritie.CORNE-FLAGFrenchCorne-flaggehathsmall stiffe leavesribbedorchamfered withlongnervesorsinuesrunningthroughthesame,inshape like thoseofthesmall Floure de-Iuce,orthe bladeofa sword, sharpe pointed,ofan overwornegreencolour,amongwhich risethupastifbrittle stalk two cubits high,wherupondo grow in comlyordermany faire purple floursgapinglike thoseofSnapdragon,ornotmuch differing from the Fox-glove calledinLatineDigitalis.Afterthemcomeroundknobby seed-vessesl fullofchaffie seed, very light,ofa brown reddish colour.Theroot consistsoftwo bulbes one setupontheother;theuppermost whereof inthebeginningofthespringis lesser,andmore fullofjuice;thelower greater,butmore looseandlithie, whichshortly after perisheth.ThesekindesofCorne-flags growinmedowesandin earable groundsamongcorne,inmany placesofItaly, as alsointhepartsofFranceborderingthereunto.NeitherarethefieldsofAustriaandMoravia without them.Wehave great plentyoftheminourLondongardens, especially forthegarnishinganddeckingthemupwiththeir seemly flowers.TheflouresoftheCorne-flagarecalledoftheItalians,Monacuccio:inEnglish, Corne-Flag, Corne-Sedge, Sword Flag, Corne Gladin:inFrench,Glais.68

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ColumbineTherootstampedwith the pouderofFrankincense and wine,andapplied, draweth forth splintersandthornesthatsticke fastinthe flesh.Thecods withtheseed driedandbeaten into pouder, anddrunkin Goats milke or Asses milke, presently taketh away the paineofthe Colique.COLUMBINETheblew Columbine hath leaves like the great Celandine, but somewhat rounder, indented ontheedges, parted into divers sections,ofa blewish green colour, which beeing broken, yeeld forth little juiceornoneatall:thestalkeisa cubitanda halfe high, slender, reddish,andsleightly haired: the slender sprigs whereofbringforth everie oneone floure with five little hollow homes, asitwere hanging forth, with small leaves standing upright,ofthe shapeoflittle birds: these floures areofcolour som times blew,atother timesofaredor purple, often white,orofmixt colours, which to distinguish severally were to small purpose, being things so familiarly known to all: after the floures growupcods, in whichiscontained little blackandglittering seed: the roots are thicke, with some strings theretoColumbinebelonging, which continue many yeres.69

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SnapdragonMayTheyare setandsowne in gardens forthebeautieandvariable colourofthefloures. Columbine is calledofthelater Herbarists,Aquilegia:ofsome,Herba Leonis,ortheherbe whereintheLiondoth delight.Theyareusedespecially to deckethegardensofthecurious, garlandsandhouses.CALVESSNOUT,ORSNAPDRAGONThepurple Snapdragonhathgreatandbrittle stalks, which dividethitselfe into many fragile branches, whereupondo growlongleaves sharpe pointed, very greene, likeuntothoseofwilde flax,butmuchgreater, set by couples one opposite against another.Thefloures growatthetopofthestalkes,ofa purple colour, fashioned like a frogs mouth,orrather a dragons mouth, from whencethewomen havetakenthename Snapdragon.Theseed is blacke, con tained inroundhuskes fa shioned like a calves snout, (whereupon some have calleditCalves snout)orinmine opinionitis more like untothebonesofa sheeps headthathathbeenelonginthewater,ortheflesh consumeddeaneaway.Thesecond agreeth withtheprecedentinevery part, exceptinthecolourofthe floures, for this plant bringethforth white floures,andtheotherpurple, wherein consiststhedifference.

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PeachbellsPEACH-BELLSANDSTEEPLE-BELLSThePeach-leaved Bell-flourehatha greatnumberofsmallandlongleaves, risingina great bushoutof the ground, like the leavesofthe Peach-tree:amongwhich risethupa stalke two cubitshigh:alongst the stalke grow many floures like bells, sometime white, and forthemostpartofa faire blew colour;butthe bells are71Peach-bellsTheyellow Snapdragonhathalongthicke wooddy root, with certain strings fastnedthereto;from which risethupa brittle stalkeoftwo cubitsanda halfe high, divided from the bottome to the top into divers branches, whereupon do grow long greene leaves like thoseoftheformer,butgreaterandlonger.Thefloures growatthe topofthe maine branches,ofa pleasant yellow colour,inshape like unto the precedent.Thatwhich hath continued the wholeWinterdothfloureinMay, andtherestofSummer afterwards;andthat whichisplanted later,andintheendofSummer, flourethinthe Springofthefollowing yeare: they do hardly endure the injurieofourcold "Vinter. Snapdragoniscalled in English, Calves snout, Snap dragon,andLyons snap:inFrench,Testedechien,andTestedeVeau.Theyreport (saithDioscorides)thattheherbe being hanged about one preserveth amanfrom being bewitched,andthatitmaketh a may graciousinthe sightofpeople.

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Maynothingsodeepeastheyofthe other kindes;andthese are more dilated or spread abroad than anyofthe rest.Theseed is small likeRampions, and the root atuftof laces or small strings.Thesecond kinde of Bell-floure hath a great numberoffaire Blewish orWatchetfloures, like the other last before mentioned, growing upon goodly tall stems two cubitsanda halfe high, which are garnished from the topofthe plant unto thegroundwith leaves like Beets, dis orderly placed.Thiswhole plantisexceeding full of milke, insomuch asifyou dobutbreake one leafe of the plant, many \ dropsofa milky juice will fall upon the ground.Theroot is very great,andfull of milke also: likewisetheknops wherein the seed should be are emptyandvoidofseed, sothatthe whole plantisaltogether barren, and must be increased with slippingofhis root.TheseBell-floures growinourLondonGardens, andnotwildeinEngland.CRANES-BILLDoves-foot hath many hairy stalks, trailing or leaning toward the ground, of a brownish colour, somewhat kneed orjoynted;wherupon do grow rough leaves ofanoverworn green color, round, cut about the edges,andlike unto thoseofthecommon Mallow: amongst which come forth the flouresofa bright purple colour: after which is the seed, set together like the headandbillofabird;wheruponitwas called Cranes-bill,orStorks-bill.Itisfound neere to common high waies, desart places, untilled grounds,andspecially uponmudwalls almost every where.Itis commonly called in Latine,Pes Columbinus:in French,PieddePigeon:hereuponitmay be calledGeranium Columbinum:in English, Doves-foot, and Pigeons foot.72

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ThriftTheherbeandroots dried, beaten into most fine pouder,and given halfe a spoonfull fasting,andthe like quanti tie to bedwards inredwine,orold claret, forthespaceofoneandtwenty daies to gether, cure miraculously rupturesorburstings, asmyselfe have often proved,whereby'I have gotten crownesandcredit:iftheruptures be inagedpersons,itshall be needfull to adde theretothepowderofredsnailes (those without shels) dried in an oveninnumbernine, which fortifieththeherbesinsuch sort,thatitnever faileth,althoughtheDoves-footrupturebe greatandoflongcontinuance: it likewise profitethmuchthosethatarewounded into the body,andthedecoctionoftheherbe madeinwine, prevaileth mightilyinhealing inward wounds, as my selfe have likewise proved.THRIFT,OROURLADIESCUSHIONThrift is a kindeofGillofloure, which brings forth leaves in great tufts, thickethrusttogether,amongwhich riseupsmalltenderstalkesofa spanne high, nakedandwithout leaves;onthetops whereofstandlittle floures in a spokie tuft,ofa white colourtendingto purple.Thriftisfoundinthemost salt marshes inEngland,asalsoinGardens, for the borderingupofbedsandbankes, for the whichitserveth very fitly.73

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MayTheyfloure from May, till Summer be farre spent.Thriftis calledinEnglish,Thrift,Sea-grasse,andour Ladies Cushion.Theiruse in Physicke as yet is not knowne, neitherdothany seeke intotheNaturethereof,butesteemethemonly for their beautieandpleasure.CROW-FEETTherebe divers sortsorkindsofthese pernitious herbes comprehendedunderthenameofRanunculus,orCrow foot, whereof most are very dangerous to be taken intothebody,andtherefore they require a very exquisite moderation, with a most exactanddue maner of tempering,notanyofthemare to betakenalone by themselves, because they areofmost violent force,andtherefore havethegreater needofcorrection.Thesedangerous simples are likewise many timesofthemselves beneficial,&oftentimes profitable: for someofthemare not so daungerous,butthatthey may in some sort,andoftentimes in fitanddue season profitanddoe good.Thecommon Crow-foot hath leaves divided into many parts, commonly three, sometimes five,cuthereandthereinthe edges,ofa deep green colour,inwhichstanddivers white spots:thestalks be round,somthinghairie, someofthem bow downe towardtheground,andputforth many little roots,Common Crow-footwherebyittaketh holdofthe74

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Medow Trefoilegroundasittraileth along: someofthem stand upright, a foot high or higher; on the tops whereof grow small flours withfiveleaves apiece,ofa yellow glittering colour like gold. Crow-footiscalled in English King Kob, Gold cups, Gold knobs, Crow-foot, and Butter-floures. Manydouse to tie a littleofthe herbe stamped with salt unto anyofthe fingers, against the painofthe teeth; which medicine seldome faileth; for it causeth greater paine in the finger than was in the tooth, by the meanes whereof the greater paine taketh away the lesser. Cunning beggers do use to stampe the leaves, and lay it unto their legsandarms, which causeth such filthy ulcersaswe dayly see (among such wicked vagabonds)tomove the people the more to pittie. Crow-footofIllyria spoileth the sencesandunder standing, and draweth together the sinewes and muscles of the face in such strange manner, that those who behold ing suchasdied by the taking hereof, have supposedthatthey died laughing; so forceably hathitdrawneandcon tracted the nerves and sinewes, that their faces have beene drawne awry,asthough they laughed, whereas contrariwise they have died with great torment.MEDowTREFOILEMedow Trefoile bringeth forth stalkes a cubit long, round and something hairy, the greater partofwhich creepeth upon the ground: whereon grow leaves consistingofthree joined together, one standing a little from another.Thefloures growat the topsofthe stalksina tuft or small Fox-taile eare,ofa purple colour, and sweetoftaste. Common medow Trefoile grows in medowes, fertile pastures,andwaterish grounds. Meadow Trefoile is called in English Common Trefoile, Three leafed grasse:ofsome, Suckles, Hony-suckles,andCocks-heads:inIrish,Shamrocks.7S

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MayHERBETWO-PENCEOxenandother cattell do feedontheherb, as also calvesandyonglambs.Theflours are acceptable to Bees.Plinywritethandsettethit downe for certaine,thattheleaves hereof do trembleandstandrightupagainstthe commingofa stormeortempest.MedowTrefoileHerbeTwo-pencehatha smalandtenderroot,spredinganddispersingitselfe far withintheground, from which riseupmany little, tender, flex ible stalks trailinguponthe ground, set by couplesatcer taine spaces, with smooth greene leaves somewhat round, whereofittooke his name: fromthebosomeofwhich leaves shoot forth smalltenderfoot-stalks, whereon do grow little yellow floures, like thoseofCinkefoile or Tormentill.Itgroweth neere unto ditchesandstreames,andother waterie places,andis somtimesfoundinmoist woods: IfoundituponthebankeoftheriverofThames,rightagainsttheQueenes palaceofWhite-hall;andalmostinevery countrey where I have travelled.Itfloureth fromMaytill Summer be well spent.HerbTwo-pence is called inLatineNummulariaandCentummorbia:andofdiversSerpentaria.Itis reported,thatifserpents behurtorwounded, they do heale themselves with this herb,wheruponcamethenameSerpentaria:anditis calledNummulariaoftheforme of7 6

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Neesingrootmoney, whereuntotheleaves are like:inEnglish,Moneywoort,HerbeTwo-pence, andTwo-pennygrasse.Theflouresandleaves stampedandlaiduponwoundsandulcers docurethem:butitworketh most effectually being stamped and boiled in oile olive, with some rosin, wax,andturpentineaddedthereto. Boiled with wineandhony itcureththe woundsoftheinward parts,andulcersofthelungs;&ina word, thereisnot a betterwoundherb,nonot Tabacoitselfe, nor anyotherwhatsoever.Theherb boiledinwine, with a little honyorm:ead,prevailethmuchagainsttheHerbeTwo-pencecough in children, calledtheChin-cough.NEESINGROOTORNEESEWORTWhiteHelleborhath leaves likeuntogreat Gentian,butmuch broader,andnotunliketheleavesofthegreat Plantaine, folded into pleits like agarmentplaited tobelaid upina chest: amongst these leaves risethupa stalke a cubit long, set towardsthetop fulloflittle star-like floures of an herby green colourtendingto whitenes: whichbeingpast,therecome small husks containingtheseed.Therootisgreatandthicke, with many small thredshangingthereat. whiteHelleborgrowethontheAlpsandsuchlike77

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MILKEWORTTherehave been many plants neerely resem blingPolygala,and yet not the same indeed, which doth verifie the Latine saying,Nullumsimileestidem.This neere resemblance doth rather hinder those that have spent much time in the knowledge ofCreeping MilkwortMaymountains where Gentian growes.Itwas reported unto me by the BishopofNorwich,Thatwhite Hellebor groweth in a wood of his owne neere to his houseatNor wich. Some say likewise that it doth grow upon the moun taines of Wales. I speake this upon report, yet I thinke it may be true. Howbeit I dare assure you that they growinmy gardenatLondon.Therootofwhite Helleborisgood against phrensies, sciatica, dropsies, poison, and against all cold diseases that beofhard curation. This strong medicine madeofwhite Hellebor, ought not to bee given inwardly unto delicate bodies without great correction;butit may be more safely given unto countrey people which feed grosly, and have hard tough and strong bodies.Thepouder drawne up into the nose causeth sneesing,andpurgeth the brain from grosse and slimie humors.Theroot killeth rmiceandrats, being made up with hony and floure of wheat.

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Milke wortSimples, than increase their knowledge:andthis also hath been an occasionthatmany have imagined a sundriePolygalaunto themselves,andsoofother plants.Ofwhich number this whereof I speakeisone, obtaining this nameofthe best writersandherbaristsofourtime, describingitthus:Ithathmany thicke spreading branches creeping on the ground, bearing leaves like thoseofHerniaria,standinginrowes like the seCl. Milkwort;amongwhich grow smal whorlesorcrownetsofwhite floures, the root being exceeding smallandthreddy.Thesecond kindeofPolygalaisa small herbe with pliant slender stemmes,ofa wooddy substance,anhand full long, creeping by theground:the leaves be smallandnarrow like to Lintels,orlittle Hyssop.Thefloures grow at the top,ofa blew colour, fashioned like a little bird, with wings, taile,andbody easie to be discerned bythemthat do observe the same: which being past, there suc ceed small pouches like thoseofBursa pas/oris,butlesser. The root is smallandwooddy.ThisthirdkindeofPolygalaorMilkwort, hath leaves and stalkes like the last before mentioned,anddiffereth fromitonly herein,thatthis kindehathsmaller branches, and the leaves are not so thickethrusttogether,andthe floures are like the other,butthatthey beofaredorpurple colour.Thefourthkinde is like the last spokenofin every respect,butthatithath white floures, otherwiseitis very like.PurpleMilkewort differeth fromtheothersinthecolourofthe floures,itbringeth forth moe branches than the precedent,andthe floures areofa purple colour, wherin especially consists the difference.ThesixtMilkwortislike untotherestineach respect, savingthatthefloures areofanoverworne ilfavored colour, which makethitto differfromalltheotherofhiskinde.79

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MayTheseplantsorMilke-worts grow commonly in every woodorfertil pasture wheresoever I have travelled.Milkwortis called by Dod011d!US, FlosAmbarualis,becauseitdoth especially floure in the CrosseorGangweeke,orRogation weeke:ofwhich floures the maidens which use inthecountries to walketheProcession do make themselves garlandsandNosegaies:inEnglishwee may callitCrosse-floure,orProcession floure, Gang floure, Rogation-floure,andMilkwort,oftheir vertuesinprocuringmilke inthebrestsofnurses.ARCHANGELLORDEADNETTLEWhiteArchangellhathfoure square stalkes a cubit high, leaning this wayandthatway, by reasonofthegreat weightofhis ponderous leaves, which are in shape likeuntothoseofNettles, nickedroundabout the edges, yetnotstingingatall,butsoftandasitwere downy: the floures compassethestalkesroundaboutatcertaine distances. Yellow Archangellhathsquarestalks rising from athreddyroot, set with leaves by couples verymuchcutorhackt abouttheedges,andsharp pointed, the upper most whereof are oftentimesofa faire purple colour:theflours growamongthesaid leaves,ofa gold yellow colour, fashioned like thoseofthewhiteArchangell,butgreater,andwidergapingopen.White Archangell80

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Black BrionieRedArchangell, being calledUrticanonmordax,ordead Nettle, hath many leavesspredupontheground;among which riseupstalkes hollowandsquare, where upon growroughleavesofanoverworne colour,amongwhich come forth purple floures set aboutinroundwharlesorrundles.Therootissmall,andperishethatthe first approchofwinter. These plants are foundunderhedges, old walls, com mon waies,amongrubbish, in the bordersoffields,andinearable grounds, oftentimes in gardensillhusbanded.Thatwith the yellow floure groweth not so commonasthe others. I have founditunderthehedgeonthelefthandas you go fromthevillageofHampstedneer London to the Church,&inthe wood therby, as alsoinmanyothercopsesaboutLeein Essex, neerWatford&Bushy in Middlesex,andin the woods belonging to the Lord Cobham in Kent.Theyfloure forthemost part all Summer long,butchiefe1yinthe beginningofMay. Archangell is calledinEnglish, Archangell, blinde Nettle,anddead Nettle.Thefloures are bakedwithsugar as Roses are, whichiscalled Sugar roset: as alsothedistilled waterofthem, which is used to maketheheart merry, to make a good colour intheface,andto refresh the vitalI spirits.BLACKBRIONIE,ORTHEWILDEVINEThe black Briony hathlongflexible branchesofa woody substance, covered with agapingorclovenbarkgrowing very far abroad, windingitselfe with his small tendrels about trees, hedges,andwhatelse is next unto it, like untothebranchesofthe vine: the leaves are like unto thoseofIvieorgarden Nightshade, sharpe pointed,andof a shining greene colour:thefloures are white, small, and mossie; which being past, there succeed little81

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Mayclustersofredberries, somewhat biggerthanthose ofthesmall RaisinsorRibes, which wee call Currans or small Raisins.Theroot is very greatandthicke, often times asbigas a mans leg, blackish without,andvery clammyorslimywithin;which beeingbutscraped with a knifeoranyotherthingfit forthatpurpose,itseemes to be a matter fit tospreduponcloathorleather in mannerofa plaisterofSear-cloath: which being so spredandused,itserveth to layuponmany infirmities,andunto verie excellent purposes, as shal be declared.Theseplants grow in hedgesandbushes almost every where.TheyspringinMarch,bringforth the floures in May,andtheir ripefruitin September.Theyongandtendersproutings arekeptin pickle,andreserved to be eaten with meat, asDioscoridesteacheth.Matthioluswriteth,thatthey are servedatmens tablesinourage alsoinTuscanie;others alsoreportthelike tobedone in Andolosia oneofthekingdomesofGranado.Therootsspreduponsheeps leather inmannerofa plaister, whilestitisyetfreshandgreene, taketh away blackeandblew marks, all scarsanddeformitieofthe skin, breakshardapostems, drawes forth splinters and broken bones, dissolveth congealed bloud,andbeing laidonanduseduponthehiporhuckle bones, shoulders, armes,oranyotherpartwhere there is great paine and ache,ittakesitawayinshortspace,andworketh very effectually.BINDE-WEEDThecommonroughBind-weedhathmany branches set fulloflittle sharpe prickles, with certaine clasping ten drels, wherewithittaketh holduponhedges, shrubs,andwhatsoever standeth nextuntoit,windingandclaspingitselfe about fromthebottome to thetop;whereon are placedateveryjointone leafe likethatofI vie, with-8'2

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Binde-weed .... L.....'-...... outcorners, sharpe pointed, lesserandharderthanthoseofsmooth Binde-weed, often times marked with little white spots,andgardedor borderedaboutthe edges with crooked prickles.Thefloures growatthe topofcrooked stalksofa white colour,andsweetofsmell. Aftercommeththefruit like thoseofthe wilde Vine, gree.p.e atthefirst,andredwhen they be ripe,andof abitingtaste; wherein is contained a blackish seed in shape like thatofhempe. ,Theroot is long, somewhat hard,andpartedinto very many branches.Itisa strangethinguntoCommonroughBindeweedme,thatthenameofSmilax should be so largely extended, asthatitshouldbe assigned to those plantsthatcomenothingneerethenature,andscarslyuntoanypartoftheformeofSmilax indeed.Butwe will leave controversies tothefurtherconsiderationofsuch as love to danceinquag-mires,andcometo thisourcommon smooth Smilax, calledandknowne bythatnameamongus,orrather moretrulybythe nameofConvolvulus major,orVolubilis major:itbeareththelongbranchesofa Vine,buttenderer,andforthelengthandgreat spreading thereofitis very fit to make shadows in arbors:theleaves are smooth like I vie, but somwhat bigger,andbeingbrokenare fullofmilke: amongst which come forth great whiteandhollow floures like bells. ScammonieofSyriaorpurgingBindweed hath many83

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Maystalkes rising from one root, which are long, slender, and like the clasping tendrels of the vine, by which it climeth and taketh holdofsuch thingsasare next unto it.Theleaves be broad, sharpe pointed like thoseofthe smooth or hedge Bind-weed: among which come forth very faire white floures tendingtoa blush colour, bell-fashion.Therootislong, thicke, and white within:outofwhichisgathered a juyce that being hardned,isgreatly usedinPhysicke: for whichconsideration, there is notany Ii plant growing upontheearth, the knowledge whereofSyrian Scammoniemore concerneth a Physition, both for his shape and properties, than this Scammonie, whichPenacallethLactaria scansoriaque volvula,that is, milky and climbing Windweed, whereofitisa kinde. And although this herbe be suspected,andhalfecondemned of learned men, yet there is notanyother herbe to be found, whereofsosmall a quantity willdosomuch good: neither could those whichhavecarpedatit, and reproved this herbe, finde any simpleinrespectofhis vertues to beputin his roome: and hereof ensueth great blame to all practitioners, who havenotendevoured to be better acquainted with this herbe, chiefely to avoid the deceitofthe crafty Drug-sellerandMedicine-makerofthis confected Scammony, brought us from farre places, rather to be called I feare infected Scammony, or poysoned Scammony, than confected. 84

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Rinde-weedAlthoughwe have great plentyofthe rootsofBinde weedofPeru,which we usually callyZarza,orSarsa parilla, wherewith divers griefesandmaladies are cured, and that these roots are very well knowne to all;yetsuchhath beenethecarelessnesseandsmall providenceofsuch as have travelled intotheIndies,thathithertonotany have given us instruction sufficient, either concerning the leaves, floures,orfruit: onelyMonardussaith,thatithathlongroots deepethrustinto theground:which is as much asifa great learned man should tellthesimple, thatourcommon carrion Crow wereofa blacke colour. For who is so blindethatseeththerootitselfe,butcan easily affirmetheroot to be very long? Notwithstanding, there is in the reportsofsuch as say they have seenetheplantitselfe growing, some contradictionorcontrarietie: some reportthatitisakindofBindweed,andespeciallyoneoftheroughBindweeds.ZarzaparillaofPeruisa strange plant,andisbroughtunto us fromtheCountriesofthenew world called America;andsuchthings as arebroughtfrom thence, although they also seemeandare like to thosethatgrowinEurope, notwithstanding they do often differ invertueand operation: for the diversitieofthesoileandoftheweather dothnotonly breed an alteration intheforme but doth mostofall prevaile inmakingthe vertuesandqualities greaterorlesser. Such things as grow inhotplaces beofmore force,andgreater smell;andin cold,oflesser. Some thingsthatare deadlyandpernitious,beingremoved wax mil de,andare made wholesome: soinlike manner,althoughZarzaparillaofPerube like toroughBind-weed,orto SpanishZarza parilla, notwithstandingbyreasonofthetemperatureoftheweather,andalso through the natureofthesoile,itisofa great deale more forcethanthatwhich groweth either in Spaineorin Africke.Theroots are a remedie againstlongcontinuall paine85

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Mayofthe joyntsandhead,andagainst cold diseases.Theyare good for all mannerofinfirmities wherein there is hopeofcure by sweating, so that there be no ague joyned.WOOD-BINDE,ORHONY-SUCKLEWood-bindeorHony-suckle climethupaloft, havinglongslender wooddy stalkes,partedinto divers branches:aboutwhich stand by certaine distances smooth leaves,settogether by couples onerightagainstanother;ofalightgreene colour above, underneathofa whitish greene.Thefloures shew themselves in the topsofthe branches, many in number, long, white, sweetofsmell, hollowwithin;in onepartstandingmore out, with certaine threddes growingoutofthe middle.Thefruitis like little bunchesofgrapes, redwhenthey be ripe, wherein is contained small hard seed.TheWoodbindegroweth in woodsandhedges, anduponshrubsandbushes, oftentimeswindingitselfe sostraightandhardabout,thatitleaveth hisprintupon those things so wrapped.Thedouble Honisuckle groweth now in my Garden,andmany others likewiseingreat plenty, although notlongsince, very rare andhardto be found, exceptinthe gardenofsome diligentHerbarists.Theleaves come forthbe-WoodbindeorHonisuckIetimes inthespring:the86

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Swallow-wortflouresbudforth inMayandJune:the fruitisripe in Autumne.Thefloures steeped in oile,andset intheSun, are goodtoannointthebody thatisbenummed,andgrowne verycold.SWALLOW-WORTSwallow-wort with white floures hath diversuprightbranchesofa brownish colour,ofthe heightoftwo cubits, beset with leaves not unlike to thoseofDulcamaraorwooddy Night-shade, somewhat long, broad, sharpe pointed,ofa blackish greene colour,andstrongsavor;amongwhich come forth very many small whiteflouresstar-fashion, hanging upon little slender foot stalkes: after which come in place thereof longsharp pointed cods, stuffed fullofa most perfect white cotton resembling silk, as well in shew as handling (ourLondonGentlewomen have nameditSilken Cislie), among whichiswrapped soft brownish seed.Theroots are very many, white, threddie,andofastrongsavour.Itiscalledofthelater HerbaristsVincetoxicum:in English, Swallow-woort. LEsculapius (who is said to bethefirst inventorofphysick, whom therefore the GreekesandGentiles honored as a god) calleditafter his ownenameAsclepiasor LEsculapius herbe, for that he wasthefirstthat wrote thereof,andnowitis called in shopsHirundinaria.Dioscorideswriteth,ThattherootsofAsclepiasorSwallow-woort boiled in wine,andthe decoction drunke,area remedy againstthestingingsofSerpents,andagainst deadly poyson, being one of. the especiallest herbes againstthesame. There groweth inthatpartofVirginia, or Norembega,whereourEnglish men dwelled (intending there to erect a certaine Colonie) a kindeofAsclepias,orSwallowwoort,whichtheSavages callWisanck:there risethup87

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Mayfrom a single crooked root, oneuprightstalk a foot high, slender,andofa greenish colour: whereupon do grow faire broad leaves sharp pointed, with many ribs or nervesrunningthroughthe same like thoseofRibwortorPlaintaine, set together by couplesatcertaine dis tances.Thefloures come forthatthe topofthestalks, which asyetarenotobserved by reasonthemanthatbroughtthe seeds&plants hereof didnotregardthem: after which, there come in place two cods (seldome more)sharppointed like thoseofourSwallow-woort, but greater, stuffed fullofa mostpuresilkeofa shining white colour:amongwhich silke appeareth a small longtongue(which istheseed) resembling thetongueofa bird,orthatoftheherbe calledAdderstongue. The cods arenotonly fullofsilke,butevery nerveorsinew wherewiththeleaves beribbedare likewise most pure silke;andalsothepillingofthestems, even asflaxistomefrom his stalks.Thisconsidered, behold the justiceofGod,thatas hehathshutupthose peopleandnations in infidelityandnakednes, sohathhe not as yet giventhemunderstandingto cover their nakednesse,normater wherewith to do the same; notwithstanding the earth is covered over with this silke, which daily theytreadundertheir feet, which were sufficient to apparell many kingdomes,ifthey were carefullymanuredand cherished.Itgroweth, as before is rehearsed, in the countriesofNorembega, now called Virginia, by the honourableKnightSirWalter Raleigh,whohathbestowed great sumsofmoney inthediscoverie thereof; wherearedwellingatthis presentEnglishmen.SOLOMONSSEALESolomons Sealehathlongroundstalks, set forthemostpartwithlongleaves somewhat furrowedandribbed,88

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SolomonsSealenot much unlike Plantain,butnarrower, which for the mostpartstandalluponone sideofthestalke,andhath small white floures resemblingtheflouresofLilly Conval:ontheother side whenthefloures be vaded, there come forthroundberries, whichatthefirstaregreenandofa blacke colourtendingto blewnesse,andbeing ripe, areofthebignesseofIvyberries,ofa very sweetandpleasant taste.Theroot is whiteandthicke, fullofknobsorjoints,insomeplacesresemblingthemarkofa seale, whereof Ithinkeit tookethenameSigillumSolomonis;itis sweetatthefirst,butafterwardofa bitter taste with some sharpnesse.Dioscorideswriteth,Thattheroots are excellent goodforto sealeorcloseupgreene wounds, being stampedandlaidthereon;whereuponitwascalledSigillumSalomonis,ofthe singular vertuethatithath in sealingorhealingupwounds,brokenbones,andsuchlike. Some havethoughtit tookethenameSigillumofthe markesupontheroots:Solomons Sealebut the first reason seemes to be more probable.TherootofSolomons sealestampedwhileitis fresh and greene,andapplied, taketh away in one night,ortwoatthemost,anybruise, blackeorblew spots gotten by falsorwomens wilfulnesse, instumblingupon their hasty husbands fists,orsuch like.Galensaith,thatneither herbe nor root hereof is to be given inwardly:butnotewhatexperience hathfoundout,89

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Mayandoflate daies, especially among the vulgar sortofpeopleinHampshire,whichGalen, Dioscorides,oranyotherthathave writtenofplants have not so muchasdreamedof;which is,Thatifanyofwhatsexoragesoever chance to have any bones broken, inwhatpartoftheir bodies soever; their refuge is to stampetheroots hereof,andgiveituntothe patient in ale to drinke: which sodorethandglues together the bones in veryshortspace,andvery strangely, yea althoughthebones bebutslen derlyandunhandsomely placedandwrapped up. More over,thesaid people do giveitin like manner unto their cattell,ifthey chance to have any bones broken, with good successe; which they do also stampeandapply out wardlyinmannerofa pultesse, as well unto themselves as their cattell.Theroot stamped and appliedinmannerofa pultesse,andlaiduponmembersthathave beeneoutofjoynt, and newly restored to their places, driveth awaythepaine,andknitteththejoyntvery firmely,andtakethawaytheinflammation,ifthere chance to be any.Thatwhichmightbe writtenofthis herbe as touchingtheknittingofbones,andthattruely, would seeme unto some incredible;butcommon experience teacheth, thatintheworld there is not to be foundanother herbecomparable toitforthepurposes aforesaid:andthereforeinbriefe,ifitbe for bruises inward,theroots mustbestamped, some aleorwineputthereto, strained,andgiven to drinke.LINEORLINDENTREEThefemaleLineorLindentree waxeth very greatandthicke, spreading forth his branches wideandfarre abroad, being a tree which yeeldeth a most pleasant shadow,underandwithin whose boughes may bemadebravesummerhousesandbanquetingarbors, because9

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Lindenthemorethatitissurcharged with weightoftimberandsuch like, the betteritdoth flourish.Thebarkeisbrownish,very smooth,andplaineonthe outside,butthatwhich is next to the timber is white, moistandtough, serving very well for ropes, trases,andhaIters.Thetimberiswhitish, plaineandwithout knots, yea very soft and gentleinthecuttingorhandling. Bettergunpouderismadeofthe coalesofthis woodthanofWillow coales. The leaves are greene, smooth, shining,andlarge, some what sniptortoothed about the edges: the floures are little, whitish,ofa good savour,andvery manyinnumber, growing clustering together fromoutofthe middleofthe leafe:outofwhich proceedeth a small whitishlongnarrow leafe: after the floures succeed cornered sharpe pointed Nuts,ofthebignesseofHasell Nuts.ThemaleTiNaorLinetree groweth also very great and thicke, spreadingitselfe far abroad like the other Linden tree: his barkeisvery toughandpliant,andserveth to make cordsandhaIters of.Thetimberofthis treeismuchharder, more knotty,andmore yellowthanthetimberofthe other, not much differing from the timberoftheElme tree: the leaves hereof are notmuchunlike Ivy leaves, not very greene, somewhatsniptabout the edges:fromthe middle whereof come forth clustersoflittle white flours liketheformer: which being vaded, there succeed smallroundpellets, growing clustering togetherlikeIvy berries, within which is contained a littleroundblackish seed, which fallethoutwhen the berry is ripe.ThefemaleLindentree growethinsome woodsinNorthamptonshire;also neere Colchester,andinmanyplacesalongstthehighway leading fromLondonto Henningham, in the countyofEssex.ThemaleLindentree growethinmyLordTreasurersgardenintheStrand,andinsundryother places, asatBarn-elmes,andina gardenatSaint Katherines neere London.TheleavesofTiliaboyledinSmithes water with a91

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MaypieceofAllumanda little honey, cure the soresinchildrens mouthes.Thefloures are commended by divers against paine ofthehead proceedingofa cold cause, against dissinesse,theApoplexie,andalso the falling sicknesse,andnot one1ythefloures,butthedistilled water thereof.TheleavesoftheLinden(saithTheophrastus)are very sweet,andbe a fodder for mostkindofcattle:thefruit can be eatenofnone.BIRCHTREEThecommon Birch tree waxeth likewise a great tree, having many boughs besetwithmany small rodsortwigs, very limberandpliant;thebarkeoftheyong twigs and branches is plain, smooth,andfullofsap,incolour likethechestnut,buttherindofthe bodyortrunkishardwithout, white, rough,anduneven, fullofchinksorcrevises:underwhichisfoundanother fine barke, plaine, smooth,andas thinaspaper, which heretofore was used in steadofpapertowrite on, before the makingofpaper was knowne:inRussiaandthese cold coun triesitservethinsteadoftilesandslate to cover their houses withall.Thistreebeareth for his flours certaine .'.:e aglets liketheBaseltree, :::; butsmaller, whereintheBirchseed is contained. 92

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AppleThecommon Birch tree grows in woods, fenny grounds, and mountains, in most placesofEngland.Thecatkins or aglets do first appear,andthentheleaves,inAprillora little later. Concerning the medicinable useofthe Birch tree,orhisparts, there isnothingextant eitherintheoldornew writers.Thistree, saithPliny, lib.16.cap.18.Mirabili candore&tenuitate terribilis magistratuum virgis:forintimes past the magistrats rods were made thereof;andinourtimealsoSchoolmastersandParentsdo terrifie their children with rods madeofBirch.Itserveth well tothedeckingupofhousesandban queting rooms, for placesofpleasure,andfor beautifying of streetsinthe CrosseandGangweeke,andsuchlike.ApPLETREETheAppletreehatha bodyortrunkecommonlyofa meane bignesse,notvery high, havinglongarmesorbranches,andthe same disordered: the barke somewhat plaine,andnotveryrugged:the leaves bee also broad, morelongthanround,andfinely nickedintheedges. The floures are whitishtendinguntoa blush colour.ThefruitorApples do differingreatnesse, forme, colour, and taste; some covered with a redde skinne, others yelloworgreene, varying infinitely according tothesoyle and climate, some very great, some little,andmanyofa middlesort;some are sweetoftaste,orsomething soure; most beofa middle taste betweene sweetandsoure,thewhich to distinguish Ithinkeitimpossible; notwith standing I heareofonethatintendethto write a peculiar volumeofApples,andtheuseofthem;yetwhen hehathdonewhathe cr...n doe, heehathdonenothingtouchingtheir severall kindes to distinguish them.Thisthathathbeene said shall suffice forourHistory.93

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JuneThetameandgraffed Apple trees are plantedandsetingardensandorchards made forthatpurpose: they delight to growingoodandfertilegrounds:Kentdothaboundwith Applesofmost sorts.ButI have seeneinthe pasturesandhedge-rowsaboutthe groundsofa worship full Gentleman dwelling two miles from Hereford, calledMasterRoger Bodnome,so many treesofall sorts,thatthe servants drinke for the mostpartnootherdrinkebutthat which is madeofApples.Thequantity is such,thatbythereportofthegentleman himselfe,theParsonhathfor tithe many hogsheadsofSyder.Thehogs are fed with the fallingsofthem, which are so many,thatthey make choiseofthose Apples they do eate, who will not taste of anybutofthe best.Anexample doubtlesse to be followedofGentlementhathave landandliving:butenvie saith, the poore will breake downeourhedges,andwee shall havetheleastpartofthe fruit;butforwardinthenameofGod, graffe, set, plantandnourishuptreesinevery corner of your ground, the labour is small,thecostisnothing, the commodityisgreat,yourselves shall have plenty, the poore shall have somwhatintimeofwantto relieve their necessitie,andGod shall rewardyourgood mindes and diligence.R0SESTheRose doth deserve the chiefandprime place among all f10ures whatsoever; beeingnotonely esteemed forhisbeauty, vertues,andhis fragrantandodoriferous smell;butalso becauseitisthehonorandornamentofourEnglishScepter, as by the conjunction appeareth,intheunitingofthose two most Royall HousesofLancasterandYorke.Whichpleasantf10uresdeservethechiefest place in crownesandgarlands, asAnacreon Thiusa most antient GreekePoetaffirmesinthose Versesofa Rose beginningthus;94

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RosesTheRose isthehonourandbeautyoffloures,TheRoseinthe careandloveoftheSpring:TheRose isthepleasureofth'heavenlyPow'rs.TheBoyoffaireJ7enus,Cythera'sDarling,Dothwrap his headroundwith garlandsofRose,Whentothedancesofthe Graces he goes.Augerius Busbequiusspeakingofthe estimationandhonor of the Rose, reporteth,ThattheTurkscan by no meansendureto seetheleavesofRoses fall to the ground, because someofthemhave dreamed,thatthefirstormost antient Rose didspringoutofthebloudofJ7enus:andothersoftheMahumetans saythatitsprangofthesweatofMahumet.Butthere are manv kindesofRoses, differing inthebignesseofthefloures,ortheplantitselfe, roughnesseorsmoothnesse,orinthemultitudeorfewnesseoftheflours,orelseincolourandsmell; for diversofthemarehighandtall, othersshortandlow, some have five leaves, others very many.More-The ProvinceorDamaske Roseover, some be red, others white,andmostofthemorall sweetly smelling, especially thoseofthegarden.Ifthe Curious could so be content, one generall descriptionmightserve to distinguishthewhole stockorkindredofthe Roses, being things so weI knowne: not withstandingIthinkeitnotamisse to saysomthingof95

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Junethemseverally,inhope to satisfie all.Thewhite Rose hath verylongstalkesofa wooddy substance, setorarmedwith divers sharpe prickles:thebranches wherof are likewise fullofprickles, whereon grow leaves consistingoffiveleaves forthemost part, setupona middleribby couples,theold leafstandingatthe pointofthe same,andevery oneofthose small leaves somwhat sniptaboutthe edges, somewhat rough,andofan overworne greene colour: from the bosome whereof shoot forthlongfoot-stalks, whereon grow very faire double floursofa white colour,andvery sweet smell, having in the middle a few yellow thredsorchives; which being past, there succeedeth alongfruit, greeneatthefirst,butredwhenitis ripe, and stuffed with a downy choking matter, wherein is contained seed ashardas stones.Theroot is long, tough,andofa wooddy substance.TheredRose groweth very low in respectofthe former:thestalks are shorter, smoother,andbrowner of colour:Theleaves are like, yetofa worse dusty colour:Thefloures growonthetopsofthebranches, consistingofmany leavesofa perfectredcolour: the fruit is like wise red when itisripe:theroot is wooddy.Thecommon Damaske Rose in stature, prickely branches,andinotherrespects is likethewhite Rose;theespeciall difference consists inthecolourandsmellofthe flours: for these areofa paleredcolour,ofa more pleasant smel,andfitter for meatandmedicine.TheRosa Provincialis minor or lesser Province Rose differeth not fromtheformer,butis altogether lesser:theflouresandfruit are like:theuse in physickealsoagreeth with the precedent.TheRose without prickles hath manyyoungshoots comming fromtheroot, dividing themselves into divers branches, tough,andofa wooddy substance as are all the restoftheRoses,oftheheightoftwoorthreecubits, smoothandplain without any roughnesse or prickles at9 6

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Rosesall: whereon grow leaves like thoseoftheHollandRose, of a shining deep green colour ontheupperside,underneath somewhat hoaryandhairy.Theflours growatthetops ofthebranches, consistingofaninfinitenumberofleaves, greaterthanthoseoftheDamaskeRose, more double,andofa colour betweentheredanddamask Roses,ofa most sweet smell.Thefruitisround,redwhen itisripe,andstuffed withthelike flocksandseedsofthoseofthedamaske Rose.Theroot is great, wooddy, and far spreading.TheHollandorProvince Rosehathdivers shoots proceeding from a wooddy root fulofsharpe prickles, dividingitselfe into divers branches, wheron grow leaves consistingoffive leaves set on aroughmiddle rib,&thosesniptabouttheedges:theflours growonthetops of the branches, in shapeandcolour likethedamaske Rose,butgreaterandmore double, insomuchthattheyellow chivesinthemiddle arehardto be seene;ofa reasonable good smell,butnot fully so sweet as the com mon damaske Rose:thefruitis liketheotherofhis kinde. All these sortsofRoses we have inourLondongardens, exceptthatRose without pricks, which asyetis astrangerinEngland.Thedouble white Rose groweth wildeinmany hedgesofLancashire in great aboundance, even as Briers do with us in these Southerly parts.Thesefloure fromtheendofMaytotheendofAugust,and divers times after,byreasonthetopsandsuperfluous branches arecutaway intheendoftheir flouring: and then doe they somtimes floure even untill October and after.Thedistilled waterofRoses is good forthestrengthningoftheheart,andrefreshingofthespirits,andlikewisefor all thingsthatrequire a gentle cooling.Thesame beingputinjunkettingdishes, cakes, sauces,andmany other pleasant things, giveth a fineanddelectable taste.97

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JuneItmitigateth the paineofthe eies proceedingofa hot cause,bringethsleep, which also the fresh roses them selves provokethroughtheir sweetandpleasant smell.Oflikevertuealso are the leavesofthese preserved in Sugar, especiallyifthey be onely bruised with the hands,anddiligently tempered with Sugar,andso heatatthe fireratherthanboyled.TheconserveofRoses, as wellthatwhich is crudeandraw, asthatwhich is made by ebullitionorboiling, takeninthemorningfasting,andlastatnight,strengthneththeheart,andtaketh awaytheshakingandtrembling thereof,andinawordisthemost familiarthingto be used for the purposes aforesaid,andis thus made:TakeRosesatyourpleasure,putthemto boyleinfaire water, havingregardtothequantity;forifyou have many Roses you may take more water;iffewer, the lesse water will serve: the which you shall boyleatthe least three or foure houres, even as you would boile a pieceofmeate, untillintheeating they be very tender,atwhich time the Roses will lose their colour,thatyou wouldthinkeyour labour lost,andthethingspoiled.Butproceed, for thoughtheRoses have lost their colour,thewaterhathgotten the cincture thereof;thenshall youaddeuntoone poundofRoses, fourepoundoffinesugarinpurepouder,andsoaccording totherestofthe Roses.Thusshall you letthemboyle gently after thesugarisputtherto, continuallystirringitwith a woodden Spatula untillitbe cold, whereofonepoundweight isworthsixpoundofthecrudeorraw conserve, as well forthevertues.andgoodnesseintaste, as also forthebeautifull colour.Themakingofthecrude or raw conserveisvery well knowne, as also Sugar roset,anddivers other pretty things madeofRosesandSugar, whichareimpertentuntoour history, because Iintendnetherto makethereofanApothecaries shop,nora Sugar-Bakers storehouse, leavingtherest forourcunningconfectioners.9 8

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Muske Roses MUSKEROSESTherebe divers sortsofRoses planted in gardens, besides those writtenofintheformer chapter, which areofmost writers reckonedamongthewilde Roses, notwithstandingwethinkitconvenient toputtheminto a chapter betweene thoseofthegardenandthebrier Roses,asindifferentwhetherto makethemofthewilde Roses,orofthetame, seeing we have madethemdenizons inourgardens for divers respects,andthatworthily.ThesingleMuskeRose hath diverslongshoots of a greenish colourandwooddy substance,armedwith very sharpe prickles, dividingitselfe into divers branches: whereon doe growlongleaves, smooth and shining, madeofdivers leaves setupona middle rib, liketheotherRoses: the floures growonthetopsofthebranches,ofa white colour,andpleasantTheYellow Rosesweet smell, likethatofMuske,whereofittooke his name; having certaine yellowseeds in the middle, astherestoftheRoses have:thefruitisredwhenitis ripe,andfilled withsuchchaffie flockesandseeds as thoseoftheother Roses:theroot istoughandwooddy.Theyellow Rose (as divers do report) was byArtso coloured,andalteredfromhis first estate, by grafting a wilde Roseupona Broome-stalke; whereby (say they)it99

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Junedothnotonely change his colour,buthis smellandforce.Butfor mypartI havingfoundthe contrary by mine owne experience, cannot beinducedto beleeve thereport:for the rootsandoff-springsofthis Rose havebroughtforth yellow roses, such as the maine stockormotherbringethout, which eventisnottobeseen in allotherplantsthathave been graffed. Moreover, the seedsofyellow roses havebroughtforth yellow Roses, such asthefloure was from whence they weretaken;which they shouldnotdo by any conjecturall reason,ifthatofthemselves they werenota naturall kindeofRose. Lastlyitwere contrary tothattrueprinci pIe, Naturte sequitur feminaquodque SUte: thatis to say.Everyseedandplantbringethforth fruit likeuntoitselfe,bothinshapeandnature:butleavingthaterrour, I will proceed tothedescription:theyellow rosehathbrowneandprickly stalksorshoots,fiveor six cubits high, garnished with many leaves, likeuntotheMuskerose,ofanexcellent sweet smell,andmore pleasant thantheleavesoftheEglantine:thefloures come forthamongtheleaves,andatthe topofthebranchesofa faire gold yellow colour: thethrumsinthemiddle, are also yellow: which being gone, there follow such knopsorheads as theotherRoses do beare.TheCanellorCinnamon Rose, ortheRose smelling like Cinnamon,hathshotsofa brown colour, foure cubits high, beset withthornyprickles,andleaves like unto thoseofEglantine,butsmallerandgreener,ofthe savourorsmellofCinnamon, whereofit tooke his name,andnotofthe smellofhis floures (as some have deemed) which have little or no savouratall:theflouresbeexceeding double,andyellowinthe middle,ofa paleredcolour,andsometimesofa carnation: the root isofa wooddy substance.TheseRoses are planted inourLondonGardens,andelse-where,butnot found wildeinEngland.100

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WildeRosesTheMuskeRose floureth inAutumne,orthefallofthe leafe:therest flourewhentheDamaskandredRosedo.Thefirst is calledRosa Moschata,ofthesmellofMuske,aswe have said: in Italian,Rosa Moschetta:inFrench,Roses Musquees,orMuscadelles:in lowDutch,Musketroosen:inEnglishMuskRose:theLatineandEnglishtitles may serve for the rest.Thewhite leaves stamped in a wooden dish with a piece ofAllumandthejuycestrained forth into some glased vessell, dried in the shadow,andkept,isthemost fineandpleasant yellow colourthatmay be divised,notonely to limneorwash picturesandImagerie in books,butalso to colour meatsandsauces, which notwithstandingtheAllum is very wholesome.WILDEROSESThesweet Brierdothoftentimes grow higherthanall the kin desofRoses;theshootsofitare hard, thicke,andwooddy;theleaves are glittering,andofa beautifull greene colour,ofsmell most pleasant:theRoses are little,fiveleaved, most commonly whitish, seldomtendingto purple,oflittle or no smellatall:thefruitis long,ofcolour somewhat red, like a little olive stone,&likethelittle heads or berriesofthe others,butlesserthanthoseofthegarden:in whichiscontainedroughcotton,orhairy downeandseed, foldedandwrappedupinthesame, which is smallandhard:therebe likewise foundabouttheslender shoots hereof, round, soft,andhairy spunges, which we call Brier Balls,suchas growaboutthe prickles of the Dog-Rose.WehaveinourLondongardens another sweet Brier, having greater leaves,andmuchsweeter:thefloures likewise are greater,andsomewhat doubled, exceeding sweetofsmell, whereinitdiffereth from the former.101

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JuneTheBrier Bush orHeptree,isalso calledRosacanina,whichisa plantsocommon and well knowne, thatitwere to small purpose to use many words in the description thereof: for even children with great deligh eat the berries thereof when they be ripe, make chainesandother prettie gewgawesofthe fruit: cookesandgentlewomen makeTartsandsuch like dishes for pleasure thereof,andthere fore this shall suffice for the description.ThePimpinell Roseislikewise oneofthe wilde ones, whose leaves, consistingofdivers small ones, are set upon a middle rib like thoseofBurnet, whereupon it was called the Burnet Rose.Itgrowes very plentifully in a field as you go from a village in Essex, called Graies (upon the brinkeofthe river Thames) untoHorndonon the hill, insomuch that the field is full fraught there with all over.Itgroweth likewise in a pastureasyou goe from a village hard by London called Knights brige unto Fulham, a Village thereby.Thefruit whenitisripe maketh most pleasant meatsandbanqueting dishes, as tartsandsuch like; the making whereof I commit to the cunning cooke,andteeth to eate them in the rich mans mouth.LARKSHEELEORLARKSCLAWThegarden Larks spur hath aroundstem fulofbranches, set with tenderjaggedleaves: the floures grow alongst the stalks toward the topsofthe branches,ofa blew colour, consisting offivelittle leaves which grow together and make one hollow floure, having a taile orspuratthe endturningin like the spurofTodeflax. After cometheseed, very blacke, like thoseofLeekes:theroot perisheth at the first approch of Winter.Thesecond Larksspurislike the precedent, but somewhat smaller in stalkesandleaves: the floures are also like in forme,butofa white colour, wherein especially102

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Larks spuristhe difference.Thesefloures are sometimesofapurplecolour, sometimes white, murrey, carnation,andofsundryothercolours, varying infinitely, according tothesoile or country wherein they live.ThewildeLarksspurhathmost finejaggedleaves,cutandbackt into divers parts, confusedly setupona small middle tendrell:amongwhich growthefloures, in shape liketheothers,buta great deale lesser, sometimes purple,otherwhiles white,andoftenofa mixt colour.Theroot is smallandthreddy.Theseplants are setandsowne in gardens:thelast groweth wildeincorne fields,andwhere cornhathgrown.Theyfloure forthemostpartallSummerlong, fromJunetotheendofAugust,andoft-times after.Larksheele is calledFlosRegius:ofdivers,Consolidaregalis:who makeitoneoftheConsoundsorComfreyes.ItisWhiteorredLarksspuralsothoughtto betheDelphi-niumwhichDioscoridesdescribesinhisthirdbooke; wherewithitmay agree: forthefloures,andespecially before they be perfected, have a certaine shewandlike nesseofthose Dolphins, which old picturesandarmesofcertainantientfamilies have expressed with a crookedandbending figure orshape;by which signe alsotheheavenly Dolphine is set forth.Wefinde little extantofthevertuesofLarksheele, either intheantientorlater writers,worththenoting,or1

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Juneto be credited; yet it is set downe,thatthe seedofLarksspurdrunkenis good against the stingingsofScorpions; whose vertues are so forceable,thattheherbe onely throwne before the Scorpionoranyothervenomous beast, couseththemto be without force orstrengthto hurt, insomuchthatthey cannot moveorstirre untill the herbe be taken away: with manyothersuch trifling toyes not worththereading.ROSECAMPIONThefirstkindofRose Campionhathroundstalks very knottyandwoolly,andateveryknotorjointtheredostandtwo woolly soft leaves like Mullein,butlesser&muchnarrower: the floures growatthe topofthe stalke,ofa perfect red colour.Thesecond Rose Campion differs not fromthepre cedent in stalks, leaves,orfashionofthe floures;theonly difference consists inthecolour, for the flouresofthis plant areofa milke white colour,andtheotherred.TheRose Campion groweth plentifullyinmost gardens. Because the leaves thereof be soft, & fittomakeweeks for candles, according to the testimony ofDioscorides,it was calledLychnis,thatis, aTorchorsuch like light, according to the significationofthe word, cleere, bright,andlight-giving floures:andtherefore they were called the Gardeners Delight, or the GardenersEye.GARDENPOPPIESTheleavesofwhitePoppieare long, broad, smooth, longerthanthe leavesofLettuce, whiter,andcutin the edges: the stemorstalke isstraightandbrittle, often times ayardanda halfehigh:onthe top whereof grow white floures, in whichattheverybeginningappeareth a1

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Garden Poppiessmall head, accompanied with anumberofthredsorchives, which being full growneisround,andyet some thing long withall,andhatha coverorcrownetuponthetop; itiswith many filmes orthinskin divided into coffers or severall partitions,inwhich is contained abundanceofsmallroundandwhitish seed.Theroot groweth deepe, and isofno estimation nor continuance.Likeuntothis is the blacke garden Poppy, savingthatthe floures are not so whiteandshining,butusually red, oratleast spotted or straked with some linesofpurple.Theleaves are greater, morejagged,andsharper pointed.Theseed is likewise blacker.Thereare divers varietiesofdouble Poppies,andtheir colours are commonly either white, red, darke purple, scarlet,ormixtofsomeofthese.ThesekindsofPoppies are sowne in gardens,anddo afterward comeofthe fallingsoftheir seed.Theseed is perfected inJulyandAugust.Thisseed, asGalensaith inhisbookeofthe facultiesofNourishments, is good to season bread with,butthewhite is betterthantheblack.Healso addeth,thatthesame is coldandcauseth sleep, and yeeldeth no commendable nourishment to thebody:itisoften used in comfits, servedatthetable withotherjunkettingdishes.Theoile which is pressedoutofitis pleasantanddelightfull to be eaten,&is taken with breadoranyotherwaies with meat, without any senceofcooling. A greater force is intheknobs or heads, which do specially prevaile to move sleepe,andto stayandrepresse distillationsorrheums,andcome neere in force toOpium,but more gentle.Opium,orthecondensed juiceofPoppyheads, is strongestofall;Meconium(which isthejuiceofthe headsandleaves) is weaker. Bothofthemany waies taken either inwardly,oroutwardly applied tothehead, provoke sleepe.Opiumsomewhat too plentifullytakendoth alsobringdeath.1

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JuneItmitigateth all kindsofpaines;butitleaveth behindeitoftentimes a mischiefe worsethanthediseaseitselfe,andthathardto be cured, as a dead palsieandsuch like.Soalso collyries or eye medicines made withOpiumhave bin hurtfull to many; insomuchthatthey have weakenedtheeiesanddulled the sightofthosethathaveusedit:whatsoever is compoundedofOpiumto mitigatetheextreame painesoftheeares, bringeth hardnesse of hearing. Wherefore all those medicinesandcompounds are to beeshunnedthatare to be madeofOpium,andarenotto be usedbutin extreame necessitie;andthatis,whennoothermitigater or assuagerofpaine doth anythingprevaile.TheleavesofPoppieboiled in water with a little sugaranddrunke, cause sleep:orifitbe boiled without sugar,andthehead, feet,andtemples bathed therewith,itdoth effect the same.TheheadsofPoppieboiled in water withsugarto a syrrup cause sleepe,andare good against rheumesandcatarrhes that distilandfall down from the brain into the lungs,andeasethecough.CORNE-RoSEORWILDEPOppyThestalksofredPoppybe blacke, tender,andbrittle, somewhat hairy:theleaves arecutroundaboutwith deepe gashes like thoseofSuccorie or wild Rocket.Theflours grow forthatthetopsofthestalks,beingofa beautifullandgallantredcolour, with blackish threds compassingaboutthemiddlepartofthehead, which being fully growne, is lesserthanthatofthegardenPoppy:the seedissmallandblacke.Thefields are garnishedandoverspred with these wilde PoppiesinJuneandAugust.Mostmen being led rather by false experiments than106

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GARDENFLAXEFlaxereason, commendthefloures againstthePleurisie, giving to drinke as soon asthepain comes, either the distilled water,orsyrrup made by often infusing the leaves.Andyet many timesithappens,thatthepaine ceaseth bythatmeanes,thoughhardly sometimes.WildPoppy Flax ,risethupwith slenderandroundstalks.Theleaves thereof bee long, narrow,andsharpe pointed:onthetopsofthesprigs are faire blew floures, after whichspringuplittleroundknobsorbuttons,inwhich is containedtheseed,informe somewhat long, smooth, gliborslipperie,ofa darke colour.Plinysaiththatitistobe sowne in gravelly places, especially in furrowes:andthatitburneththeground, and makethitworser: whichthingalsoVirgiltestifieth inhisGeorgickes.InEnglishthus : FlaxeandOtes sowne consumeThemoistureofa fertile field:Thesame workethPoppy,whose J uyce a deadly sleepe doth yeeld. Flaxe is sowne inthespring,itflourethinJuneandJuly. Afteritiscutdowne (asPliny, lib.19.cap.I.saith) the stalks areputintothewater, subject totheheatof1

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JunetheSun,&some weight laidonthemto be steepedtherein;the loosenesofthe rinde is a signewhenit is well steeped:thenisittakenupanddriedinthe Sun,andafter used as most huswives can tell betterthanmy selfe.Theoile which is pressedoutofthe seed, is profitable for many purposesinPhysickeandSurgerie;andis usedofpainters, picture makers,andotherartificers.Theseeds stamped withtherootsofwild Cucumbers, draweth forth splinters, thomes, broken bones,oranyotherthingfixed in anypartofthe body.FOX-GLOVESPurpleFox-glovesFox-glove with the purple floure is most common; the leaves whereof are long, nickedintheedges,ofalightgreene,inmanner like thoseofMullein,butlesser,andnot so downy:thestalke is straight, fromthemiddle whereof tothetopstandthe floures, set in a course one by anotheruponone sideofthe stalke,hangingdownwards withthebottome upward, in forme long, like almost to finger stalkes, whereof it tooke his nameDigitalis,ofaredpurple colour,withcer taine white spots dasht within the floure; after which comeuproundheads,inwhich liestheseed somewhat browne,andas small asthatofTime.Theroots are many slender strings.108

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Woljes-baneTheFox-Glove with white floures differs not fromtheprecedentbutinthecolourofthefloures; for astheotherwere purple, these contrariwise areofa milke-white colour.Wehave inourGardens another sort hereof, which bringeth forth most pleasant yellow floures,andsomewhat lesser than the common kinde, wherein they differ. Fox-glove growethinbarren sandy grounds,andunderhedges almost every where. Fox-gloves some callinFrench,Gantes nostre dame.TheFox-gloves inthatthey are bitter, are hotanddry, with a certaine kindeofclensing qualitiejoynedthere with; yet are theyofno use, neither have they any place amongst medicines, according totheAntients.WOLFES-BANEAconite,ofsome calledThora(others adde theretotheplace whereitgrowethingreat aboundance, which is the Alps,andcallitThora Valdensium),tooke his nameoftheGreekewordsignifying corruption, poison,ordeath, which are the certaine effectsofthis pernitious plant: for this they use verymuchin poison,andwhen they mean to infect their arrow heads, the more speedilyanddeadly to dispatchthewilde beasts which greatly annoy those MountainesoftheAlpes.Towhich purpose alsoitis brought intotheMarttownes neere those places, to be sold untothehunters, the juyce thereof being prepared by pressing forth,andsokeptinhomesandhoofesofbeast for the most speedy poysonoftheAconites: for an arrow touched therewith leavesthewounduncurable (ifitbutfetchbloudwhereitentredin) unlessethatroundaboutthewoundtheflesh bee speedilycutawayingreat quantitie : this plant therefore may rightly be accountedasfirstandchiefeofthose called SagittariesorAconites,byreasonofthemalignant qualities aforesaid.Thisthat1

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Junehath beene sayd, argueth also thatMatthiolushath un properly calleditPseudoaconitum,that is, falseorbastard Aconite; for without question there is no worse or more speedie venome in the world, nor no Aconite or toxible plant comparable hereunto.Andyet let us con sider the fatherly care and providenceofGod, who hath provided a conquerour andtriumpher over this plantsovenomous, namely his Anti gonist, Antithora,orto speake in shorter and fewer syllables,Anthora,which is the very anti doteorremedie against this kindeofAconite.Theyellow kindeofW olfes bane hath large shining green leaves fashioned like a vine.Hisstalks growupto the height of three cubits, bearing veryfineyellow floures, fantastically fash ioned, and in such manner shaped, that I can very hardly describe them to you. This plant groweth natunill y in the darke hilly forrests,&shadowie woods, that are not travelled nor haunted,butby wilde andBroad leafed Wolfs-banesavage beasts, and is thought to bee the strongest and next untoThorain his poisoning qualitie,ofall the restofthe Aconites, or W oolfes banes; insomuch thatifa fewofthe floures be chewed in the mouth, and spit forth againe presently, yet forthwith it burneth the jawsandtongue, causing them to swell, and making a certain swimming or giddinesse in the head.Thiscalleth to my remem brance an historyofa certain Gentleman dwelling in Lincolneshire, calledMahewe,the true report whereof110

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Monkeshoodmyvery good friendMr.NicholasBelson,somtimes FellowofKings Colledge in Cambridge, hath delivered unto me:Mr.Mahewedwelling in Boston, astudentinphysick, having occasion to ridethroughthe fensofLincolnshire, found a root that the hogshadturnedup, which seemed unto him very strangeandunknowne, for thatitwas in the spring beforetheleaves wereout:thishetasted,anditso inflamed his mouth, tongue,andlips, thatitcaused them to swell very extremely, so that beforehecould get to the towneofBoston, he could not speake, and no doubt had lost his lifeifthattheLordGodhadnot blessed those good remedies which presently he pro curedandused. I have herethoughtgood to expresse this history, for two speciall causes; the first is,thatsome industriousanddiligent observerofnature may be pro voked to seeke forththatvenomous plant,orsomeofhiskindes: for I am certainly persuadedthatitiseither theThoraValdensium,orAconitum luteum,whereof this gentleman tasted, which two plants havenotatany time binthoughtto grow naturallyinEngland:theother cause is, for that I would warne others to bewarebythat gentlemans harme.MONKESHOODHelmet-floure, or the great Monkes-hood, beareth very faireandgoodly blew floures in shape like anHelmet;which are so beautifull,thata man would thinke theywereofsome excellent vertue,butnonestsemper fides ha.'>{';tda fronti.Thisplantisuniversally knowne inourLondon gardensandelsewhere;butnaturally it growethinthe mountainesofRhetia,and in' sundry placesofthe Alps, where you shall find the grassethatgrowethrounditeatenupwith cattell,butnopartofthe herbeitselfe touched, except by certaine flies, who in suchabundantIII

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June measure swarme about the same that they cover the whole plant:and(which is very straunge) although these flies do withgreatdelight feed hereupon, yetofthem there is confected an Antidot or most availeable medicine againstthedeadly bite of the spider called Tarantala,orany other venomous beast whatsoever; yea, an excel lent remedy not only against the Aconites,butall other poisons whatsoever.Themedicineofthe foresaidfliesis thusmade:Takeofthetheflies which have fed them selves as is above mentioned, innumbertwentie,ofAristolochiarotunda,andbole Armoniack,ofeach a dram.Theforceandfacultie of this Wolfs-bane is deadlytomanandall kin desofbeasts:Monkeshoodthesame was triedoflate in Antwerpe,andisasyetfresh in memorie, byanevident experiment,butmost lamentable; forwhenthe leaves hereof were by certaineignorantpersons servedupinsallads, allthatdid eat thereof were presently taken with most cruell symptomes,andso died.Thesymptomesthatfollow thosethatdoe eatofthese deadlyHerbsare these; their lippsandtongue swell forthwith, their eyeshangout, their thighes are stiffe,andtheir wits are taken from them, as Avicen writes,lib.4.Theforceofthis poison is such,thatifthepointsofdartsorarrowes be touched therewith,itbrings deadlyhurtto thosethatarewoundedwith the same.112

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Monkes hoodAgainst so deadly a poisonAvicenreckonethupcer tain remedies, which help afterthepoyson is vomitedup:andamongthese he maketh mentionoftheMouse(as the copies every where have it) nourishedandfedupwithNapellus,which is altogether an enemie to the poisonsome natureofit,anddeliverethhimthathathtaken it from all perillanddanger.Antonius GuaneriusofPavia, a famous physition in his age, in his treatyofpoisons isofopinion,thatitisnota mouse which Avicen speaketh of,buta fly: for he telleth of a certaine Philosopher who did very carefullyanddiligently make search after this mouse,andneither could findatany time any mouse, northerootsofWolfs bane gnawnorbitten, as hehadread:butin searching he found many flies feedingontheleaves, whichthesaid Philosopher tooke,andmadeofthemanantidoteorcounterpoison, which heefoundto be goodandeff"ectuall againstotherpoisons,butespecially againstthepoisonofWolfs-bane.Thecomposition consistethoftwo ouncesofTerra lemnia,as manyoftheberriesoftheBay tree,andthelike weightofMithridate,24ofthe fliesthathave taken their repastuponWolfes-bane,ofhonyandoile Olive a sufficient quanti tie.Thesame opinionthatGuaneriusis of,PenaandLobeldo alsohold;who affirme,thattherewas never seeneatany time any mouse feeding thereon, butthatthere bee flies which resortuntoitby swarmes, and feednotonlyuponthefloures,butontheherbalso.Therehathbin little heretofore set down concerning the VertuesofAconites,butmuchmightbe saidofthehurtsthathave come hereby, asthewofull experienceasthelamentable exampleatAntwerpyetfresh in memorie, doth declare, as we have said.113

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JuneMITHRIDATEWOLFES-BANEThisplant calledAnthora,being the antidote against the poisonofThora, AconiteorWolfes bane,hathslender hollow stalkes, very brittle, a cubit high, garnished with finecutorjaggedleaves, very like toNigella Romana,orthecommonLarksspurre, calledConsolida regalis:atthe topofthe stalks grow faire floures, fashioned like a little helmet,ofan overworne yellow colour; after which come small blackish cods, whereiniscontained blacke shining seed like thoseofOnions: the root consistethofdivers knobsortuberous lumps,ofthebignesseofa mans thumbe.Thisplant growet'h abundantly in the Alpes, calledRhetici,in Savoy,andin Liguria.TheLigurians ofTurnin,andthosethatdwell neerthelake Lemane, havefoundthis herbe to be a present remedie against the deadly poisonoftheherbThora,andtherestofthe Aconits, providedthatwhenitisbroughtinto the garden there to bekeptfor phisicks use,itmustnot be planted neere to anyofthe Aconites: forthroughhis attractive qualitie,itwill draw unto itselfe the maligneandvenomous poisonofthe Aconite, wherebyitwil becomeofthe like qualitie,thatis, to become poisonous likewise: butbeingkeptfar off, it retaineth his owne naturall qualitie still.Theroot is wonderfull bitter,itkillethanddriveth forth allmannerof w\Jrmes ofthebelly.Itis calledAnthora,asthoughthey shouldsayAntithora,becauseitisanenemy toThora,anda counterpoyson tothesame.ThoraandAnthora,orTuraandAntura,seem to be new words,butyet they are used inMarcellus Empericus,anoldwriter, who teaches us a medicine to be madeofTuraandAntura,againstthepinandweb in the eies: in English, yellow Monks-hood, yellowHelmetfloure,andAconitesMithridate.

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SeaLavanderSEALAVANDERTherehathbeeneamongwriters fromtimeto timegreatcontentionaboutthisplantLimonium,no oneAuthoragreeingwithanother:for some have called this herbeLimonium;someanotherherbebythisname;andsomeinremoovingtherocke, havemiredthemselves inthemud,asMatthiolus,who described two kindes,butmade no distinctionofthem,noryetexpressed which wasthetrueLimonium;butas amanhereinignorant,hespeakes not awordofthem.Nowthentoleave controversiesandcavilling,thetrueLimoniumisthatwhichhathfaire leaves, liketheLimonorOrengetree,butofa darke greene colour, somewhat fatter,anda littlecrumpled:amongstwhich leavesrisethupanhardandbrittlenakedstalkeofa foot high, dividedatthetopintosundryothersmall branches,whichgrowforthemostpartuponone side, fulloflittle blewish floures,inshew like Lavander,withlongred seed,anda thickerootlikeuntothesmallDocke.SeaLavanderThereis akindeofLimoniumlikethefirstineach respect,butlesser,whichgrowethuponrockesandchalkie cliffes.Thefirstgrowethingreatplentyuponthewallsofthe fortagainstGravesend:butabundantlyonthebankesof theRiverbelowthesame towne, as also belowthelIS

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JuneKings Store-houseatChattam:andfast bytheKingsFerreygoing into the IsleofShepey: inthesalt marshes byLeein Essex: intheMarshby Harwich,andmanyotherplaces.ThesmallkindI could never find in anyotherplacebutuponthechalky cliffe going fromthetowneofMargatedowne to the sea side,upontheleft hand.Itshall be needlesse to trouble you with any otherLatinenamethanis exprest in their titles:Thepeople neere the sea side where it growes do callitMarsh ander,andsea Lavander.SERAPIA'STURBITH,ORSEASTARWORTTripoliumhathlongandlarge leaves somewhat holloworfurrowed,ofa shining green colour declining to blew nesse:amongwhich risethupa stalkeoftwo cubits highandmore, which towardthetop is divided into many small branches garnished with many floures like Camo mill, yellow inthemiddle, set about orborderedwith small blewish leaves like a pale; which grow into a whitishroughdownethatflieth away withthewind.Theroot islongandthreddy.Theseherbs grow plentifully alongsttheEnglish coasts in many places, as bythefortagainst Gravesend,intheIsleofShepey insundryplaces, in a marsh which isunderthe town walsofHarwich, inthemarshbyLee in Essex,in a marsh whichisbetweentheIsleofShepeyandSandwich, especially whereitebbethandfloweth: beingbroughtinto gardensitflourisheth alongtime,butthereitwaxethhuge, great,andranke,andchangeththegreat roots into strings.Itis reported by menofgreat fameandlearning, That thisplantwas calledTripoliumbecauseitdoth changethecolourofhis floures thrice in a day.ThisrumorweI16

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LandPlantainemaybeleeve as true, forthatwe seeandperceive things ofasgreatorgreater wonder to proceedoutoftheearth. This herbe I planted in my garden, whither in his season I did repaire to findeoutthetruthhereof,butI couldnotespy any such variablenesse herein: yet thusmuchI maysay,thatastheheateofthesundoth changethecolour of divers floures, soitfelloutwith this, which inthemorning was very faire,butafterwardofa paleorwan colour.Whichproveththatto bebuta fable whichDioscoridessaith is reported by some,thatin one dayitchangeththecolourofhis floures thrice;thatis to say,inthemorningitis white,atnoone purple,andintheevening crimson.Butitis not untrue,thatthere may be found three coloursofthe floures in one day, by reason thatthefloures arenotall perfected together, (as before I partly touched)butone after another by littleandlittle. And there may easily be observed three colours in them, which is to be understoodofthemthatarebeginningtofloure,thatare perfectly floured,andthosethatare falling away.Fortheythatare blowingandbenotwide openandperfect areofa purplish colour,andthosethatareperfectandwide openofa whitish blew,andsuch ashavefallen away have a white down: whichchanginghapneth untosundryother plants.Thisherbe is calledofSerapio, Turbith:womenthatdwell by the sea sidecallitinEnglish,blew Daisies,orblew Camomill;&aboutHarwichitis calledHogsbeans, forthattheswinedogreatly desire to feed thereon, as also forthatthe knobs abouttheroots doe somewhat resemblethegardenbean.LANDPLANTAINEAsthe Greeks have called some kindsofherbs Serpents tongue,Dogstongue,andOxtongue;so have they termed a kindeofPlantainArnoglosson,which is asifyou should sayLambstongue, well known to all, byreason 117

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PlantaineJuneofthegreat commoditieandplentyofitgrowing every where;andtherefore it is needlesse tospendtime about them.Thegreatnesandfashionoftheleaveshathbeenthecauseofthe varietiesanddiversitiesoftheir names.Thesecond is like the first,anddiffereth in that, that this Plantainehathgreaterbutshorter spikes or knaps;andtheleaves areofanhoaryoroverworne green colour:thestalks are likewise hoaryandhairy.Thejuicedroppedin the eies cooles the heateandinflammation thereof. I findinantient writers many good morrowes, which I thinkenotmeet tobringinto your memorie againe; as, That three roots will cureonegriefe, foure another disease, sixhangedaboutthenecke are good for another malady,&c.all which arebutridicu lous toyes.SPURGEThefirst kindeofSea Spurge riseth forthofthesands,orbaichofthesea, withsundryreddish stemsorstalkes growinguponone singleroot;andthestalkes are beset with small, fat,andnarrow leaves like untotheleavesofFlax.Thefloures are yellowish,andgrowoutoflittIe dishesorSaucers likethecommon kindeofSpurge. Afterthefloures come triangle seeds, as intheother Tithymales.118

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SpurgeThesecond kinde (calledHelioscopius,orSolisequius:and in English, according to his Greeke name, Sunne Spurge,ortime Tithymale,ofturningorkeeping time with the Sunne)hathsundryreddish stalkesofa foot high:theleaves are likeun--c toPurslane,notso greatnorthicke,butsniptabouttheedges: the floures are yel lowish,andgrowing in little platters.Thefirst kindeofSpurge growethbythe sea sideuponthe rowling SandandBaich,asatLeein Essex,atLangtree pointrightagainstHarwich, atWhitstablein Kent, and in many other places.Thesecond groweth in groundsthatlie waste,andinbarren earable soile, almost every where. Firstthemilkeandsap isinspeciall use, then the fruit and leaves,buttheroot isofleast strength.ThestrongestSpurgekindeofTithymale,andofgreatest force isthatofthe sea. Some writebyreportofothers,thatitenflameth exceedingly,butmyselfe speakbyexperience; for walk ing alongthesea coastatLeein Essex, with a Gentleman calledMr.Rich,dwelling inthesame towne, I tookebutonedropofitintomymouth;which neverthelesse did so inflameandswell inmythrotethatI hardly escaped withmylife.Andin like case was the Gentleman, which causedusto takeourhorses,andposte forourlivesuntothenext farme house to drinke some milke to quenchtheextremitieofourheat, which then ceased.I19

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JuneThejuyce mixed with hony, causeth haire to fall fromthatplace which is anointed therewith,ifitbe done in the Sun.Thejuyceormilkeisgood to stop hollow teeth, beingputinto them warily, sothatyou touch neither the gums)noranyofthe other teeth in themouthwith the said medicine.Thesame cureth all roughnesseofthe skin,andthe white scurfeofthehead.Itkilleth fish, being mixed with anythingthat they will eat.Theseherbes by mine advise wouldnotbe received into the body, consideringthatthere be so many other goodandwholesome potions to be made with other herbes,thatmay be taken without perilloNAVELWOORT,ORPENNIWOORTOFTHEWALLThegreat Navelwoorthathroundandthicke leaves, somewhat bluntly indented about the edges, and somewhathollow in the midst on theupperpart, having ashorttender stemme fastened to the middestoftheleafe,onthe lower side underneath the stalke, whereon the floures do grow, is small and hollow, an handfull high and more, beset with many small flouresofan overworne incarnate colour.Therootissmall like an olive,ofa white colour.Thesecond kindeofWallPenniwortorNavelwoorthathbroad thicke leaves somewhat deep ely indentedaboutthe edges: spred upon thegroundin mannerofa tuft, set about the tender stalke; among which riseth up atenderstalke whereon doe grow the like leaves. The floures stand onthetop consistingoffivesmall leaves of a whitish colour, with red de spots in them.Thereisa kindeofNavelwoortthatgroweth in watery places, whichiscalledofthe husbandman Sheeps bane, becauseitkilleth sheepethatdo eat thereof:itisnot much120

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Sampierunliketheprecedent,buttheroundedgesofthe leaves are not so even astheother;andthis creepethupontheground,andtheother upon the stone walls.ThefirstkindofPenniwoort groweth plentifully in Northamptonuponevery stone wall about the towne,atBristow, Bathe, Wells,andmost placesoftheWestcountrieuponstone walls.Itgroweth uponWestminsterAbbey, over the doorethatleadeth fromChaucerstombetothe old palace.ThesecondandthirdgrowupontheAlpes neere Piedmont,andBavier,anduponthemountainesofGer many: I foundthethirdgrowinguponBieston Castle in Cheshire. Navelwoort is calledofsome,Bartus Veneris,orVenus garden,and Terr umbilicus,ortheNaveloftheearth:inEnglish, Penniwoort, Wall-Penniwoort, Ladies Navell, HipwoortandKidney-woort.WaterPenniwoort is called inEnglish,Sheepe-killing Pennigrasse.TheignorantApothecaries doe usetheWaterPennywort in steadofthisofthewall, which they cannot doe withoutgreaterror,andmuchdangerto the patient: for husbandmen know well,thatitis noisomeuntoSheepe,andother cattellthatfeed thereon,andfor the mostpartbringeth deathuntothem,muchmore to menbya stronger reason.SAMPlERRocke Sam pierhathmany fatandthicke leaves somwhatlikethoseofthe lesser Purslane,ofa spicie taste, with a certain saltnesse; amongst which risesupa stalk divided into many smal spraiesorsprigs, onthetop whereof grow spoky tuftsofwhite Roures, like the tuftsofFennellorDill; afterthatcomestheseed, liketheseedofFenell, but greater:theroot is thickeandknobby, beeingofsmelldelightfullandpleasant.121

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JuneThesecond Sampier, called Pastinaca marina, orseaParsnep,hathlong fat leaves very muchjaggedor cut even tothemiddle rib, sharp or prickely pointed, which are setuponlarge fatjointedstalks; on the top wherof do grow tuftsofwhitishorelse reddish floures. The seed is wrapped in thorny husks:theroot is thickeandlong,notunlike to the Parsenep, very good and wholsome to be eaten. Rocke Sam pier growes on the rockydiftsatDover, Winchelsey,byRie, about Southampton,theIsleofWight,andmostrocks abouttheWestandNorth partsofEngland.Thesecond groweth neeretheseauponthe sandsandBaych betweeneWhitstableandtheIsleofTenet,by Sandwich, andbythesea neere West chester.Theleaveskeptin pickle,SeaParsnepandeaten in sallads with oileandvineger, is a pleasant sauce for meat.GLASSESALTWORTGlasseworthathmany grosse thickeandroundstalks a foot high, fulloffatandthicke sprigs, set with many knotsorjoints, without any leavesatall,ofa reddish greene colour:thewhole plant resembles a branchofCoral!.Theseplants are to be found in salt marshes almost everie where.122

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s.JohnsWortStones are beaten to pouderandmixed with ashes, which beeing melted together, become the matter whereof glasse is made.Whichwhileitis made redhotinthefurnace,andis melted, becomming liquidandfit to worke upon, doth yeeld asitwere a fat floting aloft; which whenitiscold waxeth ashardas a stone,yetisitbrittleandquickly broken. A great quanti tie taken is mischievousanddeadly:thesmelandsmoke alsoofthis herb beingburntdrives away serpents.S.JOHNSWORTSaintJohnsworthathbrownish stalks beset with many smallandnarrow leaves, whichifyou behold betwixtyoureiesand the light, do appeare asitwere boredorthrustthorow in an infinitenumberofplaces with pinnes points. The branches divide themselves intosundrysmal twigsatthe top whereof grow many yellow floures, which with the leaves bruised do yeeld a reddish juiceofthecolour of bloud.Theseed is contained in little sharp pointed huskes blackeofcolour,andsmelling like Rosin.Theroot is long, yellow,andofa wooddy substance.Theygrowvery plentifully in pastures in every countrie.S.Johnswortis called inLatineHypericum:in shops,Perforata:ofdivers,Fuga dmonum: inFrenchMille Pertuys:in English,S.Johnswort,orS.Johnsgrases.Theleaves, floures,andseeds stamped,andputinto a glasse with oile olive,andset in thehotsun for certain weeks together,andthen strained from those herbs,andthe like quantitieofnewputinandsunned in like manner, doth make an oileofthecolourofbloud, which is a most pretious remedie for deep woundsandthosethatare thorowthebody, forthesinuesthatare prickt,oranywound made with a venomed weapon. I am accustomed to make acompoundoile hereof,themakingofwhichyoushall receiveatmyhands, because I knowthatintheworld123

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S. Johns Wortthere isnota better, nonotthenaturall Balsamitselfe;forI dare undertake to cureanysuchwoundas absolutely in each respect,ifnotsoonerandbetter, as any man shallormay with naturall Balsam.Takewhite wine two pintes, oile olive foure pounds, oileofTurpentinetwo pounds,theleaves, floures, and seedsofS.Johnswortofeach twogreathandfulls gently bruised;putthemall together into agreatdouble glasse,andsetitin the Sun eightorten daies; then boile theminthesame glasseper Balneum Mari, thatis, in a kettleofwater, with some straw inthebottome, whereintheglassemuststand to boile: which done, straintheliquor fromtheherbs,anddo as you did before,puttinginthelike quanti tieofherbs, floures,andseeds,butnot anymore wine.Thushave you a great secret forthepurposes afore-said.HOUSLEEKEORSENGREENEGreatHousleekorSengreene (syrnamed tree Housleeke) bringeth forth a stalke a cubit high, somtimes higher, and often two; which is thick, hard, wooddy, tough,andthat can hardly be broken, parted into divers branches,and124

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Housleekecovered with a thick grosse bark, which in the lowerpartreserveth certaine printsorimpressed markesoftheleaves that are fallen away.Theleaves are fat, well bodied, full of juice, an inch longandsomewhat more, like little tongues, very curiously minced in the edges, standing upon the topsofthe braunches, having inthemthe shapeofaneye.Thefloures growoutofthebranches, which are divided into manysprings;which floures are slender, yellow,andspred like astar;in their places commethupvery fine seed,thesprings withering away:theroot is parted into many off-springs.Thisplant is alwaies greene, neither is ithurtbythecold in winter, growing inhisnative soile; whereuponitis named Sempervivum, orSengreene. Great Sengreene is found growingofitselfe onthetops of houses, old walls,andsuch like places, in very many provincesoftheEast,andofGreece,andalso intheIslandsoftheMediterranean sea, as in Creet, now called Candy, Rhodes,Zant,andothers: neither is Spainwithoutit; for (asClusiuswitnesseth)itgroweth in many placesofPortingall; otherwise it is cherished in pots.Incold countriesandsuch as lie Northward, as inboththeGer manies,itneither growethofitselfe, nor yet lasteth long, thoughitbe carefully planted,anddiligently looked unto, butthroughthe extremitieoftheweatherandtheover much coldofwinteritperisheth.Theytake awaythefireofburningsandscaldings,andbeing applied with barly meale dried, do take awaythepaineofthe gout.ThejuiceofHousleeke, garden Nightshade,andthebudsofPoplarboiled inAxungiapard,orhogs grease, makethemost singular Populeonthatever was used in Surgerie.Thejuicehereof taketh away cornes from the toesandfeet,ifthey be washedandbathed therewith,andeverydayandnightasitwere emplaistered withtheskinofthe125

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Junesame Housleeke, which certainly taketh them away withoutincision or such like,ashath been experimented bymyverie good friendMr.Nicholas Belson,a man painfullandcurious in searching forth the secretsofnature.ThedecoctionofHousleekorthe juice thereof cooleth the inflammationofthe eyes, being dropped thereinto, and the herb bruised and layd upon them.OURLADIESSLIPPEROurLadies Shoo or Slipperhatha thicke knobbed root from which risethupa stiffe and hairy stalke a foot high, set by certaine spaces with faire broad leaves.Atthe topofthe stalke groweth one single floure, seldome two, fashioned on the one side like anegge;on the other sideitisopen, empty, and hollow,andofthe formofa shooorslipper, whereofittooke his name;ofa yellow colour on the outside,andofa shining deep yellow on the in-,'. side.Themiddlepartis com-,""'-passed about with foure leavesOurLadiesSlipperofabrightpurple colour, oftenofalightredorobscure crimson,andsometimes yellow as in the middle part, which in shapeislike an eggeasaforesaid. Ladies Slipper growethuponthe mountainsofGer many,Hungary,andPoland. I have a plant thereofinmygarden, which I received fromMr.GarretApothe carie, my very good friend.Touchingthe facultiesofourLadies shoo wehave126

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Bell-j/ouresnothing to write,itbeeingnotsufficiently known totheold writers, no nor tothenew.BELL-FLoUREsCoventry-Bells have broad leavesroughandhairy,notunlike to thoseoftheGolden Buglosse,ofa swart greene colour:amongwhich do riseupstiffe hairie stalkesthesecond yeare after the sowingoftheseed: which stalkes divide themselves intosundrybranches, whereupon grow many faireandpleasant bell-floures, long, hollow,andcutonthe brim with five sleight endingin five corners toward night, whenthefloureshuttethitselfeupasdoe mostoftheBell-floures: in the middleofthe flouresbethreeorfoure whitish chives, as alsomuchdownie haire, such as is intheearesofaDog,orsuch like beast. The whole floure isofa blew purple colour: which being past, there succeed great squareorcornered seed-vessels, divided ontheinside into divers celsorchambers, whereindolie scatteringly many small browne flat seeds.Therootislongandgreat like a Parsenep, garnished with many threddy strings, which perisheth whenithathperfectedhisseed, which is inthesecond yeare after his sowing, and recovereth it selfe againebythefallingoftheseed.Theygrow in woods, mountaines,anddarkvallies,andunder hedges amongthebushes, especiallyaboutCoventry, wheretheygrow very plentifully abroad inthefields,andare there called Coventry bells,andofsome about London,Canterburybells;butunproperly, for that there is another kindeofBell-floure growing inKentabout Canterbury, which may more fitly be called Canter bury Bells, because they grow there more plentifullythaninanyothercountrey.Thesepleasant Bell-floures weehaveinourLondongardens especially forthebeautyoftheir floure, although they be kindsofRampions,andtheroots eaten as Rampions are.127

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JuneTheyfloure inJune,July,andAugust;theseed waxeth ripe inthemean time; for these plantsbringnotforth their floures all at once,butwhen one floureth another seedeth. Coventry bels are called in LatineViola mariana:inEnglish,MercuriesViolets,orCoventry Rapes,andof some,Mariets.Theroot isnotused in physicke,butonly for a sallet root boiledandeaten, with oile, vineger,andpepper.VALERIAN,ORSETWALLValerian Thetameorgarden ValerianandlikewisetheGreeke Valerian are planted in gardens;the wilde ones are found in moist places hard to rivers sides, ditches, and waterypits;yetthegreaterofthese isbroughtinto gar dens where it flourisheth, but the lesser hardly prospereth. GenerallytheValerians are called by one name,inLatine,Valeriana;in shoppes alsoPhu:inEnglish,Vale rian, Capons taile,andSetwall;butunproperly,for that name belongeth toZedoaria,which is not Valerian.Thedryroot isputinto counterpoysonsandmedicines preservative againstthepestilence: whereuponithath been had (and is to this dayamongthepoore peopleofourN ortherne parts) in such venerationamongstthem,thatno broths, pottageorphysicall meats are worthanything,ifSetwall werenotatanend:whereupon some128

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ChervillChervillupon some woman Poet or other hath made these verses.Theythatwill have their heale,MustputSetwall in their keak CHERVILLThe leavesofChervill are slender, and diversly cut, something hairy,ofa whitish greene: the stalkes be short, slender, round, and hollow within, whichatthefirsttogether withtheleavesareofa whitish green,buttending to a red when the seeds areripe:the flouresbewhite,andgrow upon ", scattered tufts. Great Chervill hath largeleavesdeep ely cut or jagged,inshew very likeuntoHemlockes,ofa very good and pleasant smellandtaste like unto Chervill, and something hairy, which hath caused ustocall it sweet Chervil!.The great sweet Chervill growethinmy garden, and inthe gardensofother men who havebin diligent in these matters. Chervillisused verymuchamong theDutchpeople in a kindeofLoblolly or hotchpot which they do eat, called Warmus.Theleavesofsweet Chervill are exceeding good, wholesomeand pleasant among other sallad herbs, giving the tasteofAnise seed untotherest.Theseeds eaten as a sallad whiles they are yet green129

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Junewith oile, vineger,andpepper, exceed all other sallads bymanydegrees,bothin pleasantnesseoftaste, sweetnesseofsmell,andwholsomnesse for the coldandfeeble stomacke.Theroots are likewise most excellent in a sallad,ifthey be boiledandafterwards dressed as thecunningCooke knoweth howbetterthanmyselfe: notwithstanding I use to eatthemwith oileandvineger, being first boiled; which is very good for old peoplethatare dull and without courage:itrejoicethandcomforteth the heart,andincreaseth their lust and strength.WILDETIMEThefirst isourcommon creepingTime,whichisso well knowne,thatit needeth no description;yetthis ye shall under stand,thatitbeareth flouresofa purple colour, as every body knoweth.Ofwhich kinde I found another sort, with floures as white as snow, and have planted it inmygarden, where it becommethan herbeofgreat beauty.ThiswildeTimethat ..bringethforth white WIlde TlmeofCandyfloures differethnotfromtheother,butonely in the colourofthe floures, whenceitmay be calledSerpillum vulgare flare alba,WhiteflouredWildeTime.WildeTimeofCandy is likeuntotheotherwild13

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ElecampaneTimes, savingthathis leaves are narrowerandlonger, and more innumberateach joynt.Thesmellismore aromaticall than anyofthe others, whereinisthe difference.Thefirst groweth upon barren hillsanduntoiled places: the second groweth in Gardens.Thewhite kinde I found at South fleet in Kent.Theyfloure fromMayto theendof Summer.WildTimeiscalled in Latine,Serpillum, d serpendo,ofcreeping: in English, wildeTime,Puliall mountaine, Pella Mountaine,runningTime,creepingTime,Motherof Time. .lianus in his ninth bookeofhissundryHistories seemeth tonumberwildeTimeamong the floures.Dionysius Junior(saith he) comming into the city Locris in Italy, possessed mostofthe housesofthe city, and did strew them with roses, wilde Time, and other such kindesoffloures. YetVirgilin the second Eclogofhis Bucolicks doth most manifestly testifie,thatwildeTimeisanher be, in these words:Thestilisfor mowerstyr'dwith parching he ate, Garlicke, wilde Time, strong smelling herbesdothbeate.Outofwhich placeitmay be gathered,thatcommon wilde timeisthetrueandrightSerpillum,orwildeTime.ELECAMPANEElecampanebringeth forth presently from the rootgreatwhite leaves, sharpe pointed, almost like thoseofgreatComfrey,butsoft,andcovered with a hairy downe,ofa whitish greene colour, and are more white underneath, sleightly nicked in the edges: the stalkeisa yardanda halfe long, about a finger thicke, not without downe, dividedatthe top into divers branches,uponthe topofevery sprig standgreatfloures broadandround,ofwhich not only the long smal leavesthatcom passeroundabout are yellow,butalso the middle ballorcircle, whichis131

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Junefilledupwith an infinitenumberofthreds, andatlength isturnedinto fine downe;underwhich is slender and long seed:therootisuneven, thicke,andasmuchas a manmay gripe, not long, oftentimes blackish without, white within,andfullofsubstance, sweetofsmell, andbitteroftaste.Itgroweth in medowesthatare fatandfruitfull: it is also oftentimes found upon mountains, shadowie places,thatbe not altogetherdry:itgroweth plentifullyinthe fields onthelefthandas you go from Dunstable to Puddlehill : also in an orchard as you go from Col brooke toDittonferry, whichisthe way to Windsor, and insundryother places, asatLidde,andFolkestone, neere toDoverby the sea side.Thefloures are in their bravery inJuneandJuly:the roots be gathered in Autumne, and oftentimes in AprillandMay.Some repoft thatthis plant tooke the nameHeleniumofHelenawife toMenalaus,whohadherhands fullofit whenParisstoleheraway into Phrygia.Therootofthis Elecampaneismarvellous good formanythings.Itisgood for shortnesseofbreath, and an old cough,andfor such as cannot breathe unlesse they hold their neckesupright.Itisofgreat vertue both given in a looch, whichisa medicine to be licked on, and likewise preserved, as also otherwise given topurgeand voidoutthicke, tough, and clammy humours, which sticke in the chest and lungs.TherootofElecampane is with good success mixed with counter poisons :itisgood for themthatare burstenandtroubled with cramps and convulsions.ORCHISTherebe divers kindesofFox-stones, differing very much in shapeoftheir leaves, as also in floures: some have132

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Orchisfloures, wherein is to be seen the shapeofsundry sortsofliving creatures; sometheshapeandproportionofflies,inother gnats, some humble bees, others likeuntohoney Bees; some like Butter-flies,andotherlikeWaspesthatbedead;some yellowofcolour, others white; some purple mixed with red, othersofa brown overworne colour:thewhich severally to distinguish, as well those here set downe, as also thosethatoffer themselves daily toourviewandconsideration, would require a particular volume; for there isnotanyplant which doth offersuchvarietieuntous as these, except theTulipa'swhich go beyond all account: forthatthemostsingular Simplestthatever was in these later ages,Carolus Clusius(who for his singularindustryandknowledge herein is worthy triple honor)hathspentattheleast 3Syeares, sowingtheseedsofTulipa'sfrom yeare to yeare,andto thisdayhecould never attain totheendorcer taintyoftheirseveralkindsofcolours.BirdsNestButterflyOrchisorSatyrion beares nexttheroot two verybroadleaves like those of the Lilly, seldomethree:thefloures be whiteofcolour, resemblingtheshapeofa butterfly:thestalkeisa foothigh.TheWaspeSatyrion growethoutoftheground,havingstalks smallandtender:theleaves are liketheformer, but somwhat greater, declining to a brownordarkcolour.Theflours be small,ofthecolourofadry133

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Juneok en leafe, in shape resembling thegreatBee called inEnglishanHornet,or drone Bee.TheleavesofBee Satyrion are longerthanthe last before mentioned, narrower,turningthemselves againsttheSun asitwere round.Thestalkisround, tender, and very fragile.Atthe top growthefloures, resembling in shape the dead carkasseofa Bee.Thebulbesoftheroots be smallerandrounder than the last described. Birds nesthathmany tangling roots plattedorcrossed one over another very intricately, which resembleth a Crows nest madeofsticks;from which risethupa thicke soft grosse stalkofa browne colour, set with small short leavesofthe colourofadryoken leafethathath lienunderthe tree all the winter long.Onthe topofthe stalke groweth a spiky eareortuftoffloures.Thisbastardorunkindely Satyrionisvery seldome seene in these Southerly partsofEngland.Theother kindesofOrchis grow for the mostpartinmoist medowesandfertile pastures, as also in moist woods.Thatkind which resembleth the white Butter-fly groweth upon the decliningofthe hillatthe endofHampsted heath, neere to a small cottage there in the way side, as yee goe fromLondontoHendena village there by.Itgroweth in the fields adjoyning to the foldorpin-fold without the gate,ata village calledHigh-gate,neere London.Thereisnogreatuseofthese in physicke,butthey are chiefly regarded for the pleasantandbeautifull floures wherewithNaturehathseemed to playanddisport her selfe.ROSEMARYRosemarieisa wooddy shrub, growing oftentimes to theheightofthreeorfoure cubits, especially whenitis set by a wall :itconsistethofslender brittle branches, whereondo grow very many long leaves, narrow, somewhat 134

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Rosemaryhard,ofa qui eke spicy taste, whitish underneath,andofa full greene colour above,orintheupperside, with a pleasant sweetstrongsmell;amongwhich come forth little flouresofa whitish blew colour:theseed is blackish: the roots q.re toughandwooddy. Rosemary groweth in France, Spaine,andinotherhot countries; in woods,andin untilled places: there is such plentythereofin Languedocke,thatthe inhabitants burne scarceanyotherfuell: they make hedgesofitin the gardensofItalyandEngland,being agreatorna mentuntothesame:itgroweth neither inthe fidds norgardensoftheEasternecold countries;butis carefully and curiouslykeptin pots, set intothestovesandcellers, againsttheinjuriesoftheir coldWinters.Rosemary floureth twice a yeare, intheSpring,andafter inAugust.Itis called in Latine,Rosemarinus Coronaria:itissurnamedCoronaria,because women have beene accustomed to make crownesandgarlands thereof.Thedistilled wateroftheflouresofRosemary being drunkeatmorningandevening firstandlast,takethawaythestenchofthemouthandbreath,andmakethitvery sweet,ifthere be added thereto, to steep or infuse for certaine daies, a few Cloves,Mace,Cinnamon,anda little Annise seed.TheArabiansandotherPhysitions succeeding, do write,thatRosemary comforteth the braine,thememorie, the inward senses,andrestoreth speechuntothemthatare possessed withthedumbepalsie, especially the conserve madeoftheflouresandsugar,oranyotherwayconfected with sugar, being taken every day fasting.Thefloures madeupinto plates with Sugar afterthemannerofSugarRosetandeaten, comforttheheart, and makeitmerry, quickenthespirits,andmakethemmore lively.135

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JuneWORTSORWORTLEBERRIESVaccinia nigra,the blackeWortleorHurtle,isa base and lowshruborwooddy plant, bringing forth many branchesofa cubit high, set fullofsmall leavesofa darke greene colour, notmuchunlike the leavesofBoxorthe Myrtle tree: amongst which come forth little hollow flouresturninginto small berries, greeneatthefirst, afterward red,andatthe lastofa blacke colour,andfullofa pleasantandsweet juyce: in which doe lie divers little thinne whitish seeds: these berries do colourthemouthandlipsofthosethateat them, with a blacke colour: the rootiswooddy, slender,andnow and then creeping.Vaccinia rubra,orred Wortle,islike the former in themannerofgrowing,butthatthe leaves are greater and harder, almost like the leavesoftheBox tree, abiding greene all theWinterlong:among which come forth small carnation floures, longandround, growinginclustersatthe topofthe branches: after which succeed small berries, in shewandbignesse like the former, butthatthey areofan excellent red colourandfullofjuyce,ofso orient and beautifull a purple to limme withall, that IndianLaccais not to be compared thereunto, especially when this juyce is preparedanddressed with Allom according to art,asmyselfe have proved by experience: the tasteisroughandastringent:theroot isofa wooddy substance.Theseplants prosper best in a leane barren soile, and in un toiled wooddy places: they are nowandthen found onhighhills subject to the winde,anduponmountaines: they grow plentifully inboththe Germanies, Bohemia,andin divers placesofFranceandEngland;namelyinMiddlesex onHampstedheath,andin the woods thereto adjoyning, and alsouponthe hills in Cheshire called Broxen hills, neere Beeston castle, seven miles from the136

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Goos e-ber1'ie Nantwich;andinthewoodbyHighgatecalled Finchley wood,andin diversotherplaces.TheWortleberries do floure inMay,andtheirfruitisripe inJune.ThepeopleofCheshire do eattheblackeWortlesin creameandmilke, as in these South parts we eate Straw berries.GOOSE-BERRIE,ORFEA-BERRYBUSHTherebe divers sortsoftheGoose-berries; some greater, others lesse: someround,otherslong;andsomeofaredcolour:thefigureofone shall serve fortherest.TheGoose-berrybushis ashrubofthreeorfoure cubits high, set thicke with most sharpe prickles: it is likewise fullofbranches, slender, wooddy,andprickly: whereon dogrowroundleavescutwith deepegashes into divers parts like thoseoftheVine,ofa very greene colour:thefioures be very small,ofa whitish greene, with some littlepurpledashed hereandthere:thefruitisGoose-Berryround,growingscatteringly uponthebranches, greeneatthefirst,butwaxing a little yellowthroughmaturitie; fullofa winiejuycesomewhat sweet in taste when they beripe;in which is contained hard seedofa whitishcolour:theroot is wooddy,andnotwithoutstrings annexed thereto. 137

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JuneThereis another whosefruitis almost as big as a small Cherry,andveryroundin forme: as also anotherofthelike bignesse,ofan inch in length, in taste and substance agreeing with the common sort.Wehave also inourLondongardens another sort altogether without prickles: whosefruitis very smal, lesserbymuchthanthecommon kinde,butofa perfectredcolour, whereinitdiffereth fromtherestofhis kinde.Theseplants doe grow inourLondonGardens and else-where in great abundance.Theleaves come forthinthebeginningofA prillorsooner:thefruit is ripe inJuneandJuly.Thisshrubhathno nameamongtheoldWriters,who as we deeme knew it not, or else esteemed itnot:inEnglish,Goose-berry, Goose-berry bush,andFea-berrybushin Cheshire,mynative country.Thefruit is used in divers sauces for meat, as thosethatare skilfull in cookerie canbettertell thanmyselfe.Theyare used in broths in steadofVerjuice, whichmakeththebrothnotonely pleasant tothetaste,butisgreatly profitable to such as are troubled with an hotburningague.Theyare diversly eaten,butthey every way ingender rawandcold bloud: they nourishnothingorvery little.STRAW-BERRIESTherebe divers sortsofStraw-berries; one red, another white, athirdsort greene,andlikewise a wilde Straw berry, which is altogether barrenoffruit. Straw-berries do growuponhillsandvallies, likewise in woodsandothersuch placesthatbee somewhat shadowie:theyprosper well in Gardens.Thefruitorberries are called inLatineby Virgil andOvid, Fraga:neither have theyanyothername138

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Medow-Grassecommonly knowne: inFrench,Fraises:inEnglish,Straw-berries.Theleaves boyledandapplied inmannerofa pultis taketh awaytheburningheate inwounds:thedecoction thereofstrengthneththegummes,andfastneththeteeth.Thedistilled waterdrunkewith whiteWineis good againstthepassionoftheheart, revivingthespirits,andmakingtheheartmerry.Theripe Strawberriesquenchthirst,andtake away,ifthey be often used,thered nesseandheateoftheface.MEDOW-GRASSETherebesundryandin finite kin desofGrassesnotmentionedbytheAntients, either as unnecessarie to be set downe,orunknownetothem:only they makementionofsome few, whose wants we meane to supply, in such as have come toourknowledge, referringtheStraw-Berriesrest tothecurious searcher ofSimples. CommonMedowGrassehathvery small tuftsorroots, with thicke hairy threds dependinguponthehighestturfe,mattingandcreeping onthegroundwithamostthickeandapparantshewofwheaten leaves, liftinguplongthinnejointedandlightstalks,afootoracubit high, grow ing smallandsharpeatthetop, with a loose earhangingdownward, likethetuftortopofthecommon Reed. SmallMedowGrasse differeth fromtheformer inthe139

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Medow-GrasseJunevanetleofthesoile; for asthefirst kinde growethinmedowes, so doth this small Grasse clothethehilly andmoredrygroundsuntilled,andbarrenbynature;a Grasse more fit for sheepe than for greater cattell.Andbecausethekin desofGrasse do differ apparantly in root, tuft, stalke, leafe, sheath, eare,orcrest, we may assureourselvesthatthey are endowed with severall Vertues, formed bytheCreator fortheuseofman,althoughthey have beenbyacommon negli gence hiddenandunknowne.Andtherefore in this ourLaborwe haveplaced eachofthemin their severall bed, wherethediligent searcher ofNature,mayifso he please, place his learned observa tions. Common Medow-Grasse growethofitselfeunsetor unsowne, every where; butthesmall Medow-Grasse forthemostpartgroweth upondryandbarren grounds,aspartly we have touchedintheDescription. Concerningthetime when Grassespringethandseed eth, I suppose there is none so simplebutknoweth it,andthatitcontinueth allthewhole yeare, seedinginJuneandJuly.Neitherneedethitanypropagation or replanting by seedorotherwise; nonotsomuchas the watery Grasses,butthatthey recover themselves againe,althoughthey have beene drowned in water all theWinterlong, as may appeare inthewilde fennesinLincolnshire,andsuch like places.14

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ReedsGrasse groweth,goeth,orspreadethitselfeunsetorunsowne naturally over all fieldsorgrounds, cloathing them with a faireandperfect green.Itis yearely mowed,insome places twice,andin some rare places thrice.ThenisitdriedandwitheredbytheheateoftheSun,withoftenturningit;andthen isitcalled inEnglish,Hay:in French,Leherbedupraiz.REEDSOfReedstheAncients have set downe many sorts.ThecommonReedhathlong strawie stalkes, fullofknottyjoints or knees likeuntocorne, whereupon doegrowvery longroughBaggy leaves.Thetuftorspokie eare dothgrowatthetopofthestalkes, browneofcolour, barrenandwithoutseed,anddothresemble abushoffeathers, whichturnethinto fine downeorcotton whichiscaried away with the winde.Theroot is thicke, long, and fullofstrings, dispersing themselves farre abroad, wherebyitdothgreatly increase.ThegreatsortofReedsorCaneshathno particular description to answeryourexpectation, forthatasyetthere isnotany man whichhathwritten thereof, especi allyofthemannerofgrowingofthem, eitherofhis owne knowledgeorreportfrom others, sothatitshall suffice that heknowthatthatgreatcane isusedespecially in Constantinopleand.thereabout,ofagedandwealthy Citisens,andalso Noblemenandsuchgreatpersonages,tomakethemwalking staves of, carvingthematthetop withsundryScutchions,andprettytoyesofimagerie for the beautifyingofthem;andso theyofthebettersortdoegarnishthembothwith silverandgold.ThecommonReedgroweth in standing watersandin the edgesandbordersofrivers almost every where;andtheotherbeingtheangling Cane for fishers groweth in SpaineandthosehotRegions.141

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JulyTheyflourish and floure from Aprill totheendofSeptember,atwhich time they arecutdowne fortheuseofman,asall do know.Therootsofreed stamped small draw forth thornsandsplinters fixed in anypart of mans body.Thesame stamped with vinegre ease all luxationsandmembersoutofjoynt.Andlikewise stamped they healehotand sharpe inflammations.Theashesofthemmixed with vinegre helpe the scalesandscurfeofthe head,andthe fallingofthe haire.Thegreat ReedorCaneisnotused in physicke,butisesteemed to make slears for Weavers,sundrysortsofpipes, as also to light candlesthatstand before Images,andto make hedgesandpales, as we dooflatsandsuch like;andalso to make certain divisions in ships to dividethesweet oranges fromthesowre,thePomecitron and lemmons likewise in sunder,andmanyotherpurposes.PAPERREEDPaperReedhathmanylarge flaggie leaves somewhat triangularandsmooth, notmuchunlike thoseofCats taile, rising immediately from atuftofroots compact of many strings, amongstthewhichitshootethuptwo or three naked stalkes, square,andrising some sixorseven cubitshighabove the water:atthe top whereof there stands atuftorbundleofchaffie threds set in comely order, resembling atuftoffloures,butbarrenandvoid of seed.ThiskindeofReedgrowesinthe Rivers about Babylon,andneere the city Alcaire, in the river Nilus,andsuch other placesofthose countries.ThisReed, which I have EnglishedPaperReed, orPaperplant,isthe same (as I doe reade)thatPaperwasmadeofinlEgypt,before the inventionofpaper madeoflinnen clouts was found out.Itisthoughtby men of 142

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Burre-Reedgreat learningandunderstanding in the Scriptures)andset downe bythemfor truth)thatthis plantisthe same Reed mentioned in the second chapterofExodus;where of was madethatbasketorcradle) which was dawbed withinandwithout with slimeofthatcountrey) calledBitumenJudaicum)whereinMoseswasputbeing com mitted to the water) whenPharaohgave commandement that all the male childrenoftheHebrewesshould be drowned.PaperReedTherootsofPaperReeddoe nourish)asmay appearebythe peopleoflEgypt)which doe use to chew them in their mouthes)andswallow downe the juice) finding thereingreatdelight and comfort.BURRE-REEDThe firstofthese plantshathlong leaves) which are double edged)orsharpe onbothsides) with a sharpe143

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Julycrest inthemiddle, in suchmannerraisedupthatit seemeth to be triangleorthree-square.Thestalks growamongthe leaves,andare two or three foot long, being divided into many branches, garnished with many prickly husksorknopsofthe bignesseofanut.Theroot is fullofhairy strings.Thegreatwater Burre differethnotin anythingfrom the first kinde in rootsorleaves, savethatthe first hath his leaves rising immediatly fromthetuftorknopofthe root;butthis kinde hath a long stalke comming from the root, whereupon a little abovetheroot the leaves shootoutroundaboutthe stalke successively, some leaves still growing above others, even to the topofthe stalke,andfrom the top thereof downward by certaine distances.Itisgarnished with manyroundwharles orroughcoronets, having hereandthere amongthesaid wharles one single short leafeofa pale greene colour. Both these are very com mon,andgrow in moist medowesandneereuntowaterBranched Burre Reedcourses.Theyplentifullygrowin the fennygroundsofLincolnshireandsuch like places; intheditchesaboutS.Georgesfields,andin the ditchrightagainsttheplaceofexecutionatthe end of Southwark, calledS.ThomasWaterings.Some callthefirstSparganiumramosum,orbranchedBurreReed.144

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LavanderJASMINE,ORGELSEMINEJasmine,orGelsemine, isofthenumberofthose plants which have need to be supported or propped up,andyetnotwithstandingofitselfe claspethnotorwindeth his stalkes about such things as stand neere unto it,butonely leanethandlieth upon those things that are prepared to sustainitabout arborsandbanqueting houses in gardens, by whichitis heldup:the stalkes thereof are long, round, branched,jointedorkneed,andofa green colour, having within a white spongeous pith.Theleaves standupona middle rib, set together by couples like thoseoftheash tree,butmuchsmaller,ofa deepe greene colour: the floures growatthe uppermostpartofthe branches, stand ing in a small tuft far set one from another, sweet in smell, of colour white:theseedisflatandbroad like thoseofLupines, which seldom come to ripenesse: the root is toughandthreddy.Theoile which is madeofthe flours hereof wasteth away raw humors,andis good against coldrheums;butin thosethatareofahotconstitution it causeth head-ache, and the overmuch smell thereof maketh the nose to bleed. Itisgood to be anointed after baths, in those bodiesthathave a need to be suppledandwarmed.LAVANDERSPIKELavander Spikehathmany stiffe branchesofa wooddy substance, growingupin themannerofa shrub, set with many long hoarie leaves,bycouples forthemost part,ofastrongsmell,andyet pleasantenoughto suchasdo lovestrongsavors.Thefloures growatthetopofthe branches, spike fashion,ofa blew colour.Thesecond differeth not from the precedent;butin the colourofthefloures:Forthis plantbringethmilke white floures;andtheotherblew, wherein especially consisteththedifference.145

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JulyWehave inourEnglishgar dens a small kinde, whichisaltogether lesser than the other. Lavander SpikeiscalledinLatineLavendula,andSpica:inSpanish,Spigo,andLanguda.Thefirstisthe male,andthe second the female.Itis thoughtofsome to beethatsweet herbeCasia,whereofVirgilmaketh mention in the second Eclogofhis Bucolicks:Andthen shee'l Spike and such sweet hearbs infoldAndpaint theJacinthwith the Marigold.Andlikewise in the fourthofhis Georgickes, where he intreatethofchusingofseatsLavanderandplaces for Bees,andfor the ordering thereof,hesaiththus:Aboutthem let fresh LavanderandstoreOfwildeTimewithstrongSavorie to floure.Thedistilled waterofLavander smelt unto,orthe templesandforehead bathed therewith,isa refreshing to themthathavetheCatalepsy, alightmigram, andtothemthathave the falling sicknesse,andthatusetoswoune much. But when thereisabundanceofhumours,itisnot then to be used safely, neitheristhe composition to be taken whichismadeofdistilled wine: in which such kindsofherbes, floures,orseeds,andcertain spices are infusedorsteeped,thoughmost men do rashly and at adventure give them without making any difference ataI.Forby using such hot thingsthatfilland stuffe the head,146

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Clove Gillojlouresboth the disease is made greater,andthesick man also brought into daunger, especially when lettingofbloud,orpurging havenotgon before.Thusmuchbywayofadmonition, becausethatevery where some unlearned Physitiansanddivers rash&overbold Apothecaries,andother foolish women, dobyandby give such com positions,and others ofthelike kind, not only to thosethathave the Apoplexy;butalso to thosethatare taken,orhave the CatucheorCatalepsis with aFever;to whom theycangive nothing worse, seeing those things do verymuchhurt, and oftentimesbringdeathitselfe.TheflouresofLavander picked fromtheknaps, I meane the blewpartandnotthehusk, mixed with Cin namon,Nutmegs,&Cloves, made into pouder,andgiven to drinke in the distilled water thereof, doth helpe the pantingandpassionoftheheart, prevaileth against giddinesse,turning,orswimmingofthebraine,andmembers subject tothepalsie. Conserve madeofthe floures with sugar, profiteth much againstthediseases aforesaid,ifthe quanti tieofa beane be takenthereofinthemorningfasting.CLOVEGILLOFLOURESThere areatthis dayunderthenameofCariophylluscomprehended diversandsundrysortsofplants,ofsuch various colours,andalso severall shapes,thatagreatandlarge volume wouldnotsuffice to writeofeveryoneatlarge in particular; considering how infinite they are, and how every yeare every clymateandcountrybringethforth new sorts, such as havenotheretofore been written of; somewhereofare called Carnations, others Clove Gillofloures, some Sops in wine, some Pagiants,orPagioncolor, Horse-flesh, blunket, purple, white, doubleandsingle Gillofloures, as also a Gillofloure with yellow flours: the which a worshipfulMerchantofLondon147

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JulyMr.Nicholas Leteprocured from Poland,andgave methereofformygarden, which beforethattime was never seen nor heardofin these countries.ThegreatCarnation Gillo-flourehatha thick round wooddy root, from which risethupmanystrongjoynted stalks set with long green leaves by couples: onthetopofthe stalks do grow very fair flouresofan excellent sweet smell, and pleasant Carnation colour, whereof it tooke his name.TheClove Gillofloure dif ferethnotfrom the Carnationbutin greatnesse as wellofthe flowres as leaves.Thefloure is exceeding well knowne,asalso thePinkesandother Gillofloures; wherefore I will not stand longuponthede scription.TheseGillofloures, espe ciallytheCarnations, are kept in pots fromtheextremitie ofourcoldWinters.TheClove Gillofloureendurethbetterthecold,andthereforeisplanted in gardens.TheClove Gillofloureiscalledofthelater HerbaristsCaryophylleusFlos,ofthe smellofcloves wherewith itThedouble Clove Gillofioureis possessed.Johan.nesRue/Nussaith,ThattheGilloflourewasunknowne to the old writers: whosejudgementis very good, especially because thisherbisnotlike to thatofVetonica,orCantabrica.Itis marvell, saith he, that such a famous floure, so pleasant & sweet, shouldliehid,andnotbe made knownbytheold writers: which 148

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Medow-sweetmay bethoughtnotinferior totherose in beautie) smell,andvarietie.Theconserve madeofthe flouresofthe Clove Gillo floureandsugar) is exceeding cordiall,andwonderfully above measuredothcomfort the heart, being eaten now and then.MEDE-SWEET)ORQUEENEOFTHEMEDOWESThis herbehathleaves like Agrimony, consistingofdi vers leaves set upon a middle rib like thoseofthe ash tree, every small leaf sleightlysnipt about the edges, white on the inner side,andon theupperside crumpledorwrinkled likeuntothoseoftheElmetree; whereof it tooke the nameUlmaria,ofthe simili tudeorliken esse thattheleaves have with theElmeleaves.Thestalke is threeorfoure foot high, rough, and very fragileoreasie tobeebroken,ofa reddish purple colour: onthetop whereof are very many little floures clusteringandgrowing to gether,ofa white colour tendingtoyellownesse,andQueeneoftheMedowof a pleasant sweet smell, as are the leaves likewise.Itgroweth inthebrinkesofwaterie ditchesandrivers sides,andalso in medowes:itliketh wateryandmoist places,andgroweth almost every where.Itfloureth and flouresheth inJune,July,andAugust.149

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JulyIt is calledofthe later ageRegina prati:in English, Meads-sweet, Medow-sweet,andQueenofthemedowes. It is reported,thatthefloures boiled in wine anddrunke,do make theheartmerrie.Theleavesandfloures farre excell allotherstrowing herbes, for to deckeuphouses, to straw in chambers, halls,andbanquetinghouses in theSummertime;for the smellthereofmakestheheartmerrie, delighteth the senses: neither dothitcause headache,orlothsomenesse to meat, as someothersweet smelling herbes do..Thedistilled wateroftheflouresdroppedinto the eies, taketh awaytheburninganditching thereof, and cleareth the sight.WATER-FERNE,OROSMUNDTHEWATER-MANWater-Fernehathagreattriangle stalke two cubits high, beset upon each side with large leaves spred abroad like wings,anddentedorcut like Polypody: these leaves are like the large leavesoftheAsh-tree;for doubtlesse when I first sawthema far off it caused me to wonder thereat,thinkingthatI had seeneyoungAshes growingupona bog,butbeholdingita little neerer, I might easily distinguishit fromtheAsh,bythebrowne roughandroundgrainesthatgrew onthetopofthebranches, which yet are not the seed thereof,butare very like untotheseed.Theroot isgreatandthicke, foldedandcovered over with many scalesandinterlacing roots, having in the middleofthegreatandhardwooddypartthereofsome small whitenesse, whichhathbeene calledtheheart ofOsmundthe water-man.Itgroweth in themidstofabogatthefurtherendofHampstedheath fromLondon,atthebottomeofahilladjoyning to a small cottage,andin diversotherplaces,asalsoupondivers bogges on a heathora common neere15

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Spleene-woortunto Bruntwood in Essex, especially neereuntoa place therethatsome have digged, totheendto finde a nestormineofgold;butthebirds were over fledge,andflowneawaybefore their wings could be clipped.Itis called inEnglish,Water-Ferne,OsmundtheWater-man:ofsome, Saint Christophers herbe,andOsmund.Therootandespeciallytheheartormiddlepartthereofboyledorelse stamped,andtaken with some kindeofliquor, isthoughtto be good for thosethatare wounded, dry-beatenandbruised;thathave fallen from somehighplace:andforthesame causetheEmpericksdoputit in decoctions, whichthelater Physitians doe callwounddrinkes: sometakeitto be so effectuall,andofsogreata vertue, asthatitcan dissolve cluttered bloud remaininginany inwardpartofthebody,andthatitalso can expellordriveitoutbythewound.Thetendersprigsthereofattheir first comming forthareexcellent gooduntothepurposes aforesaid,andaregoodto beputinto balmes, oyles,andconsolidatives,orhealing plaisters,andintounguentsappropriateuntowounds, punctures,andsuch like.SPLEENE-WOORTORMILT-WASTESpleen-wort, beingthatkindeofFerncalledAspleniumorCeterach,andthetrueScolopendria,hathleaves a spanlong,jaggedorcutuponbothsides, evenhardtothemiddle rib, everycutorincisurebeingasitwerecuthalfe round (wherebyitis knowne fromtheroughSpleenwort)notonecutrightagainst another,butone besidestheother, set in several order, being slipperieandgreen ontheupperside, softanddownyunderneath;which whentheybee withered are foldeduptogetherlike a scrole,andhairy without,muchlike to theroughBear-worme wherewithmenbaittheir hooks to catch fish.Theroot151

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July is small, blacke,andrough,muchplattedorinterlaced, having neither stalke, floure, hor seeds.RoughSpleenwort is partly liketheotherFernsinshew,andbeareth neither stalk nor seed, having narrow leaves a foot longandsomewhat longer, slashed on the edges even to the middle rib, smooth ontheupperside,andofa swart green colour underneath. Ceterach growethuponold stone wallsandrocks in darkeandshadowie places throughouttheWestpartsofEng land.TheroughSpleenwort growethuponbarren heaths,drysandy bankes, and shadowie places in most partsofEngland,butespeciallyona heathbyLondoncalledHampstedheath, where it grows in great aboundance.TherebeEmpericksorblinde practitionersofthisagewho teach,thatwith this herbnotonelythehardnesse and swellingofthespleene,butallinfirmitiesoftheliveralsomay be effectually,andinRough Spleenwortveryshorttime removed, inso-muchthatthe sodden liverofa beast is restored tohisformer constitution againe,thatis, made likeuntoarawliver,ifitbe boiled again with this herb.Butthisisto be reckonedamongtheoldWivesfables,andthatalso whichDioscoridestells of, touchingthegatheringofSpleene-wort inthenight,andothermost vain things, which are found hereandthere scatteredinold books; from which mostofthe laterWritersdonot152

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Scorpion Grasseabstaine, who many timesfilluptheir pages with liesandfrivolous toyes,andbyso doing do not a little deceive yong Students.MooNE-W0RTThe smallLunaryspringeth forthofthegroundwith one leafe like Adders-tongue,jaggedor cut on both sides intofiveor six deepe cutsornotches,notmuchunliketheleavesofScolopendria,orCeterach,ofa greene colour; whereupondothgrow a small naked stemofa finger long, bearingatthetop many little seeds clusteringtogether;which being gatheredandlaid in a platterorsuch like thing for the spaceofthree weekes, there will fall from thesamea finedustor mealeofa whitish colour, whichistheseedifitbringforth any.Theroot is slender,andcompactofmany smallthreddystrings. Small Moone-woort is singular to heale greeneandfresh wounds.Ithathbeene used among the Alchymists and witches to doe wonders withall, who say,thatit willlooselockes,andmake them to fall from the feetofhorses that grase where it doth grow,andhathbeene calledofthemMartagon,whereas intruththey are allbutdrowsie dreamesandillusions;butitis singular for wounds as aforesaid.SCORPIONGRASSEScorpion grassehathmany smooth, plaine, even leaves,ofa darke greene colour; stalkes small, feebleandweake, trailingupontheground,andoccupying agreatcircuitinrespectoftheplant.Thefloures grow upon longandslender foot-stalks,ofcolour yellow, in shape like totheflouresofbroome; after which succeed long, crooked, rough cods, in shapeandcolour likeuntoa Caterpiller; wherein is contained yellowish seed likeuntoa kidney in153

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Julyshape.Theroot is smallandtender: the whole plant perisheth whentheseed is ripe.Thereis another sort almost in every shallow gravellyrunningstreame, having floures blewofcolourandsome times with a spotofyellow among the blew.Thereis likewise another sort growing upon most dry gravellyandbarren ditch bankes, with leaves like thoseofMouse-eare: this is calledMyosotesscorpioides:ithathroughandhairy leaves,ofan overworne russet colour: the floures doe growuponweake, feeble,androughbranches, as is all the restoftheplant.Theygrow forthemostpartatone sideofthe stalke, blewofcolour, with a like little spotofyellow astheother,turningthemselves backe againe likethetailofa Scorpion.TheseScorpion grassesgrownotwilde inEngland,notwithstanding I have re ceived seedofthe first from beyond the seas,andhave dis persedthemthroughEngland,Mouse-eare Scorpion grassewhich are esteemedofgentlewomen for the beautie and strangnesseofthecrooked cods resembling Caterpillers.Dioscoridessaith,thattheleavesofScorpion grasse applyed totheplace, are a present remedy againstthestingingofScorpions:andlikewise boyled in wineanddrunke, prevaile againstthesaid bitings, as alsoofaddars, snakes,andsuch venomous beasts: being made in an unguent with oile, wax,anda littlegumElemni,they are profitable against suchhurtsas require an healing medicine.154

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Cud-weedSLEEPYNIGHTSHADEDwale or sleeping Nightshadehathroundblackish stalkessixfoot high, whereupon do grow great broad leavesofa dark green colour:amongwhich grow smal hollow floures bel-fashion,ofan overworn purple colour; in the place whereof come forth greatroundberriesofthe bignesseofthe black chery, greenatthe first,butwhen they be ripe of the colourofblackjetor burnished horne, soft,andful of purplejuice;amongwhich juice lie the seeds, liketheberriesofIvy:theroot is very great, thick,andlong lasting.ThiskindeofNightshadecauseth sleep, troubleth the mind,bringethmadnesseifa fewoftheberries be in wardly taken,butifmoe be given they also killandbringpresent death.Ifyou will followmycounsell, dealenotwith the same in any case,andbanish it from your gardens and the useofit also, being a plant so furiousanddeadly:forit bringeth such as have eaten thereof into a dead sleepe wherein many have died, ashathbeene often seeneandprovedbyexperiencebothinEnglandandelsewhere. But to give you an example hereofitshallnotbe amisse:Itcame to passethatthree boiesofWisbichin the IsleofElydideateofthe pleasantandbeautifull fruit hereof, two whereof died il1 lesse than eight houres afterthatthey had eatenofthem.Thethirdchild had a quantitieofhoney and water mixed together given him to drinke, causinghimto vomit often:Godblessed this meanesandthechild recovered.COTTON-WEEDORCUD-WEEDEnglish Cudweedhathsundryslenderanduprightstalks divided into many branches,andgroweth as high as commonWormwood, whose colourandshapeitmuchresembleth.Theleaves shoot from the bottomeofthe155

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Julyturfe fullofhaires, among whichdogrowsmall pale coloured floures like thoseofthesmalConizaorFlea bane.Thewhole plant isofa bitter taste.Thereis a kindeofCotton-weed, beingofgreater beautie thantherest,thathathstrait anduprightstalkes 3 foothighor more, covered with a most softandfinewooH,andin such plentifull manner,thata man may with his hands takeitfrom the stalke ingreatquanti tie : which stalke is beset with many small longandnarrow leaves, greeneuponthe inner side,andhoary ontheotherside, fashioned somewhat like the leavesofRosemary, but greater.Thefloures do growatthe topofthe stalkesinbundlesortufts, consistingofmany small flouresofa white colour,andvery double, com pact,oras it were consistingoflittle silver scales thrust close together, whichdoemake the same very double.Whentheflourehathlong flourished,andis waxenold,then comes there in the middestoftheflourea certaine --:: browne yellow thrumme, suchHerbe un p'OU.kdCddas is in themiddestoftheIs,orWICeu weeD... fl aISle: whIch oure bemg gathered when it is young, may bekeptin .such mannerasitwas gathered(1meane in such freshne,sseandwellliking)bythe spaceofa whole yeare after, inyourchestorelsewhere: whereforeourEnglishwomen have calleditLive-long, or Live for ever, which name doth aptly answer his effects.

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FetherfewSmall Cudweedhaththreeorfoure small grayish cottonyorwoolly stalkes, growing strait fromtheroot, and commonly divided into many little branches:theleaves be long, narrow whitish, softandwoolly, liketheotherofhiskinde:the fioures beroundlike buttons, growing very many togetheratthetopofthe stalkes,butnothing so yellow as Mouse-eare, whichturneinto downe,andare caried away withthewinde.WickedCudweed is likeuntothe last beforementioned, in stalkes, leaves,andfioures,butmuchlarger, and for the mostpartthose fioures which appeare first are the lowest,andbasest,andthey are overtoptbyotherfloures which come on younger branches,andgrowhigher, as children seeking to overgroworovertop their parents, (as many wicked children do) for which causeithath beene calledHerba impia,thatis,thewickedHerbe,orHerbeImpious.Thefumeorsmokeofthe herbe dried,andtaken with a funnell, beingburnedtherein,andreceived insuchmanner as we use to takethefumeofTabaco,thatis, with a crooked pipe made for the same purposebythePotter, prevaileth against the coughofthelungs,thegreat acheorpaineofthehead,andclean seththebreast and inward parts.FETHERFEWFeverfewbringethforth many littleroundstalkes, divided into certaine branches.Theleaves are tender, diversly torneandjagged,andnickt ontheedges likethefirstandnethermost leavesofCoriander,butgreater. The fioures stand onthetopsofthe branches, with a small paleofwhite leaves, setroundabout a yellow ballorbutton, likethewild field Daisie.Theroot ishardandtough: the whole plant isofalightwhitish greene colour,ofastrongsmell,andbitter taste.157

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JulyThecommon single Feverfew groweth in hedges, gardens,andabout old wals,itjoyethto grow among rubbish.Thereis oftentimes found when it isdiggedup a little coleunderthestringsoftheroot,andnever without it, whereofCardanein his bookeofSub til ties setteth down divers vaineandtrifling things. Feverfew driedandmade into pouder,andtwo dramsofittaken withhonyorsweet wine,purgethbysiege melancholyandflegme; whereforeitis very goodforthemthatare giddie inthehead,orwhich have the turningcalledVertigo,thatis, a swimmingandturningin the head. Also it is good for such as be melancholike, sad, pensive,andwithout speech.MULLEINThemaleMulleinorHigtaperhathbroad leaves, very soft, whitishanddowny; in themidstofwhich risethupa stalk, straight, single,andthesame also whitishallover, with a hoary down,andcovered withthelike leaves,butlesserandlesser even tothetop;amongwhich taper wise are set amultitudeofyellow floures consistingoffiveleaves apiece: intheplaceswherofcomeuplittle round vessels, in which is contained very small seed.Therootislong, a finger thicke, blacke without,andfullofstrings.ThefemaleMulleinhathlikewise many white woolly leaves, setuponan hoary cottonyuprightstalkeoftheheightoffoureorfive cubits:thetopofthestalke resembleth a torch decked with infinite white floures, which isthespeciall marke to knowitfromthemale kinde, being like in everyotherrespect.Theseplantsgrowofthemselves neerethebordersofpastures, plowed fields,orcausies&drysandy ditch banks,andinotheruntilled places.Theygrow in great plenty neereuntoa lyme-kilnupontheendofBIacke heath next to London, as alsoaboutthe Queenes houseat158

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GoatsBeardEltham neere to Dartford inKent;in the highwayes about Highgate neere London, and in most countriesofEnglandthat areofa sandy soile.Theyare found with their floure fromJulyto September, andbringforth their seed the second yeare after itissowne. Mulleiniscalled in English Mullein,orrather Woollen, Higtaper, Torches, Longwort, and Bullocks Longwort; andofsome,Haresbeard.Thecountry people, especially the husbandmen in Kent, do give their cat tel the leaves todrinkagainst the coughofthelungs, being an excellent approved medicine for the same, wherupon they callitBullocks r1: Lungwort.Thereport goeth (saithPliny)that figs do not putrifie at all that are wrapped in the leavesof Mullein.White floured MulleinGOATSBEARD,ORGoTOBEDATNOONEGoats-beard, or Go to bedatnoone hath hollow stalks, smooth, andofa whitish green colour, whereupon do grow long leaves crested downe the middle with a swelling rib, sharp pointed, yeelding a milkie juice whenitisbroken, in shape like thoseofGarlick: fromthebosomeofwhich leavesthrustforth smal tender stalks, set with the like leaves,butlesser: the floures grow atthetopofthe stalks, consistingofanumberofpurple leaves, dasht overasit were with a little yellow dust, set about159

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Julywith nine or ten sharp pointed green leaves:thewhole floure resembles a Star when it is spred abroad; for itshuttethit selfeattwelveofthe clock,andsheweth not his face open untiIl the next daies Sunne doth makeitfloure anew, whereuponitwas caIled Go to bedatnoone: when these floures be come to their fuIl maturitieandripenesse, they grow into a downy Blow-baIl like thoseofDandelion, whichiscarried away with the winde.TheyeIlow Goats beardhaththe like leaves, stalks, root, seed,anddownie blow baIls that theotherhath, and also yeeldeth the like quantitieofmilke, insomuchthatifthe piIling whileitis greenebepuIled from the stalks, the milky juice foIloweth: but whenithath there remained a little whileitwaxeth yeIlow.Thefloureshereofareofa gold yeIlow colour.Thefirst growes not wildinEnglandthatI could everseeor heare of, except in Lanca shire onthebanksoftheriver Chalder, neere tomyLadyHeskithshouse, two miles fromWhawley:itis sown in gar-Goats-Bearddens forthebeautyofthe floures almost every where.Theother growes plentifully in mostofthefieldsaboutLondon,andin divers other places. Goats-beard is caIled in English,Joseph'sfloure, StarofJerusalem, Noon tide,andGo tobedatnoone.TherootsofGoats-beard boiled in wineanddrunk, asswageth the painandpricking stitchesofthesides.160

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WildClarieThesame boiled in water untill they be tender,andbuttered as parnsepsandcarrots, are a most pleasantandwholesome meate, in delicate taste far surpassing either ParseneporCarrot: which meat procuresappetite, warmeththestomacke,andstrengthneththose that have been sickeofa long lingring disease.ANGELICAAngelica is very common inourEnglishgardens;inotherplacesitgrowes wild without planting, as in Norway, and in an IslandoftheNorthcalled Island, whereitgroweth veryhigh;it is eatenoftheinhabitants,thebarkbeing pilled off, as weunderstandbysomethathave travelled into Island, who were sometimes compelled to eathereoffor wantofotherfood;andtheyreportthatithath a goodandpleasant taste tothemthatarehungry.It groweth likewise in divers mountainsofGermanie,andespeciallyofBohemia.Therootofgarden Angelica is a singular remedy against poyson,andagainsttheplague,andall infections takenbyevillandcorruptaire;ifyou doebuttake a piece of the rootandholditinyourmouth,orchewthesame betweenyourteeth,itdoth most certain ely drive awaythepestilentiall aire, yea althoughthecorruptaire have pos sessedthehart, yetitdrivethitoutagaine, asRueandTreacle do.WILDCLARIE,OROCULUSCHRISTIOculusChristiis a kindeofClarie,butlesser:thestalkes are many, a cubit high, squaredandsomewhat hairie; the leaves be broad,rough,andofa blackishgreenecolour.Theflouresgrowalongst the stalkes,ofa blewishcolour.Theseed isroundandblackish,theroot is thickeandtough, with some threds annexed thereto.161

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JulyThepurple Clariehathleaves somewhat round, layed over with a hoary cottony substance,notmuchunlikeHorehound:amongwhich riseupsmall hairy square stalkes, set toward the top with little leavesofa purple colour, which appeareatthe first view to be flours, and yet are nothing elsebutleaves,turnedinto an excellent purple colour:andamong these beautifull leaves come forth smal flouresofa blewishorwatched colour, in fashion like to the flouresofRose marie; which being withered, the husks wherein they do grow containe certaine blacke seed,thatfalleth forthuponthegroundvery quickely, becausethatevery suchhuskedothturneandhangdowne his head toward theground.Theroot diethatthefirst approch ofWinter.Thefirst groweth wildeindivers barren places, almostinevery country, especially in the fieldsofHalborne neere unto Grayes Inne, inthehighway by theendofa brickewall: at theendofChelsey nexttoPurpleClarieLondon,inthehighway as yougofromtheQueenes pall aceofRichmondtothewaters side,andin diversotherplaces.Theotheris a strangerinEngland:itgroweth inmyGarden.WildeClarie is called aftertheLatinenameOculusChristi,ofhis effect in helping the diseasesofthe eies.Theseedputwhole into the eies, cIensethandpurgeththem exceedingly from waterish humors, rednesse, inflamma tion,anddiversothermaladies, or allthathappen unto162

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Sagethe eies,andtakes awaythepaineandsmarting thereof, especially beingputinto the eies one seedatone time,andnomore, which is a generall medicine in Cheshireandother countries thereabout, knowneofall,andused with good success.SAGEWehave inourgardens a kindeofSage, the leaves where of arereddish;partofthose red leaves are stripped with white, others mixed with white, greene,andred, even as Nature list to play with such plants.Thisis an elegant variety,andis calledSalvia variegata elegans,Variegated or painted Sage.Wehave also another, the leaves whereof are forthemostpartwhite, somewhat mixed with greene, often one leafe white,andanother greene, even asNaturelist, as we have said.Thisisnotso rare as the former,norneere so beautifull, whereforeitmay be termedSalvia variegata vulgaris,Common painted Sage. Sage is singular good fortheheadandbraine;itquickneththesencesandmemory,strengthneththesinewes, restoreth health to thosethathavethepalsie, takes away shakingortremblingofthemembers;andbeingputupintothenosthrils,itdraweth thin flegmeoutof the head.Itis likewise commended against thespittingofbloud, the cough,andpainesofthesides,andbitingsofSerpents.Noman needs todoubtofthewholesomnesseofSage Ale, being brewed asitshould be, with Sage, Scabious, Betony, Spikenard, Squinanth,andFennell seeds.Theleavesofred Sageputinto a woodden dish, whereinisputvery quicke coles, with some ashes inthebottome of the dish to keepethesame fromburning,anda little vinegre sprinkleduponthe leaves lyinguponthecoles,163

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Julyandso wrapped in linnendoath,andholden veryhotuntothesideofthosethatare troubled with a grievous stitch, taketh awaythepaine presently.BAWMEApias/rum, or Melissa, is our common best knowne BalmeorBawme, having many square stalkesandblackish leaves,ofa pleasant smell, drawing neere in smell and savouruntoaCitron:the floures areofa Carnation colour. Bawme ismuchsowen and set in Gardens,andoften timesitgrowethofitselfe inWoodsandmountaines, andotherwilde places:itis profit ably planted in Gardens,asPliny writeth,aboutplaces where Bees are kept, because they are delighted with this _..... above others, where upon ithathbeene called Apiastrum: for, saith he, whenBastard Bawmewithwhite flouresthey are straied away, they doe finde their way home againebyit, as l7irgil'writeth in his Georgicks:--Hereliquors cast in fitting sort,Ofbruised Bawmeandmore baseHonywort.Bawmedrunkein wine is good againstthebitingsofvenomous beasts, comfortstheheart,anddriveth away all melancholyandsadnesse.164

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BorageThehivesofBees beingrubbedwiththeleavesofBawme, causeththeBees to keep together,andcauseth others to comeuntothem.Thelater age, together withtheArabiansandMauritanians, affirme Balme to be singular good fortheheartand to be a remedy against the infirmities thereof; forAvicenin his booke writtenofthe infirmitiesofthe heart, teacheththatBawme makestheheartmerryandjoyfull, andstrengtheneththevitalI spirits.Dioscorideswriteth,Thatthe leavesdrunkewith wine, or applied outwardly, are good against the stingingsofvenomous beasts,andthebitingofmaddogs;alsoitheIr eth the tooth-ache,themouthbeing washed with the decoction,andis likewise good for thosethatcannot take breath unlesse they hold their neckesupright.Smiths BawmeorCarpenters Bawme is most singulartohealeupgreene woundsthatare cut withyron;itcureththerupturein short time.Plinysaiththatitisofsogreat vertue,thatthoughit bebuttied to his sword thathathgiventhewound, it stancheth the bloud.BORAGEBoragehathbroad leaves, rough, lying flatupontheground,ofa blackeorswart green colour:amongwhich risethupa stalke two cubits high, divided into divers branches, wherupon dogrowgallant blew floures, com posedoffive leaves apiece;outofthemiddleofwhich grow forth blacke thredsjoinedinthetop,andpointed like a brochorpyramide:theroot is threddy,andcannot away withthecoldofWinter.Borage with white floures is likeuntotheprecedent, but differeth inthefloures, for thoseofthis plant are white,andotherofa perfect blew colour, wherein isthedifference.Thesegrowinmygardenandin others also. Borage165

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Julyfloures and flourishes most partofall Summer, and tillAutumnebe far spent. Borage is called in shopsBorago: Plinycalleth itEuphrosinum,becauseitmakes amanmerryandjoyfull: whichthingalso the old verse concerning Borage doth testifie:Ego Borago gaudia semperago.I Boragebringalwaies courage.Thoseofourtime do use the floures in sallads, to exhilerate and make the minde glad.Therebe also many things madeofthem,used for the comfortofthe heart, to drive away sorrow,&increase thejoyofthe minde.Theleaves and flouresofBorrageputinto wine make menandwomen glad and merry, driving away.allsadnesse, dulnesse,andmelancholy. Syrrup madeofthe flouresofBorrage comforteth the heart,purgethmelancholy,andquieteth the phren tickeorlunaticke person. Syrrup madeofthe juiceofBorrage with sugar, adding thereto pouderoftheboneofa Stags heart, is good against swouning, the cardiacke passionofthe heart, against melancholyandthe falling sicknesse.ALKANETORWILDEBUGLOSSETheseherbes comprehendedunderthe nameofAnchusa,were so calledofthe Greeke word,thatis, to colour or paint anything:Whereuponthose plants were calledAnchusa,ofthatflourishingandbrightred colour which is in the root, even as redaspureandcleare bloud. Alkanethathmany leaves likeEchiumorsmall Bug losse, covered over with a pricky hoarinesse, having commonlybutone stalke, which is round, rough, and a cubit high.Thecupsofthe floures areofa sky colour166

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Tarragontending to purple: the seed is smaIl, somwhat long,andofa pale colour: the root is a finger thicke, the pithorinnerpartthereofisofa wooddy substance, dyingthehandsorwhatsoever toucheth the same,ofa bloudy colour,orofthecolourofSanders. Diversofthelater Physitions do boile withtherootofAlkanetandwine, sweet butter, such ashathinitno saltatall, untiIl such time asitbecommeth red, which they call red butter,andgiveitnot only to thosethathave falne from somehighplace,butalso reportitto be good to drive forththemeaselsandsmall pox,ifitbe drunke inthebeginning withhotbeere.Therootsofthese are used to color sirrups, waters, gellies,&such like infections asTurnsoleis.JohnofArdernhathset down a composition calledSanguis Veneris,which is most singular in deep punctures or wounds made with thrusts, as follows: takeofoile olive a pint, the rootofAlkanet two ounces, earth worms purged, innumbertwenty, boilethemtogether&keep it totheuse aforesaid. ., TheGentlewomenofFrance dopainttheir faces with these roots, asitis said.TARRAGONTarragonthesallade herbehathlongandnarrow leaves of a deep green colour, greaterandlongerthanthoseofcommon Hyssope, with slender brittleroundstalkes two cubiteshigh:aboutthebranches whereofhanglittle round floures, never perfectly opened,ofa yellow colour mixed with blacke, like thoseofcommon Wormewood.Tarragonis cherished in gardens,andis encreasedbytheyoungshoots:Ruelliusandsuch others have reported many strange taleshereofscarceworththenoting, saying, thattheseedofflaxputinto aRaddishrootorsea Onion, and so set,dothbringforth this herbeTarragon.167

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JulyItis greene all Summer long,andagreatpartofAutumne,andfloureth inJuly.Itiscalled in Latine,Draco;in French,Dragon;inEnglish,Tarragon.Simeon SethitheGreeke also maketh mentionofT archon.Tarragonisnotto be eaten alone in sallades,butjoyned withotherherbs, as Lettuce, Purslain,andsuch like, that it may alsotemperthecold nesseofthem, like as Rocket doth, neither do we know whatotheruse this herbe hath.INDIANCRESSESCressesofIndia have many weakeandfeeble branches, rising immediatly from theground,dispersing them selves far abroad; by meanes whereof one plantdothoc ,cupie agreatcircuit ofTarragonground,as doththegreat Bindeweede.Thetender stalks divide themselves intosundrybranches, trailing likewiseuponthe ground, somewhat bunchedorswollenupateveryjointor knee, which are in colourofalightred,butthespaces be tweenethejointsare greene.Theleaves areroundlike wall peniwort, called Cotyledon,thefoot-stalkeofthe leafe commeth forth onthebacke-side almost inthemid destofthe leafe, as thoseofFrogbit,in tasteandsmell likethegarden Cresses.Theflours are dispersedthroughoutthewhole plant,ofcolour yellow, with a crossed star overthwarttheinside,ofa deepe Orange168

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IndianCressesCumincolour: unto the backe-partofthe same doth hang a taileorspurre, such ashaththe Larkes heele, called in LatineConsolida Regalis;butgreater,andthespurorheele longer; which beeing past there succeedbunchedandknobbedcoddesorseed vessells, wherein is contained the seed, rough, browneofcolour,andlikeuntothe seedsofthe beete,butsmaller.Theseedsofthis rareandfaire plant came fromtheIndies into Spaine,andthence into FranceandFlanders, from whence I received seed that bore with meebothfloures&seed, especially those I received frommyloving friendJohn RobinofParis.ThisbeautifullPlantis called in Latine,Nasturtium Indicum:in English, Indian Cresses.Althoughsome have deemedita kindofConvol vulus,orBinde-weed; yet Iamwell contentedthatit retaine the former name, for thatthesmellandtaste showitto be a kindeofCresses.CUMINThisgardenCumin is a loworbase herbeofa foothigh:the stalke divideth it self into divers small branches, whereon doegrowlittlejaggedleaves very finelycutinto small parcels, like thoseofFennell,butmore finely cut, shorterandlesser,thespoky tufts growatthe topofthe169

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July branchesandstalkes,ofa red or purplish colour: after which cometheseed,ofastrongorrancke smell, and biting taste: the root is slender, which perisheth when ithathripened his seed. Cumin is husbandedandsowne in ItalyandSpaine,andis very common in otherhotcountries, as in l:Ethiopia,Egypt,Cilicia,andallthelesser Asia.Itdelights to grow especially in putrifiedandhot soiles: I have provedtheseeds inmygarden, where they havebroughtforth ripe seedmuchfairerandgreaterthananythatcomes from beyondtheseas.Itis to be sown inthemiddleofthespring;a showreofrain presently followingmuchhindreththegrowth thereof, as Rue/lius saith.Myself did sowitinthemidstofMay,whichsprungupin six daies after: andtheseed was ripe intheendofJuly.Being taken in asuppingbrothitis good forthechestandcold lungs.Itstancheth bleedingatthenose, being tempered with vinegerandsmelt unto. Being quilted in a little bag with some small quantitieofBay salt,andmadehotupona bed-pan with fire or such like,andsprinkled with good wine vineger, and applied totheside very hot,ittaketh awaythestitch and paines thereof,andeaseth the pleurisie very much.WATERSALIGOT,WATERCALTROPS,ORWATERNUTSWaterCaltrops have long slender stalks growingupand rising fromthebottomofthe water,andmountingabovethesame: the root is long, having here&thereunderthe water certaine tassels fullofsmall stringsorthreddy haires: the stem towardsthetopofthewater is verygreatin respectofthatwhich is lower;theleaves are largeandsomewhat round,notunlikethoseofthePoplarorElmetree leaves, a little crevisedornotched 17

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SEAHOLLYWaterCaltropsSeaHollyhathbroad leaves almost like to Mallow leaves,butcornered intheedges,andsetroundaboutwithhardprickles, fat,ofa blewish white,andofan aromaticalorspicy taste:thestalke is thick, about acubithigh, nowandthensomwhatredbelow:itbreaketh forth in the tops into pricklyroundheadsorknops,ofthebig nesseofaWall-nut,held in forthemostpartwithsix prickly leaves compassingthetopofthestalkeroundabout; which leaves as well astheheads areofa glistering blew:thefloures forthoftheheads are likewise blew, with white threds inthemidst:theroot isofthebignesse of a mans finger, so very long, asthatitcannot be all171Sea Holly amongstorundertheleaves growthefrUlt, IStrtangled, hard, sharp pointedandprickly,inshape lrke those hurtfull engins inthewars, cast inthepassageoftheenemy to annoythefeetoftheir horses, called Caltrops, whereof this tookeit'sname:within these headsorNutsis contained a white kern ell in taste almost like the Chesnut, which is reported to bee eaten green,andbeing driedandgroundto serve in steadofbread.Cordussaiththatitgroweth in Germanie in myrie lakes, andin city ditchesthathavemudinthem:in BrabantandotherplacesoftheLowcoun tries it is found oftentimes in standing watersandsprings.

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Julypluckedupbutvery seldome; set hereandthere with knots,andoftaste sweetandpleasant.Eryngium marinumgrowesbythesea sideuponthe baichandstonyground.I founditgrowing plentifullyatWhitstablein Kent, atRieandWinchelsea in Sussex,andin EssexatLandamerlading,atHarwich,anduponLangtreepoint ontheothersideofthewater, from whence Ibroughtplants formygarden.Theroots conditedorpreserved withsugaras here after followeth, are exceeding good to be given to old and aged peoplethatare consumedandwithered with age,andwhich want natural moisture: they are also good forothersortsofpeople that have no delight, nourishing and restoringtheaged,andamendingthedefectsofnatureintheyonger. The mannertocondite Eringos.Refine sugar fit for the purpose,andtake apoundof it,thewhiteofan egge,anda pinteofcleer water, boilethemtogetherandscum it, then let it boile untilitbe come to goodstrongsyrrup,andwhenitis boiled, as it cooleth adde thereto a saucer fullofrose water, a spoone fullofCinnamon water,anda grainofmuske, which have been infused togetherthenightbefore,andnow strained: into which syrrup being morethanhalfe coldputinyourroots to sokeandinfuse untillthenext day;yourroots being ordered inmannerhereafter following:Theseyourroots being washedandpicked,mustbeboiled in faire waterbythespaceoffoure houres, til they be soft: thenmustthey be pilled clean as ye pil parsneps,&the pithmustbe drawnoutattheendoftheroot: butifthere be any whosepithcannot be drawnoutatthe end, then youmustslitthemandso takeitout:these youmustalso keep frommuchhandling,thatthey may be clean: let them remain inthesyrrup tillthenext day,andthen setthemonthefire in a faire broad pan untill 172

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Teaselsthey be very hot,butlet themnotboileatall: letthemremain overthefire an houreormore, remoovingthemeasily inthepan from one placeto another with a wooden slice.Thisdone, have in a readinesse great caporroyall papers, whereupon strow some sugar,uponwhich lay your roots, having taken themoutofthe pan.Thesepapers youmustputinto a stouve or hot-house toharden;butifyou havenotsuch a place, laythembefore a good fire: in this manerifyou condite your roots, there isnotanythatcan prescribe you a better way.Andthusyou may condite anyotherroot whatsoever, which willnotonly be exceeding delicat,butvery wholsome,andeffectual againstthediseases above named.Theyreportofthe herb sea Holly,ifone goat takeitintohermouth, it causethherfirst to stand still,andafterwardsthewhole flocke,untill such time asthesheep heard takeitfrom her mouth.Plutarch.TEASELSGarden Teasell bringeth forth a stalkethatis straight, very long, jointed,andfulofprickles:theleavesgrowforthofthejoyntsbycouples,notonely oppositeorset onerightagainst another,butalso compassingthestalke about,andfastenedtogether;andso fastened,thatthey hold dewandraine water inmannerofa little bason: these be long,ofalightgreene colour,andlike to those of Lettice,butfullofprickles intheedges,andhave on the outsid,e all alongsttheridge stiffer prickles: onthetopsofthestalkes stand heads with sharpe prickles like thoseoftheHedge-hog,andcrooking backwardatthepoint like hookes:outofwhich headsgrowlittle floures:Theseed is like Fennell-seed,andin tastebitter:theheadswaxwhite when they grow old,andthere are found in the midstofthemwhen they are cut, certaine little magots: the root is white,andofa meane length.173

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JulyThetame Teasell is sowne in thiscountryin gardens, to servetheuseofFullersandClothworkers. Teasell is called in Latine,Dipsacus,andLaverLavacrum,oftheformeoftheleavesmadeupin fashionofa bason,whichis neverwithoutwater:inEnglish,Teasell,CardeTeasell,andVenus bason.Itis needlessehereto alledgethosethingsthatare addedtouchingthelittle wormesormagotsfoundintheheadsoftheTeasell,andwhichare to behangedaboutthenecke,ortomentionthelikethingthatPlinyreportethofGaledragon:for they arenothingelsebutmost vaineandtrifling toies, asmyselfe have proved a little beforetheimpres sion hereof,havinga most grievous ague,andoflongcontinuance:notwithstandingPhysickecharmes, these wormshangedaboutmyneck,spidersputintoawalnutshell,anddiverssuchfoolish toiesthatI was constrained to takeWildeTeasellbyfantasticke peoples pro-curement;notwithstanding, I say,myhelpe came fromGodhimselfe, for these medicinesandallothersuchthingsdidmenogoodatall.RUE,ORHERBEGRACEGardenRueis ashrubfullofbranches,nowandthenayardhigh,orhigher:thestalkeswhereofare coveredwitha whitish barke,thebranches aremoregreen:the174

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Rueleaves hereof consistofdivers parts, and be divided into wings, about which are certaine little ones,ofan odde number, something broad, more long than round, smoothandsomewhat fat,ofa gray colourorgreenish blew: the floures in the topofthe branches areofa pale yellow consistingoffoure little leaves, something hollow:inthe middleofwhich standethupa little headorbuttonfoure square, seldomefivesquare, containingasmanylittle coffers asithath corners, being compassedaboutwith divers little yellow threds:outofwhichhangprettyfinetipsofone colour; the seed groweth in the little coffers: the root is wooddy,andfastned with many strings: thisRuehath a very strongandranke smell,anda biting taste. Plinysaiththatthereissuchfriendship betweenitand the fig-tree, thatitprospers nq where so well asunderthefigtree.Thebest for physicks useisthatwhich growethunderthe fig tree, asDioscoridessaith:thecause is all edged byPlutarch, lib.I.ofhisSymposiacksorFeasts, for he saithitbecomes more sweetandmilde in taste, by reasonittaketh asitwere somepartofthesweetnesseofthe fig tree, whereby the over-ranke qualitieoftheRueis allayed; unlesseitbethatthe figge tree whilestitdrawes nourishment toitselfe, drawethalsothe ranknesse away from the Rue.Theherb a little boiledorskalded,andkeptin pickleasSam pier,andeaten, quickens the sight.Thesame applied with honyandthe juiceofFennell, is a remedie againstdimeies.ThejuiceofRuemadehotin the rindeofa pomegranat anddroppedinto the eares, takes awaythepainofthereof.Dioscoridessaith,ThatRueputupin the nosthrils stayeth bleeding.So'saithPlinyalso; when notwithstand ing it isofpower rather to procure bleeding,throughits sharpeandbiting quality.175

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JulyDioscorideswriteth,Thata twelve penny weightofthe seeddrunkein wine is a counterpoison against deadly medicinesorthepoisonofW olfes-bane, M ushroms or Toad-stooles,thebitingofSerpents,thestinging of Scorpions, Bees, hornets,andwasps;andis reported,Thatifa man bee anointed withthejuiceofRue, these willnothurthim;andthattheserpent is driven away atthesmellthereofwhen it isburned:insomuchthatwhentheWeesellisto fight withtheserpent, sheearmethher selfe by eating Rue, againstthemightoftheSerpent.TheleavesofRueeaten with the kernelsofWalnutsorfigs stamped togetherandmade into a masseorpaste, is good against all evill aires, the pestilenceorplague, resists poisonandall venome.Rutasylvestrisor wildRueis more vehementbothinsmelandoperation,andtherefore the more virulentorpernitious; for sometimesitfumethouta vapororaire so hurtfullthatitscorchesthefaceofhimthatlookethuponit, raisingupblisters, wheals,andotheraccidents:itvenometh their handsthattouch it,andwill infect the face alsoifitbe touched before they be clean washed: wherfore it is not to be admitted tomeatormedicine.ONIONSTheOnionhathnarrow leaves,andhollowwithin;the stalke is single, round, biggest inthemiddle, onthetop whereof groweth aroundhead covered with athinskinorfilm, which being broken, there appeare little white floures madeupin formofa ball,andafterward blacke seed three cornered, wrapped inthinwhite skins.Insteadofthe root there is a bulbeorroundhead compactofmany coats, which often times becommeth greatinmannerofaTurnep,many times long like an egge. To be briefe, it is covered with very fine skins forthemostpartofa whitish colour. 176

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OnionsTheOnion requireth a fat ground well digged and dunged,asPalladiussaith.Itis cherished everie whereinkitchen gardens, now and then sowne alone, and many times mixed with other herbs.TheOnions do bite, attenuate or make thin, and cause drynesse: being boiled they do lose their sharpnesse, es peciallyifthe water be twice or thrice changed, andyetfor all that they doe not lose their attenuating qualitie.ThejuiceofOnions snuffedupinto the nose, purgeth the head, and draweth forth raw flegmaticke humors. Stamped with Salt, Rue, and Honey, andsoapplied, they are good against the bitingofa mad Dog. Rosted in the embersandapplied, they ripen andbr.eakecold Apostumes, Biles,andsuch like.ThejuiceofOnions mixed with the decoctionofPenni royall, and anointed upon the goutie member with a feather,oradoathwet therein, and applied, easeth the same very much.Thejuice anointed upon a pild or bald head intheSun, bringeth the haire againe very speedily.Thejuice taketh away theWhite Onionsheatofscalding with water or oile,asalso burning withfire&gunpouder,asisset forth by a very skilfull SurgeonMr.William Clowesoneofthe Queens Surgeon;andbefore him by Ambrose Parey,in his treatiseofwounds made by gun-shot. Onions sliced and dipped in the juiceofSorrell, and 177

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July givenuntotheSickeofa tertian Ague, to eat, takes away the fit in onceortwice so taking them. TheOnion being eaten, yeathoughitbe boiled, causeth head-ache,hurteththeeyes,andmaketha man dim sighted, dulleth the sences,andprovoketh overmuchsleep, especially being eaten raw.SKIRRETSTheleavesofthe Skirret consistofmany small leaves fastened to one rib, every particular one whereof is somethingnicked intheedges,butthey are lesser, greener,&smoother than thoseofthe Parsnep.Thestalkes be short,andseldome a cubithigh;thefloures inthespokie tufts are white, the roots bee many in number, growingoutof one head anhandbreadth long, most commonly not a finger thick, they are sweet, white, good to be eaten, and most pleasant in taste.Thisskirret is planted in Gardens,andespeciallybytheroot, forthegreaterandthicker ones being taken away,thelesser areputintotheearthagaine: whichthingis best to be done inMarchorAprill, before the stalkes come up,andatthis timetheroots whichbeegathered are eaten raw,orboyled.Thisherbis called in Latine, Sisarum, in English, SkirretandSkirwort.Andthis isthatSiserorSkirret which TiberiustheEmperourcommanded to 'bee con veieduntohimfrom Gelduba a castleabouttheriver of Rhene, as Pliny reporteth in lib.16.cap. 5.TheSkirret is a medicinable her be,andis the samethattheforesaidEmperourdid somuchcommend, insomuchthathedesiredthesame to bebroughtuntohimevery yeare outofGermany.Theroots be eaten boiled, with vineger, salt,anda little oyle, after themannerofa sallad,andoftentimes theybefried in oileandbutter,andalso dressed after other 178

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Fennellfashions, according to the skillofthecooke,andthetasteoftheeater.FENNELLTheFennell, called in Latine, Fceniculum, is so well knowne amongst us,thatit werebutlost labour to descri bethesame. Thesecond kindeofFennell is likewise well knownebythe nameofSweet Fennell, so called becausetheseeds thereofare in taste sweet likeuntoAnnise seeds, resemblingtheIcommon Fennell, savingthattheleaves are largerandfatter,ormore oleous:theseed greaterandwhiter,andthewhole plant in each respect greater.Theseherbs are setandsowne in gardens.ThepouderoftheseedofFennelldrunkefor certaine daies together fasting preserveththeeye-sight:whereof was written this DistichonCommon Fennellfollowing:OfFennell, Roses, Vervain,Rue,andCelandine, Is made a water good to cleerethesightofeine.PARSNEPSThere is a goodandpleasant foodorbread madeoftherootsofParsneps, asmyfriendMr.Plathathset forthinhis booke of experiments, which I have madenotryall of,normeane to do.179

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JulyCUCUMBERSTheCucumbercreepes alongstuponthegroundall about, with longroughbranches;whereupon doe grow broadroughleaves unevenabouttheedges: fromthebosome whereof come forth crooked clasping ten drels like thoseoftheVine.Thefloures shoot forth betweenethestalkesandtheleaves, setupontenderfoot stalkes composedoffive small yellow leaves: which being past,thefruit succeedeth, long, cornered, rough, and set with certaine bumpesorrisings, greeneatthefirst,andyellow when they be ripe, wherein is contained a firmeandsollid pulpeorsubstancetransparentor thorow-shining, which together withtheseed is eaten a little before they be fully ripe.Theseeds be white, long,andflat.Therebe also certaine long cucumbers, which were first made (as is said)byartandmanuring, which Nature afterwards did preserve: foratthefirst, when asthefruit is very little, it isputinto some hollow cane,orotherthingmadeofpurpose, in whichthecucumbergroweth very long, by reasonofthatnarrow hollownesse, which being filled up,thecucumberencreaseth in length.Theseedsofthis kindeofcucumber being sowne bringeth forthnotsuch as were before,butsuch asarthathframed; whichoftheir owngrowthare found long,andoftentimes very crookedlyturned:andthereupon they have beene calledAnguini,orlongCucumbers.TheCucumberis named generallyCucumis:in shops,Cucumer:in English, CowcumbersandCucumbers.Thefruitcutin piecesorchopped as herbes tothepot,andboiled in a small pipkin with a pieceofmutton,being made into potage with Ote-meale, even asherbpotage are made, whereof a messe eaten to break-fast, asmuchto dinner,andthe like tosupper;taken in thismannerfor the spaceofthree weekes together without intermission, doth180

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Cucumbers perfectly cure all mannerofsauce flegme and copper faces, redandshining fierie noses (as redasred Roses) with pimples, pumples, rubies,andsuch like precious faces. Provided alwaiesthatduringthe timeofcuring you doe use to washorbathe the face with this liquor following.Takea pinteofstrongwhite wine vinegre, pouderofthe rootsof!reosorOrrice three dragmes, searcedorbolted into most fine dust, Brimmestone in finepouderhalfe a ounce, Camphire two dragmes, stamped with two blanched Almonds, foureOkeApplescutthorow the middle,andthe juyceoffoure Limons:putthem all together in astrongdouble glasse, shake them together very strongly, setting the same in the Sunne forthespaceoften daies: with which let the face be washedandbathed daily, suffering it to drieofitselfe without wiping it away.Thisdothnot on ely helpe fierie faces,butalso taketh away lentils, spots, morphew, Sun-burne,andall other deformitiesoftheface. I havethoughtitgoodandconvenient in this place to set downe not onely the timeofsowingandsettingofCucumbers, Muske-melons, Citruls, Pompions, Gourds, and such like,butalso how to setorsow all mannerandkin desofothercolde seeds, as also whatsoever strange seeds arebroughtunto us from the Indies,orotherhotRegions:videl.Firstofall in the middestofAprillorsomewhat sooner (if the weather be anything temperate) you shall cause tobemade abedorbankeofhotandnew horsedung taken from the stable (and not from the dunghill)ofan ell in breadth,andthe like indepthorthicknesse,ofwhatlength you please, according to the quantityofyour seed: the whichbankyou shall cover with hoopsorpoles,thatyou maythemore conveniently cover the whole bedorbanke withMats,old painted cloth, straworsuch like,tokeepe it from the injurieofthe cold frosty nights,and181

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July nothurtthe things plan ted inthebed:then shall you coverthebed all over with the most fertilest earth finely sifted, halfe a foot thicke, wherein you shall setorsow your seeds:thatbeing done, castyourstraworother coverture over the same;andso let it rest without lookinguponit, or taking awayofyour covering forthespaceofseven or eight daies atthemost, for commonly inthatspace they willthrustthemselvesupnakedly forthoftheground:thenmustyou castupontheminthehottest timeofthe day some water that hathstood in the houseorintheSun a day before, becausethewater so cast uponthemnewly taken forthofa wellorpumpe, will so chillandcoole them beingbroughtandnourishedupin such ahotplace, that presently in one day you have lost allyourlabour;I mean not only your seed,butyour banke also; for in this spacethegreat heateofthedungis lostandspent, keeping in memorythateverynighttheymustbe coveredandopened when the day is warmed withtheSun beames: this must be done from time to time untillthattheplants have foure or six leaves a piece,andthatthedangerofthecold nights is past: thenmustthey be replanted very curiously withtheearth sticking totheplant, as neere as may beuntothe most fruitfull place,andwheretheSunhathmost forceinthegarden;providedthatuponthe removingofthemyoumustcoverthemwith someDockeleavesorwispes of straw, proppedupwith forked stickes, as well to keepethemfromthecoldofthe night, as alsotheheatoftheSun:for theycannot whilest they beyoungandnewly planted, endure neither overmuch cold nor overmuch heate, untill they are well rooted in their new place or dwelling. Oftentimesitfallethoutthatsome seeds are more frankerandforwarder thantherest, which commonlydoriseupvery nakedly with long necksnotunlike to the stalkeofa small mushrome,ofanightold.Thisnaked stalkemustyou cover withthelike fine earth even to the182

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Muske-Melongreene leaves, having regard toplace your banke sothatitmay be defended from the North-windes. Observe these instructions diligently,andthen you shall not have cause to complainethatyour seeds werenotgood, noroftheintemperancieofthe climat (by reason wherof you cangetno fruit) althoughitwere inthefurthest partsoftheNorthofScotland.MUSKE-MELON,ORMILLIONThatwhichthelaterHerbarists do callMuske-Melonsislike to the common Cucum ber in stalks, lying flatupontheground, long branched,andrough.Theleaves bemuchalike, yet are they lesser, rounder,andnot so cornered: the floures in like manner bee yellow; the fruit is bigger,atthefirst somwhathairy, somthing long, nowandthen somwhatround;oftentimes greater,andmany times lesser:thebarkeorrinde isofan over worne russet greene colour, ribbedandfurrowed very deepely, having often chapsSpanish Melonorchinksanda confused,roughnesse:thepulporinner substance which is to be eatenisofa fein t yellow colour; the middlepartwhereof is fullofa slimie moisture: amongst which is containedtheseed, like of thoseoftheCucumber,butlesser,andofa browner colour.ThesugarMelonhathlong trailing stalks lyingupon183

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Julytheground,whereon are set small clasping tendre1s like thoseoftheVine,andalso leaves likeuntothecommonCucumber,butofagreenercolour:thefruitcommeth forthamongthose leaves,standinguponslender foot stalkes,roundasthefruitofColoquintida,andofthe same bignesse,ofamostpleasant taste like sugar, whereofittookethesyrnameSaccharatus.TheSpanishMelonbringsforthlongtrailing branches,wheronare setbroadleaves slightlyindentedaboutthe edges,notdividedatall, as are alltherestoftheMelons.Thefruitgrowethneereuntothestalke.Theydelightinhotregions,notwithstandingI have seenattheQueenshouseatS.Jamesmanyofthefirstsortripe,throughthediligentandcurious nourishingofthembya skilfullgentlemanthekeeperofthesaid house calledMr.Fowle:andinotherplaces neere therighthonourableLordofSussex his houseofBermondseybyLondon,whereyearelythereisverygreatplenty, especiallyiftheweatherbeanythingtemperat.GOURDSThereare divers sortsofGourds, some wilde, otherstameofthegarden:somebearingfruitlikeuntoa bottle; others long,biggerattheend,keepingno certain form or fashion; some greater,otherslesse.TheGourdbringethforthverylongstalks asbethoseoftheVine, corneredandpartedintodivers branches, whichwithhis clasping tendrelstakethholdandclymethuponsuchthingsasstandneereuntoit:theleaves beeverygreat, broad,andsharpepointed, almost asgreatasthoseoftheClot-burre,butsofter,andsomwhatcovered asitwerewitha white freese, asbealsothestalkes and branches, like thoseofthemarishMallow:thefloures be white,andgrowforthfromthebosomeoftheleaves:intheirplaces comeupthefruit,whicharenotallofone 184

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Marvell of Perufashion, for oftentimes they have the formeofflagons and bottles, with a great large bellyanda small necke.TheGourd (saithPliny, lib.19.cap.s.)groweth into any forme or fashionthatyou would haveit;either like unto a wreathed Dragon, the legofa man,orany other shape, according to the mold whereinitisputwhileitisyang:being suffered to clyme upon anyarborwhere the fruit may hang,ithathbin seen to be nine foot long, by reason of his great weight whichhathstretcheditoutinthelength: the rinde whenitis ripe,isvery hard, woody,andof a yellow colour: the meatorinward pulpeiswhite; the seed long, flat, pointedatthe top, broad, below, with two peaks standingoutlike homes, white within,andsweet of taste. Gourds are cherished in the gardensofthese cold regions rather for pleasure than profit: in the hot coun tries where they come to ripenes they are sam times eaten, but with small delight; especially they arekeptfor the rinds, wherein theyputturpentine, aile, hony, and also serve them as pales to fetch water in,andmany other the like uses. A long Gourd or Cucumber being laid in the cradleorbed by theyanginfant whilest it is asleepandsickeofan ague,itshall be very quickly made whole.THEMARVELLOFTHEWORLDThis admirable Plant, called the MarvellofPeru,or the MarvelloftheWorld,springs forthofthegroundlike unto Basil in leaves; among whichitsendethouta stalketwocubitsanda halfe high,ofthe thicknesseofa finger,fullofjuice, very firme,andofa yellowish green colour, knottedorkneed with joints somewhat bunching forth, of purplish colour, as in the female Balsamina: which stalke dividethitselfe intosundrybranchesorboughes, and those also knottie like the stalke.Hisbranches areI8S

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TheMarvellofPeruAugustdecked with leaves growingbycouplesatthe joints like the leavesofwilde Peascods, greene, fleshy,andfull ofjoints;which beingrubbeddoe yeeld the like unpleasant smell as wilde Peascods do,andare in taste also very un savory, yet inthelater end they leave a tastandsharp smackofTabaco.Thestalks toward the top are garnished with long hollow singlefloures, folded asitwere intofiveparts before they be opened;butbeing fully blown,doresembletheflouresofTa baco, notendingin sharp corners,butblunt& round as the floursofBindweed, and largerthanthe flouresofTa baco,glittering oft times with a fine purple or crimson colour, many timesofan horse-flesh, sometimes yellow, sometimes pale,andsomtime resem bling an oldredoryellow colour; sometime whitish, and most commonly two colours occupyinghalfthe floure,orintercoursingthewhole floure with streaksororderly streames, now yellow,nowpurple, dividedthroughthe whole, having sometime great, somtime little spotsofa purple colour, sprinkled and scattered in a most variableorderandbrave mixture.Thegroundor fieldofthewhole floure is either pale, red, yellow,orwhite, containing inthemiddleofthehollow nesse a pricke or pointal setroundabout with six small stringsorchives.Thefloures are very sweetandpleasant, resemblingtheNarcisseor white Daffodill,andare very186

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Marvell oj Perusuddenly fading; foratnightthey are floured wide open, and so continueuntill eightofthe clocke the next morning, at which time they begin to close (afterthemanerofBindweed) especiallyiftheweather be veryhot:buttheaire being temperat, they remain openthewhole day,andare closed onlyatnight,andso perish, one floure lasting but oneIy one day, likethetrueEphemerumorHemerocallis.Thismarvellous variety dothnotwithout causebringadmiration to allthatobserve it.Forifthefloures be gatheredandreserved in severall papers,andcompared with those flouresthatwillspringandflourishthenext day, you shall easily perceivethatone isnotlike anotherincolour,thoughyou shall compare onehundredwhich floure one day,andanotherhundredwhich yougatherthenext day,andso from day to dayduringthetimeoftheir flouring.Itbringethnewfloures fromJulyuntoOctoberin infinitenumber,yea even untiII the frosts doe causethewhole plant to perish: notwithstanding it may be reservedinpots,andset in chambersandcellars that are warme, and so defended from the injurieofourcold climate; provided alwaiesthatthere be not any water castuponthepot, or set forth to takeanymoisture in the aire untiIIMarchfollowing; at which time itmustbe taken forthofthepotandreplanted inthegarden. By this meanes I have preserved many (though to small purpose) because I have sowne seedsthathave borne floures in as ample mannerandin as good time as those reserved plants.Ofthis wonderfull herbe there beothersorts,butnotso amiableorso fullofvarietie,andforthemostparttheirfloures are allofone color.ButI have sincebypractise foundoutanother way to keepetheroots for the yere following with very little difficuItie, which never faileth. Atthefirst frost I diguptherootsandputuporratherhide the roots in abutterferkin,orsuch like vessell, filled187

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August withthesandofa river,thewhich I suffer still to standinsome cornerofan house whereitnever receiveth moistureuntill AprillorthemidstofMarch,iftheweather be warme;atwhich timeItakeitfromthesandandplant it inthegarden, whereitdothflourish exceeding well and increaseth by roots; whichthatdothnotwhich was either sowneofseedthesame yeere, nor those plantsthatwere preserved aftertheothermanner.MADDEAPPLESRagingAppleshatharoundstalkeoftwo foot high, divided intosundrybranches, set with broad leaves somewhatindentedabouttheedges,notunliketheleaves of whiteHenbane,ofa darke browne greene colour, somewhatrough.Amongthewhich cometheflouresofa white colour,andsomtimes changing into purple, madeofsix parts wide open like a star, with certain yellow chivesorthrumsinthemiddle: which being past,thefruit comes in place, set in a cornered cuporhuskeafter themannerofgreatNightshade,greatandsomewhat long,ofthebignesseofa Swans egge,andsometimes much greater,ofa white colour, somtimes yellow,andoften brown, wherein is contained small flat seedofa yellow colour.Theroot is thick, with many threds fastned there to.ThisPlantgrowes inEgyptalmost every whereinsandy fields evenofitselfe,bringingforth fruitofthe bignesseofa great Cucumber, asPetrus Belloniuswriteth,lib.2.ofhis singular observations.Wehadthesame inourLondon gardens, whereithath borne floures;butWinterapproaching beforethetime of ripening,itperished: neverthelesseitcame to beare fruitofthebignesofa gooseeggoneextraordinarie temperate yeare, as I did see inthegardenofa worshipfull merchantMr.Harvyin Limestreet;butnever tothefull ripenesse.188

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Apples ojLoveThepeopleofToledoeat them withgreatdevotion, being boiled with fat flesh,puttingtoitsome scraped cheese, which theydokeep in vineger, hony,orsalt pickle all winter.Petrus BelloniusandHermolaus Barbarusreport,ThatinEgypt&Barbary they use to eat the fruitofMala insanaboiledorrostedunderashes, with oile, vineger, and pepper, as people use to eat M ushroms.ButIratherwishEnglishmento content themselves withthemeatand sauceofourowne country,thanwith fruitandsauce eaten with such perill; for doubtlesse these Apples have a mischievous qualitie,theuse whereof is utterly to bee forsaken. As wee seeandknow many have eatenanddo eat M ushroms more for wantonneseethanforneed;for there are two kindstherofdeadly, which being dressed byanunskilfull cooke may procure untimelydeath:itis there forebetterto esteem this plantandhaveitinthegardenforyourpleasureandtherarenesse thereof,thanfor any vertueorgood qualitiesyetknowne.ApPLESOFLOVETheAppleofLovebringethforth very longroundstalkes or branches, fatandfullofjuice, trailingupontheground,not able to sustain himselfeuprightbyreasonofthetendernesseofthestalkes,andalsothegreatweightoftheleavesandfruit wherewithitis surcharged.Theleaves are great,anddeeply cutorjaggedabouttheedges,notunlike totheleavesofAgrimonie,butgreater,andofa whiter greene colour:Amongstwhich come forth yellow floures growinguponshortstemsorfootstalkes, clustering together in bunches: which being fallen there doe come in place faireandgoodly apples, chamfered, uneven,andbunchedoutin many places;ofabrightshiningred colour,andthebignesseofa goose eggeora large pippin.Thepul peormeatis very fullofmoisture, soft, reddish,189

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Augustandofthe substanceofa wheat plumme.Theseedissmall, flat andrough:the root smallandthreddy: the whole plantisofa rankeandstinking savour.Therehathhappened untomyhands another sort, agreeing very notably with the former, as well in leaves and stalkesasalso in flouresandroots, on ely the fruit hereof was yellowofcolour, whereinconsisteth the difference. ApplesofLove grow in Spaine, Italie, and such hot Countries, from whencemyselfe have received seeds formygarden, where theydoeincreaseandprosper. Itissowne in the beginningofA prill in a bedofhothorsedung,after the maner of muske Melonsandsuch like cold fruits.TheA ppleofLoveiscalled in LatinePomum Aureum, Poma Am oris,andLycopersi cum:ofsome,Glaucium:inEnglish, ApplesofLove, and Golden Apples: in French,Pommesd'amours.Howbeit there be other golden Apples whereof the Poets doe fable,ApplesofLovegrowing intheGardensofthe daughtersofHesperus,which aDragonwas appointedtokeepe, who,asthey fable, was killed byHercules.TheGolden Apple, with the whole herbeitselfeiscold, yet not fully so cold asMandrake,after the opinionof Dodontus. Butinmyjudgementitisvery cold,yeaperhaps in the highest degreeofcoldnesse:myreasonis,because I have in the hottest timeofSummer cutaway19

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Thornie Applesthe superfluous branches from themotherroot,andcast them away carelesly in the alliesofmyGarden, the which (notwithstanding the extreme heateofthe Sun, the hard nesseofthe trodden allies, andatthattime when no rain at all did fal) have growneasfresh where I cast them,asbefore I didcutthem off; which argueth the great cold nesse contained therein.Trueitis,thatitdoth argue also a great moisture wherewith the plant is possessed,butasI have said, not without great cold, which I leave to every mans censure.InSpaineandthosehotRegions they use to eate the Apples preparedandboiled with pepper, salt, and oyle: but they yeeld very little nourishment to the body,andthe samenaughtandcorrupt. Likewise they doe eate the Apples with oile, vinegre and pepper mixed together for sauce to their meat, evenaswe in these cold countries doeMustard.THORNIEApPLESThestalkesofThorny-apples are oftentimes above a cubit and a halfe high, seldome higher, an inch thicke,uprightand straight, having very few branches, sometimes none at all,butoneuprightstemme: whereupon doegrowleaves smoothandeven, littleornothing indented about the edges, longerandbroader than the leavesofNightshade,orofthemad Apples.Thefloures come forthoflong toothed cups, great, white,ofthe formeofa bell,orliketheflouresofthegreatWithwindethatrampeth in hedges;butaltogether greaterandwider in the mouth, sharpe corneredatthebrimmes, with certaine white chivesorthreds in the middest,ofastrongponticke savour, offending the head whenitissmelledunto:in the placeofthe floure commethuproundfruit fullofshortandbluntpricklesofthebignesseofa greenWallnut whenitisatthe biggest, in which are the seedsofthe191

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Augustbignesseoftaresorofthe seedofMandrakes,andofthe same forme.Theherbeitselfe isofastrongsavor, anddothstuffethehead,andcauseth drowsinesse.Therootissmallandthreddy.Thereis another kinde hereof altogether greater than the former, whose seeds I receivedoftherighthonourabletheLordEdwardZouch;which hebroughtfrom Con stantinople,andofhis liberalitie did bestowthemupon me, as also manyotherrareandstrange seeds;anditisthatThorn-applethatI have dispersedthroughthis land, whereofatthis present I have great use in Surgery;aswell in burningsandscaldings, as also in virulent and maligne ulcers, apostumes,andsuch like.Thewhich planthatha very great stalke in fertile ground, bigger than aman'sarme, smoothandgreeneofcolour, which a little above thegrounddividethitselfe intosundrybranches or armes in mannerofan hedge tree;whereupon are placed manygreatleavescutandindented deepely about the edges, with many uneven sharpe corners: among these leaves come whiteroundfloures madeofone piece in mannerofa bell,shuttingit selfeupclose toward night,asdoetheflouresofthegreatBinde-weed, whereunto itisvery like,ofa sweet smell,butso strong,thatitoffends the sences.Thefruit followeth round, sometimesofthe fashionofan egge, set about on everypartwith most sharpe prickles; wherein is contained verymuchseed ofthebignesseoftares,andofthesame fashion.Therootisthicke, madeofgreatandsmall strings: this plantissowen, beareth his fruit,andperisheththesame yeare.ThejuiceofThorn-apples boiled with hogs grease to the formofanunguentorsalve, cures all inflammations whatsoever, allmannerofburningsorseal dings, as welloffire, water, boiling lead, gun-pouder, asthatwhich comes by lightning,andthatin very short time, as my selfe have found bymydaily practise, tomygreatcreditandprofit.Thefirst experience came from Colchester,192

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Bitter-sweetwhere MistresseLobela merchants wife there being most grievouslyburnedby lightning,andnot finding easeorcure in any other thing, by this found helpeandwas per fectly cured when all hope was past, by the reportofMr.William Rampublique Notarieofthe said towne.Theleaves stamped smallandboiled with oile Olive untill the herbs be asitwere burnt, then strainedandset to the fire again, with some wax, rosin,anda littleturpentine,andmade into a salve, doth most speedily cure new and fresh wounds.BITTER-SWEET,ORWOODDYNIGHTSHADEBitter-sweetbringethforth wooddy stalks as doththeVine, parted intomanyslendercreeping branches,bywhichitclimethandtaketh holdofhedgesandshrubs nextuntoit.Thebarkeofthe oldest stalks areroughandwhitish,ofthecolourofashes, withtheoutwardrindofabrightgreen colour,buttheyonger branches aregreenas are the leaves: the woodbrittle, having in it a spongiepith:itis clad with long leaves, smooth, sharp pointed, lesserthanthoseoftheBindweed.Atthelowerpartofthe same leavesdothgrow on either side one smal or lesser leafe likeBitter-sweetuntotwo eares.Theflouresbesmall,andsomewhat clustered together, consistingof193

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Augustfive little leaves apieceofa perfect blew colour, with a certain prickeoryellow pointal inthemiddle:whichbeingpast,theredocome in place faire berriesmorelongthanround,atthefirst green,butrveryredwhenthey be ripe;ofa sweet tasteatthefirst,butafter veryunpleas ant,ofastrongsavor,growingtogetherin clusters likeburnishedcoral.Theroot isofa mean bignesse,andfullofstrings. I havefoundanothersortwhichbringethforthmost pleasant white flours,withyellow pointalsinthemiddle: inotherrespectsagreeingwiththeformer. Bitter-sweet growes in moist placesaboutditches, rivers,andhedges, almost everie where.Theothersortwiththewhite floures Ifoundin a ditch side, againsttherighthonourabletheEarleofSussex hisgardenwall,athis house in BermondseystreetbyLondon, asyougofromthecourtwhich is fulloftrees,untoa ferm house neere thereunto.Theleaves comeforthinthespring,theflours in July,theberries are ripe inAugust.ThelaterHerbaristshavenamedthisplantDulcamara, Amaro dulcis,&Amaradulcis ; PlinycallethitMe/anum: Theaphrastus, Vitis sylvestris:inEnglishwe callitBitter sweet,andwooddyNightshade.ButeveryAuthormustfor his credit say something,althoughbutto smal pur pose; for Vitis sylvestrisisthatwhich wee callourLadies Seale, which is nokindeofNightshade.MANDRAKEThemaleMandrakehathgreatbroadlongsmooth leavesofadarkegreenecolour, flatspredupontheground:amongwhich comeuptheflouresofa pale whit ish colour,standingeveryoneupona single small and weake foot-stalkeofa whitishgreenecolour:intheir placesgrowroundApplesofa yellowish colour, smooth,194

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Mandrakesoft,andglittering,ofastrongsmell: in which are con tained flatandsmooth seeds in fashionofa little kidney, like thoseofthe Thorne-apple.Theroot is long, thicke, whitish, divided many times into two or three parts resembling the legsofa man, asithathbeenreported;whereas intruthit is no otherwise than intherootsofcarrots, parseneps,andsuch like, forkedordivided into twoormore parts, whichNaturetaketh no account of.Therehathbeene many ridiculous talesbroughtupofthis plant, whetherofold wives,orsome runnagate Surgeons or Physicke-mongers I know not, (a title badenoughfor them)butsure some oneormoethatsoughtto make themselves famousandskilfull above others, werethefirst brochersofthaterrour I speake of.Theyadde further,Thatitis neverorvery seldome to be found growing naturallybutundera gallowes, wherethematterthathath fallen fromthedead bodyhathgivenitthe shapeofa man;andthematterofa woman, the substanceofa female plant; with many other such doltish dreames.Theyfablefurtherandaffirme,Thathe who would takeupa plant thereofmusttie a dog therunto to pullitup, which will give agreatshreekeatthediggingup;otherwiseifa man should do it, he should surely die in short space after. Besides many fablesoflovingmatters, too fullofscurrilitietoset forth in print, which I forbeare to speake of. All which dreamesandold wives tales you shall from henceforth castoutofyour bookesandmemory; knowing this,thatthey are allandeveriepartofthemfalseandmostuntrue:for Imyselfeandmyservants also have diggedup,planted,andreplanted very many,andyetnever could either perceive shapeofmanorwoman,butsometimes one streight root, sometimes two,andoftensi,xorseven branches comming fromthemainegreatroot, even asNaturelist to bestowuponit, as tootherplants. Buttheidle dronesthathave littleornothingto dobuteateanddrinke, have bestowed someoftheir time in195

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Augustcarving the rootsofBrionie, formingthemtotheshape of menandwomen: which falsifying practisehathconfirmed theerrouramongstthesimpleandunlearned people, who have takenthemupontheirreportto be thetrueMandrakes.ThefemaleMandrakeis likeuntothemale, savingthattheleaves hereof beofa more swartorclarke greene colour:andthe fruit is long like a peare,andtheotherlike an apple.Mandrakegroweth inhotRegions, in woods and mountaines, as inmountGarganus in Apulia,andsuch like places; we havethemonely planted in gardens, and arenotelsewhere to be found inEngland.Mandrakeiscalled Circtea, ofCircethewitch, who byartcould procure love: forithathbeenethoughtthattheRoothereof serveth to win love.Thewine whereintheroothathbeen boyled or infused provoketh sleepeandasswageth paine.Thesmellofthe Apples moveth to sleepe likewise;butthejuice worketh more effectuallyifyou takeitin small quantitie. Greatandstrange effects are supposed to bee inMandrakes, to cause women to be fruitfullandbeare children,ifthey shallbutcarry the same neere to their bodies. Some do from hencegroundit, forthatRaheldesired to havehersistersMandrakes(asthetext is translated)butifwelook well intothecircumstances whichtherewe shall finde, we may rather deemitotherwise. YongRubenbroughthome amiableandsweet-smelling floures, (forsosignifieththeHebrewword, usedCantic.7.13.in the same sence) rather for their beautyandsmell, than for their vertue.NowintheflouresofMandrakethere isnosuch delectableoramiable smell as was in these amiable floures whichRubenbroughthome. Besides, we reade notthatRahelconceived hereupon, forLeahJacobswife had foure children before Godgrantedthatblessingoffruit fulnesseuntoRahel.Andlastofall, (which ismychiefest19 6

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ThetruefigureofGingerGingerreason)Jacobwas angry withRahelwhen shee said, Give mee childrenorels I die;anddemandedofher, whether he were inthesteadofGodorno, who had withheld from her the fruitofherbody.Andwe know theProphetDavidsaith, Children&the fruitofthe womb are the inheritance that commethoftheLord,Psal.127.GINGERGinger is most impatientofthecoldnesseoftheseourNortherneregions, as my selfe have foundbyproofe, forthatthere have beenebroughtuntome at severall timessundryplants thereof, fresh, greene,andfullofjuice, as well fromtheWestIndies, as from Bar baryandother places; which have sproutedandbuddedforth greene leaves inmygarden in the heateofSum mer,butas soone asithathbeenebuttouched withthefirst sharpe blastofWinter,ithathpresently perishedbothbladeandroot.Thetrueforme or picturehathnot be fore this time been set forth by anythathath written,butthe worldhathbeene deceived by a counterfeit figure. Ginger groweth in Spaine, Barbary, in the Canarie Islands,andthe Azores.Ourmen who sackedDomingointhe Indies, diggeditupthere insundryplaces wilde. Ginger flourisheth inthehottimeofSommer,andlosethhisleaves inWinter.197

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AugustGinger, asDioscoridesreporteth, isrightgood with meat in sauces,orotherwise in conditures; foritisofan heating and digesting qualitie,andis profitable for the stomacke,andeffectually opposethitselfe against all darknesseofthesight;answering the qualitiesandeffectsofpepper.HENBANEThecommon blackeHenbanehathgreatandsoft stalkes, leaves very broad, soft,andwoolly, somewhat jagged, especially thosethatgrow neere totheground,andthosethatgrowuponthestalke, narrower, smaller,andsharper,thefloures are bell-fashion,ofa feint yellowish white,andbrowne within towardsthebottome: when the floures are gone, there come hardknobbyhusks like small cupsorboxes, wherein are small brown seeds. BlackeHenbanegrows almost every where by high ways, in the bordersoffields about dunghilsanduntoiled places: the whiteHenbaneis not foundbutin the gardensofthosethatlove physicall plants:thewhich growethinmy garden,anddothsowitselfe from yeare to yeare.Henbanecauseth drowsinesse,andmitigatethallkindeofpaine:itis good againsthot&sharp distillationsofthe eyesandother parts.Theleaves stamped withtheointmentPopuleon,madeofPoplarbuds, asswageth the painofthegout.Towash the feet inthedecoctionofHenbanecauseth sleepe;andalso the often smelling to the floures.Theleaves, seed,andjuicetaken inwardly causeanunquietsleep likeuntothesleepeofdrunkennesse, which continueth long,andis deadly to the party.Theroot boiled with vinegre,&thesame holden hot inthemouth, easeththepainoftheteeth.Theseedisused byMountibanktooth-drawers whichrunabout the country, to cause worms come forthofthe teeth, by burn19 8

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YellowHenbaneing It In a chafing dishofcoles, the party holding his mouth over the fume thereof:butsome crafty companions to gain mony convey small lute-strings intothewater, persuading the patient, that those small creepers cameoutofhismouthor other parts.which he intended to ease.YELLOWHENBANE,ORENGLISHTABACOYellowHenbanegroweth totheheightoftwo cubits: the stalke is thicke, fat,andgreenofcolour, fulofa spongeous pith,andis divided intosundrybranches, set with smoothandeven leaves, thickeandfullofjuice.Thefloures grow at the topsofthe branches, orderly placed,ofa pale yellow color, somthing lesser than thoseofthe black Henbane.Thecups whereinthefloures do stand, are like, but lesser, tenderer,andwithout sharpe points, wherein is set the huske or cod somwhat round, fullofvery smal seed like the seedofmarjerom.Theroot is smallandthreddy. YellowHenbaneis sowne in gardens, whereitdothprosper exceedingly, insomuchthatit cannot be destroied where ithathonce sownitself,&itis dispersed into most partsofLondon.Itfloureth inthesummer moneths,andoftentimes till Autumne be farre spent, in which timetheseed commethtoperfection. YellowHenbaneiscalledHyoscyamus luteus:ofsome,Nicotiana,ofNicotaFrenchmanthatbroughtthe seeds from the Indies, as also the seedsofthetrueTabaco, whereof thishathbin taken for akind;insomuchthatLobelhathcalled itDubius Hyoscyamus,ordoubtfullHenbane,asa plant participatingofHenbaneandTabaco:and it is usedofdivers in steadofTabaco,andcalledbythe same name, forthatithathbinbroughtfromTrinidada; a place so called in the Indies, as also from Virginia 199

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Augustandotherplaces, forTabaco;anddoubtlesse, taken in smokeitworkeththesamekindofdrunkennesse thattherightTabacodoth.Thisherbavaileth against all botches,andsuch like, beeing made into anunguentor salve as followeth:Takeofthegreene leaves three poundsandan hal fe, stampethemvery smal in a stonemortar;ofoile Olive one quart: setthemto boile in a brasse pan or such like,upona gentle fire, continuallystirringituntill the herbs seem blacke,andwilnotboileorbubble any more:thenshall you have an excellent green oile; which beeing strained from the fecesordrosse,putthe cleareandstrained oile tothefireagain,addingthertoofwaxhalfa pound,ofrosen foure ounces,andofgood turpentine two ounces: meltthemall together,andkeepe it in pots foryouruse, to cure all cutsorhurtsin thehead;wherewith I have gotten both crownesandcredit.Itis usedofsome in steadofTabaco,butto small pur poseorprofit, althoughitdothstupifieordull the sences,andcausethatkindofgiddinesthatTabacodoth, and likewise spitting, whichanyotherherbofhottemperature will do, as Rosemary,Time,Winter-Savorie, sweet Marjerome,andsuch like:anyofthewhich I like bettertobe taken in smoke,thanthiskindofdoubtfulHenbane.TABACO,ORHENBANEOFPERUTherebe two sortsorkindsofTabaco, one greater, theotherlesser;thegreater wasbroughtintoEuropeoutoftheprovincesofAmerica, which we calltheWestIndies;theotherfromTrinidada,an Island neereuntothecontinentofthesame Indies. Some haveaddedathirdsort, and others maketheyellowHenbaneakindthereof. Tabaco,orHenbaneofPeruhathverygreatstalkes ofthebignesseofa childes arme, growing in fertileandwelldungedgroundofsevenoreightfoot high, dividing it200

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Tabaco selfe intosundrybranchesofgreatlength;whereon are placed in most comlyordervery faire long leaves, broad, smooth,andsharp pointed, soft,andofalightgreen colour, so fastnedaboutthestalke,thatthey seeme to embraceandcom passeitabout.Theflouresgrowatthetopofthestalks, in shape like a bell-floure, somewhat long and cornered, hollow within,ofalightcarnation colour, tending to whitenesse toward the brims.Theseed is con tained in long sharpe pointed codsorseed-vessels likeuntothe seedofyellowHenbane,but somewhat smaller,andbrownerofcolour.Therootisgreat, thicke,andofa wooddy substance, with some threddy strings annexed there unto.TrinidadaTabacohatha thicketoughandfibrous root, from which immediately rise up long proad leavesandsmooth,ofa greenish colour, lesse than thoseofPeru:among which risesupa stalk dividingitselfatthegroundinto divers branches, wheron are set confusedlythelikeIb tIAtthtTabaco,orHenbaneofPerueaves u esser. e op ofthestalks standuplong necked hollow flouresofa pale purpletendingto a blush colour: after which succeed the codsorseed-vessels, including many small seeds like unto the seedofMarjerom.Thewhole plant perishethatthe first approchofwinter.Thesewere firstbroughtintoEuropeoutofAmerica, which is calledtheWestIndies, in which istheprovince201

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AugustorcountreyofPeru:butbeing now planted in the gardensofEuropeitprospers very well,andcomes from seed in one yeare to beare both flouresandseed.Thewhich I take to bebetterfor the constitutionofourbodies,thanthatwhich isbroughtfromIndia;&thatgrowing inIndiabetterforthepeopleofthesamecountry:notwithstandingitis not sothoughtofourTabaconists;for according to theEnglishproverb,Farfetcht&dearboughtis best for Ladies.Tabacomustbe sowne in themostfruitfullgroundthat may be found, carelesly cast abroad in sowing, withoutrakingit in totheground,orany such pain orindustry taken as is requisit in the sowingofotherseeds, asmyself have foundbyproof, who have experimented every way to causeitquickly togrow:for I have committed some totheearthintheendofMarch,some in Aprill,andsome in thebeginningofMay,because Idurstnothasard allmyseedatone time, lest someunkindelyblast shouldhappenafterthesowing, whichmightbe agreatenemie thereunto.ThepeopleofAmerica callitPetun.Some, asLobelandPena,have givenittheseLatinenames,Sacra herba, Sancta herba,andSanasancta lndorum.Others,asDodo ntf!Us, call itHyoscyamus Peruvianus,orHenbaneofPeru.Nicolaus MonardusnamesitTabacum.ThatitisHyoscyami species,ora kindeofHenbane,notonly the forme being like to yellowHenbane,butthe qualitie alsodothdeclare; for itbringethdrowsinesse,troubleththe sences, andmaketha man asitweredrunkebytakingthefume only; asAndrewTheuettestifieth,andcommon experience sheweth:ofsomeitis calledNicotiana,the which I refer to the yellowHenbanefor distinctions sake.Tabacois a remedy for the tooth-ache,ifthe teeth andgumbsberubbedwith a linnen clothdippedin the juice,andafterward aroundballoftheleaves laiduntothe place.Theweightoffoure ouncesofthejuicehereofdrunke 202

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Tabacoprocureth afterward a longandsound sleepe, as wee have learnedofa friend by observation, who affirmed,Thata strong countreymanofa middle age having a dropsie, took it,andbeing wakenedoutofhis sleepe called formeatanddrinke,andafterthatbecame perfectly cured. Moreover,thesame man reported,Thathehadcuredmany countreymenofagues, with the distilled wateroftheleavesdrunkea little while before the fit. Likewise there is an oile to be takenoutoftheleaves that healeth merri-galls, kibed heeles,andsuch like.Thedryleaves are used to be taken in a pipe set on fire and suckt intothestomacke,andthrustforth againeatthe nosthrils, againstthepaines inthehead, rheumes, aches in anypartofthe bodie, whereof soevertheorigin all proceed, whether from France, Italy, Spaine, Indies,orfromourfamiliarandbest knowne diseases.Thoseleavesdopalliateorease for a time,butnever perform any cure absolutely: for although theyemptythebodyofhumors, yet thecauseofthegriefe cannot besotaken away.Butsome have learned this principle,Thatrepletiondothrequireevacuation;thatis to say,Thatfulnesse craveth empti nesse;andbyevacuation doe assure themselvesofhealth. But thisdothnottake away somuchwithitthis day,butthe nextbringethwithitmore.Asfor example, aWelldoth never yeeld such storeofwater as whenitismostdrawnandemptied.Myselfe speakebyproofe; who have curedofthatinfectious disease agreatmany, diversofwhichhadcoveredorkeptunderthesickenessebythehelpeofTabacoas they thought, yet intheendhave bin constrained to haveuntosuch anhardknot, acrabbedwedge,orelse had utterly perished. Some use todrinkit(asitis termed) for wantonnesse,orrather custome,andcannot forbeare it, nonotinthemidstoftheirdinner;whichkindeoftakingis unwhol someandvery dangerous:althoughto takeitseldom,andthat physically, is to be tolerated,andmay do somegood: 2

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AugustbutI commend the syrrup above this fumeorsmoky medicine.IItis takenofsome physically in a pipe once in a day atthemost,andthatinthemorningfasting, against paines inthehead, stomack,andgriefe in the brestandlungs: against catarrhsandrheums,andsuch as havegottencoldandhoarsen esse.Theythathave seene the proofe hereof, have credibly reported,ThatwhentheMooresandIndians have fainted either forwantoffoodorrest, thishathbin a present remedieuntothem, to supplytheone,andtohelpthemto the other.ThepriestsandInchantersofthehotcountries do take the fume thereof until they be drunke,thatafter they have lien for dead threeorfoure houres, they may tell the peoplewhatwonders, visions,orillusions they have seen,andso give them a prophetical directionorforetelling (if we maytrusttheDivell)ofthesuccesseoftheir businesse.Thejuyceordistilled waterofthefirstkindis very good against catarrhs,thedizzinesseofthehead, and rheumsthatfall downetheeies, againstthepain calledthemegram,ifeither you applyituntothetemples, or take oneortwo green leaves,oradryleafe moistnedinwine,anddried cunninglyuponthe embers,andlaid thereto.Itcleeres the sight,andtaketh awaythewebsandspots thereof, being annointed withthejuycebloud-warme.Theoile or juyce dropped intotheearesisgood against deafnesse; a cloth dipped in the sameandlayduponthe face, taketh awaythelentils, rednesse,andspots thereof.Manynotable medicines are madehereofagainst the oldandinveterat cough, against asthmaticallorpectorall griefes, all whichifI should set downeatlarge, would require a peculiar volume.Itis also givenuntosuch as are accustomed to swoune.Itis used in outward medicines, either the herbe boiled 204

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Tabacowith oile, wax, rosin,andturpentine, as before is set downeinyellowHenbane,ortheextractionthereofwith salt, oile, balsam,thedistilled water,andsuch like, against tumours, apostumes, old ulcersofhardcuration, botches, scabbes, stinging with nettles, carbuncles, poisoned arrowes,andwounds made withgunnesoranyotherweapons.Itis excellent good inburningsandscaldings with fire, water, oile, lightning,orsuch like, boiled with hogges grease into the formeofan ointment, as I have often prooved,andfound mosttrue;addinga littleofthejuiceofThorne-Appleleaves, spreadingitupona clothandso applying it. I doe make hereof an excellent Balme to cure deep woundsandpunctures madebysome narrow sharpe pointed weapon.WhichBalsamedothbringuptheflesh fromthebottome verie speedily,andalso heale simple cuts intheflesh according to the first intention,thatis,togleworsoderthelipsofthe wound together,notprocuringmatterorcorruption to it, as is commonly seene inthehealingofwounds.TheReceit isthis:TakeOileofRoses, OileofS.JohnsWort,ofeither one pinte,theleavesofTabacostamped small in a stonemortartwo pounds; boilethemtogethertotheconsumptionofthejuice, straineitandputittothefire againe,addingthereuntoofVeniceTurpentinetwo ounces, orOlibanumandMastickeofeither halfe an ounce, in most fineandsubtil pouder:thewhich you mayatall times make anunguentor salve,byputtingthereto waxandrosin to giveuntoita stiffe body, which worketh exceeding well inmalignantand virulent ulcers, as in woundsandpunctures. I send this jewelluntoyou womenofall sorts, especially such as cureandhelpethepooreandimpotentofyourcountrey without reward.Butuntothebeggarly rabbleofwitches, charmers,andsuch like couseners,thatregardmore togetmoney, than to helpe for chari tie, I wish these2

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Augustfew medicines far from their understanding,andfrom those deceivers, whom I wish to beignorantherein. But courteous gentlewomen, I maynotfor the malicethatI doe beareuntosuch, hide anythingfrom youofsuch importance:andtherefore take one morethatfolloweth, wherewith I have done manyandgood cures, althoughofsmall cost;butregarditnotthe lesse forthatcause.TaketheleavesofTabacotwo pounds,Hogsgrease one pound, stampe the herbe small in a stone morter, putting thereto a small cup fullofredorclaret wine, stirre them well together, coverthemorterfrom filth,andso let it rest untillmorning;thenputitto the fireandletitboile gently, continually stirringituntilltheconsumptionof the wine: straineitandsetittothefire againe, putting thereto thejuyceoftheherbeone pound,ofVenice turpentine foure ounces; boilethemtogetherto the consumptionofthejuice,thenadde thertooftheroots ofroundAristolochiaorBirthworth in most finepoudertwo ounces, sufficient wax to giveitabody;thewhich keep forthywounded poore neighbor.THEGARDENMALLOWCALLEDHOLLYHOCKEThetame or garden Mallowbringethforth broad round leavesofa whitish greene colour, rough,andgreater than thoseofthe wilde Mallow:thestalke is streight,oftheheightoffoureorsix cubits; whereon dogrowupon slender foot-stalks single floures,notmuchunlike to the wilde Mallow,butgreater, consisting onlyoffive leaves, sometimes whiteorred, nowandthenofa deep purple colour, varying diversly asNaturelist to play withit:intheir places growethuparoundknop like a little cake, compactormadeupofa multitudeofflat seeds like little cheeses.Theroot is long, white, tough, easily bowed,andgroweth deep in theground.206

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NigellaThedouble Hollihocke with purple floures hathgreatbroad leaves, confusedly indented about the edges,andlikewise toothed like a saw.TheseHollihockes are sowne in gardens, almost every where,andare in vainesoughtelsewhere.Thesecond yeere after they are sowne they brine forth their floures inJulyandAugust, when the seedisripe the stalke withereth, the root remainethandsendeth forth new stalkes, leavesandfloures, many yeares after.TheHollihocke is calledofdi vers,Rosa ultra-marina,orout landish Rose.GITH,ORNIGELLANigella, which isbothfaireandpleasant, called Damaske Nigella,isvery like unto the wilde Nigella in his smallcutandjaggedleaves,Doublepurple HollIhocke buthis stalke is longer: the floursaregreater,andevery flourehathfive small greene leaves under him, asitwere tosupportandbeare himup:which floures being gone, there succeedandfollow knopsandseed liketheformer,butwithout smellorsavour.Thetame are sowne in gardens: the wilde ones doe grow of themselves among corneandother graine, in divers countries beyond the seas. Gith is called in Italian,Nigella:in English, Gith,andNigella Romana, in Cambridgeshire, Bishops wort:andalso Dhja? Catherina? j1os,Saint Katharines floure.Theseed parchedordriedatthe fire,broughtinto2

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August pouder,andwrapped in a pieceoffine lawneorsarcenet,curethall murs, catarrhes, rheumes,andthepose, drieththebraine,andrestoreththesenceofsmellinguntothose which have lost it, being often smelleduntofrom day to day,andmade warme at the fire when it is used.Ittakes away freckles, being laid on mixed with vineger.Tobe briefe,asGalensaith,itis a most excel lent remedy.Itserveth well amongothersweets toputinto sweet waters, bagges,andodori ferous pouders.FLouRE-GENTLE Therebe divers sorts of Floure-gentle, differinginmany points very notably, as in greatnesseandsmal nesse; some purple, andiDamaskeNigellaothersofa skarlet colour;andone abovetherest wherewithNaturehathseemedtodelight her selfe, especially in the leaves, which in variable colours strives withtheParratsfeathers for beauty.PurpleFloure-gentle risethupwith a stalke a cubit high,andsomtimes higher, streakedorchamfered alongstthesame, often reddish towardtheroot,andvery smooth; which dividesitself towardthetop into smal branches, about which stand long leaves, broad, sharpe pointed, soft, slipperie,ofa greene colour,andsometimestendingto a reddish: in steadoffloures comeupearesorspoky tufts, very brave to look upon,butwithout smel,ofa shining208

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Floure-Gentlelight purple, with a glosse like Velvet,butfar passingit:which when they are bruised doe yeeld ajuicealmostofthe same colour,andbeing gathered, doe keep their beauty a long time after; insomuchthatbeingset in water,itwill revive again asatthe timeofhis gathering,andremaineth so,manyyeares; whereupon likewiseithathtakenit'sname.Theseed standeth intheripe eares,ofcolour blacke,andmuchglittering:theroot isshortand fullofstrings.Itfarre exceedethmyskilltodescribethebeautyandexcellencieofthis rareplantcalledFloramor;andIthinkethe pensil <;>f themost curious painter will beata stay, whenheshall come to setitdowneinhis lively colours.Butto colour it aftermybest manner, this I say,Floramorhatha thickeknobbyroot, whereondogrow many threddiestrings;PurpleF1oure-Gentlefrom which riseth a thicke stalke,buttenderandsoft, which beginneth to divideitselfe intosundrybranchesatthegroundandso upward, whereupondothgrowmany leaves, whereindothconsist his beauty: for infewwords, everie leafe resembleth in colourthemost faireandbeautifull featherofaParatespecially those feathersthatare mixed withmostsundrycolours,asastripeofred,anda lineofyellow, a dashofwhite,anda ribofgreen colour, which I cannot with words set forth, such are thesundrymixturesofcoloursthatNaturehathbestowed inhergreatest jolitie,uponthis floure.Thefloure doth grow2

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Augustbetweenethefoot-stalksofthose leaves,andthebodyofthestalkeortrunke, base,andofnomomentin respectofthe leaves, being asitwere little chaffie husksofan overworne tawny colour:theseed is black,andshininglike burn ished horne.Thesepleasant floures are sowne in gardens, especially for theirgreatbeautie.Theyfloure inAugust,andcon tinue flourishing tillthefrost overtake them,atwhattime they perish.Itis reported they stop all kin desofbleeding; whichisnotmanifestbyanyapparantquality in them, except per adventure bythecolour onelythattheredeares have: for some areofopinion,thatall red things stanch bleedinginanypartofthebody: because some thingsofredcolour doe stop bloud:ButGalen, lib.2& 4.desimp. jacult.plainly sheweth,thatthere can be no certainty gathered from the colours, touching the vertuesofsimpleandcompoundmedicines: wherefore they are ill persuaded, thatthinkethefloure Gentle to stanch bleeding, becauseofthe colour onely,iftheyhadnootherreason to induce them thereto. Go LDENRODGoldenRodhathlong broad leaves somewhat hoary and sharpepointed;among which riseupbrowne stalkestwofoot high, dividing themselves towardthetop into sundry branches, chargedorloden with small yellow floures; which when they be ripeturninto downe which is carried away withthewinde.Itis extolled above allotherherbes forthestopping of bloud in bleedingwounds;andhathin times past beenehadin greater estimationandregardthanin these daies: for inmyremembrance I have knownthedryherbe which came from beyondthesea sold in Bucklersbury in London for halfe a crowne an ounce.Butsinceitwas foundin210

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MarigoldsHampsteadwood, even asitwereatourtownes end, no man will give halfe a crowne for anhundredweightofit:which plain ely setteth forthourinconstancieandsuddenmutabilitie, esteeming no longerofany thing, how pretious soeveritbe,thanwhilestitis strangeandrare.ThisverifiethourEnglishproverbe,Farfetchtanddeareboughtis best for Ladies.Yetitmay be more truely saidofphantasticall Physitions, who when they have found an approved medicineandperfect remedy neere home against any disease; yetnotcontent therewith, they will seeke for a new farther off,andbythatmeanes many timeshurtmore than they helpe.ThusmuchI have spoken tobringthese new fangled fellowes backe againe to esteemebetterofthis admirableplantthanthey have done, which nodoubthavethesame vertue nowthatthen it had, althoughitgrowes so neereourowne homes in never sogreatquantity.MARIGOLDSThegreatest doubleMarigoldhathmany large, fat,broadleaves,springingimmediatly from a fibrousorthreddyroot:theuppersidesoftheleaves areofa deepe greene, and the lower sideofa morelightandshininggreene:among which riseupstalkes somewhat hairie,andalso somewhatjoynted,andfullofa spungeous pith.Thefloures inthetop are beautifull, round, very largeanddouble, something sweet, with a certainestrongsmell, of alightsaffron colour,orlikepuregold:fromthewhich follow anumberoflong crooked seeds, especially the outmost,orthosethatstandabouttheedgesofthefloure; which being sowne commonlybringforth single floures, whereas contrariwise those seeds inthemiddle are lesser,andforthemostpartbringforth such floures as that was from whenceitwas taken.ThisfruitfullormuchbearingMarigoldis likewise211

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Thegreat double MarigoldAugustcalledofthevulgar sortofwomen, Jacke-an-apes on horse backe:ithathleaves, stalkes,androots like the common sortofMarigold, differing intheshapeofhis flours, for this plantdothbringforthatthetopofthe stalke one floure liketheotherMarigolds;fromthewhichstartforthsundryothersmall floures, yellow likewise, andofthesame fashion as the first, whichifI benotde ceived commeth to passeper accidens,orby chance,asNatureoftentimes likethtoplay withotherfloures, or as children are borne with twothumbeson one hand,andsuch like, which living to be men, dogetchildren likeuntoothers;even soistheseedofthis Marigold, whichifitbe sowenitbrings forthnotone floure in a thousand liketheplan from whenceitwas taken.TheMarigold Boureth from AprillorMayeven untillWinter,andinWinteralso,ifitbee warme.ItiscalledCalendula:itis tobeseene in floure intheCalends almostofeverymoneth:it is also calledChrysanthemum,ofhis golden colour.Theyellow leavesofthefloures are driedandkeptthroughoutDutchlandagainstWinter,toputinto broths, in Physicall potions,andfor diversotherpurposes,insuch quantity,thatin some GrocersorSpice-sellers houses are to be found barrels filled with them,andretailed bythepenny moreorlesse, insomuchthat no broths are well made without dried Marigolds.212

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African MarigoldAFRICANMARIGOLDThecommon Africane,oras they vulgarly termeitFrenchMarigold,hathsmall weakeandtenderbranches trailinguponthe ground, reelingandleaning this wayandthatway, beset with leaves consistingofmany particu lar leaves, indentedabouttheedges, which being heldupagainstthesunne,ortothelight, are seene to be fullofholes like a sieve, even as thoseofSaintJohnswoort:thefloures standatthetopofthespringy branches forthoflong cupsorhusks, consistingofeightorten small leaves, yellow underneath, ontheuppersideofa deeper yellow tending tothecolourofa darke crimson velvet, as also soft inhandling:butto describe the colour in words, it is not possible,butthis way; layuponpaper with a pensill a yellow colour called Masticot, which being dry, lay the same over with a little saffron steeped in waterorwine, which setteth forth most livelythecolour.Thewhole plant isofa most rankeandunwholesome smell, and perishethatthefirst frost.Theyare cherishedandsowne in gardens every yere: they grow every where almost in Africkeofthemselves, from whence wee firsthadthem,andthatwas whenCharlesthefifth,EmperorofRomemade a famous conquestofTunis.Theunpleasant smel, especiallyofthatcommon sort with single flouresdothshewthatitisofa poisonsome and cooling qualitie;andalsothesame is manifestedbydivers experiments: for I remember, saith Dodond!Us, thatI did see a boy whose lippesandmouthwhen hee began to chewthefloures did swell extreameIy; asithathoften happeneduntothem,thatplayingorpipingwith quils or kexesofHemlockes, do holdthema while betweene their lippes: likewise he saith, we gave to a catthefloures with their cups, tempered with fresh cheese, shee forth with mightily swelled,anda little while afterdied:also213

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Augustmicethathave eatenoftheseed thereof have been found dead. All which things doe declarethatthisherbeisofa venomousandpoysonsome facultie;andthattheyarenotto be hearkned unto,thatsuppose thisherbto be a harmlesse plant: so to conclude, these plants are most venomousandfullofpoison,andthereforenotto be touchedorsmelled unto,muchlesse used inmeator medicine.FLOUREOFTHESUN,ORTHEMARIGOLDOFPERUTheIndian Sun,orthe golden floureofPeru,is a plantofsuch statureandtalnesse, that in one summer, beeing sowneofa seedin Aprill, it hath risenuptotheheightof fourteene foot inmygarden, where one floure was in weight threepoundandtwo ounces,&crosse over thwarttheflourebymeasure sixteen inches broad.Thestalks areupright&straight,ofthe bignesseofastrongmans arme, beset with large leaves even tothetop, likeuntothegreatClotbur:atthetop ofthestalk commeth forth for themostpartone floure, yetmanytimestherespringoutThegreater Sun-flouresuckingbudswhich come to no perfection: thisgreatfloure is in shape like totheCamo mil floure, besetroundabout with a paleorborderofgoodly yellow leaves, in shape liketheleavesoftheflouresofwhite214

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Sun-jloureLillies: the middle part whereof is made asitwereofunshorn velvet,orsome curiousdoathwroughtwiththeneedle: which brave worke,ifyou do thorowly viewandmarke well,itseemeth to be an innumerable sortofsmall floures, resembling the noseornosleofa candlestick broken fromthefoot thereof; from which small nosle sweats forth excellent fine anddeareturpentine, in sight, substance, savor,andtast.Thewhole plant in likemannerbeing broken smellethofturpentine: when the plant groweth to maturitie the floures fall away, in place whereof appeareth the seed, blackandlarge,muchlike the seedofGourds, set asthoughacunningworkmanhadofpurpose placed them in very good order,muchlikethehony combsofBees.Theseplants growofthemselves without settingorsowing, inPeru,andin divers other provincesofAmerica, from whence the seeds have beenebroughtinto these partsofEurop.Therehathbin seen in Spainandotherhot regionsa.plant sowneandnourishedupfrom seed, to attaine to theheightof24foot in one yeare.Theseed must be setorsowne in the beginningofApril,iftheweather be temperat, in the most fertillgroundthatmaybe,andwheretheSunhathmost power the whole day.Theflourofthe Sun is called inLatineFlos Solis,for that some have reportedittoturnwiththeSun, which I could never observe, although I have indeavored to findeoutthetruthofit:butI rather thinkeitwas so called becauseitresemblestheradiant beamsoftheSunne, whereupon some have calleditCorona Solis,andSol Indianus,the Indian Sunne-floure: others,Chrysan themum Peruvianum,orthe Golden floureofPeru:in English,thefloureofthe Sun,orthe Sun-floure.Therehathnot anythingbin set down eitherofthe antientorlater writers, concerningthevertuesofthese plants, notwithstanding we have found by triall,thatthe buds before they be floured boiledandeaten withbutter,215

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Augustvineger, and pepper, -after the mannerofArtichokes, are exceeding pleasant meat.BLEW-BoTTLEORCORNE-FLOUREThegreat Blew-Bottle hath long leaves smooth, soft, downy, and sharp pointed: among the leaves rise up crooked and pretty thicke branches, chamfered, fur rowed, and garnished with such leaves as are next theground:on the tops wherof stand faire blew flours tendingto purple, consistingofdivers little flours, set in a scaly huske or knap like thoseofKnapweed: the seedisroughor bearded at one end, smoothatthe other.Thecommon Corn-floure hath leaves somwhat hackt or cut intheedges: the floures grow at the topofthe stalks,ofa blew colour:theseed is smooth,brightshin ing, and wrapped in a woolly or flocky matter.Thefirst groweth inmygarden, and inthegardens of Herbarists,butnotwildethatI know of.Theother grows in corn fields amongWheat,Rie, Barley, and other graine: it is sowne in gardens, andbycunning looking to doth oft times becomeofother colours, and some also double.Theold Herbarists callitCyanus fios,oftheblew colour which it naturallyhath:in Italian,Baptisecula,as though it should be calledBlaptisecula,because it hindereth and annoyeth the Reapers, by dulling andturningthe edgesoftheirsidesin reapingofcorne:inEnglish it is called Blew-Bottle, Blew-Blow, Corne floure, andhurt-Side.CORNEThiskindeofWheateisthemost prineipallofall other, whose eares are altogether bareornaked, without awnes or chaffie beards.Thestalke riseth from a threddy root, 216

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Bright WheatOlescompactofmany strings, joyntedorkneedatsundrydistances; from whence shoot forth grassie bladesandleaves likeuntoRie,butbroader.Theplant is so well knowne to many,andso profitable to all,thatthe meanest and most ignorant need no larger description to know the same by.Wheat(saithGalen)isvery much usedofmen,andwith greatest profit.ThoseWheatsdonourish mostthatbe hard, and have their whole sub stance so closely compact as they can scarsely be bit asunder; for such do nourish verymuch:andthe contrary but little. Slicesoffine white bread laid to infuseorsteepe in Rose water,andso applieduntosore eyes which have manyhothumours falling into them, doe easily defend the humour, and cease the paine.Theoyleofwheat pressed forth betweene two platesofhot iron, healeth the chaps and chinksofthe hands, feet,andfundament, which comeofcold, making smooth the hands, faceorany other partofthe body.oTES Avena Vesca,common Otes, is calledVesca, a Vescendo,becauseitis used in many countries to makesundrysortsofbread, as in Lancashire, whereitistheir chiefest bread corne forJannocks,Havercakes, Tharffe cakes, 217

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Augustandthose which are called generallyOtencakes; and forthemostpartthey call the graineHaver,whereof they do likewise make drinke forwantofBarley.AvenaNudais likeuntothecommonOtes;differing in that,thatthese naked Otes immediately as they be threshed, without helpeofaMillbecome Otemealefitforouruse.Inconsideration whereof in Northfolke and Southfolke they are called unhulledornaked Otes. Someofthose good house-wivesthatdelightnotto have anythingbutfromhandto mouth, according to ourEnglishproverbe, may (while their pot doth seeth) go to the barne,andrubforth with their hands sufficient forthatpresent time,notwilling to provide for to morrow, according asthescripture speaketh,butlet the next daybringitforth. Common Otesputinto a linnen bag, with a little bay salt quilted handsomely forthesame purpose,andmadehotin a frying pan,andapplied very hot, easeththepaine intheside calledthestitch. Otemeale is good for to make a faireandweI coloured maid to looke like a cakeoftallow, especiallyifshe take nextherstomacke a gooddraughtofstrongvinegre after it.CANARIESEED,ORPETYPANICKCanarie seed,orCanarie grasse after some,hathmany small hairy roots, from which arise small strawy stalkesjoyntedlike corne, whereupon doe grow leaves like thoseofBarley, whichthewhole plant doth verywellresemble.Thesmall chaffie eare growethatthe top ofthestalk, wherein is contained small seeds like thoseofPanick,ofa yellowish colourandshining. Shakers orQuakingGrasse groweth to the height of halfe a foot,andsometimes higher, whenitgrowethinfertile medowes.Thestalke is very smallandbenty, set218

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Canarie seedwith many grassie leaves like the common medow-grasse, bearingatthe top a bushortuftofflat scaly pouches, like thoseofShepheards purse,butthicker,ofa browne colour, setuponthemostsmallandweak hairy foot stalksthatmay be found, whereupon those small pouches dohang;bymeansofwhich small hairy strings,theknapswhich are the floures do continually trembleandshake, in such sortthatitisnot possible with the most stedfasthandto hold it from shaking. Canary seed groweth naturally in Spain,andalsointheFortunator Canary Islands,andalso inEnglandoranyotherofthese cold regions,ifitbe sowne therein.QuakingPhalarisgroweth in fertile pasture, and indrymedowes.TheseCanarie seeds are sowne inMay,andare ripeinAugust. Canarie seedorCanarie Corne is calledoftheLatinesP halaris:in English, Canarie seed,andCanarie Grasse.P halaris pratensisQuaking Grasseiscalled alsoGramen tremulum:in Cheshire aboutNantwich, QuakersandShakers: in some places, Cow Quakes. Apothecaries, forwantofMillet, do use Canary Seed with good successe in fomentations; for indryfomenta tionsitserveth in stead thereof,andis hissuccedaneum,orquid proquo.Weuse it inEnglandalso to feed Canary Birds.219

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AugustHEATH,HATHER,ORLINGETherebe divers sortsofHeath,some greater, some lesser; some with broad leaves,and some narrower; somebringingforth berries,andothers nothing but floures.ThecommonHeathis a low plant,butyet wooddy and shrubby, scarce a cubithigh:it brings forth many branches, whereupon doe grow sundry little leaves somewhathardand rough, very like to those of Tamariskeorthe Cypres tree: the floures are orderly placed alongstthebranches, small, soft,andofalightred colour tending to purple: the root is also wooddy,andcreepethunderthe upper crustoftheearth:andthis is theSma111eafedHeathHeathwhichtheAntients tooke to betherightandtrueHeath.Thereis anotherHeathwhich differethnotfromtheprecedent, savingthatthisplantbringethforth floures as white as snow, wherein consisteththe wherefore we may calitErica pumila alba,DwarfeHeathwith white floures. CrossedHeathgrowes to the heightofa cubit and a hal fe, fullofbranches, commonly lying along upon the ground,ofadarkswart colour: whereon grow small leaves setatcertain spaces two upon one side,andtwo on the other, opposite, one answering another, even as do the leavesofCrossewort.Thefloures in likemannerstand along the branches crosse-fashion,ofadarkoverworne 220

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DwarfeCis/usgreenish colour.Theroot is likewise wooddy, asisall the restofthe plant.ThesteepleHeathhathlikewise many wooddy branches garnished with small leavesthateasily fall off from the dried stalks;amongwhich come forth divers little mossie greenish flouresofsmall moment.Thewhole bush for the mostpartgrowethroundtogether like a little cockofhay, broadatthe lowerpartandsharp above like a pyramideorsteeple, whereofittooke his name.Thesmall orthinneleafedHeathis also a lowandbase shrub, having many smallandslender shoots com ming from the root,ofa reddish browne colour; where upon doe grow very many small leaves not unlike tothemofcommonTyme,butmuchsmallerandtenderer:thefloursgrowin tuftsatcertaine spaces,ofa purple colour.Heathgroweth upondrymountaines which arehungryand barren, asuponHampsteedHeathneereLondon,where allthesorts do grow, exceptthatwith the white floures,andthatwhich beareth berries.Heathwiththewhite floures growethuponthe downes neereuntoGravesend.Thesekin desorsortsofHeathdo for the mostpartfloure alltheSummer, even untill the lastofSeptember.Thetender topsandfloures, saithDioscorides,are good to be laiduponthebitingsandstingingsofany venomous beast:ofthese floures the Bees dogatherbad hony.DWARFEKINDESOFCISTUSTheEnglishdwarfe Cistus is a lowandbase plant creep inguponthe ground, having many smalltoughbranches of a browne colour; wherupongrowlittle leavessettogetherbycouples, thicke, fat,andfulofsubstance,andcovered over with a soft downe; fromthebosome whereof come forthotherlesser leaves:thefloures before they be open are small knopsorbuttons,ofa browne colour 221

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Augustmixed with yellow, and beeing open and spred abroad are like thoseofthe wilde Tansie,&ofa yellow colour, with some yellower chives in the middle.Valerius CordusnamethitHelianthemum,andSolis jiosorSun-floure.Plinywriteth,thatHelianthemumgrowes in the champian countryTemiscyra in Pontus,andinThewhite dwarfe Cistwl ofGermaniethe mountainsofCilicia neere the sea: saying further,thatthe wisemenofthose countries&the KingsofPersia do anoint their bodies herewith, boiled with Lions fat, a little Saffron,andWineofDates,thatthey may seem faire and beautifull; and therefore have they calleditHeliocaliden,orthe beautyofthe Sun.CLOWNESWOUND-WORT,ORALL-HEALEClownes All-heale,ortheHusbandmansWound-wort, hath long slender square stalkesoftheheightoftwo cubits:atthe topofthe stalkes grow the floures spike fashion,ofa purple colour mixed with some few spots of white, in forme like to little hoods.222

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Clownes Wound-wortItgroweth in moist medowes by the sidesofditches, and likewise in fertile fieldsthatare somewhat moist, almost every where; especially inKentabout South-fleet, neer to Gravesend,andlikewise in the medowesbyLambethneere London.Itfloureth in August,andbringeth his seed to perfection in the endofSeptember.Theleaves hereof stamped with Axungia orhogs grease, and applied unto greene wounds in mannerofa pultesse, heale them in short time,andin such absolute manner,thatitishardfor anythathave nothadthe experience thereof to beleeve: for being inKentabout a Patient,itchancedthata poore man in mowingofPeason didcuthis leg with a sithe, wherein hee made a wound to the bones, and withall very largeandwide,andalso with great effusionofbloud; the poore man creptuntothis herbe, which he bruised with his hands, and tied a great quantitieofitunto the wound with a pieceofhis shirt, which presently stanched the bleeding,andceased the paine, insomuchthatthe pooremanpresently went to his daies worke againe,andso did from day to day, without resting one day untillhewas perfectly whole; which was accomplished in a few daies, by this herbe stamped with a little hogs grease,andso laid uponitin mannerofa pultesse, which didasitwere gleworsadder the lipsofthe wound together,andhealeitaccording to the first intention, as wee terme it,thatis, without drawingorbringing the wound to suppurationormatter; which was fully performed in seven daies,thatwould have required forty daies with balsamitselfe. I saw the wound and offered to heale the same for charity; which he refused, sayingthatI could not healeitso wellashimselfe: a clownish answer I confesse, without any thankes formygoodwill: whereupon I have nameditClownes Wound-wort, as aforesaid. Since which time my selfe have cured many grievous wounds,andsome mortall, with the same herbe; one for example done upon223

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Augusta GentlemanofGrayesInneinHolborne,Mr.EdmundCartwright,who wasthrustintothelungs,thewoundentringinatthelowerpartoftheThorax,orthe brest blade, eventhroughthatcartilaginous substance calledMucronata Carlilago,insomuchthatfrom day to daythefrothingandpuffingofthe lungs did spew forthofthewoundsuch excrements asitwas possessed of, besidestheGentleman was most dangerously vexed with a double quotidian fever; whom by Gods permission I perfectly cured in very short time,andwith this Clownes experiment,andsomeofmyforeknowne helpes, which were as followeth.FirstI framed a slightunguenthereofthus:I tooke foure handfullsofthe herbe stamped,andputtheminto a pan, whereunto I added foure ouncesofBarrowes grease, halfe a pinteofoyle Olive, wax three ounces, which I boyled unto the consumptionofthejuyce (whichisknowne whenthestuffe doth notbubbleatall) then did I straine it,puttingitto the fire againe,addingthereto two ouncesofTurpentine,the which I suffered to boile a little, reserving the same formyuse.Thewhich I warmed in a sawcer,dippingtherein small soft tents, which Iputintothewound, defending the parts adjoyning with a plaisterofCalcitheos,relented with oyleofroses: which mannerofdressingandpre serving I used even untill the wound was perfectly whole: notwithstanding once in a day I gavehimtwo spoonfullsofthis decoction following. I tooke aquartofgood Claret wine, wherein I boyled ;1.n handfulloftheleavesofSolidago Saracenica,or Saracens consound,andfoure ouncesofhoney, whereof I gave him in themorningtwo Spoonefulls to drinke in a smalldraughtofwine tempered with a little sugar.Inlike manner I cured a Shoo-makers servant inHolborne,who intended to destroy himselfe for causes knowne unto many now living:butI deemeditbetter to 224

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PIMPERNELLPimpernellPimpernel!cover the fault, than toputthe same in print, whichmightmove such a gracelesse fellow to attempt the like: his attempt was thus; First, he gave himselfe a most mortall wound in the throat, in such sort,thatwhen I gave him drinkeitcame forthatthe wound, which like wise didblowoutthe candle: another deepe and grievous wound in the brest with the said dagger,andalso two others inAbdomine:the which mortall wounds, by Gods permission, and the vertuesofthis herbe, I perfectly cured within twenty daies: for the which the nameofGod be praised. Pimpernell is likeuntoChickweed; the stalkes are foure square, trailing hereandthere upon the ground, whereupon do grow broad leaves, and sharpe pointed set togetherbycouples: fromthebosomes whereof come forth slender tendrels whereupon doe grow smallpurple floures tending to rednesse: which being past there suc ceed fineroundbul lets, likeuntothe seedofCoriander, whereiniscontained small dusty seed.Theroot consistethofslender strings.Thefemale Pimpernell differeth not from the male inanyonepoint,butin the colourofthefloures; for like 225

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Augustas the former hath reddish floures, this plant bringeth forth flouresofa most perfect blew colour; whereinisthe difference.Theygrow in plowed fields neere path waies, in Gar dens and Vineyards almost every where.Theyfloure in Summer, and especially in the monethofAugust,atwhat time the husbandmen having occasion to go unto their harvest worke, will first behold the flouresofPimpernell, whereby they know the weatherthatshall follow the next day after;asfor example,ifthe floures beshutclose up,itbetokeneth raineandfoule weather; contrariwise,ifthey be spread abroad, faire weather. Both the sortsofPimpernell areofa drying faculty without biting,andsomewhat hot, with a certaine drawing quality, insomuchthatitdoth draw forth splintersandthings fixed in the flesh.Thejuyce cures the tooth ach being sniftupinto the nosethrils, especially into the contrary nosethrilI.DIVELSBITDivelsbithath small uprightroundstalkesofa cubite high, beset with long leaves som what broad, very little or nothing snipt about the edges, somwhat hairieandeven.Divels bitThefloures also areofa dark purple colour, fashioned like the flouresofScabious: the seeds are smal and downy, which being ripe are carried away with the winde.226

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Eye-brightTheroot is blacke, thick, hard and short, with many threddie strings fastned thereto.Thegreatpartofthe root seemeth to be bitten away: old fantasticke charmers report,thatthe divel did bite it for envie, because itisan herbethathath so many good vertues, andisso beneficial to mankinde. Divels bit groweth in dry medows and woods,&about waies sides.Itfloureth in August, andishard to be knowne from Scabious, saving when it floureth.Itiscommonly calledMorsus Diaboli,or Divels bit,ofthe root (as it seems) thatisbitten off: for the super stitious people hold opinion, that the divell for envythathe beareth to mankinde, bit it off, because it would be otherwise good for many uses.EYE-BRIGHTEuphrasiaor Eye-bright is a small low herbe not above two handfulls high, fullofbranches, covered with little blackish leaves dented or snipt about the edges like a Saw.Thefloures are small and white, sprinkled and poudered on the inner side, with yellow and purple speckes mixed therewith.Therootissmall and hairie.Thisplant groweth in dry medowes, in greeneandgrassie waies and pastures standing against the Sun. Eye-bright beginneth to floure in August, and con tinuethuntoSeptember, and must bee gathered while it floureth for physicks use.Itisverymuchcommended for the eies. Being taken it selfe alone, or any way else, it preserves the sight,andbeing feeble&lost it restores the same: it is given most fitly being beaten into pouder; oftentimes a like quantitie of Fennell seedisadded thereto, and a little mace, to the which isputso much sugar as the weightofthem all commeth to. Eye-bright stamped and laid upon the eyes, or the227

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Augustjuice thereof mixed with white Wine, and dropped into the eyes,orthe distilled water, taketh away the darknesse and dimnesseofthe eyes, and cleareth the sight.Threepartsofthe pouderofEye-bright,andone partofmaces mixed therewith, taketh away all hurts from the eyes, comforteth the memorie,andcleareth the sight,ifhalfe a spoonefull to be taken every morning fasting with a cupofwhite wine.MARJEROMESweet Marjeromeisa low and shrubbie plant,ofa whitish colour&marvellous sweet smell, a footorsom what more high.Thestalkes are slender,andparted into divers branches, about which grow forth little leaves soft and hoarie: the floures growatthe topinscalieorchaffie spiked eares,ofa white colour.Thewhole plantandeverie part thereofisofa most pleasant tastandaromaticall smell,andperishethatthe first approchofWinter.Theseplants do grow in Spain, Italy, Candy, andWilde MarjeromcofCandyotherIslands thereabout, wild,andin the fields; from whence wee have the seeds for the gardensofourcold countries.Theyare to be watered in the middleofthe day, when the Sun shineth hottest, even as Basill should be, and not in the evening nor morning, as most plants are. 228

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MarjeromeBastard MarjeromeofCandyhathmany threddy roots; from which riseupdivers weakeandfeeble branches trailinguponthe ground, set with faire greene leaves,notunlike thoseofPennyRoyall,butbroaderandshorter:atthe topofthose branches stand scalieorchaffie earesofa purple colour.Thewhole plant isofa most pleasant sweet smell.Theroot endured inmygardenandthe leaves also greene all thisWinterlong, 1597. althoughithathbeene saidthatitdothperishatthe first frost, as sweet Marjerome doth.Englishwilde Marjeromeisexceedingly well knowne to all, to have long, stiffe, andhardstalkesoftwo cubits high, set with leaves like thoseofsweet Marjerome,butbroaderandgreater,ofa russet greene colour, on the topofthe branches stand tuftsofpurple flowers, com posedofmany small ones set together very closely umbell fashion. SweetMarjeromeis a remedy against cold diseasesofthe braineandhead, being takenany way toyourbest liking;putupinto the nosthrilsitprovokes sneesing, and draweth forthmuchbaggage flegme:iteaseththetooth-ache being chewed in the mouth.Theleaves boiled in water,andthe decoctiondrunke,easeth such as are given to overmuch sighing.Theleaves driedandmingled with honeyputaway black and blew markes after stripesandbruses, being applied thereto.Theleaves are excellent good to beputinto all odor iferous ointments, waters, pouders, brothsandmeates.Thedried leaves poudered,andfinely searched, are good toputinto Cerotes,orCere-clothes,andointments, profitable against cold swellings,andmembersoutofjoynt.Thereis an excellent oyle to be drawne forthofthese herbes, good againsttheshrinkingofsinewes, crampes, convulsions,andall aches proceedingofa colde cause.229

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August Bastard Marjeromeiscalled in shopsOriganum Hispanicum,Spanish Organy.Organygiven in wineisa remedyagainst the bitings,andstingingsofvenomous beasts, and cureth themthathavedrunkeOpium,orthejuyceofblackePoppy,orhemlockes, especiallyifitbe given with wine and raisonsofthe sunne.Itis profitably used in a looch,ora medicine to be licked, against the old coughandthe stuffingofthe lungs.Thejuyce mixed with a little milke, being poured into the eares, mitigateth the paines thereof.Thesame mixed with the oileoffreas,orthe rootsofthe white Florentine floure-de-Iuce, and drawneupinto the nosthrils, draweth downe waterandflegme: the herbe strowed upon thegrounddriveth away serpents.Theseplants are easie to be taken in potions,andthere fore to good purpose they may be usedandministred unto suchascannot brooke their meate,andto suchashave a sowre squamishandwatery stomacke, as also against the swouningofthe heart.PENNIEROYALL,ORPUDDINGGRASSEPulegium regium vulgatumissoexceedingly well knowne to allourEnglish Nation,thatitneedeth no description, being our common Pennie Royall.ThecommonPennyRoyall groweth naturally wild in moist and overflown places,asin the Common neere London called Miles end, about the holesandponds thereof in sundry places, from whence poore womenbringplenty to sell in London markets; anditgroweth in sundry other Commons neereLondonlikewise.Ifyou have when you areatthe seaPennyRoyall in great quantitie dry,andcastitinto corrupt water, it helpethitmuch, neither willithurtthemthatdrinke thereof. A GarlandofPennie Royall madeandworne about the23

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Vervaine headisofgreat force against the swimming in the head, and the painesandgiddinesse thereof.VERVAINEThestalkeofuprightVervaine riseth from the root single, cornered, a foot high, seldome above a cubit, and afterwards divided into many branches.Theleaves are long, greater than thoseofthe Oke,butwith bigger cutsanddeeper: the floures along the sprigs are little, blew,orwhite, orderly placed: the rootislong, with strings growing on it. Creeping Vervaine send eth forth stalkes like unto the former, nowandthen a cubit long, cornered, more slender, for the most part lying upon the ground.Theleaves are like the former,butwith deeper cuts,andmore in number.Theflouresatthetopsofthe sprigs are blew, and purple withall, very smallasthoseVervaineofthe last described,andplaced after the same manner and order.Theroot groweth straight downe, being slenderandlong, as is also the rootofthe former. Bothofthem grow in untilled places neere unto hedges, high-waies, and commonly by ditches almost every where. Vervaine is called in Latine,Verbena,andSacra herba: Verbente are any mannerofherbesthatwere taken from231

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AugusttheAltar, or from some holy place, which because the ConsullorPretor didcutup,they were likewise calledSagmina,which oftentimes are mentioned inLivyto be grassie herbes cutupintheCapitoll.InEnglish,Juno'steares, Mercuries moist bloud,Holy-herbe;andofsome, Pigeons grasse,orColumbine, because pigeons are delighted to be amongst it, as also to eat thereof, asApuleiuswriteth. It is reported to. beofsingular force against the TertianandQuartaine Fevers:butyoumustobserve motherBombiesrules, to takejustso many knotsorsprigs,andnomore, lestitfalloutsothatitdo you no good,ifyou catch no harmebyit.Manyodde old wives fables are written ofVervaine tending to witchchraftandsorcery, which you may reade elsewhere, for Iamnot willing to trouble your eares with reporting such trifles, as honest eares abhorre to heare.Mostofthe later Physitions do givethejuiceordecoc tion hereof tothemthathavetheplague:butthese men are deceived,notonly inthatthey looke for sometruthfrom the fatheroffalshoodandleasings,butalso because in steadofa goodandsure remedy they minister no remedyatall; foritis reported,thattheDivell did revealeitas a secretanddivine medicine.MINTSTherebe divers sortsofMints,someofthegarden, others wilde orofthe field;andalso someofthewater.ThetameorgardenMintcommethupwith stalks foure square,ofan obscure red colour somewhat hairy, which are covered withroundleaves nicked intheedges like a Saw,ofa deep green colour:thefloures are littleandred,andgrow about the stalkes circle-wise as those of Penny-Royall:theroot creepeth aslope intheground, having some strings on it,andnowandthen in sundry 232

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Mintsplacesitbuddethoutafresh:thewhole herb isofa pleasantsmel,anditrather lieth downe than standeth up.Cat-MintorNepgroweshigh:the floures areofa whitish colour, set inmannerofan eareorcatkin:thewhole herb is soft,andcovered with a white down.Itgroweth about the bordersofgardensandfields, neere to rough banks, ditches,andcommon wayes: itisdelighted with moistandwatery places,andisbroughtinto gardens.WaterMintis a kindeofWildeMintlike to gardenMint:thefloures inthetopsofthe branches are gathered together into aroundeare,ofa purple colour.Mintsdoe floureandflourish inSummer:in winter the roots only remain: being once set, they continue long,andremaine sureandfast intheground.ThesmellofMint,saithPliny,doth stirupthe minde,andthe taste to a greedy desireofmeat.Mintismarvel lous wholesome forthestomacke.Itis good against watering eies.Itis poured into the eares with honied water.Itis applied with salt tothebitingsofmaddogs.Itwillnotsuffer milke to cruddle inthestomacke(Plinyaddeth, to wax soure) thereforeitisputin milkethatis drunke, lest those that drinke thereof should be strangled.Itis laid tothestingingofwasps with good successe.ThelaterHerbaristsdoe callNepHerba Cattaria,&Herba Catti,because cats are verymuchdelighted herewith;forthesmellofitis so pleasantuntothem,thatthey rub themselvesuponit,& wa)lowortumble in it,andalso feed onthebranchesandleaves very greedily.Itis a present helpe forthemthatbe bursten inwardlyofsome fall received from anhighplace,andthat are very much bruised,ifthejuicebe given with wine or meade.ThesavororsmelloftheWaterMintrejoyceththeheartofman, for cause they use to strewitin chambersandplacesofrecreation, pleasure,andrepose, and where feastsandbanquets are made.233

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Cotton ThistleAugustCOTTONTHISTLEThecommon Thistle, whereofthe greatest quantityofdown is gathered for divers purposes, as well by the poore to stop pillowes, cushions,andbeds forwantoffeathers, as alsoboughtoftherich upholsters to mix with the feathersanddown they do sell, which deceit would be lookedunto:thisThistlehathgreat leaves, long and broad, gashed about the edges,andset with sharpeandstiffe prickles all alongst the edges, covered all over with a soft cottonordowne:outfrom the middest whereof risethupa long stalke about two cubits high, cornered,andset with filmes,andalso fullofprickles :theheads are likewise cornered with prickles,andbringforth floures consistingofmany whitishthreds:the seed which succeedeth them is wrappedupin downe; it is long,ofa light crimson colour,andlesser thantheseedofbastard Saffron: the root groweth deep intheground, being white, hard, wooddy,andnot without strings.TheseThistles grow byhighwaies sides,andinditches almost every where.Theyfloure fromJuneuntillAugust,the second yeare after they be sowne:andinthemean time the seed waxeth ripe, which being thorow ripe the herbe perisheth, as doe likewise mostoftheotherThistles, which live no longer than till the seed be fully come to maturity.234

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ArtichokeThisThistleis called in English, Cotton-Thistle, white Cotton-Thistle, wilde white Thistle,Argentineorthesilver Thistle.ARTICHOKETheArtichoke is to be planted in a fatandfruitfull soile: they doe love waterandmoist ground.Theycommit great error whocutawaythesideorsuperfluous leavesthatgrowbythe sides,thinkingthereby to increasethegreatnesseofthe fruit, when as intruththey deprivetheroot frommuchwaterbythatmeanes, which would nourish it tothefeedingofthefruit; forifyou marke thetroughor hollow channellthatis in every leafe, it shall appeare very evidently,thatthe Creator in his secret wisedome did ordaine those furrows, even fromtheex treme pointoftheleafe to thegroundwhereitis fastned to the root, for no other purposebutto guideandleadethatwater which falls farre off,untotheroot; knowingthatwithout such storeofwater the whole plant would wither, and the fruit pine awayandcome to nothing.Theyare planted for the mostpartabouttheKalendsofNovember,orsomewhat sooner.Theplantmustbee setanddungedwith good storeofashes, forthatkindeofdungisthoughtbest for planting thereof.Everyyearetheslipsmustbetomeorslipped off fromthebodyoftheroot,andthese are to be set in April, which will beare fruit aboutAugustfollowing, asColumella, Paladius,andcommon experience teacheth.Thenailes,thatis,thewhiteandthicke parts which are inthebotomeofthe outward scalesorflakesofthefruitofthe Artichoke,andalsothemiddle pulpe whereon the downy seed stands, are eatenbothraw with pepperandsalt,andcommonly boyled withthebrothoffat flesh, with pepper added,andare accounted a dainty dish, being pleasant tothetaste: so likewise the middle ribsofthe 235

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Augustleaves being made whiteandtender by good cherishingandlooking to, arebroughttothetable as agreatservice together withotherjunkets:they are eaten with pepperandsalt as be the raw Artichokes:yetbothofthemareofilljuyce;for the Artichoke containeth plentyofcholericke juyce,andhathanhardsubstance, insomuch asofthis is ingendred melancholy juyce,andofthatathinandcholericke bloud, asGalenteacheth in his bookeofthe facultiesofnourishments.Butit is best to eatetheArti choke boyled:theribbesofthe leaves are altogetherofanhardsubstance: they yeeld to the body a rawandmelan choly juyce,andcontaine inthemgreat storeofwin de.SUGAR-CANESugar Cane is a pleasantandprofitable Reed, having long stalkes sevenoreight foot high,joyntedorkneed likeuntothe great Cane;theleaves come forthofeveryjoynton every sideofthestalke one, likeuntowings, long, narrow,andsharpe pointed.TheCaneitselfe,orstalke isnothollow astheotherCanesorReeds are,butfull,andstuffed with a spongeous substance in taste exceeding sweet.TheSugar Cane groweth in many partsofEuropeat this day, as in Spaine, Portugal, Olbia,andin Provence.Itgroweth also in Barbarie, generally almost every whereintheCanarie Islands,andin thoseofMadera,in theEastandWestIndies,andmanyotherplaces.Myselfe did plant some shoots thereof inmygarden,andsomeinFlanders did the like:butthecoldnesseofourclymat made anendofmine,andIthinktheFlemmings will have the like profitoftheir labour.ThisCane is plantedatany timeoftheyeare in thosehotcountries whereitdothnaturally grow,byreason they feare no frosts tohurttheyoungshootsattheir first planting.

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Sugar CaneSugar-Cane Ofthe juyceofthis ReedISmade the most pleasant and profitable sweet, called Sugar, whereofismade infinite confections, confectures, Syrupsandsuch like, as also preserving and conservingofsundry fruits, herbes,andfloures, as Roses, Violets, Rosemary floures, and such like, which still retaine with them the nameofSugar,asSugar Roset, Sugar Violet, &c.Thewhich to writeofwould require a peculiar volume, and not pertinentuntothis historie, forthatitis notmypurpose to makeofmybooke a Confectionary, a Sugar Bakers furnace, a Gentle womans preservmg pan,noryet an Apothecaries shoporDispensatorie;butonely to touch the chiefest matterthatI purposed to handle in the beginning,thatis, the nature, properties,anddescriptionsofplants. Notwithstanding I thinkeitnot amisse to shew unto you the orderingofthese reeds when they be new gathered, as I receiveditfrom themouthofan Indian my servant: he saith,Theycutthemin small pieces,andput them into atroughmadeofone whole tree, wherein theyputa great stone in mannerofa mill-stone, whereunto they tie a horse, bufRe,orsome other beast which draweth itround:in whichtroughtheyputthose piecesofCanes, and so crushandgrindthemas we doe the barkesoftrees for Tanners,orapples for Cyder.Butin some places they use a great wheele wherein slaves doe treadandwalke as dogs do inturningthe spit: and some others doe feedas237

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Augustitwere the bottomeofthe said wheele, wherein are some sharpe orhardthings which doecutandcrush the Canes into powder.Andsome likewise have found the invention toturnethe wheele with water works, as we doeourIron mills.TheCanes being thusbroughtintodustorpowder, theyputtheminto great cauldrons with a little water, where they boile untill there be no more sweetnesse left inthecrushed reeds.Thendoe they straine them through matsorsuch like things, andputthe liquor to boile againeuntothe consistenceofhony, which being cold is likeuntosand both in shewandhandling,butsomewhat softer;andso afterwardsitis carried into all partsofEurope, whereitisby the Sugar Bakers artificially purgedandrefined tothatwhiten esse as we see.BEETSThecommon white Beet hath great broad leaves, smoothandplain: from which rise thicke crestedorchamfered stalks: the floures grow along the stalks clustering to gether, in shape like little stars, which being past, there succeedround&uneven prickly seed.Therootisthicke, hard,andgreat.Thereislikewise another sort hereof,thatwas broughtuntomefrom beyond the seas, bythatcourteousMerchantmasterLete,before remembred, the which hath leaves very great, and redofcolour, as is all the restofthe plant, as well root,asstalke, and floures fullofa perfect purple juyce tending to rednesse: the middle rib6fwhich leaves are for the most part very broad and thicke, like the middlepartofthe Cabbage leafe, whichisequall in goodnesse with the leavesofCabbage being boyled.Itgrew with me1596.to the heightofeight cubits, and didbringforth his roughanduneven seed very plentifully: with which plant nature doth seeme to playandsport herseIfe: for the seeds taken from that plant, which was altogetherofone238

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Hopscolour and sowen, doth bring forth plantsofmany and variable colours,asthe worshipfull Gentleman masterJoh!l Nordencan very well testifie: unto whom I gave some of the seeds aforesaid, which in his garden brought forth many otherofbeautifull colours.TheBeeteissowne in gardens: it loveth to grow in a moist and fertile ground. Being eaten when itisboyled, it nourisheth little or nothing, and is notsowholesomeasLettuce.Thejuyce conveighedupinto the nosthrils doth gently draw forth flegme, and purgeth the head.Thegreater red Beet or Roman Beet, boyled and eaten with oyle, vinegre and pepper, is a most excellent and deli cat sallad:butwhat might be madeofthe red and beautifull root (which is to be preferred before the leaves,aswell in beautieasin goodnesse) ftefer unto the curious and cunning cooke, who no doubt when hee had the view thereof, andisassured thatitisboth good and wholesome,willmake thereof many and diversdishes, both faire and good.Hops ,. TheHopdoth live and flourish by,.embracing and taking holdofpoles, pearches, and other things upon whichitclimeth.Itbringeth forth very long stalkes, rough, and hairie; also rugged leaves broad like thoseofthe Vine,orratherofBryony,butyet blacker, and with fewer dented divisions: the floures hang downe by clusters from the topsofthe branches, puffed up, setasit were with scales like little canes, or scaled Pine apples,ofa whitish colour tending to yellownesse, strongofsmell: the roots are slender, and diversly folded one within another.TheHopjoyeth in a fat and fruitfull ground: alsoitgroweth among briers and thomes about the bordersoffields,I meane the wilde kinde.Theflouresofhops are gathered in August and239

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AugustSeptember,andreserved tobeused in beere: in the Spring time come forth new shootsorbuds: in theWinteronely the roots remaine alive.Thebudsorfirst sprouts which come forth in the Spring are used to be eaten in sallads.Thefloures are used to season BeereorAle with,andtoo many do cause bitternesse thereof, and areillfor the head.Thefloures make bread light, and the lumpe to be sooner and easilier leavened,ifthe mealebetempered with liquor wherein they have been boiled.Themanifold vertuesofHops do manifestly argue the whole somenesseofbeere above ale;Hopsfor the hops rather make it a physicall drinke to keepe the body in health, thananordinary drinke for the quenchingofourthirst.ALMONDTREETheAlmond tree is like the Peach-tree, yetitis higher, bigger,oflonger continuance: the leaves be very long, sharpe pointed, snipt about the edges like thoseofthe Peach tree: the floures be alike: the fruitisalso like a Peach, having on one side a cleft, with a soft skin without,andcovered with a thin cotton,butunderthis thereisnone,orvery little pulpe, which ishardlike a gristle not eaten: thenutorstone within is longer thanthatofthe Peach, not so rugged,butsmooth; in which is contained the kernel, in taste sweet, and many timesbitter;the root24

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Peachof the tree groweth deepe: thegumwhich sokethouthereofislikethatofthe Peachtree.Thenaturall placeofthe Almond is in the hot regions, yet we have them inourLondon gardensandorchards in great plenty.TheAlmond floureth betimes with the Peach: the fruitisripe in August. Almonds taken before meate nourishbutlittle; not withstandingmanyexcellent meatesandmedicines are therewith made forsundrygriefes, yea very delicatandwholsomemeates, as Almond butter, creameofAlmonds, marchpane,andsuch like.Theydoe serve to make the Physicall BarleyWater,and Barley Creame, which are given in hot Fevers,asalso for other sickeandfeeble persons) for their further refresh ingandnourishments.TheoylewhichisnewlypressedoutofthesweetAlmondsisa mitigaterofpaine and all manerofaches.TheoileofAlmonds makes smooth the hands and faceofdeli cat per sons,andclenseth theskinfromall spots, pimples,and len tils.Anditisreportedthatfiveorsix Almonds being taken fasting do keepe a man from being drunke.Thesealso denseandtake away spotsandblemishes in the face, andinother partsofthe body.Withhony they are laid upon the bitingofmad dogs; being applied to the temples with vinegeroroileofRoses, they take away the head-ache.Theyare also good against the cough and shortnesseofwinde.PEACHTREEThePeach tree is a treeofno great bignesse:itsendeth forth divers boughes, which be so brittle, as oftentime they are broken with the weightof the fruitorwith the winde.Theleaves be long, nicked in the edges, like almosttothoseoftheWalnuttree, and in taste bitter: the flouresbeofa light purple colour.ThefruitorPeaches be round, 241

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Augustandhave as it were a chinkeorcleft ontheone side; they are coveredwitha softandthindowneorhairy cotton,beingwhite without,andofa pleasant taste; inthemiddlewhereofis aroughorruggedstone, wherein is contained a kernell likeuntotheAlmond;themeateaboutthe stoneisofa white color.Therootistoughandyellowish.TheredPeachtree is likewise a treeofnogreat bignesse: it also sendeth forth diversboughesorbranches whichbevery brittle.Theleavesbelong,andnicked in "' theedges like totheprece dent.Thefloures be also likeuntotheformer;thefruitorPeaches be round,andofaredcolour ontheoutside;themeate likewiseaboutthestone isofa gallant red 7"4 colour.Thesekin des of) \ Peaches are very like to wine in taste,andtherefore marvellous pleasant.Persica prtcocia, orthed'avantPeachtree is likeuntotheformer,buthis leaves are greaterandlarger.ThefruitorPeaches beofa russet colour ontheone side,TheWhitePeachandontheotherside nextuntotheSunofa red colour,butmuchgreaterthantheredPeach:thestones whereofare likeuntotheformer:thepulpeormeate withinisofa golden yellow colour,andofa pleasant taste.Persica lutea,ortheyellowPeachtree is likeuntothe former in leavesandflours, his fruit isofa yellow color on theoutside,andlikewise on the in side,harderthan therest:inthemiddleofthePeachisa wooddyhardand242

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Maple rough stone fullofcrestsandgutters, in which doth ly a kernelmuchlike tothatofthe almond,andwith such a like skin: the substance within is white,andoftaste some what bitter.Thefruit hereof isofgreatest pleasure,andofbest tasteofalltheotherofhiskinde;although there be foundatthis day divers other sortsthatareofvery good taste, not remembredofthe antient,orset down bythelaterWriters,whereof to speake particularly would not bee great toourpretended purpose, considering wee hasten toanend.Theyare setandplanted in gardensandVineyards. I havethemall inmygarden, with many other sorts.ThePeach tree soone comesup,itbeares fruit thethirdorfourth yeare afteritis planted,andit soon decayeth, beingnotoflong continuance.MAPLETREEThegreatMapleisa beautifullandhightree, with a barkeofa meane smoothnesse:thesubstanceofthe woodistenderandeasie to workeon;itsendeth forth on every side very many goodly boughesandbranches, which make an excellent shadow against the heatoftheSun;upon which aregreat, broad,andcornered leaves,muchlike to thoseofthe Vine,hangingby long reddish stalkes; the floureshangbyclusters,ofa whitish greene colour; afterthemcommethuplong fruit fastened togetherbycouples, onerightagainst another, with kernelsbumpingout neere totheplace in which they are combined: in all theotherparts flatandthin likeuntoparchment,orresemblingtheinnermost wingsofgrashoppers:thekernels be whiteandlittle.ThegreatMapleis a stranger inEngland,on elyitgroweth in the walkesandplacesofpleasureofnoble men, whereitespecially is planted fortheshadow sake,andunder the nameofSycomore tree. 243

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AutumnTHEOKEThecommonOkegroweth to agreattree;thetrunkeorbodywherofis covered over with a thickerough barke fullofchopsorrifts:thearmesorboughes are likewise great, dispersing themselves farreabroad:theleaves are bluntlyindentedabouttheedges, smooth,andofa shininggreenecolour, whereon is often found amostsweet dewandsomewhat c1ammie,andalso a fungous excrescence, which wee callOkeApples.Thefruitis long, coveredwitha browne, hard,andtoughpilling, set in aroughscaly cuporhusk:thereis often founduponthebodyofthetree,andalsouponthebranches, a certainekindoflongwhite mossehangingdowne fromthesame: and sometimesanotherwooddie plant, which we call Missel toe, being either an excres cenceoroutgrowingfromthetree it selfe,orofthedoung(asitis reported)ofabirdthathatheaten a certaine berry. T'heOkedothscarcely refuseanyground;foritgroweth in adryandbarrensoile,yetdothitprosperbetterin a fruitfullground;itgrowethuponhillsandmountaines,andlikewise in vallies:itcommethupevery where in all partsofEngland,butitisnotso commoninotheroftheSouthandhotreglOns.TheOkedothcast his leaves forthemostpartabouttheendofAutumne:someTheOke with his Acornes244

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Mushrumeskeepe their leaves on,butdryallWinterlong, untill they bethrustoffbythe new Spring. Acornesifthey be eaten are hardly concocted, they yeeld no nourishment to mans body,butthatwhich is grosse, raw,andcold. Swine are fatted herewith,andbyfeeding thereon have their fleshhardandsound.ThedecoctionofOkeApples steeped instrongwhite wine vineger, with a little pouderofBrimstone,andtherootofIreosmingled together,andset in the Sunbythespaceofa moneth,makeththehair blacke, consumeth proudandsuperfluous flesh, taketh away sun-burning, freckles, spots, the morphew, with all deformitiesofthe face, being washed therewith.TheOkeApples being broken insunderabout the timeoftheir withering, doe foreshewthesequelloftheyeare, astheexpert Kentish husbandmen have observed bytheliving things found inthem:asiftheyfinde an Ant, they foretell plentyofgraine to ensue:ifa white worme like a GentillorMagot,then they prognosticate murrenofbeastsandcattell;ifa spider, then (say they)weshall have a pestilence or some such like sicken esse to follow amongstmen:these things the learned also have observedandnoted;forMatthioluswritinguponDioscoridessaith,thatbefore they have an holethroughthem, they containe in them either a flie, a spider,oraworme;if a flie then warre insueth,ifa creeping worme,thenscarcitieofvictuals;ifarunningspider, then followeth great sicknesseormortalitie.MUSHRUMES,ORTOADsTooLESSomeMushrumesgrow forthoftheearth;otheruponthe bodiesofold trees, which differ altogether in kindes.Manywantonsthatdwell neerethesea,andhave fish at will, are very desirous for changeofdiet to feeduponthe birdsofthe mountaines;andsuch as dwelluponthe 245

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Autumn hillsorchampion grounds, do long after sea fish; many that have plentyofboth, dohungeraftertheearthy excrescences, calledMushromes:whereof some are very venomousandfullofpoyson, others not so noisome; and neitherofthem very wholesome meate; wherefore for the avoidingofthe venomous qualityofthe one,andthat the other which is lesse venomous may be discerned from it, I havethoughtgood to set forth their figure.GroundM ushrums growupin one night, standingupona thickeandroundstalke, like unto a broadhatorbuckler,ofa very white colour untilitbegin to wither,atwhat timeitloseth his faire white, declining to yell own esse : the lower side is somewhat hollow, setordecked with fine gutters, drawne along fromthemiddle centre to the circumference orroundedgeofthe brim. AllMushromsare without pith, rib, or veine: they differ not a little in bignesseandcolour, some are great,andlike a broad brimmedhat;others smaller, about the big nesseofa silver coine called a doller: mostofthem are redunderneath;some more, some lesse; others littleornothing redatall:theupper side which beareth out, is either paleorwhitish,orelse of an ill-favoured colour like ashes (they commonly call it Ash-colour) or elseitseemeth to be somewhat yellow.TheMushrumsorToodstooles whichgrowupon the trunkesorbodiesofold trees, verymuchresembling 246

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Mushrumes Auricula Judd!, thatis, Jewes eare, doe in continuanceoftime growuntothesubstanceofwood, which the Fowlers doe call Touchwood,andare for the most halfe circuledorhalfe round, whoseupperpartis somewhat plaine,andsometimes a little hollow,butthelowerpartis plaitedorpursed together.ThiskindeofMushrumis fullofvenomeorpoyson, especially those which growuponthe Ilex, OliveandOketrees.Thereis likewise a kindeofMushrumcalledFungus Favaginosus,growingupin moistandshadowie woods, whichisalso venomous, having a thickeandtuberous stalke, an handfull high,ofa duskish colour;thetop whereof is compactofmany small divisions, likeuntothe hony combe. Fusse balls,PuckeFusse,andBulfists, with which in some placesofEnglandthey use to killorsmolder their Bees, when they would drivetheHives,andbereavethepoore Beesoftheir meat, housesandlives: these are also used in some places where neighbours dwell far asunder, to carryandreserve fire from place to place, wherofittookethename,Lucernarum Fungus:in forme they are very round, stickingandcleavinguntotheground,without any stalksorstems;atthefirst white,butafter wardsofa duskish colour, having no holeorbreach in them, whereby a manmay see into them, which being troddenupondoe breath forth a mostthinandfine pouder, likeuntosmoke, very noisomeandhurtfulluntothe eies, causing a kindeofblindnesse, which is called Poor-blinde,orSandblinde.Mushrumscomeupabouttherootsoftrees, in grassie placesofmedowes,andLeyLandnewlyturned;in woods also wherethegroundis sandy,butyet dankish: they grow likewiseoutofwood, forthoftherotten bodiesoftrees,butthey are unprofitableandnothingworth. Poisonsome mushroms, asDioscoridessaith, groweth where old rusty iron lieth,orrotten clouts,orneere to247

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Autumnserpentsdens,orrootsoftreesthatbringforthvenomous fruit.Diversesteeme those forthebestwhichgrowin medowes,anduponmountainesandhilly places,asHoracesaith,ThemedowMushromsare inkindethebest;Itis illtrustinganyoftherest.Galenaffirmes,thattheyareallverycoldandmoist,andtherefore toapproachuntoa venomousandmurtheringfacultie,andingendera clammy, pituitous,andcoldnutrimentiftheybeeaten.Toconclude, fewofthemaregoodtobeeaten,andmostofthemdosuffocate andstrangletheeater.ThereforeI givemyadviceuntothosethatlovesuchstrangeandnew fangled meates,tobe wareoflickinghoneyamongthornes, leastthesweetnesseoftheonedonotcountervailethesharpnesse andprickingoftheother.HAsELLTREETheHaselltreegrowethlike ashruborsmall tree, partedintobougheswithoutjoints,toughandpliable:theleavesarebroad,greaterandfullerofwrincklesthanthose oftheAldertree,cutintheedges like a saw,ofcolour greene,andonthebacksidemorewhite,thebarkeisthin:therootis thicke,strong,andgrowingdeepe;insteadoffloureshangdowne catkins, aglets,orblowings, slender,andwellcompact:afterwhichcometheNutsstandingin atoughcupofagreenecolourandjaggedattheupperend,like almost tothebeards in Roses.Theshellissmoothandwooddy:thekernellwithinconsistethofa white,hard,andsoundpulpe,andis coveredwitha thin skin, oftentimesred,mostcommonlywhite;thiskernellis sweetandpleasantuntothetaste.CorylussylvestrisisourhedgeNutorHasellNuttree,whichis very well knowne,andthereforeneedethnotany description:whereofthereare alsosundrysorts, some248

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TheFilberdNutBeechgreat, some little, someratheripe, some later, as also onethatismanuredinourGar dens, which is very great,biggerthanany Filberd,andyet a kindeofHedgeNut:thisthenthathathbeene said shall suffice forHedgeNuts.TheHaselltrees doe commonlygrowinWoods,anddankishuntoiled places: they are also set inOrchards,theNutswhereofare better,andofa sweeter taste,andbemostcommonlyreddewithin.ThecatkinsorAglets come forth very timely, beforewinterbefully past,andfall away inMarchorAprill, so soone astheleaves come forth.BEECHTREETheBeech isanhightree,withboughesspreadingoften times inmannerofa circle,andwitha thickebodyhavingmanyarmes:thebarkeissmooth:thetimberis white, hard,andvery profitable:theleavesbesmooth,thin,broad,andlesser thoseoftheblackePoplar:thecatkinsorblowingsbealso lesserandshorterthanthoseoftheBirch treeandyellow:thefruitorMastis con tained in ahuskeorcupthatis prickly,androughbristled,yetnotsomuchasthatoftheChestnut:whichfruitbeingtaken forthoftheshellsorurchinhuskes,becoveredwitha softandsmooth skin like in colourandsmoothnesse totheChestnuts,butthey bemuchlesser,249

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Autumnandofanother forme,thatis to say, triangled or three cornered:thekernell within is sweet, with a certaine astriction or binding qualitie: the roots be few,andgrow not deepe,andlittle lower thanunderthe turfe.TheBeech tree loveth a plaineandopen country,andgroweth very plentifully in many Forrestsanddesart placesofSussex, Kent,andsundryothercountries.TheBeech floureth in AprillandMay,andthefruitisripe in September,atwhattimetheDeeredo eate the same very greedily, as greatly delighting therein; whichhathcaused forrestersandhuntsmen to callitBuck-mast.TheleavesofBeech are very profitably applied untohotswellings, blisters,andexcoriations;andbeing chewed they are good for chapped lips,andpaineofthe gums.Thekernelsormast within are reported to ease the paineofthe kidniesifthey be eaten.Withthese, miceandSqirrels are greatly delighted, who do mightily increase by feeding thereon: Swine also be fatned here with,andcertaineotherbeasts: alsoDeeredoe feed thereon verygreedily: they be likewise pleasant toThrushesandPigeons.Petrus Crescentiuswriteth,Thatthe ashesofthe wood is good to make glasse with.Thewaterthatis found inthehollownesseofBeechescureththe naughty scurfe, tetters,andscabsofmen, horses, kine,andsheepe,ifthey be washed there with.WALL-NUTTREEThisis a great tree with a thickeandtall body: the barke is somewhat greene,andtending tothecolourofashes,andoftentimes fullofclefts:theboughes spread them selves far abroad:theleaves consistoffiveorsix fastned to one rib, like thoseoftheash tree,andwith one standing 25

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Wall-nuton the top, which bee broaderandlonger than the par ticular leavesoftheAsh, smooth also,andofastrongsmell:thecatkinsoraglets come forth beforetheNuts:theseNutsdoe growhardto the stalkeofthe leaves,bycouples,orby three&three;whichatthe first when they be yetbuttenderhave a sweet smel,andbe covered with a greenhuske:underthatis a wooddy shell in which the kern ell is contained, being covered with a thin skin, parted almost into foure parts with a wooddy skin asitwere: theinnerpulpe whereof is white, sweetandpleasant tothetast;andthatis when it is new gathered, for afteritisdryitbecommeth oilyandrancke.TheWalnuttree groweth in fields neere common high wayes, in a fatandfruitfullground,andin orchards:itprospereth onhighfruitfull bankes,itloveth not to grow in watery places.ThegreeneandtenderNutsboyled in Sugarandeaten as Suckad, are a most pleasantanddelectable meat, comfortthestomacke,and expell poison.TheoyleofWalnutsmade in suchmanneras oyleof ,'I 'Almonds,makethsmooththe ,1" handsandface. Milkemadeofthekernels,asAlmondmilke is made, coolethandpleaseththeappetiteofthelanguishing sicke body.Withonions, saltandhoney,theyare good against thebitingofamaddogor man,iftheybelaid uponthewound.TheWalnutTree251

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AutumnCHESTNUTTREETheChestnut tree is a very greatandhightree:itcasteth forth very many boughes: the bodyisthicke, and sometimesofsogreata compasse asthattwo men can hardly fathomit:the timberorsubstanceofthewoodissoundanddurable: the leaves bee great, rough, wrinkled, nicked intheedges,andgreaterthantheparticular leavesoftheWalnuttree.Theblowings or catkins be slender, long,andgreene:thefruit is inclosed in a roundroughandprickly huske like to an hedge-hogorUrchin,which openingitselfe doth let falltheripe fruitorNut.Thisnutis not round,butflat ontheone side, smooth,andsharpe pointed:itis covered with ahardshell, which istoughandvery smooth,ofa darke browne colour: the meate or inner substanceofthenutis hardandwhite, and covered with a thin skin which isunderthe shell.TheHorseChestnut groweth likewise to be a very great tree, spreading hisgreatandlarge armes or branches far abroad,bywhich meanesitmaketh a very good coole shadow.Thesebranches are garnished with many beautifull leaves,cutordivided into five, six,orseven sectionsordivisions like to the Cinkefoile,orrather liketheleavesofRicinus,butbigger.Thefloures growatthe topofthe stalkes, consistingoffoure small leaves like the Cherry blossome, whichturneintoroundroughprickly heads like the former,butmore sharpeandharder:theNutsare also rounder.Thefirst growes on mountainesandshadowie places,andmany times inthevallies: they love a softandblacke soile.TherebesundrywoodsofChestnuts in England, as a mileanda halfe from Feversham in Kent,andinsundryother places: in some countries they be greaterandpleasanter: in others smaller,andofworse taste.TheHorseChestnut groweth in Italy,andinsundryplaces oftheEast-countries.252

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ElderTheblowingsoraglets come forth with the leaves in Aprill;buttheNutslater,andbe not ripe till Autumne.TheHorseChestnutiscalled in Latine,Equina Castanea:in English,HorseChestnut, forthatthe peopleoftheEastcountries do with the fruit thereof cure their horsesofthe cough, shortnesseofbreath,andsuch like diseases.Ourcommon Chestnuts are verydryandbinding,andbe neither hot nor cold,butin a mean betweeneboth:yet have they in them a certaine windinesse, and by reasonofthis, unlesse the shell be first cut, they skip suddenly with a crackeoutofthe fire whilest they be rosting.ELDERTREETherebe divers sortsofElders, someofthe land,andsomeofthe waterormarish grounds.ThecommonEldergrowethupnow and then to the bignesseofa mean tree, casting his boughes all about, and oftentimes remaineth ashrub:the bodyisalmost all wooddy, having very little pith within;butthe boughs, and especially the yong ones, which be jointed, are fullofpith within,andhavebutlittle wood without: the barkeofthe bodyandgreat armesisroughandfullofchinks, andofan ilfavoured wan colour like ashes:thatoftheboughsisnot very smooth,butin colour almost like;andthat is the outward barke; for thereisanotherunderitneerer to the wood,ofcolour green: the substanceofthewoodissound, somwhat yellow, andthatmay be easily cleft: the leaves consistoffiveorsix particular ones fastned toone ribbe, like thoseoftheWalnuttree,butevery particular oneislesser, nicked in the edges,andofa rankeandstinking smell.Thefloures growonspoky run dIes, which be thinandscattered,ofa white colour and sweet smell: after them growuplittle berries, greenat253

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Autumnthefirst, afterwards blacke,whereoutis pressed apurplejuice, which being boiledwithAllomandsuchlike things,dothserve very well forthePaintersuse, as also to colourvineger:theseeds in these are a little flatandsomwhat long.Theregrowethoften timesuponthebodiesofthose old treesorshrubsa certaine excrescence calledAuricula Judd! orJewes eare, which is soft, blackish, coveredwitha skin, somewhat like nowandthento amanseare, whichbeingpluckedoffanddried,shrinkethtogetherandbe comethhard.ThisEldergrowetheverywhere:itisplantedaboutCony-boroughs fortheshadowoftheConies.Thesekin desofEldersfloure in AprillandMay,andtheirfruit is ripe in September.Theseeds contained withintheberriesdriedaregoodforElderTreesuchas havetheDropsie, andsuchas are too fatandwould faine be leaner,ifthey betakenin amorningtothequantitieofadramwithwine for a certain space.Thegreen leavespounedwithDeeressuetorBulls tallow, aregoodtobelaid tohotswellingsandtumors,anddoe asswagethepainofthegout.ThegellyoftheElder,otherwise calledJewes eare,hathabindinganddryingqualitie:theinfusion thereof,inwhichithathbin steeped a few houres,takethaway inflammationsofthemouthandthroat,iftheybe washed therewith,anddothin likemannerhelptheuvula.254

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White SattinfloureTheElderRose groweth like an hedgetree:theleaves are likethevine leaves,amongwhich come forth goodly flouresofa white colour, sprinkledanddashed heereandtherewith alightandthin carnation colour,anddo growthickeandclosely compact together,ofgreatbeauty.Inmygardentheregrowethnotany fruituponthis tree, nor in anyotherplace, foroughtthatI canunderstand.Itiscalled in English, Gelders Rose.WHITESATTINFLOUREBo/bonaeortheSattin floure hathhardand round stalks, dividing themselves into manyothersmall branches, beset with leaves like Dames VioletsorQueenesGillofloures, somewhat broad,andsnipt about the edges,andin fashion almost like Sauce alone,or Jacke by the hedge,butthatthey are longerandsharper pointed.Thestalks are chargedorloden with many floures like the common stocke Gillofloure,ofa purple colour: which being fallen, the seed comes forth, con tained in a flat thin cod, with a sharp pointorprickeatone _...._"""""',L end, in fashionoftheMoon,butsomewhat blackish.ThisWhiteSattincodiscomposedofthreefUmesorskins, whereof the two outmost areofan overworne ash colour,andthe inner mostorthatin the middle, wheron the seed dothhangorcleave, is thinneandcleere shining, like a shredofwhite 255

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Autumn Sattin newlycutfrom the piece.Thewhole plant dieththesame yearethatithathborne seed,andmustbe sown yearly.Theroot is compactofmany tuberous parts like Key clogs,orlike thegreatAsphodill.ThesePlantsare setandsowne in gardens, notwith standing onehathbin found wild inthewoods aboutPinnerandHarrowon the hill12miles from London,andin Essex likewise aboutHorn-church.Wecall this herbe inEnglish,Pennyfloure,orMonyfloure, Silver Plate, Pricksong-wort; in Norfolke, Sattin,andwhite Sattin;andamongourwomenitis called Honestie.TheseedofBulbonac is sharpeoftaste, like in force to the seedofTreaclemustard:theroots likewise are somewhatofa biting qualitie,butnotmuch:they are eaten withsaIlads as certaine others root are. A certain Helvetian Surgeon composed a most singularunguentfor green wounds,oftheleavesofBolbonacandSanicle stamped together,addingthereto oile and wax.Theseedisgreatly commended against the falling sicknesse.TRUESAFFRONThefloureofSaffrondothfirst riseoutofthegroundnakedly in September,andhis long smal grassie leaves shortly after, never bearing floureandleafeatonce.Thefloure consistethofsix small blew leavestendingto purple, having inthemiddle many small yellow stringsorthreds;among which are two, three,ormore thicke fat chivesofa fierie colour somewhat reddish,ofa strong smell when they be dried, whichdothstuffeandtroublethehead. Commonorbest knowne Saffron groweth plentifully in Cambridge-shire, Saffron-Waldon,andotherplaces thereabout, as corne in the fields. Saffron beginneth to256

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True Saffronfloure in September,andpresently afterspringuptheleaves,andremaine greene all theWinterlong. Saffron is called in Latine,Crocus:in Mauritania,Saffaran:in Spanish,Arafron:inEnglish,Saffron: intheArabicke tongue,Zahafaran. Avicen affirmeth,Thatitcauseth head-ache,andis hurtfull tothebraine, which it cannot do by takingitnowandthen,butby toomuchusingofit;for the toomuchusingofitcuttethoff sleep,throughwantwhereoftheheadandsences areoutofframe.Butthe moderat usethereofis good forthehead,andmakeththesences more quickeandlively, shaketh off heavyanddrowsie sleepe,andmaketha man merry. Also Saffronstrengthneththe heart, concocteth crudeandrawhumorsofthechest, opensthelungs,andremoveth obstructions.Itis alsosucha speciall remedie for thosethathave consumptionofthelungs,andare, as wee terme it,atdeaths docre,andalmost past breathing,thatitbringethbreathagain,andprolongeth life for certaine dayes,iftenortwenty grainesatthemost be given with neworsweetWine.Forwe have foundbyoften experience,thatbeing taken inthatsort,itpresentlyandin amomentremoveth away difficultyofbreathing, which most dangerouslyandsuddenly hapneth.Theeyes being anointed withthesame dissolved in milkeorfennelorrose water, are preserved from beinghurtbythe small poxormeasels,andare defended thereby from humorsthatwould fal into them.Thechives steeped in water serve to illumineor(as we say) limne picturesandimagerie, as also to coloursundrymeatsandconfections.Theweightoften grainsofSaffron, the kernelsofWalnutstwo ounces,Figstwo ounces,Mithridateone dram,anda few Sage leaves stampedtogetherwith a sufficient quantitieofPimpernelwater,andmade into a 257

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Autumn masse or lumpe,andkeptin a glasse for your use,andthereofI 2 graines given in themorningfasting, preserveth from the pestilence,andexpellethitfrom thosethatare infected.MEDOWSAFFRONTherebesundrysortsofmedow Saffrons, differing very notably as well in the colouroftheir floures, as also in natureandcountry from whence theyhadtheir being,asshall be declared.MedowSaffronhaththree or four leaves rising immediately forthofthe ground, long, broad, smooth, fat, much like totheleavesofthe white Lillie in forme and smoothnesse: in the middle whereofspringupthreeorfoure thicke codsofthe bignesseofa small Wall-nut, standinguponshort tenderfoot-stalkes, three square, and opening themselves when they be ripe, fullofseed something round,andofa blackishredcolour:andwhen this seed is ripe,theleavesMdSfftogether withthestalkes doe fadeeearonandfall away.InSeptember the flouresbudforth, before any leaves appeare, standing uponshorttenderandwhitish stemmes, like in forme and colour totheflouresofSaffron, having inthemiddle small chivesorthredsofa pale yellow colour, altogether unfit for meat or medicine.Thesecond kindeofMedeSaffron is liketheprece dent, differing onely inthecolourofthefloures, for that this plantdothbringforth white leaves, whichofsome258

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Bramblehathbeene taken forthetrueHermodactylus;butin so doing they have committedthegreater error.Thethirdkindebringethforth his leaves intheSpringoftheyeare, thicke, fat, shining,andsmooth,notunliketheleavesofLillies, which doe continuegreeneuntotheendofJune;atwhich timetheleaves do wither away,butinthebeginningofSeptemberthereshooteth forthofthegroundnaked milke white floures without any greene leafeatall:butso soone asthePlanthathdone bearingoffloures,theroot remaines intheground, not sending forth anythinguntill Februarie intheyeare following. Divers nameitin LatineBulbus agrestis,orwild Bulbe: in French,Mort au chien.Some have taken it to bethetrueHermodactyl, yet falsely.Othersome callitFilius ante patrem,although there is a kindeofLysimachiaor Loose strife so called, because it firstbringethforth his long cods with seed,andthenthefloure after,oratthesame timeattheendofthesaid cod.Butin thisMedeSaffron it is far otherwise, becauseitbringethforth leaves in Februarie, seed inMay,andfloures inSeptember;which is athingdeanecontrarie to allotherplants whatsoever, forthatthey doe first floure,andafter seed:butthis Saffron seedeth first,andfoure moneths afterbringsforth flowers:andtherefore some havethoughtthis a fit name for it,Filius ante Patrem:andwe accordingly may call it,TheSonne beforetheFather.BRAMBLEORBLACKE-BERRYBUSHThecommon Bramblebringethforth slender branches, long, tough, easily bowed,rampingamonghedgesandwhatsoever stands neereuntoit;armedwithhardandsharpe prickles, whereon doe grow leaves consistingofmany setuponaroughmiddle rib be, greene on theupperside,andunderneathsomewhat white: on the topsofthe 259

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AutumnTheRaspis or Framboisebushhathleavesandbranchesnotmuchunlike the common Bramble,butnotsoroughnorprickly,andsometimes without any pricklesatall, having onely aroughhairinesse aboutthestalkes:thefruit in shapeandproportion is like thoseoftheBramble, red when they be ripe,andcovered over with a little downinesse; in taste not very pleasant.Theroot creepeth far abroad, wherebyit greatly encreaseth.TheBramble groweth forthemostpartin every hedgeandbush.TheRaspis is planted inTheBramble Bushgardens:itgroweth not wildethatI know of, except inthefieldbya village in Lancashire calledHarwood,not far from Blackeburne. I found it amongthebushesofa causey, neereuntoa village called Wisterson, where Iwentto schoole, two miles from the Nantwich in Cheshire.Thesefloure inMayandJunewiththeRoses: their fruit is ripe intheendofAugustandSeptember.260stalkes stand certaine floures, in shape like thoseofthe Brier Rose,butlesser,ofcolour white,andsometimes washt over with a little purple:thefruitorberryis likethatoftheMulberry,first red, blacke whenitis ripe, in taste betweene;:: sweetandsoure, very soft,andfull of grains: the root creepeth, and sendeth forth here andthereyoungsprings.

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MulberrieTheBramble is called in Latine,Rubus,andSentis,andVepres,asOvidwriteth inthefirst bookeofMetamorphosis:OrtotheHare,thatunderBramble closely lying, spiesThehostilemouthofDogs.--Itis called in French,Rouce:in English, Bramble bush,andBlacke-berry bush.TheRaspis is called in Latine,Rubus Idtt1, ofthemountaineIdaon which it groweth: in English, Raspis, Framboise,andHinde-berry.Theyongbuds ortendertopsoftheBramble bush,thefloures,theleaves,andtheunripefruit,beingchewed, stay allmannerofbleedings.Theyheale the eiesthathangout.Theripe fruit is sweet,andcontainethinitmuchjuyceofa tern perate heate, thereforeitisnotunpleasantto be eaten.TheleavesoftheBramble boyled in water, with honey, allum,anda little white wine added thereto, make amostexcellent lotionorwashing water,andthe same decoction fastneththeteeth.MULBERRIETREEThecommonMulberrietree is high,andfulofboughes:the bodywherofis many times great,thebarkerugged;andthatoftheroot yellow: the leaves are broadandsharpe pointed, something hard,andnicked ontheedges;in steadoffloures, are blowingsorcatkins, which are downy: the fruit is long, madeupofanumberoflittle graines, likeuntoa black-Berrie,butthicker, longer,andmuchgreater,atthefirst greene,andwhenitisripeblacke, yet isthejuyce(whereofitis full)red:theroot is parted many waies.ThewhiteMulberrietree growethuntill it be comeuntoagreatandgoodly stature, almost asbigastheformer:theleaves are rounder,notso sharpe pointed,nor 26r

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Autumnso deepelysniptabout the edges, yet sometimes sinuatedordeeply cut in on the sides, the fruit is like the former,butthat it is whiteandsomewhat more tasting like wine.TheMulberrietrees grow plentifully in Italy and other hot regions, where they doe maintainegreatwoodsandgrovesofthem,thattheir Silke wormes may feed thereon.TheMulberrytree is fitly set by the slip;itmay also be graftedorinoculated into many trees, beinggrafted in a white Poplar, it bringeth forth white Mulberries,asBeritiusin his Geoponickes reporteth.Thesegrowinsundrygardens inEngland.Ofallthetrees in theOrchardtheMulberrydothlast bloome,andnotbefore the cold weather is gone inMay(thereforetheoldWriterswere wont to callitthe wisest tree)atwhich time the Silke wormes do seeme to revive,ashaving then wherewith to feedandnourish themselves, which all the winter before do lie like small graines or seeds, as knowing theirpropertimesbothto performe their duties for which they were created,andalso when they may have wherewith to maintaineandpreserve their owne bodies,untotheir businesse aforesaid.Mulberriesare good to quench thirst, they stirupan appetite to meate, they are not hurtfull to the stomacke,butthey nourish the body very little, being taken in the second place,orafter meate.Thebarke being steeped in vineger helpeththetooth ache:ofthesame effect is alsothedecoctionoftheleavesandbarke, saithDioscorides,who sheweththatabout harvest time there issuethoutofthe root a juyce, whichthenext day after is found to be hard,andthatthesameisvery good againstthetooth-ache.THEOLIVETREEThetame ormanuredOlive tree growethhighandgreat with many branches, fulloflong narrow leavesnotmuch 262

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OliveunliketheleavesofWillowes,butnarrowerandsmaller:thefloures be whiteandvery small, growinguponclustersorbunches:thefruit is longandround, wherein is anhardstone; from which fruit is pressedthatliquor which we call oyle Olive.Thewilde Olive is likeuntothetameorgarden Olive tree, savingthattheleaves are something smaller; among which sometimes doegrowmany pricklythomes:the fruit hereof is lesser thanoftheformer,andmoe in number, which do seldome corne to maturityorripenes in so muchthattheoile which is madeofthose berries, continueth ever greene,andis called oile Omphacine, or oileofunripe Olives. Boththetameandthe wilde Olive trees grow in very many placesofItaly, France,andSpaine,andalso intheIslands adjoyning: they are reported to lovethesea coasts; for most doe thinke, asColumellawriteth,thatabove sixty miles from the sea they either die,orelseThemanuredOlive treebringforth no fruit:butthebest,andtheythatdoe yeeldthemost pleasant oile are thosethatgrowintheIsland called Candy. All the Olive trees floure inthemonethofJune:the fruit)s gathered inNovemberorDecember:when they be a little driedandbegin to wrinkle they areputintothepresse,andoutofthemissqueezed oyle, with wateraddedinthepressing: the Olives which are to bee preserved in263

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Autumn saltandpicklemustbe gathered before they be ripe,andwhilest they are greene.Thejuyceis pressed forthofthe stamped leaves, withWineadded thereto (which is better)orwith water,andbeing dried in the Sunitismadeupinto little cakes like perfumes.Theoileofripe Olives mollifiethandasswageth paine, dissolveth tumors or swellings, is good forthestiffen esseofthe joynts,andagainst cramps, especially being mingled according toart,withgoodandwholesome herbes appropriateuntothose diseasesandgriefes, asHypericon,Cammomill, Dill, LiIIies, Roses,andmany others, which do fortifieandincrease his vertues.QUINCETREETheQuince treeisnotgreat,butgrowes low,andmany times in manerofashrub:itis covered with aruggedbarke, whichhathonitnowandthen certain scales: it spreadeth his boughes in compasse like other trees, about which stand leaves somewhatroundlike thoseofthecommonApple tree, greeneandsmooth above,andunder neath softandwhite:theflours beofa white purple colour:thefruit is like an Apple, savingthatmany timesithathcertain embowed&swelling divisions: it differeth in fashionandbignesse; for some Quinces are lesser and round,trustuptogetheratthetop with wrinckles, others longerandgreater:thethirdsort beofa middle manner betwixtboth;they are allofthem set with a thinne cottonorfreese,andbeofthecolourofgold,andhurtfull to the headbyreasonoftheirstrongsmell; they all likewise have a kindeofchoking tast:thepulp within is yellow,andthe seed blackish, lying inhardskins as do the kernelsofotherapples.TheQuince groweth in gardensandorchards,andisplanted oftentimes in hedgesandFences belonging to 26 4

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TurkieCorneGardensandVineyards:itdelighteth to grow on plainandeven grounds,andsomwhat moist withall.TheMarmaladorCotiniat madeofquincesandsugaris goodandprofitable to strengthenthestomack,thatitmay retainandkeep the meat therein untillitbe perfectly digested.WhichCotiniat is made in thismanner:Takefaire Quinces, paire them,cutthem in pieces,andcast away the core, thenputuntoevery poundofQuinces apoundofSugar,andto everypoundofSugar a pinteofwater: thesemustbe boiled together over a stil fire till they be very soft, then let it be strained or ratherrubbedthrougha straineroran hairy Sive, which is better,andthen set it over the fire to boile againe, untillitbe stiffe,andso boxitup,andas it coolethputthereto a little Rose water,anda few grainesofmuskemingled together, which will give a goodly taste totheCotiniat.Thisistheway to makeMarmalad.Takewhole Quincesandboilethemin water until they be as soft as a scalded codlingorapple, then pill off the skin,andcutofftheflesh,andstampitin a stone morter, then straineitas you didtheCotiniat; afterwardputitin a pan to dry,butnotto seethatall,anduntoeverypoundofthe fleshofquincesputthree quartersofapoundofsugar,andin the cooling you mayputin rose wateranda little muske, as was said before.Manyotherexcellent daintyandwholesome Confec tions are to be madeofQuinces, as jellyofQuinces,andsuch like conceits, which for brevities sake I do nowletpasse.TURKIECORNEThestalkofTurkywheat is likethatoftheReed.Thefruit is contained in veriebigeares, coveredwithcoatsandfilmes like husks&leaves, asifit were a certain sheath.Theseeds are great,ofthebignesseofcommon peason.

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AutumnThesekindsofgrain were firstbroughtinto Spaine,andthenintootherprovincesofEurope:not(as some sup pose)outofAsia minor, which istheTurksdominions;butoutofAmericaandtheIslands adjoining, asoutofFlorida,andVirginia or Norembega, wheretheyuse to soworsetittomakebreadofit, whereitgrowes muchhigherthan inothercountries.Itis planted inthegardensoftheseNorthernregions, whereitcommeth to ripenesse whenthesummerfallethoutto be faireandhot;asmyselfe have seenby proof in myne owne garden.TurkyWheatinthehuske, as also nakedorbareItis sowen in these countries inMarchandAprill, andthefruit is ripe in September.Turkywheat doth nourish far lessethaneither wheat, rie, barly,orotes.Thebread which is madethereofismean ely white, withoutbran:itishardanddryasBisket is,andhathinitno clamminesse at all; for which cause itisofharddigestion,andyeeldeth tothebody littleornonourishment.Weehave as yet no certaine proofe or experience concerningthevertuesofthis kindeofCorne; althoughthebarbarous Indians, which know no better, are constrained to make a vertueofnecessitie,andthinkeita good food: whereas we may easilyjudge,thatit nourishethbutlittle,andisofhardandevill digestion, a more convenient food for swine than for man. 266

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Potato'sPOTATO'SThisplant (which is calledofsome SkyrretsofPeru)is generallyofus calledPotatusor Potato's.Ithathlongroughflexible branches trailinguponthegroundlike unto thoseofPompions, whereupon are set greene three cornered leaves very like thoseofthewilde Cucumber.Theroots are many, thicke,andknobby, likeuntotherootsofPeonies, or ratherofthe white Asphodill,joinedtogetheratthetop into one head, inmanerofthe Skyrret, which being divided into divers partsandplanted, do make a great increase, especiallyifthegreatest roots becutinto divers goblets,andplanted in goodandfertile ground.ThePotato'sgrow in India, Barbarie, Spaine,andotherhotregions;ofwhich I planted divers roots (which IboughtattheExchangein London) inmygarden, where they flourished until winter,atwhich time theyperishedandrotted.ThePotatoroots areamongthe Spaniards, Italians, Indians,andmanyothernations, ordinarieandcommon meat; which nodoubtareofmightyandnourishing parts,anddoestrengthenandcomfortnature;whosenutrimentis as it were a mean between fleshandfruit,butsomewhat windie; yet being rosted intheembers they losemuchoftheir windinesse, especially being eaten sopped in wine.Ofthese roots may be made conserves no lesse tooth some, wholesome,anddainty, thanofthefleshofQuinces;andlikewise those comfortableanddelicate meats called in shops, Morselli, Placentul.:e, anddiversothersuchlike.Theseroots may serve as agroundorfoundation whereonthecunningConfectionerorSugar-Baker may workeandframe many comfortable delicat Conservesandrestorative sweet-meats.Theyare used to be eaten rosted intheashes. Some when they be so rosted infuseandsopthemin wine:and 267

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Autumnotherstogive.themthe greater grace in eating, do boilethemwith prunesandso eatthem:likewise others dressethem(being first rosted) with oile, vineger,andsalt, every man according to his owne tasteandliking.Notwithstandinghowsoever they be dressed, they com fort, nourish,andstrengthenthebody.POTATO'SOFVIRGINIAVirginianPotatohathmany hollow flexible branches trailinguponthe ground, three square, uneven, knotted ..f7)t,1L.. Virginian Potatoesorkneed insundryplacesatcertaine distances: from the which knots commeth forth one great leafe madeofdivers leaves, some smaller,andothers greater, settogetherupona fat middle ribbycouples,ofa swart268

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Vine greene colourtendingto rednesse;thewhole leafe resembling thoseoftheWinter-Cresses,butmuchlarger;in tasteatthefirst like grasse,butafterward sharpandnippingthetongue.Fromthebosomeofwhich leaves come forth longroundslender footstalkes, whereongrowvery fairandpleasant floures.Itgroweth naturally in America, whereitwas first discovered, asreportethClusius,since which time I have received rootshereoffrom Virginia, otherwise called Norembega, whichgrow&prosper inmygarden as in their owne native country.TheIndians call this plantPappus,meaning the roots;bywhich name alsothecommon Potatoes are called in those Indian countries.Weehaveit'sproper name mentioned inthetitle.Thevertues be referred tothecommon Potato's, being likewise a food, as also ameatfor pleasure, equall in goodnesseandwholesomnesse tothesame) being either rosted intheembers)orboiledandeaten with oile, vinegerandpepper, or dressed someotherwaybythehandofa skilfull Cooke.THEMANUREDVINEThetrunkeorbodyoftheVine isgreatandthicke) very hard, covered with many barks, which are fullofcliffesorchinks; from whichgrowforth branches asitwere armes) manywayesspreading;outofwhich come forthjointedshootsorsprings;andfromthebosomofthose joints, leavesandclasping tendrels,andlikewise bunchesorclusters fullofgrapes:theleaves be broad, something round, five cornered,andsomewhat indentedabouttheedges: amongst which come forth many clasping ten drels,thattake holdofsuch propsorstaies asstandnextuntoit.Thegrapes differbothin colourandgreatnesse,andalso in manyotherthings, which to distinguish269

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Autumn severally were impossible, considering the infinite sortsorkinds,andalso those which are transplanted from one regionorclymat to another, do likewise alterbothfromtheformeandtaste theyhadbefore: whereforeitshall be sufficient to set forththefigureofthemanuredgrape,andspeak somwhatoftherest.Therebe some Vinesthatbringforth grapesofa whitishorreddish yellow colour; othersofa deep red,bothin the outward skin, juice,andpulpe within.Therebe others whose grapes areofa blew colour,orsomething red, yet is the juice like thoseofthe former.Thesegrapes doe yeeld forth a white wine before they areputintothepresse,anda reddishorpaller wine when they are trodden withthehusks,&so left to macerateorferment, with whichifthey remain too long, they yeeld forth a wineofahighercolour.Therebe others which make a blackandobscureredwine, whereof somebringbigger clusters,andconsistofgreater grapes, othersoflesser; somegrowmore clus tered or closer together, others looser; some havebutone stone, othersmore;some make a more austere orharshwine, others a more sweet:ofsometheold wineisbest,ofdivers the first yeres wine is most excellent: somebringforth fruit foure square,ofwhich kindes we havegreatplenty.Theplantthatbeareth those small Raisins which are commonly called CoransorCurrans, or rather Raisins of Corinth, isnotthatplant whichamongthevulgar people is taken for Currans,itbeing ashruborbushthatbrings forth small clustersorberries, differing asmuchasmay be from Corans, having no affinitie withtheVineorany kinde thereof.TheVinethatbeareth small Raisinshatha bodyorstock asotherVines have, branchesandtendrels likewise.Theleaves are largerthananyofthe others, snipt abouttheedges liketheteethofa saw:amongwhich come forth clustersofgrapes in forme like'27

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Pine theother,butsmaller,ofa blewish colour; which being ripe are gatheredandlaiduponhurdles, carpets, mats,andsuch like, intheSun todry:thenthey are caried to some houseandlaiduponheaps, as wee lay applesandcorne in a garner,untill the merchantsbuythem:then do theyputthem into large butsorotherwoodden vessels,andtreadthemdowne with their bare feet, which they call Stiv ing,andso they arebroughtinto these parts forouruse. A wise husbandman will commit to a fatandfruitfull soile a leane Vine,ofhis own naturenottoo fruitfull: to a leangrounda fruitfull Vine: to a closeandcompact earth a spreading vine,andthatis fullofmatterto make branches of: to a looseandfruitful soile a Vineoffew branches. Grapes havetheprehemin enceamongtheAutumnefruits,andnourish morethanthey all,butyetnotsomuchas figges;andthey have inThd .themlittle illJ"uice, especiallyemanureVmehbh"w en they ee t orownpe.Grapesmaybekeptthewhole yeare, being ordered after the samemannerthatJoachimus Camerariusre porteth. You shall take, saith hee,themealeofmustardseed,andstrew inthebottomeofanyearthenpotwell leaded; whereupon you shall laythefairest bunchesofthe ripest grapes,thewhich you shall cover withmoreofthe foresaid meale,andlayuponitanothersortofGrapes, so doing untillthepotbe full:thenshall you fill27I

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Autumnupthepotto the brimme with a kindofsweet wine calledMust.Thepot being very close covered shall be set into some cellar orothercold place:thegrapes you may take forthatyourpleasure, washing them with faire water fromthepouder.TospeakeofwinethejuiceofGrapes, which being newly pressed forth is calledMustumornew wine; afterthedregsanddrosse are setled,anditappearethpureandcleer,itis called in English,Wine,andthatnotunproperly.Forcertainotherjuices, asofApples, Pomegranats, Peares, Medlars, Services,orsuch other wise made (for examples sake)ofBarleyandGraine, benotatall simply called wine,butwiththenameofthethingaddedwhereof they do consist.Hereuponis the wine which is pressed forthofthePomegranateberries namedRhoites,orwineofPomegranats;outofQuinces,Cydonites,orwineofQuinces:outofPeares,ApyitesorPerry;andthatwhich is compoundedofBarley is called Z}thum, orBarley wine: inEnglish,AleorBeere.Andothercertain wines have borrowed syrnamesoftheplantsthathave bin infusedorsteeped inthem;and yet all winesofthe Vine, asWormwoodwine,Myrtle andHyssopwine, which are all called artificiall wmes. Thatis properlyandsimply called wine whichispressedoutofthegrapesofthevine,andis without anymannerofmixture.ThekindesofWinesarenotofone nature, norofone facultieorpower,butofmany, differing one fromanother;for there is one differencethereofin taste, another in colour,thethirdis referred totheconsistenceorsubstanceoftheWine;thefourth consisteth in the vertueandstrengththereof.Galenaddeththatwhichisfound inthesmell, which belongs tothevertue andstrengthoftheWine.Itis good for such asarein a consumption,byreason272

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Vineofsome disease,andthathave need to have their bodies nourishedandrefreshed (alwaies provided they have no fever,)asGalensaith in his seventh bookeoftheMethodofcuring.Itrestorethstrengthmostofallotherthings,andthatspeedily:Itmaketh a man merryandjoyfull:Itputtethaway feare, care, troublesofminde,andsorrow:andbringeth sleepe gently.Andthese things proceedofthe moderate useofwine: for immoderatedrinkingofwine doth altogetherbringthe contrarie.Theythataredrunkeare distraughted in minde, become foolish,andoppressed with a drowsie sleepinesse,andbe afterward taken with the Apoplexy,thegout,oraltogether withothermost grievous dis eases.Andseeingthatevery excesse is to be shunned,itis expedient mostofall toshunthis,bywhich not onlythebody,butalsothemindereceivethhurt.Whereforewe thinke,thatwine isnotfit for menthatbe alreadyoffull age, unlesseitbe moderately taken, because it carrieththemheadlong into furyandlust,andtroubleth and dulleththereasonablepartoftheminde.Thereis drawneoutofWinea liquor, which inLatineiscommonly calledAqua vitte, orwateroflife,andalso Aqua ardens,orburningwater, which as distilled waters are drawneoutofherbesandotherthings, is afterthesamemannerdistilledoutofstrongwine,thatis to say, by certaine instrume:nts made for this purpose, which are commonly called Limbeckes.Thiswater is good for all thosethatare made cold eitherbya long disease,orthroughage, as for oldandimpotentmen:for it cherishethandincreaseth naturall heate;upholdethstrength, repairethandaugmenteththe same:itprolongeth life, quickeneth allthesenses,anddothnotonly preservethememory,butalso re coverethitwhenitis lost:itsharpeneth the sight. 273

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Winter Thebriefesummeof that hathbeenesaid oftheJ7ine.Almighty God for the comfortofmankinde ordainedWine;butdecreed withall,Thatit should be moderately taken, forsoitiswholsomeandcomfortable:butwhen measureisturnedinto excesse,itbecommeth unwhole some,anda poyson most venomous. Besides, how little credenceisto be given to drunkardsitis evident; forthoughthey be mighty men, yetitmaketh them monsters,andworse than brute beasts. Finally in a word to con clude; this excessive drinkingofWinedishonoreth Noblemen, beggereth the poore,andmore have beene destroied by surfeiting therewith, than by the sword.TRAVELLERS-JOYTheplant whichLobelsetteth forthunderthetitleofJ7iorna, Dodontus makesJ7itisalba;butnotproperly; whose long wooddyandviny branches extend themselves very far, and into infinite numbers, decking with his clasping tendrelsandwhite starre-like floures (being very sweet) all the bushes, hedges,andshrubsthatare neereuntoit.Itsends forth many branched stalkes, thicke, tough, fullofshootsandclasping tendrels,wherewithitfoldethitselfeuponthe hedges, and taketh hold and climethuponeverythingthatstandeth neereuntoit.Theleaves are fastned for the mostpartby fivesuponone riborstem, two on either side,andone inthemidst or point standing alone; which leaves are broad like thoseofIvy,butnot corneredatall: among which come forth clustersofwhite floures,andafter them great tuftsofflat seeds, each seed having a fine white plume like a feather fastned to it, which maketh in theWintera goodly shew, covering the hedges white all over with his feather-like tops.Theroot is long, tough, and thicke, with many strings fastned thereto.

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CedarTheTravellers-Joy is found inthebordersoffields among thornesandbriers, almost in every hedge as yougofrom Gravesend toCanturburyinKent;in many placesofEssex,andin mostofthese Southerly parts about London,butnot intheNorthofEnglandthatI can heare of.Thefloures come forth inJuly:the beautiethereofap peares in NovemberandDecember.Thisplant is commonly called Viorna, quasi vias ornans,ofdeckingandadorningwaiesandhedges, where people travel;andthereupon I have named it the Travel lers-Joy.Theseplants have no use in physicke as yet found out,butare esteemed onely for pleasure, by reasonofthegoodly shadow which they make with their thicke bushingandclyming, as also for the beautyofthe floures,andthepleasant sentorsavourofthesame.TheSpanish Travellers-JoyCEDARTREEThegreatcedar is a very big &hightree,noton ely exceeding allotherresinous treesandthose which bear fruit likeuntoit,butin his talnesseandlargenesse farresurmountingallothertrees:thebodyortrunkthereofis commonlyofamightybignesse, insomuch as fourmenarenotable to fathom it, asTheophrastuswriteth.The275

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Winterbarkofthe lowerpartwhich proceedethoutoftheearth, to the first young branches or shoots, isroughandharsh;therest which is among the boughes is smoothandglib;theboughes grow forth almostfrom the bottom,andnotfarre from the ground, even tothevery top, waxing by degrees lesserandshorter stil as they grow higher, the tree bearing the formeandshapeofaPyramideorsharpe pointed steeple: these com'0 passethebodyroundabout '.:;:0,. inmanerofa circle,and are so orderly placed by degrees,thatamanmay clymbeupbythemto the very top asbya ladder: the leaves be smallandroundlike thoseofthePinetree,butshorter,andnotso sharp pointed: allthecones or clogs are far shorterandthicker than thoseoftheFirtree, com pactofsoft, nothardscales, which hangnotdownewards,butstanduprightupontheboughes, whereunto also they aresostrongly fastned, as they can hardly beplucktoff withoutThegreat Cedar of Libanusbreaking somepartofthe branches asBelloniuswriteth.Thetimberis extreame hard,androttethnot, nor waxeth old; there is no wormes nor rottennesse canhurtor takethehardmatterorheartofthis wood, which is very odor.iferousand red.SolomonKingoftheJewes dId therefore GodsTemplein Jerusalem Cedar wood.The werewontto make theirDIVelSorImagesofthISkmdeofwood,thattheymightlastthelonger.276

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CypresseTheCedar treesgrowuponthesnowy mountaines, as in SyriauponMountLibanus,onwhichthereremaine some even to this day, saithBe/lanius,plantedas isthoughtbySolomonhimselfe: they are likewise foundonthemountainsTaurusandAmanus,in coldandstony places.ThemerchantsoftheFactorieofTripolistold me,ThattheCedartreegrowethuponthedecliningofthemountLibanus,neere tothehermitagebythecityTripolisin Syria:TheinhabitantsofSyriauseit tomakeboats of, forwantofthePinetree.TheCedar tree remaines alwaies green, asothertrees which beare suchmaneroffruit:thetimberoftheCedartree,andtheimagesandotherworks made thereof, seem to sweatandsend forth moisture in moistandrainy weather, as do likewise allthathave an oily juice, asTheophrastuswitnesseth.Thereissuethoutofthis tree a rosin like tothatwhich issuethoutoftheFirtree, very sweet in smell,ofa clammyorcleaving substance,thewhichifyouchew in yourteethitwill hardly begottenforth again,itcleaveth so fast:atthefirst it is liquidandwhite,butbeingdriedintheSunneit waxethhard:ifitbe boiled inthefire an excellentpitchismadethereofcalled Cedar pitch.TheEgyptianswerewontto coffinandembalmetheirDeadinCedarandwithCedar pitch,althoughtheyusedothermeans, asHerodotusrecordeth.CYPRESSETREEThetameormanuredCypressetreehathalongthickeandstraightbody;whereuponmanyslender branches do grow,whichdonotspredabroadlikethebranchesofothertrees,butgrowupalongstthebody, yetnottouchingthetop:theygrowafterthefashionofa steeple, broad below,andnarrowtowardthetop:thesubstanceofthewood is hard, sound, well compact, sweetofsmell,and277

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Wintersomewhat yellow, almost liketheyellow Saunders,butnotaltogether so yellow, neitherdothit rot nor wax old, nor cleavethorchoppethitselfe.Theleaves are long,roundlike thoseofTamariske,butfullerofsubstance.Thefruitornuts do hang upon the boughes, being inmannerlike to thoseoftheLarchtree,butyet thickerandmore closely compact: which being ripe doofthem selvespartin sunder,andthen falleth the seed, which is shakenoutwith the winde: the same is small, flat, very thin,ofa swart ill favoured colour, whichispleasant toAntsor Pismires,andserveth them for food.Thetameandmanured Cypresse groweth in hot coun tries, a,s in Candy, Lycia, Rhodes, and also in the territoryofCyrene: itisreported to be likewise found on the hils belonging tomountIda, and on the hills calledLeuci,thatis to say, white, the tops whereof be alwaies covered with snow.Itgroweth likewise in divers placesofEnglandwhereithathbeen planted, as at Sion a place neereLondon, sometimes a houseofNunnes:itgroweth alsoatGreenewich,andatother places,andlikewiseatHampsted in the gardenofMr.Wade,oneofthe Clerkesofher Majesties privie Councell.Theophrastusattributethgreat honor to this tree, shewingthatthe rootsofoldTemplesbecame famous by reasonofthatwood,andthatthetimberthereof,ofwhichtherafters are made is everlasting,anditisnothurtthere by rotting, cobweb, nor anyotherinfirmitie or corruption.Itis reportedthatthesmokeoftheleavesdothdrive away gnats,andthatthe clogs doe so likewise.Theshavingsofthewood laid among garments preserve them from the moths:therosin killethMoths,little wormes,andmagots.YEWTREETheYewTree,asGalenreporteth,ISofa venomous 278

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Hollyquality,andagainst mans nature.Dioscorideswriteth,andgenerally allthatheretofore have dealt in the facultieofHerbes,thatthe Yew tree is very venomous tobetaken inwardly, andthatifany doe sleepeunderthe shadow thereofitcauseth sicknesseandoftentimes death. Moreover, they saythatthe fruit thereof being eaten is not on ely dangerous and deadly unto man,butifbirds doe eat thereofitcauseth them to cast their feathers, and many times to die. All which I dare boldly affirmeisaltogetheruntrue:for when I was yongandwent to schoole, diversofmyschoole-fellowes and likewisemyselfe did eatourfilsofthe berriesofthis tree,andhavenotonely sleptunderthe shadow thereof,butamong the branches also, without anyhurtatall,andthatnot one time,butmany times.Theophrastussaith,Thatlabouring beasts die,ifthey doe eateofthe leaves;butsuch cattell as chew their cud receive nohurtatall thereby.HOLME,HOLLY,ORHULVERTREETheHollyisa shrubbie plant, notwithstandingitoften times growes to a treeofa reasonable bignesse:theboughes whereof are toughandflexible, covered with a smooth and green barke.Thesubstanceofthe woodishardandsound,andblackishoryellowish within, whichdothalso sinke in the water, asdoththe Indian wood whichiscalledGuaiacum:the leaves areofa beautifull green colour, smoothandglib, like almost the bay leaves,butlesser,andcornered in the edges with sharp prickles, which notwithstanding they wantorhave few when the treeisold: the floures be white,andsweetofsmell:theberries are round,ofthe bignesseofa little Pease,ornotmuch greater,ofcolour red,oftast unpleasant, with a white stone in the midst, which do not easily fall away,buthangon the boughes a long time: the rootiswooddy.279

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WinterHollytreeThereismadeofthesmooth barkeofthis treeorshrub,Birdlime, which the birders and country men do use to take birds with: they pul off the barke,andmake a ditch in theground,specially in moist, boggy,orsoggy earth, wherinto theyput If!! bark, coveringtheditch wIth boughesoftrees, let-tingitremaine there tilitbe andp.utrified, which ,??'Ji WIllbe done In thespaceoftwelve daiesorthereabout: which done, they take it forth,andbeat in mortersuntill it be come tothethicknesseandclamminesseofLime:lastly,thatthey may clearitfrom piecesofbarkeandother filthinesse, they do wash it very often: after which they addeuntoita little oyleofnuts,andafterthatdoputitupin earthen vessels.TheHollytree groweth plentifully in all countries.Itgrowethgreenbothwinterandsummer;theberries are they dohanguponthetree a ripe in September,andlongtime after.Thistree orshrubis called inLatineAgrifolium:in French,HousandHousson:in English, Holly,Hulver,andHolme.TheBirdlime which is madeofthebarke hereof is no less hurtfull thanthatofMisseltoe, foritis marvellous clammy, itgluethupalltheintrails,andbythis meanes it bringeth destruction to man,notbyany quality,butby hisgluingsubstance.280

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Missel/oeIvyI vie climbeth on trees, old buildings,andwalls: the stalkes thereof are wooddy,andnowandthen so great asitseemes to become atree;from whichitsendeth a multitudeoflittle boughesorbranches every way, whereby asitwere with armesitcreepethandwandereth farabout:it alsobringethforth continually fine little roots,bywhich it fastnethitselfeandcleaveth wonderfullhardupontrees,anduponthesmoothest stone walls:theleaves are smooth, shining especially ontheupperside, cornered with sharpe pointed corners. Thefloures are very smallandmossie; after which succeed bundlesofblack ber ries,everyonehaving a small sharpe pointall.Clymbingorberried IvieIvie flourisheth inAutumne:theberries are ripe aftertheWinterSolstice.Theleaves laid in steepe in water for a dayanda nights space, helpe soreandsmarting waterish eies,ifthey be bathedandwashed withthewater wherein they have beene infused.MISSELTOEViscumorMisseltoehathmany slender branches spread overthwart one another,andwrappedorinterlaced one within another,thebarkewherofisofalightgreenor 281

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Winter Popinjay colour:theleavesofthis branching excrescence beofa brown green colour: the floures be smallandyellow: which beeing past, there appeare small clustersofwhite translucent berries, which are so clearethata man may see thorow them,andareofa clammyorviscous moisture, whereof the best Bird-lime is made, far exceedingthatwhich is madeoftheHolmorHollybark:and" within thisberryis a small blacke kernelorseed: this excrescence hath not any root, neither doth increase him selfeofhis seed,assome have supposed;butitrather commethofa certaine moistureandsubstance gathered togetherupon the boughsandjointsofthe trees,throughthe barke whereof this vaporous moisture proceeding, brings forththeMisseltoe.Manyhave diversly spoken hereof. SomeoftheLearnedhave set down,thatit comesofthedungofthebird called aThrush,who having fedofthe seeds thereof,hathvoided .andleft hisdungupontheMIsseltoetree, whereof was ingendered this bery, a most fitmatterto make limeofto intrap and catch birds withal!. Misseltoe growethuponOkesanddiversothertrees almost every where. Misseltoe is alwaies greene as well in winter assummer:theberries are ripe inAutumne,they remain all winter thorow,andare a food for divers birds, as Thrushes, Black-birds,&Ring-doves.282

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IndianFig treeBLACKEHELLEBOREThisplant hath thickeandfat leavesofa deep green colour,theupperpartwhereof is somewhat bluntly nicked or toothed, havingsundrydivisionsorcuts, in some leaves many, in others fewer.Itbeareth Rose fashioned flouresuponslender stems, growing immedi atlyoutofthegroundan handfull high, sometimes very white,andoftentimes mixed with a little shewofpurple:which being vaded, there succeed small husks fullofblacke seeds. A purgationofHelleboris good formadandfurious men, for melancholy, dullandheavie persons,andbriefly for all thosethatare troubled with blacke choler,andmolested with melancholy.Itis agreed among the later writers,thatthese plants areVeratra nigra:in English, blackeHellebores:ofdivers,Melampodium,because it was first foundbyMelampos,who was firstthoughttopurgetherewith Pr,:etus hismaddaughters,andto restore them to health.Dioscorideswriteth,thatthis man was a shepheard: others, a Soothsayer.InhighDutchitiscalled Christs herbe,andthatbecauseitfloureth about thebirthofourLordJesus Christ.THEARCHEDINDIANFIGTREEThisrareandadmirable tree is very great, straight,andcovered with a yellow barketendingto tawny:theboughesandbranches are many, very long, tough,andflexible, growing very long in short space, as doe the twigsofOziars,andthose so longandweake,thattheends thereofhangdowneandtouch the ground, where they take rootandgrow in such sort,thatthose twigs become great trees:andthese being growneupuntothe like greatnesse, doe cast their branchesortwiggy tendrels283

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Winteruntotheearth, wheretheylikewise take holdandroot;bymeaneswhereofitcommethto passe,thatofone tree ismadeagreatwoodordesartoftrees,whichtheIndiansdoe use for coverture againsttheextreme heatoftheSun,wherewith they are grievously vexed: some likewiseusethemfor pleasure,cuttingdownebya direct line alongwalke,orasitwere a vault,throughthethickestpart,from which also theycutcertaine loope-holesorwin dawes in some places, totheendto receivetherebythefresh coole airethatentreththereat, as also for light,thattheymaysee their cattellthatfeed thereby, to avoid anydangerthatmighthappenuntothemeitherbytheenemyorwilde beasts: from which vaultorclose walkedothreboundsuch an admirable ecchooranswering voice,ifoneofthemspeakeuntoanotheraloud,thatitdothresoundoranswer againe foureorfive times, according totheheightofthevoice, to whichitdothanswer,andthatso plain ely,thatitcannotbeknownfromthevoiceitselfe:thefirstormotherofthis woodordesartoftrees ishardto bee knowne fromthechildren,butbythegreat. nesseofthebody, which threemencan scarsely fathomabout:uponthebrancheswhereofgrowleaveshardand wrinkled, in shape like those -oftheQuincetree, greene above,andofa whitish hoary__ '"'"" colourunderneath,where.upontheElephantsdelightThearchedIndianFig treeto feed:amongwhich leaves 28 4

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Barnacle Treecome forththefruit,ofthebignesseofamansthumbe,in shape like a smallFig,butofasanguineorbloudy colour,andofa sweet tast,butnotso pleasant astheFigsofSpaine;notwithstandingthey are good to be eaten,andwithall very wholesome.Thiswondroustreegrowethin divers placesoftheEast-Indies,especially neereuntoGoa,andalsoinMalaca:itis astrangerinmostpartsoftheWorld.Itkeepethhis leavesgreeneWinterandSummer.Thistree is calledofthosethathave travelled,Ficus Indica;theIndianFig;andArbor Goa,oftheplacewhereitgrowethingreatestplenty:wemaycallitinEnglish,thearchedFigtree.THEGOOSETREE,BARNACLETREE,ORTHETREEBEARINGGEESEHavingtravelled fromtheGrassesgrowinginthebottomeofthefenny waters,theWoods,andmountaines, evenuntoLibanusit selfe, wee are arrivedattheendofourHistory;thinkingitnotimpertinenttotheconclusionofthesame, toendwith oneofthemarvelsofthisland(wemaysayoftheWorld).Thehistorywhereofto setforthaccording totheworthinesseandraritie thereof,wouldnotonlyrequirea largeandpeculiar volume,butalso adeepersearchintothebowelsofNature,thanmyintendedpurposewill suffermeto wade into,mysufficiencie also considered; leavingtheHistorythereofroughhewen,untosome excellent man, learned inthesecretsofnature,tobebothfinedandrefined: inthemeane spacetakeitasitfalleth out,thenakedandbaretruth,thoughunpolished.TherearefoundintheNorthpartsofScotlandandtheIslands adjacent, calledOrchades,certaine trees whereon dogrowcertaine shellsofa white colourtendingto russet, wherein are contained little living creatures: which shells in timeofmaturitydoe open,andoutofthemgrowthose285

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Winterlittle living things, which falling intothewater do become fowles, which we call Barnacles; in theNorthofEngland,brantGeese;andin Lancashire, tree Geese:butthe otherthatdo falluponthe land perishandcome to nothing.Thusmuchby the writingsofothers,andalso from the mouthesofpeopleofthose parts, which may very well accord withtruth.Butwhatoureies have seene,andhands have touched we shall declare.Thereis a small Island in Lancashire calledthePileofFoulders, wherein are found the broken piecesofoldandbruised ships, some whereof have beene cast thitherbyshipwracke,andalso thetrunksandbodies with the branchesofoldandrotten trees, castupthere likewise; whereon is found a certainespumeor froththatin time breedethuntocertaine shells, in shape like thoseoftheMuskle,butsharper pointed,andofa whitishcolour; wherein is contained athingin forme like a laceofsilke finely woven as it were together,ofa whitish colour, oneendwhereof is fastned unto the insideoftheshell, even asthefishofOistersandM uskles are:theotherendismade fastuntothebellyofarudemasseorlumpe, which in time commeth to the shapeandformeofaBird:when itisperfectly formedtheshell gapeth open,andthefirstthingthatappeareth istheforesaid laceorstring;next come the legsofthe birdhangingout,andasitgroweth greater it openeth the shellbydegrees, tilatlengthitis all come forth,andhangethon ely bythebill: inshortspace afteritcommeth to full maturitie,andfalleth intothesea, whereitgathereth feathers,andgroweth to a fowle bigger than a Mallard,andlesser than a Goose, having blacke legsandbillorbeake,andfeathers blacke and white, spotted in suchmanneras isourMagpie,called in some places a Pie-Annet, whichthepeopleofLanca shire call by no other name than a tree Goose: which place aforesaid,andall those parts adjoyning do so muchaboundtherewith)thatoneofthe best isboughtfor three286

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BarnacleTreepence.Forthetruthhereof,ifany doubt, may it please them to repaire unto me, and I shall satisfie them bythetestimonieofgood witnesses. Moreover, it should seemethatthereisanother sort hereof; theHistoryofwhich is true, andofmine owne knowledge: for travelling upon the shoreofour English coast betweene Dover and Rumney, I found thetrunkeofan old rotten tree, which (with some helpe that I procured by Fishermens wivesthatwere there attendingThebreedofBarnaclestheir husbands returne from the sea) we drewoutofthe water upon dry land: upon this rotten tree I found growingmany thousandsoflong crimson bladders, in shape likeuntopuddings newly filled, before they be sodden, which were very cleere and shining; at the netherendwhereof did grow a shell fish, fashioned somewhat like a small Muskle,butmuch whiter, resembling a shell fish that groweth upon the rockes about Garnsey and Garsey, called aLympit:manyofthese shells Ibroughtwith me to London, which after I had opened I found in them living things without forme or shape; in others which287

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Winterwere neerer come to ripenesse I found living thingsthatwere very naked, in shape like a Bird: in others, the Birds covered with soft downe, the shell halfe open,andtheBird ready to fall out, which nodoubtwere the Fowles called Barnacles. I dare not absolutely avouch every circumstanceofthe first partofthis history, con cerning the treethatbeareth those buds aforesaid,butwill leaveitto a further consideration; howbeit, that which I have seene with mine eies,andhandledwith mine hands, I dare confidently avouch,andboldlyputdowne for verity.Nowifany will objectthatthis tree which I sawmightbe oneofthose before mentioned, which eitherbythe wavesofthe seaorsome violent wind had beene overturned as many other trees are; orthatany trees falling into those seas about the Orchades, willofthemselves beare the like Fowles, by reasonofthose seasandwaters, these being so probable conjectures,andlikely to be true, I maynotwithout prejudice gaine say,orindeavour to confute.Andthus havingthroughGods assistance discoursed somewhat at largeofGrasses,Herbes,Shrubs, Trees,andMosses,andcertaine Excrescencesoftheearth, withotherthings moe, incident tothehistorie thereof, we concludeandendourpresent Volume, with this wonderofEngland.Forthewhich GodsNamebe ever honoredandpraised.FINIS288

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THENOTESANDTABLES

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NOTESBotanical history compliments Gerard by giving the year1597when his Herbalwaspublished--or thereaboutsasthe dateofthe introductionofmany plants to Britain.Thisdatewasconvenient when exact informationwaslacking and a plant had been described by Gerard. Examples are MargeromeofCandy, Sugar Cane, an Iris, someofthe Lilies, and Crown Imperial. Lettuce and Rose mary also were introduced in Gerard's time.PAGE + TheSpring Saffrons are the familiar Crocus vernusandC.luteus. + TheNarcissi described areNarcissus poeticus.ThefigureisofN.Jonquilla.9Thefirst Anemone describedis A. coronaria,ofwhich the others are varieties.20Thetwin-like CowslipisPrimula veris.Double Paigle and the Primrose with the greenish flowers are varietiesofP.vulgaris. 23 Anemone Pulsatillaisa nativeofseveral partsofEngland; the white varietyisrare. 2+ TheSweet Johns and Sweet Williams are identified withDianthus Carthusianorum.ThePrideofAustriaisD. superbus.26Theflowers which Gerard judgedastoo sweet have been taken for White Lilac, but the description favoursPhiladelphus coronarius(commonly called Syringa) whichisthe plant illus trated."BlewPipe"isthe old nameofSyringa vulgaris,the common Lilac. +2 TheDocks first described areRumexHydropapathumandR.obtusifolius.Bloudwort suggestsR.sanguineus.R. Patientia came from Italy in Gerard's time. 53 Lilyofthe Valley still grows at Hampstead (inKenWood).291

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Notes 54 English JacinthisGerard's name forScilla nutans.False bum bast Jacinth appears tobea speciesofHypoxis,and FloureofTygris the splendidTigridis Pavonia.57-60 White Lily and LilyofConstantinople are bothLilium candidum.Mountaine Lillies areL.Martagon.Persian LillyisFritillaria persica,andCrowne Imperiall(page 38)isF. Imperialis.Day LillieisHemerocallis fulva. Fritillaria Meleagriswas not recognisedasan English wild flower until the middleofthe nineteenth century. 64 Gerard cultivated a dozen sortsofIris.Thefigureisof1.susiana,introducedtoBritain from the Levant 1596. Floure de-IuceofDalmatiais1.pallida.Therootsof1.jlorentinasupply the orris rootofthe perfumers. 66 Gerard cultivated and described the Male, masculaand the Female,P.officinalis.Stronger and weaker varietiesofplants were often distinguishedasmale and female. 68 French Corne-Bagge(Gladioluscommunis)isa plantofcentral and southern Europe.InBritain itisfound wild in theNewForest and the ofWight. 7IInthe expression "'maketh a may gracious" the word"may"could mean either man or maid. 7IThefirstofthese Bell-flowersisCampanula persicifolia,and the secondC.pyramidalis.76 Herb Two-pence(Lysimachia Nummularia)still has the popular name Money-wort,aswellasCreeping Jenny. 77 White Helleboris reratrum alba,a sixteenth century introduc tion to England. 78 AlthoughfiveBritish speciesofPoly gala(or three with two varietiesofoneofthem) are now generally recognised, at least threeofthe plants described areP. vulgaris.Theillustration showsIllecebrum verticil/atum.82Rough Bind-weed(Smilax aspera)isthe Smilaxofsouthern Europe.Thesmooth varietyis,asGerard says, not properly Smilax butConvolvulus sepium,and ScammonieisC.scammonia,imported to Britain from the Levant.Smilax Sarsaparillawas brought to Europe in the middleofthe sixteenth centuryasa medicineofvirtue. 87TheSwallow-wort describedisrincetoxicum officinale.ThekindofAsclepias still bears the nameoflEsculapius: A. syriaca292

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Notesisthe fragrant plantofCanadian woods, introduced to Britain in the seventeenth century.90TheLimes described areTilia europa:a, supposed to be a hybrid,ofgarden origin. 94Itisremarkable that Gerard described no more than a dozen Roses. HisWhiteRoseisRosa arvensis,the Red,R.Gallica,the Damaske,R.provincialis.TheGreatHolland RoseisR.centifolia,ofwhich the Province Rose may have been a variety.TheMuske Roses (page99)areR.moschata,R.Lutea(illustrated) andR.cinnamonea. 104TheCampions described are both the exotic species,Lychnis coronana.108Among the Foxgloves we recogniseDigitalis purpureaand its white variety.Itisremarkable that Gerard should accord the plants no place in medicine, considering thatDigitalisranks to dayasoneofthe most valuableofBritish "official herbs",ofwhich about two dozen find a place in theBritish Pharmaco pceia. 1,I 14ThoraValdensiumisRanunculus Thora.Yellow W olfes-baneisAconitum Lycoctonum,and AnthoraisAconitum Anthora.IISTheSeaLavenders described areStatice Limonium,andS. binervosa,long regardedasa variety,buta distinct species in accordance with Gerard's decision.I16 Aster Tripoliumisallied to the Michaelmas Daisy brought to England fromNorthAmerica by the elderJohnTradescant, gardener to Charles1.118Thetwo spurges described areEuphorbia ParaliasandE.Helioscopia.ThefigureisofE. amygdaloides.120Gerard grouped various plantsasPennywort,ofwhich thereisone British species,Cotyledon Umbilicus.Thesecond kindisSedum roseum,and the thirdHydrocotyle vulgaris. 124HousleekeisS empervivum tectorum.126Ladies ShooisCypripedium Calceolus.136Blacke W ortleisVaccinium Myrtillus(Bilberry, Blaeberry,orWhortleberry) and redWhortle V Vitis-ida:a (Cowberry,orRed Whortleberry).138Thered, white and green Strawberries areFragaria virginiana,introduced fromNorthAmerica.293

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Notes 14-1 Thefirst Reedis Arundo Phragmites,and the great sortis A. Donax,commonasa screen in Italian gardens. 14-7 Some thirty Carnations, GilloRoures, Pinkes, Sweet-Johns, Sweet-Williams, and Wilde Williams are described in the Herbal.The"GilloRoure with yellowRours"isa varietyofDianthus caryophyl/us,ancestorofthe garden Carnation. 153 Mouse-eare Scorpion Grasseisan old name for the F orget-me not.Thefirst describedisScorpiurus sulcatus.155 English CudweedisGnaphalium sylvaticum,oneofthe four speciesofthe British genusofEverlasting Flowers."Livefor-ever"isG. margariticeum."Small" and"Wicked"Cud weed are rightly named in the HerbalFilago,a genusofa few species formerly included with the other. 157TheFeverfews areChrysanthemum Parthenium,the com mon British wild Rower (perhaps not indigenous). 158Thefemale Mullein may have been eitherf/erhascum Blattariaor f/. Lychnitis.159ThePurple Goat's-beardisSalsify(Tragopogon porrifolius)andisoccasionally found established in southern England. 161 Oculus Christiisthe British wild Rower, Clary(Salvia f/erhenaca);Purple ClarieisS. Horminum.166 Dyer's Bugloss (Anchusa tinctoria)isa nativeofItaly.TheEchiummentionedisViper's Bugloss(E. vulgare).167TarragonandDraco herhaare old names forArtemisia Dracunculus.168 Nasturtium (TroptZolum) iswrongly namedasa Cress; itisa nativeofSouth America. 173ThreeTeasels grow in Britain,ofwhichDipsacus ful/onumisthe famed Fuller's Teasel, possibly a cultivated variety.Itisnow known that the water-supply in Teasel cupsisdrawn from the soil. 174Gerard cultivated and described several Rues not represented in Britain,asGarden Rue(Rutagraveolens)and wild Rue(R.montana.)178 Skirrets, theWaterParsnip(Sium Sisarum)was brought to England from China; though rare,itmay linger in cottage gardens. 191Thorn-Apple(Datura Stramonium)isan instanceofa South American plant which in a short time made itself more orlessat 294

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Noteshome in southern England, the seeds having been introduced from Constantinople (or, according to some, from ItalyorSpain) and dispersed through the land by Gerard.InVirginia itisnamed Fire-weed, from springingupafter fires.Theplant first describedisDaturaMete/;these names are from the Arabie, the specific one expressing the narcotic effectofthe plant.198, 199, 200Common Henbane(Hyoscyamus niger)isthe com mon British weed, alsoofEurope and Western Asia. Yellow HenbaneisNicotiana rustica.Tobacco plants, said to have been first brought from America in1570,were namedNico tianain honourofJohnNicot,FrenchAmbassador in Portu gal, who procured the seeds.208Floure-gentle excited delight when introduced to Britain from the East Indies,as"very brave to look upon".Theplant first describedisidentified withCelosia cristata,andtheFloramorisAmaranthus tricolor.216GreatBlew-BottleisCentaurea montana,introduced to Britain from central and southern Europe. Gerard also cultivated C.Cyanus.222TheWoundwortisStachys palustris,sonamed by Gerard's first editor, Johnson.225Early herbalists termed the Scarlet Pimpernel(Anagal/is arvensis)the Male, and the blue variety (A.ccerulea) the Female.Theplant figured inAnagallis monel/i. 228Bastard MargeromeofCandy(Origanum creticum)was intro duced to Britain from Southern Europe about1597.231f7erbenaofficinalisisthe one British representativeofthe genus,sothat itisdoubtfulifGerard found Creeping Vervaine grow ing wild. 243Thegreat MapleisAcerpseudo-platanus,naturalised in Britain.255ThenamesWhiteSatin,Lunaria,and Pricksong-wort are allusions to the seed-vessels."Pricks"were notes inwrittenmusic, and a sheetofmusic in Gerard's day was a pricksong.258TheMeadow Saffrons described are allColchicum autumnalis. Hermodactyluswas a name given to an Iris.265ZeaMayswas introduced to Britain fromNorthAmerica,1562.

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Notes267-8 Gerard published the first pictureofthe so-called Virginian Potato (not a nativeofVirginia) supposed to have been brought to Britain from that country by colonists sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh.Thename distinguished this from "Battatas", or Sweet Potatoes,usedin Englandasa delicacy before the intro ductionofthe other, and confusingly called by Gerard the Common Potato.InGerard's portrait in the Herbal heisholding a branchofthe Potato. 274Thename "Traveller'sJoy"wasoneofGerard's happiest inventions.Thoughhe objected to the name Pitis albait remains thatofthe one British species. Piorna isaNorthAmerican species. 281 Mistletoe, contrary to Gerard's (andhisartist's) opinion, grows very rarely on Oaks. Itissurprising that after mention ing theseedhe should have denied that it increases by seed. 285Themythofthe BarnacleTreegoesback to remoteages.In1677 a paperwasread on the subject before the Royal Society; Gerardwasin good company (including thatofthe herbalist WilliamTurner)in giving credence to the legend.

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TABLEOFSUNDRYVERTUESTobetaken in a pipe against ACH'ES in any partofthe bodie,203AgoodAMOROUSmedicine to make one in love, 8TheANTIDOTEagainst Aconite or Wolfes bane, 114FortheBALDhead,InAnoilegoodtobeanointed afterBATHS, 14-5 Forbroken BONES,90Anunguent against allBOTCHES,200Tomake theBREATHvery sweet,135Tobeput intoBROTHS,128, 212Totake away the blacknesse or blewnesseofanyBRUISE,66,89Totake awayCORNES,51, 125A decoction for theCOUGH,37Forthose that have noDELIGHT,172Tokeep littleDOGSfrom growing great,ISTokeepe a man from beingDRUNKE, 24-1 Very much commended for theEIES,227Thebest in the world for EYES, 16Tomake agoodcolour in theFACE,81Tocure copperFACES,180-1Forsuchasare tooFATand would fainebeleaner, 254A decoction that consumeth proud and superfluousFLESH, 24-5 A distillation againstGIDDINESSE&c, 14-7 A liquor that appeaseth the paineoftheGOUT, 54 Tomake theHAIRblacke, 24-5 A juyce that causethHAIREto fall,120Tokeepe backe the growthofHAIRES,55Toheal chaps and chinksoftheHANDS&c,217An oile to make smooth theHANDS, 24I,251Ofgreat force against the swimming in theHEAD,230-1A conserve that strengthneth theHEART,98A conserve that wonderfully above measure doth comfort theHEART, 14-9

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VertuesForto deckeupHOUSES, 93, 150 F or the sicke yongINFANT,185TocureallINFLAMMATIONSwhatsoever, 192-3 SirThomas Fitzherbert'scure for blackeJAUNDICE, 47 Anoilegoodfor the stiffenesseoftheJOYNTS, 264 A most excellentLOTION,261A purgationgoodforMADand furious men, 283Forthe faire andwe!colouredMAID,218Thisisthe way to makeMARMALAD,265 F or suchascannot brooke theirMEATE,230ForsuchasbeMELANCHOLIKE,sad,pensive, and without speech, 158ForMELANCHOLY,dull and heavie persons, 283Tomake the heartMERRY,81,135,150,165, 166Forthy wounded pooreNEIGHBOR,206Tocureredand shining fierie NOSES, 180-1ForOLDpeople that are dull and without courage, 130 Good tobegiven toOLDandagedpeople, 172 Whennoother mitigaterofPAINEdoth any thing prevaile, 106Tocoole the heateofthe aireforthe sickePATIENTS,5IAgainst thePESTILENCE,257-8 A dyet to curethePHRENSIE,21A singular remedy against thePLAGUE,161Tomake the most singularPOPULEONthat everwasusedin Surgerie, 125 A miraculous cure forRUPTURESor burstings, 73 A water that quickeneth all the SENSES, 273Forsuchasare given to overmuchSIGHING,229 An oyle to strengthen theSINEWES&c,66TorestoreSPEECH, 54, 135 A drinkegoodagainst theSTINGINGSofScorpions &c, 104, 176Totake away the paineofa grievousSTITCH, 163-4, 170, 218 A Cotiniat to strengthen theSTOMACK,265 Marvellous wholesome for theSTOMACKE,233 A sauce for feebleSTOMACKES, 42 Totake awaySUN-BURNING,freckles &c, 245 KingHenry8's remedy againstSURFETS, 47 A syrrupgoodagainstSWOUNING,166 A fruit for banquetingdishes,asTARTSand such like, 102298

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Vertues Against the painoftheTEETH,75,198, 202, 226A lotion that fastneth theTEETH,261Forthem that have the turning calledVERTIGO,158Tomake yongWENCHESlook faire and cherry-like, 4-3-4 A pretious remedie fordeepWOUNDS, 123-4Johnof Ardern's composition fordeeppunctures orWOUNDS,167A Balme to curedeepWOUNDS,205A pultesse for greeneWOUNDS,223ThemostfineYELLOWcolour that maybedivised,101

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ALPHABETICALTABLEOFPLANTSAconite,109Alkanet,166Allheal,222Almond, 24-0 Anchusa,166Anemone,9,23Angelica,161Antirrhinum, 70 Apple,93Mad,188ofLove,189Thorn,191Archangel,80Artichoke,235Arum,12Asparagus, 34 Auricula,22Balm, 164 Barnacle tree,285Bear's-ear,22Beech, 24-9 Beet,238Bells, Canterbury,127Peach and Steeple, 7IBindweed,82Birch,92Bittersweet,193Blackberry,259Bloodwort, 4-2 Bluebell, 54Bluebottle,216Borage,165Bramble,259Broom, 4-6 Bryony, Black,81Bugloss,166Bur-reed, 14-3 Buttercup, 74Caltrops, Water,170Campanula,7ICampion, 104Canary Seed,2I8Canterbury Bells,127Carnation, 14-7 Catmint,232Cedar,275Celandine, Great,39Cherry,30Chervil,I29Chestnut,252Christmas Rose,283Cistus,221Clary,161Clematis, 274Clover,75Clown's Woundwort,222Colt's-foot,36Columbine,69Convolvulus,82Corn,216-flag,68-flower,2I63

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Index Corn, rose,I06Turkey, 265 Cotton Thistle, 234 -weed, 155 Cowslip,20Mountain, 22 Crane's-bill,72Cress, Indian, 168 Water, 45 Crocus, 4 Crowfoot, 74 Water,IICrown Imperial, 38 Cuckoo-flower, 45 -pint,12Cuckoo's meat, 41 Cucumber, 18o Cudweed,ISSCumin, 169 Cyclamen, 6 Cypress,277Daffodil, 4 Daisy, 14 Damson,28Dandelion,17Deadnettle,80Delphinium,102Devil's-bit,226 Dock, 42 Duck's-meat, 44 Dwale, 155 Elder, 253 Elecampane,131Eryngo,171Eyebright,227Featherfew, 157 Feigned Plants, 55 Fennel, 179 Fern,ISO,151, 153 Fig, Indian, 283 Flag, 64 Flax, 107 Floure-de-Iuce, 64 Floure-gentle,208Forget-me-not, 153 Foxglove,108 Fritillary, (io Frogbit,13Furze, 48 Gillyflower,10,25, 147 Ginger, 197 Ginny-hen Flower,60Gladiolus, 68 Glasswort,122Goat's-beard, 159 Goldenrod,210Gooseberry, 137 Goose tree, 285 Gorse, 48 Go-to-bed-at-noon, 159 Gourd, 184 Grape Hyacinth, 8 Grass, Meadow, 139 Quaking, 218 Scorpion, 153 Ground Ivy,ISGroundsel, 16 Guelder-rose, 255 Harebell, 54 Hawthorn, 52 Hazel, 248 Heartsease,37Heath, or Heather,220302

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He/ianthemum, 22 IHellebore,77,283 Henbane, 198,199, 200 Herb Grace, 174 Impious, 155 Twopence, 76 Holly, 279Sea,171Hollyhock, 206 Honesty, 255 Honeysuckle, 86 Hop, 239 Horsetail,35Houseleek, 124 Hyacinth, 54 Indian Cress, 168 Fig, 283 Iris, 64 Ivy,281Ground,15Jacinth, 54 Jasmine, 145 Jonquil,sLady's-cushion, 73 -slipper, 126 -smock, 45 Larch,51Larkspur, 102 Lavender,Sea,I15-spike, 145 Lettuce,18Lilac, 26 Lily, 57,58, 59, 60 Lilyofthe Valley, 53 Lime, 90 Love-in-a-Mist, 207 Index Mad Apple, 188 Maize, 265 Mallow, 206 Mandrake, 194 Maple, 243 Marigold,21I,213, 214 Marjoram, 228 MarvelofPeru, 185 Meadow Grass, 139 Saffron, 258 Trefoil,75Meadowsweet, 149 Melon, 183 Milkwort,78Mint, 232 Mistletoe,28IMithridate Wolfsbane, 114 Moneywort, 76 Monkshood,IIIMoonwort, 153 Mountain Cowslip, 22 Mulberry,261Mullein,158Muscari,8 Mushroom, 245 Narcissus, 4 Nasturtium, 45, 168 Navelwort, 120 Neesing-root, or Neesewort,77Nep, 233Nigel/a,207Nightshade,Sleepy,155 Woody, 193 Oak, 244 Oats, 217 Olive, 262 Onion, 1763

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Index Orchis, 132 Osmund the water-man, 150Oxlip,20 66 Pansy,37Paper-reed, 142 Parsnep, 179 Pasque Flower,23Patience, 42 Peach,241Peach-bell, 7IPear, 32 Pennyroyal, 230 Pennywort, 120 Petty Panick, 218 Pimpernel, 225 Pipe Privet, 26 Plantain,I17Plum,28Poppy, 104, 106 Potato, 267, 268 Primrose, 20 Privet, 26 Quaking Grass, 218Queenofthe Meadows, 149 Quince, 264 Raspberry, 260 Reed, 141-143 Rhubarb,42Rose, 94,99,101 Christmas, 283 Guelder, 255 Rosemary, 134 Rue, 174 Saffron, 4, 256, 258Sage,163St.John's-wort, 123 Saligot, Water, 170 Saltwort, Glass, 122 Samphire,121Sarsaparilla, 82 Satin Flower, 255 Scabious, Devil's bit, 226 Scammony, 82 Scorpion-grass, 153SeaHolly,171Lavender, 115 Spurge, 118 Starwort,I16Sengreen,I24 Serapia'sTurbith,I16 Setwall, 128 Shamrock,75Sheeps-bane, 120 Skirrets, 178SleepyNightshade, 155 Sloe, 28Smilax,82 Snapdragon, 70 Snowdrop,ISolomon's-seal,88Sowbread, 6 Spleenwort,151Spurge, 118 Starwort,Sea,I16 Steeple-bells, 7IStock, 25 Strawberry, 138 Sugar Cane, 236 Sunflower, 2I 4 Swallow-wort, 39,87Sweet-John, 24 -William, 24 Syringa, 263

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Tarragon,167Teasel,173Thistle, Cotton, 234 Thorn-apple,191Thrift,73Thyme,130Toadstool, 24-5 Tobacco,199,200Tomato,189Traveller's-joy, 274 Trefoil, Meadow,75Tripolium,116Tulip,62Turbith, Serapia's,116TurkeyCorn,265Tygris, Floure of,55Valerian,128Verbena,231Vervain,231Vine,269Violet,2IndexWallflower,10Wall Pennywort,120Walnut,250Water Caltrops,170Cress, 4-5 Crowfoot,11Dock, 4-2 Fern,150Flag, 64Mint,232Pennywort,120Saligot,170Wheat,216Whortleberry (Worts)136Willow, 4-9 Wind-flower, 9 Wolfsbane,109, 114 Woodbine,86Wood-sorrel, 41Woundwort, Clown's,222Yew,278

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ACATALOGUEOFSELECTEDDOVERBOOKSINALLFIELDSOFINTEREST

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ACATALOGUEOFSELECTEDDOVERBOOKSINALLFIELDSOFINTERESTWHATIsSCIENCE?,N.CampbellTheroleofexperimentandmeasurement,thefunctionofmathematics,thenatureofscientific laws,thedifferencebetweenlawsandtheories,thelimitationsofscience,andmanysimilarlyprovocativetopicsaretreatedclearlyandwithouttechnicalitiesbyaneminentscientist."Stillanexcellentintroductiontoscientificphilosophy,"H.MargenauinPhysicsToday."Afirst-rateprimer...deserves awideaudience,"ScientificAmerican.192PP. 5% x8. Paperbound $1.25 THENATUREOFLIGHTANDCOLOURINTHEOPENAIR,M. i\IIinnaert Whyareshadowssometimesblue,sometimesgreen,orothercolorsdependingonthelightandsurroundings?Whatcauses mirages?Whydomultiplesunsandmoonsappearinthesky?ProfessorMinnaertexplainstheseunusualphenomenaandhundredsofothersinsimple,easy-to-understandtermsbasedonopticallawsandthepropertiesoflightandcolor.Nomathematicsisrequiredbutartists,scientists,students,andeveryonefascinatedbythese"tricks"ofnaturewill findthousandsofusefulandamazingpiecesofinformation.Hundredsofobservationalexperimentsaresuggestedwhichrequirenospecialequipment.200illustrations;42photos.xvi+362pp. 5% x8.TI96Paperbound $2.00 TI-IESTRANGESTORYOFTHEQUANTUM,ANACCOUNTFORTHEGENERALREADEROFTHEGROWTHOFIDEASUNDERLYINGOURPRESENTATOMICKNOWLEDGE,B.HoffmannPresentslucidlyandexpertly,withbarestamountofmathematics,theproblemsandtheorieswhichledtomodernquantumphysics.Dr.Hoffmannbeginswiththeclosingyearsofthe19thcentury,whencertaintriflingdiscrepancieswerenoticed,andwithilluminatinganalogiesandexamplestakesyouthroughthebrilliantconceptsofPlanck,Einstein,Pauli,Broglie,Bohr,Schroedinger,Heisenberg,Dirac,Sommerfeld,Feynman,etc.Thiseditionincludesa new,longpostscriptcarryingthestorythrough1958."Ofthebooksattemptinganaccountofthehistoryandcontentsofourmodernatomicphysicswhichhavecometomyattention,thisisthebest,"H.Margenau,YaleUniversity,inAme1ican ]oumal ofPhysics.32tablesandlineillustrations.Index.275PP. 5% x8. T518 Paperbound $2.00 GREATIDEASOFMODERN THEIRNATUREANDUSE,]agjitSinghReaderwithonlyhighschoolmathwillunderstandmainmathematicalideasofmodernphysics,astronomy,genetics,psychology,evolution,etc.betterthanmanywhousethemas tools,butcomprehendlittleoftheirbasicstructure.Authoruseshiswideknowledgeofnon-mathematicalfieldsinbrilliantexpositionofdifferential matrices,grouptheory,logic, statistics,problemsofmathematicalfoundations,imaginarynumbers,vectors, etc.Originalpublication.2appendixes.2indexes.65ills.322pp. 5% x8.'1"587Paperbound $2.25

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSTHEMUSICOFTHESPHERES:THEMATERIALUNIVERSE-FROMATOMTOQUASAR,SIMPLYEXPLAINED,GuyMUTchieVastcompendiumoffact,modernconceptandtheory,observedandcalculateddata,historicalbackgroundguidesintelligentlaymanthroughthematerialuniverse.Brilliantexpositionofearth'sconstruction,explanationsformoon'scraters,atmosphericcomponentsofVenusandMars(withdatafromrecentf1y-by's),sunspots,sequencesofstarbirthanddeath,neighboringgalaxies,contributionsofGalileo,TychoBrahe,Kepler,etc.;and(Vol.2)constructionoftheatom(describingnewlydiscoveredsigmaandxisubatomicparticles),theoriesofsound,colorandlight,spaceandtime,includingrelativitytheory,quantumtheory,wavetheory,probabilitytheory,work"ofNewton,Maxwell,Faraday,Einstein,de etc."Bestpresentationyetoffered totheintelligentgeneralreader,"SatuTdayReview.Revised(1967)'Index.319 iIIus t1"ations bytheauthor.Totalofxx+644PP 5% x 8Y2. TI809,TI810Twovolumeset,paperbound $4.00 FOURLECTURESONRELATIVITYANDSPACE, Chm"lesPmteus SteinmetzLectureseries,givenbygreatmathematicianandelectricalengineer,generallyconsideredoneofthebestpopular-levelexpositionsofspecialandgeneralrelativitytheoriesandrelatedquestions.Steinmetztranslatescomplexmathematicalreasoningintolanguageaccessible tolaymenthroughanalogy,exampleandcomparison.Amongtopicscoveredarerelativityofmotion,location,time;of mass;acceleration;4-dimensionaltime-space;geometryofthegravitationalfield;curvatureandbendingofspace;non-Euclideangeometry.Index.40illustrations.x+142PP. 5% x 8V2. 51771Paperbound $1.35 HowTOKNOWTHEVVILDFLOWERS,MTS.William Stan DanaClassicnaturebookthathasintroducedthousandstowondersofAmericanwild flowers. Color-seasonprincipleoforganizationiseasy to use,evenbythosewithnobotanicaltraining,andthegenial,refreshingdiscussionsofhistory, folklore, usesofover1,000nativeandescape flowers, foliageplantsareinformativeas well asfuntoread.Over170 fUll-pageplates,collectedfromseveraleditions,maybecoloredintomakepermanentrecordsoffinds.Revisedtoconformwith1950edition"ofGray'sManualofBotany.xlii+438PP. 5% x 8V2. T332Paperbound $2.25 MANUALOFTHETREESOFNORTHAMERICA,ChaTles Sprague SaTgentStillunsurpassedasmostcomprehensive,reliablestudyofNorthAmericantreecharacteristics,preciselocationsanddistribution.BydeanofAmericandendrologists.Everytreenativeto U.S.,Canada,Alaska;185genera,7'7species, describedindetail-leaves,flowers,fruit,winterbuds,bark,wood,growthhabits, etc.plusdiscussionofvarietiesandlocalvariants,immaturityvariations.Over 100 keys,includingunusualII-pageanalyticalkey togenera,aidinidentification. 783clearillustrationsofflowers,fruit,leaves.Anunmatchedpermanent referenl!e workforallnaturelovers.Secondenlarged(1926)edition.Synopsisoffamilies.Analyticalkey togenera.Glossaryoftechnicalterms. Index. 783illustrations,Imap.Totalof982pp. 5% x 8.T277,T278Twovolumeset,paperbound $6.00

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSIT'SFUNTOMAKETHINGSFROMSCRAPMATERIALS,EvelynGlantz HershaUWhat use are emptyspools.tincans,bottletops? '''That canbemadefrom rubberbands, clothespins,paperclips,andbuttons?Thisbookprovidessimply worded instructionsandlargediagramsshowingyouhowto makecookieclltters,toytrucks,paperturkeys,Halloweenmasks,telephonesets,"I'rons.linoleumblock-andspatterprintsin all 399projects!Manyareeasy clioligh foryoungchildrento figureoutfor themselves;somechallengingclioughtoentertainadults;allareremarkablyingeniousways tomakethingsfrommaterialsthatcostpenniesorless!Formerly"ScrapFunforEveryone."Index. 214 illustrations.373PP. 5% x 8y:!. Tl251Paperbound $l.7GSYMBOLIC LOGICand'THEGAMEOFLOGIC,Lewis CaTTail "SymbolicLogic"isnotconcernedwithmodernsymboliclogic,butisinstead a collectionofover380problemsposedwithcharmandimagination,usingthesyllogismandafascinatingdiagrammaticmethodofdrawingconclusions.In"The Game ofLogic"Carroll'swhimsicalimaginationdevises a logical game played with2diagramsandcounters(inclUded)tomanipulatehundredsoftricky syllogisms.Thefinalsection,"HitorMiss" is alagniappeof101additionalpuzzlesinthedelightfulCarrollmanner.Untilthisreprintedition,hothofthesebookswereraritiescostingupto $15 each.SymbolicLogic:Index.xxxi+199PP.TheGameofLogic: 96PP. 2 vols.boundasone. 5% x8. '1'-192 Paperbound $2.0UMATHEMATICAL PUZZLESOFSAMLOYD, PART Iselected and editedbyM. GaTdneT Choicepuzzles bythegreatestAmericanpuzzlecreatorandinnovator.Selectedfromhisfamouscollection,"CyclopediaofPuzzles,"theyretaintheuniquestyleandhistoricalflavoroftheoriginals.Thereareposersbasedonarithmetic,algebra,probability,gametheory,routetracing,topology,counterandsliding block,operationsresearch,geometricaldissection.Includesthefamous"14-15" puzzlewhich was anationalcraze,andhis"HorseofaDifferentColor"which soldmillionsofcopies.117ofhismostingeniouspuzzlesinall. 120 linedrawingsanddiagrams.Solutions.Selectedreferences.xx+167Pp. 5% x8. T4lJH Paperbound $1.25 STRINGFIGURESANDHowTOMAKETHEM, Ca7'Oline FUTness Jayne107stringfiguresplusvariationsselectedfromthebestprimitiveandmodernexamplesdeveloped by Navajo,Apache,pygmiesofAfrica,Eskimo,inEurope,Australia,China,etc.Themostreadilyunderstandable,easy-to-follow book inEnglishonperenniallypopularrecreation.Crystal-clearexposition;step-bystepdiagrams.Everyonefromkindergartenchildrentoadultslookingforunusualdiversionwillbeendlesslyamused.Index.Bibliography.Introduction by A. C.Haddon.17full-pageplates,960illustrations.xxiii+401pp. 5% x 8V2. T152Paperbound $2.25 PAPERFOLDINGFORBEGINNERS,W.D. Mun-ay andF.J.RigneyAdelightfulintroductiontothevariedandentertainingJapaneseartoforigami(paperfolding),withafull,crystal-cleartextthatanticipatesevery difficulty;over275clearlylabeleddiagramsofallimportantstagesincreation. Yougetresultsateachstage,sincecomplexfiguresarelogically developedfromsimplerones.'13differentpiecesareexplained:sailboats,frogs, roosters, etc. 6photographicplates.279diagrams.95Pp. 5% x 8%. Ti13Paperbound $1.00

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSPRINCIPLESOFARTHISTORY,H.Wolff/inAnalyzingsuchtermsas"haroque,""classic,""neoclassic,""primitive,""picLUresque," and16_l differentworksbyartistslike13otticelli,van Ckve,DOrer, Hobbema,Holbein,Hals,Rembrandt,Titian,Brueghel, Vermeer,and manyothers,theauthorestahlishestheclassifications of arthistory and sLyleona firm,concretebasis.Thisclassic of artcriticismshowswhat really occurredbetweenthe qth-century primitives and thesophistication ofthe 18thcenturyinterms of basicattitudesandphilosophies. "Aremarkabk lessonintheart of seeing,"Sat.Rev.of Lit.erattlre. Translated from the7thGermanedition.150illustrations. 25-!PP.6Vs x 90.T276 Paperbound PRIMITIVEART, Fmnz BoasThisauthoritative and exhaustivework by agreatAmericananthropologistcoverstheentiregamut of primitiveart.Pottery,leatherwork,metalwork,stonework,wood,hasketry,aretreatedindetail.Theories of primitiveart,historicaldepthinarthistory,technicalvirtuosity,unconsciouslevels of patterning,symbolism,styles,literature,music,dance,etc.Amust hookfor theinterestedlayman,theanthropologist,artist, handicrafter (hundreds of unusualmotifs), and thehistorian.Over900illustrations(50ceramicvessels,12totempoles,etc.). 376PP. 5Ys x 8.T25Paperbound $2.,,0 THE AND CABINETMAKER'SDIRECTOR,Thol1lasChijJpendale.-\reprint of the1762catalogueoffurnituredesignstbatwentontoinnuencegenerationsofEnglish and Colonial and EarlyRepUblic..\mericanfurnitnremakers.The200plates,mostofthemfull-pagesized, sholl' Chippendale's designsforFrench(LouisXV),Gothic,andChinese-mannerchairs.sofas.canopy and dome heds, cornices,cham her organs,cahinets,shavingtahles,commodes,picture frames,frets, candlestands,chimneypieces, decoratiollS, etc.Thedrawingsareallelegant and highlydetailed;manyincludeconstructiondiagramsandelevations.Asupplementof 2'l photographsshowssurvivingpiecesoforiginalandChippendale-stylepiecesoffurniture.BriefhiographyofChippendale hy N.I.13ienenstock,editor of Furniture World.Reproduced fromthe1762edition.200plates,plus19photographicplates.vi+2.19PP. 9Vs x 120. TI601Paperhound ANTIQUEFURNITURE: ABOOK FOR Edgar G. Miller, Jr.Standardintroduction and practicalguideLoidentificationofvaluable American antiquefurniture.2115illustrations,mostlyphotographstaken by theauthorin 148 privatehomes,arearrangedinchronologicalorderinextensivechaptersonchairs,sofas,chests, desks, bedsteads,mirrors,tahles,clocks, and otherarticles.Focusisonfurnitureaccessibletothecollector,includingsimplerpieces and alargerthanusualcoverageofEmpirestyle.Introductorychaptersidentifystructuralelements,characteristicsofvariousstyles,howto avoid fakes,etc. ""Ve arefrequently asked tonamesomebookonAmericanfurniturethatwillmeettherequirementsofthenovicecollector,thebeginningdealer, and ...thegeneralpublic... '''''e believeMr.Miller'stwovolumesmorecompletelysatisfythisspecificationthananyotherwork,"Antiques.Appendix.Index.Totalofvi+1106pp. 7Vi! x lOY,.'1'1:;99.'I'1(iOO TwovolunH.: set.paperhonnd :;)7.50

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSTHE BAD CHILD'SBOOKOFBEASTS, MORE BEASTSFOR '-\TORSE CHILDREN,andA 1'vfORAL ALPHABET,H.BellocHardlyandanthologyofhumorousversehasappearedinthelast50 yearswithoutatleastacoupleofthesefamousnonsenseverses.Butonemustseetheentirevolumes withallthedelightfuloriginalillustrationsbySirBasilBlackwood-toappreciatefully Belloc'scharmingandwittyversesthatplay sosubacidlyontheplatitudesoflifeandmoralsthatbesethisday andours. A greathumorclassic.Threebooksinone.TotalofI57PP. 5% x8. "1"749 Paperbound $1.00 THEDEVIL'S DICTIONARY, Ambrose BierceSardonicandirreverentbarbspuncturingthepompositiesandabsurditiesofAmericanpolitics,business;religion,literature,andarts,bythecountry'sgreatestsatiristintheclassictradition.EpigrammaticasShaw,piercingasSwift,Americanas Mark Twain,WillRogers,andFredAllen,Biercewill alwaysremainthefavoriteofasmallcoterieofenthusiasts,andofwritersandspeakerswhomhesupplieswith"someofthemostgorgeouswitticismsoftheEnglishlanguage"(H.L.Mencken).Over1000entriesinalphabeticalorder.144Pp. 5% x8.T487Paperbound $1.00 THE NONSENSEOFEDWARD LEAR. Thisistheonlycompleteeditionofthismasterofgentlemadnessavailableatapopularprice. A Book ofNonsense,NunsenseSongs, More Nonsense Songs andSt01"ies intheirentiretywithalltheoldfavoritesthathavedelightedchildrenandadultsfor years.TheDongWithALuminousNose,TheJumblies,TheOwlandthePussycat,andhundredsofotherbitsofwonderfulnonsense: 2'4 limericks, 3 setsofNonsenseBotany,5NonsenseAlphabets,546drawingsbyLearhimself,andmuchmore.320PP' 5% x8.Tl67Paperbound $1.75 THE ANDHUMOROF OSCAR'-\TILDE,ed. byAlvin Redman athismostbrilliant,in 1000epigramsexposingweaknesses and hypocrisiesof"civilized"society.Dividedinto49categories-sin,wealth,women,America,etc.-toaidwriters,speakers.Includesexcerptsfromhistrials,books, plays, criticism.Formerly"TheEpigramsofOscarWilde."IntroductionbyVyvyanHolland,vVilde'sonlylivingson.Introductoryessay byeditor.260pp. 5% x8.T602Paperbound $1.50 A CHILD'S PRnlER OFNATURALHISTORY, OliverHerford Scarcelyananthologyofwhimsyandhumorhasappearedinthelast50 yearswithoutacontributionfromOliverHerford.Yettheworksfromwhichtheseexamplesaredrawnhavebeenalmostimpossibletoobtain!Hereatlast areHerford'simprobabledefinitionsofamenagerieoffamiliarandweire!.animals,eachverseillustratedbytheauthor's own drawings.2'1drawingsin2 colors; 24additionaldrawings.vii+95PP. 6\12 x6.Tl647Paperbound $1.00 THEBROWNIES: THEIR BOOK, Palmer CoxThebookthatmadetheBrowniesahouseholdword.Generationsofreadershaveenjoyedtbeantics,predicamentsandadventuresofthesejovialsprites,whoemergefromtheforestatnighttoplayortocometotheaidofa deservinghuman.Delightfulillustrationsbytheauthordecoratenearlyeverypage. 2-l shortverse taleswith266illustrations.155Pp. 6'0l x 9\1:\. T1265Paperbound $1.50

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSTHEPRINCIPLESOFPSYCHOLOGY,WilliamJamesThefulllong-course,unabridged,ofoneofthegreatclassicsof ''''estern literatureandscience.Wonderfullyluciddescriptionsofhumanmentalactivity,thestreamofthought,consciousness,timeperception,memory,imagination,emotions,reason,abnormalphenomena,andsimilartopics.Originalcontributionsareintegratedwiththeworkofsuchmenas Berkeley,Binet,Mills,Darwin,Hume,Kant,Royce,Schopenhauer,Spinoza,Locke,Descartes,Galton, ""undt, Lotze,Herbart,Fechner,andscoresofothers.Allcontrastinginterpretationsofmentalphenomenaareexaminedindetail-introspectiveanalysis,philosophicalinterpretation,andexperimentalresearch."Aclassic," ]oumal ofConsultingPsychology."Themainlinesareasvalidasever,"PsychoanalyticalQuarterly."Standardreading...a classicofinterpretation,"PsychiatricQumte1ly.94illustrations. 1408PP'5% x8.T381,T382 Two volumeset,paperbound $6.00 VISUALILLUSIONS:THEIRCAUSES,CHARACTERISTICS A!'
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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSFAIRYTALE COLLECTIONS,edited by AndrewLangAndrewLang'sfairytalecollectionsmakeuptherichestshelf-fulloftraditionalchildren'sstoriesanywhereavailahle.Langsupervisee!thetranslationofstoriesfromallovertheworld-familiarEuropeantalescollectedbyGrimm,animalstoriesfromNegroAfrica,mythsofprimitiveAustralia,storiesfromRussia,Hungary,Iceland,Japan,andmanyothercountries.Lang'sselectionoftranslationsareunusuallyhigh;manyauthoritiesconsiderthatthemostfamiliartales findtheirbestversionsinthesevolumes.AllcollectionsarerichlydecoratedandillustratedbyH.J.Fordandotherartists.THEBLUEFAIRYBOOK. 37 stories.138illustrations.ix+390PP. 5% x SY2. '1'1437Paperbound $1.95 THEGREENFAIRY BOOK. 42 stories.100illustrations.xiii+3 66pp. 5% x SY2. TI439Paperbound $' THEBROWNFAIRYBOOK.32stories.50illustrations,8incolor.xii+350PP' 5% x SY2. Tl438Paperbound $1.95 THEBESTTALESOFHOFFMANN,edited by E.F.Bleile,.10 stories by E.T.A.Hoffmann,oneofthegreatestofallwritersoffantasy.Thetalesinclude"TheGoldenFlowerPot,""Automata,""A Nell' Year'sEveAdventure,""NutcrackerandtheKingofMice,""Sand-Man,"andothers.Vigorouscharacterizationsofhighlyeccentricpersonalities,remarkablyimaginativesituations,andintenselyfastpacinghasmadethesetalespopularallovertheworldfor150years.Editor'sintroduction.7drawingsbyHoffmann.xxxiii+'P9PP. 5% x 8Y2. TI793Paperbound $2.25 GHOSTANDHORRORSTORIESOFAMBROSEBIERCE,editedbyE.F.BleilerMorbid,eerie,horrifyingtalesofpossessedpoets,shabbyaristocrats,revived corpses,andhauntedmalefactors.WidelyacknowledgedasthebestoftheirkindbetweenPoeandthemoderns,reflectingtheirauthor'sinnertormentandbitterviewoflife.Includes"DamnedThing,""TheMiddleToeoftheRightFoot,""TheEyesofthePanther,""VisionsoftheNight,""Moxon'sMaster,"andoveradozenothers.Editor'sintroduction.xxii+199Pp 5% x 8Y2. T767Paperbound $1.50 THREE GOTHIC NOVELS,editedbyE.F.Bleile,.Originatorsofthestillpopular novelform,influentialinusheringinearly19th-centuryRomanticism.HoraceWalpole'sCastleat Otranto, WilliamBeckford'sVat/lek,JohnPolidori'sThe Vam-!Jy"e, anda Fragm.ent byLordByronareenjoyableasexcitingreadingorasdocumentsinthehistoryofEnglishliterature.Editor'sintroduction.xi+291pp. 5% x 8Y2. TI232Paperbound $2.00 BEST GHOSTSTORIESOFLEFANU,edited by E.F.Bleile,.ThoughadmiredbysuchcriticsasV.S.Pritchett,CharlesDickensandHenryJames,ghoststories bytheIrishnovelistJosephSheridanLeFanuhaveneverbecomeaswidelyknownashisdetectivefiction.Abouthalfofthe16storiesinthiscollectionhaveneverbeforebeenavailableinAmerica.Collectionincludes"Carmilla"(perhapsthebestvampirestoryeverwritten),"TheHauntedBaronet,""TheFortunesofSirRobertArdagh,"andtheclassic"GreenTea."Editor'sintroduction.7contemporaryillustrations.PortraitofLeFanu.xii+467PP. 5% x 8.T415Paperbound $2.50

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSEASY-TO-DOENTERTAINMENTSANDDIVERSIONSWITHCOINS,CARDS,STRING,PAPERANDMATCHES,R.M. AlJraharn Over300 tricks,gamesandpuzzles willprovideyoungreaderswithabsorbingfun.Sectionsoncardgames;paper-folding;trickswithcoins,matchesandpieces of string;gamesfortheagile;toy-makingfromcommonhouseholdobjects;mathematicalrecreations;and50miscellaneouspastimes.Anyoneincharge ofof youngsters,includinghard-pressedparents,andinneed of suggestions OI)' howtokeepchildrensensiblyamusedandquietlycontentwill findthisIlookindispensable.Clear,simpletext,copiousnumber of delightfulline drawli'lgs andillustrativediagrams.Originallytitled"WinterNights'Entertainments."IntroductionbyLordBadenPowell.329illustrations.V+ dl6pp.5% x 8l/:2. T92lPaperbound ANINTRODUCTIONTOCHESSMOVESANDTACTICSSIMPLYEXPLAINED,Leonard 13m'den Beginner'sintroductiontotheroyalgame.Names,possiblemoves of thepieces,definitions of essentialterms,howgamesarewon,etc.explainedin30-oddpages.Withthisbackgroundyou'llbeabletositrightdownandplay.Balance of bookteachesstrategy-openings,middlegame,typicalendgameplay,andsuggestionsforimprovingyourgame.Asamplegameis fullyanalyzed.Truemiddle-levelintroduction,teachingyoualltheessentialswithoutoversimplifyingorlosingyouina maze of detail.58 figures.I02pp. 5% x 8l/:2. Tl210Paperbound$1.25LASKER'SMANUALOFCHESS, Dr. Emanuel Lasker Probablythegreatestchessplayer of moderntimes,Dr.EmanuelLaskerheldtheworldchampionship 28 years,independent of passingschoolsorfashions.Thisunmatchedstudy of thegame,chieflyforintermediatetoskilledplayers,analyzes basicmethods,combinations,positionplay,theaesthetics of chess, dozens of differentopenings,etc.,withconstantreferencetogreatmoderngames.Containsabrilliantexposition of Steinitz'simportanttheories.Introduction by FredReinfeld.Tables of Lasker'stournamentrecord.3 indices. 308diagrams.1photograph.xxx+349Pp. 5% x 8. T640Paperbound $2.50 COMBINATIONS:THEHEARTOFCHESS,Irving Chernev Step-by-stepfromsimplecombinationstocomplex,thisbook,by a wellknownchesswriter,shows youtheintricacies of pins,counter-pins,knightforks,andsmotheredmates.Otherchaptersshowalternatelines of playto thosetakeninactualchampionshipgames;boomerangcombinations;classicexamples of brilliantcombinationplay by Nimzovich,Rubinstein,Tarrasch,Botvinnik,AlekhineandCapablanca.Index.356diagrams.ix+245PP. 5% x 8l/:2. T1744Paperbound$2.00HowTOSOLVECHESSPROBLEMS,K.S.HowardFull of practicalsuggestionsforthefanorthebeginner-whoknowsonlythemoves of thechessmen.Containspreliminarysectionand58 two-move, 46three-move,and8four-moveproblemscomposedby27outstandingAmericanproblemcreatorsinthelast 30 years.Explanation of alltermsandexhaustiveindex."Justwhatiswantedforthestudent,"BrianHarley.112problems,solutions.vi+I7IPP. 5% x 8.T748Paperbound $1.35

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSSOClALTHOUGHTFROMLORETOSClENCE,H.E. Barnes andH. BecherAn immensesurveyofsociologicalthoughtandwaysofviewing,studying,planning,andreformingsociety fromearliesttimestothepresent.Includesthoughtonsocietyofpreliteratepeoples,ancientnon-"Vesterncultures,andeverygreatmovementinEurope,America,andmodernJapan.Analyzeshundredsofgreatthinkers:Plato,Augustine,Bodin,Vico,Montesquieu,Herder,Comte,Marx,etc.Weighsthecontributionsofutopians,sophists,fascistsandcommunists;economists,jurists,'philosophers,ecclesiastics,andeveryIgthand20thcenturyschoolofscientific sociology,anthropology,andsocial psychologythroughouttheworld.Combinestopical,chronological,andregionalapproaches,treatingtheevolutionofsocialthoughtas a processratherthanas a seriesofmeretopics."Impressiveaccuracy,competence,anddiscrimination...easilythebestsinglesurvey,"Nation.Thoroughlyrevised,withnell'materialupto Ig60. 2 indexes.Over2200bibliographicalnotes.Threevolumeset.Totalof1586pp. 5% x8.1'901. 1'903Threevolumeset,paperbound $g.ooA HISTORYOFHISTORICAL"VRlTING,HarryElmer Barnes Virtuallytheonlyadequatesurveyofthewholecourseofhistoricalwritinginasinglevolume.SurveysdevelopmentsfromthebeginningsofhistoriographyintheancientNearEastandtheClassical upthroughtheCold '>Var. Coversmajorhistoriansindetail,showsinterrelationshipwithtlulturalbackground,makesclearindividualcontributions,evaluatesandestimatesimportance;alsoenormouslyrichuponminorauthorsandthinkerswhoareusuallypassed over.Packedwithscholarshipandlearning,clear,easilywritten.Indispensableto everystudentofhistory.RevisedandenlargeduptoIg61.Indexandbibliography.xv+442PP. 5%x8Y2. 1'104Paperbound $2.50 JOHANNSEllASTIANBACH,Philip1) S1)ittaThecompleteandunabridgedtextofthedefinitivestudyofBach.'Writtensome70 years ago,itis stillunsurpassed[oritscoverageofnearlyallaspectsofBach'slifeandwork.Therecouldhardlybea finernon-technicalintroduction toBach'smusicthanthedetailed,lucidanalyseswhichSpittaprovidesforhundredsofindividualpieces.26solidpagesaredevotedtotheBminormass, forexample,and30pagestothegloriousSt. i'v[atthew Passion.Thismonumentalset alsoincludesamajoranalysisofthemusicofthe18thcentury:Buxtehude,Pachelbel,etc."Unchallengedasthelastwordononeofthesupremegeniusesofmusic,"JohnBarkham, Saturday Review S1'ndicate. Totalof18lgpp.Heavyclothbinding. 5%x 8. Twovolumeset,clothbound $llj.OO BEETHOVENANDHISNINESYMPHONIES,GeorgeGroveInthismodernmiddle-levelclassicofmusicologyGrovenotonlyanalyzes allnineofBeethoven'ssymphoniesverythoroughlyintermsoftheirmusicalstructure, bl'l-( also discussesthecircumstancesunderwhichtheywerewritten,Beethoven'sstylisticdevelopment,andmuchotherbackgroundmaterial.Thisisanextremelyrich book, yet very easilyfollowed;itishighlyrecommendedtoanyoneseriouslyinterestedinmusic.Over250musicalpassages.Index.viii+407Pp. 5% x 8. 1'334Paperbound $2.25

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSTHREESCIENCEFICTIONNOVELS,JohnTaineAcknowledgedbymanyasIhebestSFwriterofthe1920'S, Taipe (underthenameEricTempleBell) was also aProfessorofMathematicsofconsiderablerenown.ReprintedhereareTheTime SI1'ealll, generallyconsideredTaine'sbest,TheGreatest Gallle, abiological-fictionnovel,andThePurpleSajJjJhire,involvingasupercivilizationofthepast.Taine'sstoriestiefantasticnarrativestoframeworksoforiginalandlogical scientificconcepts.Speculationisoftenprofoundonsuchquestionsasthenatureoftime,conceptofentropy,cyclicaluniverses,etc. 4contemporaryillustrations.v+532PP. 5% x 8%.TIIRO Paperbound $2.00 SEVENSCIENCEFICTIONNOVELS,H.G.WellsFullunabridgedtextsof7 science-fiction novelsofthemaster.Rangingfrombiology, physics,chemistry,astronomy,to sociologyandotherstudies, Mr. vVellsextrapolateswholeworldsofstrangeandintriguingcharacter."Onewillhavetogofartomatchthisforentertainment,excitement,andsheerpleasure._."NewYorkTimes.Contents:TheTimeMachine,TheIslandofDr.Moreau,TheFirst Men intheMoon,TheInvisibleMan,The"Val'oftheWorlds,TheFoodoftheGods,InTheDaysoftheComet.1015Pp. 5% x8.T264Clothbound 28 SCIENCEFICTIONSTORIESOFH.G. ''''ELLS.Two full,unahridgednovels, MenLike GodsandStarliegottell,plus 26 shortstoriesbythemasterscience-fictionwriterofall time!Storiesofspa'ce,time,invention,exploration,futuristicadventure.Partialcontents:TheCOUll/I)'oftheBlind,In/.heAbyss,TheCrystal Egg,The Man Who Cou.ld H/0rk Miracles, AStoryofDays to COllie,TheEIII/JireoftheAnts,The lVIagic Sho/J,TheValleyofthe Spiders, AStoryoftheStoneAge,UndertheKnife,SeaRaiders,etc. Anindispensablecollectionforthelibraryofanyoneinterestedin science fictionadventure.928pp. 5% x8.T265Clothbound $5.00 THREE ]'v{ARTIAN NOVELS,EdgarRiceBurroughsComplete,unabridgedreprinting,inonevolume,ofThuvia,MaidofMars;ChessmenofMars;TheMasterMindofMars.Hoursofscience-fictionadventureby amodernmasterstoryteller.Resetinlargecleartypefor easyreading.16illustrationsbyJ.Allen St.John.vi+490Pp. 5% x 8Vz.T39 Paperbound $2.50 ANINTELLECTUALAND CULTURAL HISTORYOF THE "VESTERNVVORLD,HarryElmerBarnesMonumental3-volumesurveyofintellectualdevelopmentofEuropefromprimitiveculturestothepresentday.Everysignificantproductofhumanintellecttracedthroughhistory:art,literature,mathematics,physicalsciences,medicine,music,technology,social sciences,religions,jurisprudence,education,etc.PresentationislucidandspeciFIC,analyzingindetailspecific discoveries,theories,literaryworks,andsoon.Revised(1965) by recognizedscholarsin specialized fieldsunderthedirectionofProf.Barnes.Revisedbibliography.Indexes. 24 illustrations.Totalofxxix+1318PP.T1275,TI276, T12'F Threevolumeset,paperhound$7.50

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSHEARMETALKIN'TOYA,editedbyNatShapiroandNatHentoffIntheirown words,LouisArmstrong,KingOliver,FletcherHenderson,BunkJohnson, Bix Beiderhecke,BillyHoliday,Fats'Waller,JellyRollMorton,DukeEllington,andmanyotherscommentontheoriginsofjazz inNewOrleansanditsgrowthinChicago'sSouthSide, Kansas City'sjamsessions,DepressionHarlem,andthemodernismofthe \Nest Coastschools,Takenfromtapedconversations,letters,magazinearticles,otherfirst-handsources,Editors'introduction. xvi +4,29PP' 5%x8V2. 1'1726Paperbound $2.00 THEJOURNALOF HEi\RY D.THOREAU A 25-yearrecordbythegreatAmericanobserverand Cl'ltlC, ascompletearecordofagreatman'sinne'r life as isanywhereavailable.Thoreau'sJournalsservedhimasrawmaterialforhisformalpieces, as aplacewherehecoulddevelophisideas, asanoutletforhisinterestsin wildlifeandplants,inwritingasanart,in classicsofliterature,\'Valt\Nhitmanandothercontemporaries,inpolitics,slavery,individual'srelationtotheState,etc.TheJournalspresentaportraitofaremarkableman,andareanohservantsocialhistory.Unabridgedrepublicationof1906edition,BradfordTorreyandFrancisH.Allen,editors.Illustrations.Totalof1888pp. 8% x 120.T3l2.1'3l3 1'11'0volumeset.clothhound$25.00A SHAKESPEARIAN E.A.AbbottBasicreferencetoShakespeareandhiscontemporaries,explainingthroughthousandsofquotationsfromShakespeare,Jonson,BeaumontandFletcher,North'sPlu/.archandothersourcesthegrammaticalusagedifferingfromthemodern.Firstpublishedin1870andwritten by ascholarwhospentmuchofhislifeisolatingprinciplesofElizabethanlanguage,thebook isunlikelyevertobesuperseded.Indexes.xxiv+51Ipp. 5% x 8V2.TI5R2 Paperbound $2.75 FOLK-LOREOF SHAKESPEARE, T.F.ThisteltollDyerClassicstudy,drawingfromShakespearealargehodyofreferencestosupernaturalbeliefs,terminologyoffalconryandhunting,gamesandsports,goodluckcbarms,marriagecustoms,folkmedicines,superstitionsaboutplants,animals,birds,argotoftheunderworld,sexualslangofLondon,proverhs,drinkingcustoms,weatherlore,andmuchelse.Fromfullcompilationcomes amirrorofthe17th-centurypopularmind.Index.ix+526pp. 5% x 8V2. 1'1611Paperbound $2.75 THE NEWVARIORUMSHAKESPEARE, editedbyH.H. FU1'l1eSS Byfartberichesteditionsoftheplayseverproducedinanycountryorlanguage.Eachvolumecontainscompletetext(usuallyFirstFolio)oftheplay,allvariantsinQuartoandotherFoliotexts,editorialchangesby everymajoreditortoFurness'sowntime(19),footnotestoohscurereferencesorlanguage,extensivequotesfromliteratureofShakespeariancriticism,essaysonplotsources(oftenreprintingsourcesinfull),andmuchmore. HA1>ILET, editedbyH.H.Fu,1'I1eSSTotalofxxvi+905Pp 5% x 8V2. 1'1004, TlOOr;Two volumeset,paperbound $5.25 TWELFTHNIGHT,editedbyH.H. Fu,rm:ss Index.xxii+134Pp. 5% x 8V2. 1'1189Paperbound $2.75

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSLA BV PUCCINI, tmnslated and intl'oduced byEllenfl..BleilerCompletehandbookfortheoperagoer,witheverythingneededfor fullenjoymentexceptthemusicalscore itself.CompleteItalianlihretto,withnew,modernEnglishline-by-linetranslation-theonlylibrettoprintingallrepeats;biographyofPuccini;thelibrettists;hackgroundtotheopera,Murger'sLaBoheme,etc.;circumstancesofcompositionandperformances;plotsummary;andpictorialsectionof73illustrationsshowingPuccini,famoussingersandperformances,etc.Largecleartypeforeasyreading. 124PP5% x 8y:!. T404Paperbound $1.25 ANTONIOSTRADIVARI:HIS LIFE AND WORK(1644-1737),W. Henry Hill, Alt!wr F.Hill,andAlfredE.HillStilltheonlybookthatreallydelvesintolifeandartoftheincomparableItaliancrafrsman,makerofthefinestmusicalinstrumentsintheworldtoday.Theauthors,expertviolin-makersthemselves, discussStradivari'sancestry,hisconstructionandfinishingtechniques,distinguishedcharacteristicsofmanyofhisinstrumentsandtheirlocations.Included,too, isstoryofintroductionofhisinstrumentsintoFrance,England,firstrevelationoftheirsuprememerit,andinformationonhislabels,numberofinstrumentsmade,prices,mysteryofingredientsofhisvarnish,toneofpre-168_1Stradivariviolinandchangesbetween1684and16go. Anextremelyinteresting,informativeaccountforallmusiclovers,fromcraftsmantoconcert-goer.Republicationoforiginal(lg02)edition.Newintroductionby Sydney Beck,HeadofRareBookandManuscriptCollections,MusicDivision,NewYorkPublicLibrary.AnalyticalindexbyRembertWurlitzer.Appendixes.68illustrations.30full-pageplates. 4 in color. xxvi+315Pp. 5%x.8y-2. T425Paperbound $2.25 MUSICALAUTOGRAPHSFROMMONTEVERDITOHINI)EMITH,Em.anuelWinternitzForbeauty,forintrinsicinterest,forperspectiveonthecomposer'spersonality,forsubtletiesofphrasing,shading,emphasisindicatedintheautographbutsuppressedintheprintedscore,themss.ofmusicalcompositionarefascinatingdocumentswhichrepayclosestudyinmanydifferentways.This2volumeworkreprintsfacsimilesofmss. byvirtually E.very majorcomposer,andmanyminorfigures-lg6examplesin all. A .fulltextpointsoutwhatcanbelearnedfrommss., analyzes eachsample.Index.Bibliography..18figures. 19(i plates.Totalof170PP'oftext. 7YsxIO:Y;. '1'1312.T1313Twovolumeset,paperbound $5.00 J.S.BACH, AlbertSchweitzerOneofthefewgreatfull-lengthstudiesofBach'slifeandwork,andthestudyuponwhichSchweitzer'srenownas amusicologistrests.Onfirstappearance(lgll),revolutionizedBachperformance.TheonlywriteronBachtobemusicologist,performingmusician,andstudentofhistory,theologyandphilosophy,SchweitzercontributesparticularlyfullsectionsonhistoryofGermanProtestantchurchmusic,theoriesonmotivicpictorialrepresentationsin vocalmusic,andpracticalsuggestionsforperformance.TranslatedbyErnestNewman.Indexes.5illustrations.650musicalexamples.Totalofxix+g28pp. 5% x8 y-2.T 1631. TI 632 Two volumeset,paperbound .5

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSTI-IEMETHODSorETHICS, Hem) SidgwickPropoundingnoorganizedsystemofitsown,studysubjectseverymajormethodologicalapproachtoethicstorigorous,objectiveanalysis.Studydis cussesandrelatesethicalthoughtofPlato,ArislOtle,Bentham,Clarke,Butler,Hobbes,Hume,Mill,Spencer,Kant,anddozensofothers.Sidgwickretainsconclusionsfrom each systemwhichfollowfromethicalpremises,rejectingthefaulty.Considered by manyinthefield tobeamongthemostimportanttreatisesonethicalphilosophy.Appendix.Index.xlvii+ 528pp.5% x 8\h. TI608Paperbound $2.50 TEUTONICMYTHOLOGY,Jakob GTimm Amilestonein culture;theworkwhichestablishedonamodernbasisthestudyofhistory'ofreligionsandcomparativereligions.4-volumework assemblesandinterpretseverythingavailableonreligiousandfolk loristic beliefsofGermanicpeople(includingScandinavians,Anglo-Saxons, etc.).AssemblingmaterialfromsuchsourcesasTacitus,survivingOldNorseandIcelandictexts,archeologicalremains,folktales,survivingsuperstitions,comparativetraditions,linguisticanalysis, etc.Grimmexplorespagandeities,heroes,folkloreofnature,religiouspractices,andeveryotherareaofpaganGermanbelief.Tothisday,theunrivaled,definitive,exhaustivestudy.Trans hued byJ.S.Stallybrassfrom4th(I tl83) Germanedition.Indexes.Totalof lxxvii +J887PP. 5%x8\h. T1602.T1603.T1604. TI(;{)'i Fourvulumeset,paperbuund$11.00THEICHING, translated by James LeggeCalled"TheBookofChanges"inEnglish,thisisoneoftheFiveClassicseditedbyConfucius,basicandcentraltoChinesethought.Explainsperhapsthemostcomplexsystemofdivinationknown,foundedonthetheorythatallthingshappeningatanyonetimehavecharacteristicfeatureswhichcanbeisolatedandrelated.SignificantinOrientalstudies,inhistoryofreligionsandphilosophy,andalso toJungianpsychoanalysisandotherareasofmodernEuropeanthought.Index.Appendixes.6plates.xxi+448PP. 5% x 8\h. '1'1062Paperbound $2.75 HISTORYOFANCIENTPHILOSOPHY,W.Winde/bandOneoftheclearest,mostaccuratecomprehensivesurveysofGreekandRomanphilosophy.Discussesancientphilosophyingeneral,intellectuallifeinGreeceinthe7thand6thcenturiesB.C.,Thales,Anaximander,Anaximenes,Heraclitus,theEleatics,Empedocles,Anaxagoras,Leucippus,thePythagoreans,theSophists,Socrates,Democritus(20 pages),Plato(50 pages),Aristotle(70 pages),thePeripatetics,Stoics,Epicureans,Sceptics,Neo-platonists,ChristianApologists, etc. 2nd GermaneditiontranslatedbyH.E.Cushman.xv+393PP. 5% x8. '1'357 Paperbound $2.25THEPALACE OF PLEASURE,l1!illiam PainterElizahethanversionsofItalianandFrenchnovelsfromThe Decwl/eTon, Cinthio,Straparola,QueenMargaretofNavarre,andothercontinentalsources -thevery workthatprovidedShakespeareanddozensofhiscontemporarieswithmanyoftheirplotsandsuh-plotsand,therefore,justlyconsideredoneofthemostinfluentialhooks in allEnglishliterature.Itis also a hookthatanyreaderwillstillenjoy.Totalofcviii+J ,224PP' TI691,'1'1692,TI693Threevolumeset,paperbound$6

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSTHE ''''ONDERFUL''''IZARD OFOZ,L.F. Bawn Alltheoriginal ''''. W.Denslowillustrationsin fullcolor-asmuchapartof"TheWizard"asTenniel'sdrawingsareof"AliceinvVonderland.""TheWizard"is stillAmerica'shest-loved fairy tale, inwhich,astheauthorexpressesit,"Thewondermentandjoyareretainedandtheheartachesandnightmaresleftout."Nowtoday'syoungreaderscanenjoyeverywordandwonderfulpictureoftheoriginalhook.NewintroductionbyMartinGardner.ABaumbibliography.23full-pagecolorplates.viii+268pp. 5%x 8. Tu9l Paperbound $1.75 THEMARVELOUSLANDOFOz,L.F. Baum Thisistheequallyenchantingsequeltothe"Wizard,"continuingtheadventuresoftheScarecrowandtheTinvVoodman.Theherothistimeis alittlehoynamedTip,andallthedelightfulOzmagicis stillpresent.ThisistheOzbookwiththeAnimatedSaw-Horse,theWoggle-Bug,andJackPumpkinhead.AlltheoriginalJohnR.Neillillustrations,loinfullcolor. 287PP. 5% x8. T692 Paperbound jil.75 ALICE'SADVENTURESUNDERGROUND,Lewis Carroll TheoriginalA lice in Wonderlalld, hand-letteredandillustratedbyCarrollhimself,andoriginallypresentedas aChristmasgiftto achild-friend.Adultsas well aschildrenwillenjoythischarmingvolume,reproducedfaithfullyinthisDoveredition.Whilethestoryisessentiallythesame,thereareslightchanges,andCarroll'sspritelydrawingspresentanintriguingalternativetothefamousTennielillustrations.OneofthemostpopularbooksinDover'scatalogue.IntroductionbyMartinGardner.38illustrations.128pp. 5% x 8Y2. TI482Paperbound $1.00 THENURSERY"ALICF.,"Lewis CalToll WhilemostofusconsiderAliceinWonderlandastoryforchildrenofallages,Carrollhimselffeltitwasheyondyoungerchildren.Hethereforeprovidedthissimplifiedversion,illustratedwiththefamousTennieldrawingsenlargedandcoloredindelicatetints,forchildrenaged"fromNoughttoFive."Dover'seditionofthisnowrareclassic is afaithfulcopyofthe188gprinting,including20illustrationshyTenniel,andfrontandbackcoversreproducedinfull color.IntroductionbyMartinGardner. xxiii +67Pp. 6Vs x gI;:l. Tl610Paperbound THESTORYOFKIN(;ARTHURANDHISKNIGHTS, Howanl Pyle r\ fast-paced,excitingretellingofthehestknownArthurianlegendsforyoungreadershyoneofAmerica'sheststorytellersandillustrators.TheswordExcalibur,wooingofGuinevere,Merlinandhisdownfall,adventuresofSir"elliasandGawaine,andothers.Thepenandinkillustrationsarevividlyimaginedandwonderfullydrawn.41illustrations.xviii+313PP. 6Vsx gI;:l. T144!i Paperbound jiL75 Pricessubjecttochangewithoutnotice.AvailableatyourbookdealerorwriteforfreecataloguetoDept.Adsci,DoverPUhlications,Inc.,180VarickSt., N.Y., N.Y. 10014.Doverpuhlishesmorethan150hookseachyearonscience,elementaryandadvancedmathematics,biology,music,art,literaryhistory,social sciencesandotherareas.

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I/)fP? SF2O.02 G9.2<,l),



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GERARD'SHERBALL

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Leaves from Gerard'sHerballarranged for Garden LoversbyMARCUSWOODWARDwith130illustrations after the original woodcutsDOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC.NEWYORK

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ThisDoveredition,firstpublishedin1969, isanunabridgedandunalteredrepublicationoftheworkoriginallypublishedbyGeraldHowe,London,andHoughtonMifflinCompany,Boston,in1931.Theworkuponwhichthepresentvolumeisbased,TheHe1'ball orGeneral HistorieofPlantesbyJohnGerard,wasoriginallypublishedin, A secondeditionenlargedandamendedbyThomasJohnsonwaspublishedin1633,andreprintedin1636. Standard BookNumbe1';486-22343-4 Library ofCongress Catalog Card Numbe1-;79-82-793ManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaDoverPublications,Inc,180 VarickStreetNew York, N.Y, 10014

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HEvery friendly reception accorded toGerard's Herball: The Essence thereof,published in1927,andnowoutofprint, has suggestedthatthere may be a place for a new edition, popular in formandprice, yet no mere buta full booksuchas all loversofherbsandgardens would wish to haveathandatevery seasonofthe year. By compressing the text and omittingJohnson'scommentsandall cross headings, it has been found possible not only to preserve all the most characteristic passages, fullofGerard's 'slyhumourand well-flavouredEnglish',given before> buttoaddseveral chaptersofgreatinterestanddelight, notably those which discourseoftrees.Thentheentire book has been rearranged so as to form asitwere a garden calendar, the plants beinggroupedaccording tothetimeoftheir floweringorespecial appeal. (Some allowancemustbe made for climate,andstill more forthevagariesofourAuthor).Forthemostparttheflowersandshrubs are the favouritesofGerard's day,andofours too, in spiteofthe botanical discoveriesofthreehundredyears.Butwho would be so heartless as to exclude the Barnacle Goose, and some few othersthatare unlikely to be grown with success inourcold climateandwith cold reason? Forthefull storyoftheHerballandits sources, together withtheLifeofGerard, the reader is referred to the1927volume.Theeditor has however included some notes to help in identifyingthevarieties described, andtherehas beenaddedabrieftableofsomeofthemoreimportant'vertues'.v

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TABLEOFCONTENTSPREFATORYNOTETHEEPISTLEDEDICATORIETHEHERBALSPRINGAPRILMAYJUNEJULYAUGUSTAUTUMNWINTERTHENOTESANDTABLESNOTESTABLEOFSUNDRYVERTUESALPHABETICALTABLEOFPLANTSVllPage" "" VIXI20S294 142 186244 274

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TOTHERIGHTHONORABLEHISSINGULARGOODLORD&MASTER,SIRWILLIAMCECILKnight, BaronofBurghley, Masterofthe CourtofWards&Liveries, Chancellorofthe Universitie of Cambridge, Knightofthe most nobleOrderofthe Garter, oneofthe Lordsofher Majesties most honorable Privy Councell, andLordhigh TreasurerofEngland.AMONGthe manifold creaturesofGod (right Honorable, and my singular good Lord) that haveallin all ages diver sly entertained many excellent wits, and drawn them to the contemplationofthe divine wisdome, none have provoked mens studies more,orsatisfied their desiressomuchasplants have done, and that uponjustand worthy causes: forifdelight may provoke mens labor, what greater delightisthere thantobehold the earth apparelled with plants,aswith a robeofembroidered worke, set with Orient pearles and garnished with great diversitieofrare and costly jewels?Ifthis varietie and perfectionofcolours may affect theeie,it is such in herbs and floures, that noApelles,noZeuxisever could by anyartexpresse the like:ifodours oriftaste may worke satisfaction, they are both so soveraigne in plants, andsocomfortable that no confec tionofthe Apothecaries can equall their excellent vertue. But these delights are in the outward senses: the principal delight is in the mind, enriched with theIX

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The Epistleknowledgeofthese visible things, setting forth to us the invisible wisdome and admirable workmanshipofAlmighty God.Thedelight is great,butthe use greater, and joyned often with necessitie.Inthe first agesofthe world they were the ordinary meateofmen, and have continued ever sinceofnecessary use both for meates to maintaine life, and for medicine to recover health.Thehidden vertueofthem is such, that (asPlinynoteth) the very bruit beasts have found itout:and (whichisanother use that he observes) from thence the Dyars tooke the beginningoftheir Art. Furthermore, the necessary useofthose fruitsofthe earth doth plainly appeare by the great charge and careofalmost all men in planting&maintainingofgardens, notasornaments onely,butasa necessarie provision also to their houses.Andhere beside the fruit, to speake againe in a wordofdelight, gardens, especialy suchasyourHonorhath, furnished with many rare Simples, do singularly delight, when in them a man doth behold a flourishing shewofSummer beauties in the midstofWinters force, and a goodly springofflours, when abroad a leafe is not to be seene. Besides these and other causes, there are many examplesofthose that have honoured this science: for to passe by a multitudeofthe Philosophers,itmay please yourHonorto call to remem brance that whichyou knowofsome noble Princes,thathave joyned this study with their most important mattersofstate:Mithridatesthe great was famous for his know ledge herein,asPlutarchnoteth.Euaxalso KingofArabia, the happy gardenofthe world for principall Simples, wrotofthis argument, asPlinysheweth.Dioclesianlikewise, might have had his praise, had he not drowned all his honour in the bloudofhis persecu tion.Toconclude this point, the exampleofSolomonis before the rest, and greater, whose wisdome and know ledge was such,thathee was able to setoutthe natureofx

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Dedicatorieallplants from the highest Cedar to the lowest Mosse. But my very good Lord, that which sometime was the studyofgreat Phylosophers and mightie Princes, is now neglected, except it beofsome few, whose spirit and wisdome hath carried them among other partsofwis dome and counsell, to a care and studieofspeciall herbes both for the furnishingoftheir gardens, and furtherance of their knowledge: among whom I may justly affirme and publish yourHonorto be one, being my selfe one of your servants, and a long time witnesse thereof: for under your Lordship I have served, and that way emploiedmyprincipall study and almost all my time, now by the spaceoftwenty yeares.Tothe large and singular furni tureofthis noble Island I have added from forreine places all the varietieofherbes and flouresthatImightany way obtaine, I have laboured with the soile to make itfitfor plants, and with the plants, that theymightdelight in the soile, thatsothey might live and prosper underourclymat, as in their native and proper countrey: whit my successe hath beene, and what my furnitureis,I leave to the reportofthey that have seene yourLordships gardens, and the little plotofmyne owne espeeiall care and husbandry. But because gardens are privat, and many times finding an ignorantora negligent successor, come soone to ruine, there be that have sollieited me, first by my pen, and after by the Pressetomake my labors common, and to free them from the danger wherunto a gardenissubject: wherein when Iwasovercome, and had brought thisHistoryor report of the natureofPlants to ajustvolume, and had made it(asthe Reader may by comparison see) richer than former Herbals, I founditno question unto whom I might dedicate my labors; for considering your good Lordship, I found noneofwhose favour and goodnes I might sooner presume, seeing I have found you evermyvery goodLordand Againe, consideringXl

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The Epistle DedicatoriemydutyandyourHonorsmerits, to whom may IbetterrecommendmyLabors,thanto himuntowhomlowemyselfe,andallthatIam able in your serviceordevotion to performe? ThereforeunderhopeofyourHonorableandaccustomed favorIpresent thisHerballtoyourLordships protection;andnotas an exquisiteWorke(forIknowmymeannesse)butasthegreatest giftandchiefestargumentofdutythatmylabourandservice can affoord: wherofifthere be nootherfruit, yet this isofsome use,thatIhave ministredMatterforMenofriperwitsanddeeperjudgementsto polish,andto adde tomylarge additions where anythingis defective,thatin time theWorkemay be perfect.ThusIhumblytakemyleave, beseeching God tograntyou yet many daies to live to his glory, to thesupportofthis StateunderherMajestieourdread Soveraigne,andthatwithgreatincreaseof honor in this world,andall fulnesseofglory intheworld to come. Tour Lordships most humbleandobedient Servant,JOHNGERARD.xu

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THEHERBALBULBOUSVIOLETSThebulbous Violet risethoutofthe ground, with two small leaves fiatandcrested,ofan overworne greene colour, betweene the which risethupa smallandtender stalkeoftwo handshigh;atthe top whereof commeth forthofa skinny hood a small white fioureofthe bignesse of a Violet, compactofsix leaves, three bigger,andthree lesser, tippedatthe points with a light greene;thesmaller are fashioned intothevulgar formeofanheart,andprettily edged about withgreen;theotherthree leaves are longer,andsharpe pointed.Thewhole fioure hangeth downe his head, by reasonofthe weake foot-stalke whereonitgroweth.Therootissmall, white,andbul bous. Some call them also Snow drops.ThisnameLeucoium,without hisEpithiteBulbosum,istaken fortheWall-fioure,andstocke Gillofioure, by all moderne Writers.Touchingthefacultiesofthese bulbous Violets we have nothing to say, seeingthatnothingisset downe hereof by the antient Writers, nor anythingobserved by themoderne;onely they are maintainedandcher ishedingardens for the beautieandrarenesseofthefioures,andsweet-Bulbous Violetnesseoftheir smell.I

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SpringVIOLETSTheViolets calledtheblackeorpurple violets,orMarchVioletsofthegarden, have a great prerogativeaboutothers, not only becausethemindconceiveth a certain pleasureandrecreation by smellingandhandling those most odoriferous floures,butalso for that very many by these violets receive ornamentandcomely grace; for there be madeofthemgarlands for the head, nosegaiesandpoesies, which are delightfull to lookeonandpleasant to smel to, speaking nothingoftheir appropriat vertues; yea gardens themselves receive by these the greatest ornamentofall, chiefest beauty,andmost excellent grace,andthe recreationofthe minde whichistaken hereby cannot bebutvery goodandhonest; for they admonishandstirreupa man tothatwhichiscomelyandhonest; for flouresthroughtheir beauty, varietyofcolour,andexquisit forme, dobringto a liberallandgentle manly minde,theremembranceofhonestie, comlinesse,andall kindesofvertues: foritwould beanunseemlyandfilthything(as a certain wisemansaith) for himthatdoth lookeuponandhandlefaireandbeautiful things, to have hismindnot faire,butfilthyanddeformed.Theblackeorpurple Violet doth forthwithbringfromtheroot many leaves, broad, sleightly indented intheedges, rounder than the leavesofIvy;among the midst wherofspringupfine slender stems,anduponeveryonea beautifull flour sweetly smelling,ofa blew darkish purple, consistingoffivelittle leaves,thelowest whereof isthegreatest: afterthemdoappearelittlehangingcupsorknaps,which when they be ripe do openanddivide themselves into three parts.Theseed is smal, long,andsomwhatroundwithall: the root consistethofmanythreddystrings.Thewhite garden Violet hath many milke white floures, in formeandfigure liketheprecedent; the colourofwhose floures especially setteth forththedifference. 2

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VioletsThedouble garden Violet hath leaves, creeping branches,androots like the garden single Violet; differing in that,thatthis Violet bringeth forth most beautifull sweet double floures,andthe other single.Thewhite double Violet likewise agrees with the other of his kinde, differing onely in the colour; forasthe last described bringeth double bleworpurple flours, contrari wise this plant beareth double white floures, which maketh the difference.TheVioletiscalled in Greeke,Ion:in Latine,Nigra violaorblacke Violet,of the blackish purple colourofthe floures.TheA poth ecaries keepe the Latine name Viola, butthey callitHerba Violaria,andMater Violarum:in Spanish,Violeta:in English, Violet.Nicanderbeleeveththatthe Greciansdidcallitlon,because certain Nymphsof Ionia gavethatfloure first toJupiter.Others say itwascalled because whenVioletJupiterhadturnedtheyong damosell 10, whom he tenderly loved, into a Cow,theearthbroughtforth this floure for her food; which being made for her sake, re ceivedthename fromher:andthereuponitisthoughtthat the Latines also calledit Viola, asthoughthey should sayVitula,by blotting outthelettert.Thefloures are good for all inflammations, especially of the sidesandlungs;they take awaythehoarsenesseofthe chest,theruggednesseofthewinde-pipeandjawes, and take away thirst.Thereislikewise madeofVioletsandsugarcertaine plates called Sugar violet, Violet tables,orPlate, whichis3

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Springmost pleasantandwholesome, especially it comforteth the heartandtheother inward parts.SPRINGSAfFRONWildeSaffron hath smallshortgrassie leaves, furrowedorchannelled downe the midst with a white lineorstreak:amongthe leaves riseupsmall floures in shape likeuntothe common Saffron,butdiffering in color; for thishathflouresofmixt colors;thatisto say,thegroundofthe floureiswhite,strippeduponthebacke with purple,anddasht overontheinside with abrightshiningmurrey color; theothernot.Inthe middleofthefloures come forth many yellowish chives, without any smellofSaffronatall.Therootissmall, round,andcovered with a browne skinoffilme like untotherootsofcommon Saffron.Wehave likewise inourLondongardens another sort, like unto the other wilde Saffrons in every point, savingthatthishathflouresofa most perfect shining yellow colour, seeming a far off to be a hot glowing coleoffire.ThereisfoundamongHerbarists another sort,notdiffering from the others, savingthatthishathwhite floures, contrary to alltherest. Loversofplants have gotten into their gardens onesorthereof with purpleorViolet coloured flours, inotherrespects like untotheformer. All these wild Saffrons we have growing inourLondongardens.DAFFODILSThefirstofthe Daffodils isthatwiththe purple crowneorcircle, having small narrow leaves, thicke, fat,andfullofslimiejuice;amongthewhich risethupa naked stalke smoothandhollow,ofa foot high, bearingatthe 4

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Daffodilstop a faire milke white floure growing forthofa hoodorthin filmesuchasthefloursofonions are wrappedin:in the midst or/which floure is aroundcircleorsmall coronetof ryellowish colour,purfledorborderedaboutthe edgeofthesaidringor circle with a pleasant purple colour; which being past, there followeth a thickeknobor button, wherein is contained blackeroundseed.Theroot is white, bulbous or Onion-fashion.ThesecondkindofDaffodillisthatsortofNarcissusor Primrose peerelessethatismost common inourcountry gardens, generally knowne everie where.Ithathlong fatandthickleaves, fullofa slimiejuice;amongwhich risethupa bare thicke stalke, hollow withinandfull of juice.Thefloure growethatthetop,ofa yel lowish white colour, with a yellow crowneorcircle inthemiddle,andfloureth inthemonethofAprill,andsometimes sooner.Theroot is bulbous fashion.Thereare three or foure reflexJunquilia's,whose cupshangdowne,andthesix incompas sing leavesturneuporbacke, whence they take their names.TheDaffodils with purple coronets grow wilde insundryplaces, chiefly in Burgondie,andin Suitzerland in medowes.TheocritusaffirmeththeDaffodils to grow in medowes, in his19Eidyl,or20according to some editions: where he writeth,ThatthefaireLadyEuropaentringwithherNymphsintothemedowes, did gatherthesweet smellingdaffodils; in these verses:5

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SpringWhichwemayEnglishthus:But when the Girles were come intoThemedowes flouring all in sight,ThatWenchwith these, thisWenchwith thoseTrimf1oures,themselves did all delight: She with the Narcisse good in sent,Andshe with Hyacinths content.Butitisnot greatly toourpurpose, particularly to seekeouttheir placesofgrowing wilde, seeing we havethemall&everie oneoftheminourLondon gardens,ingreat aboundance.Thecommon wilde Daffodill groweth wilde in fieldsandsidesofwoods in theWestpartsofEngland.Galensaith,Thatthe rootsofNarcissus havesuchwonderfull qualities in drying,thatthey consoundandglew together very great wounds, yeaandsuch gashesorcuts as happen abouttheveins, sinues,andtendons.Theyhave also a certaine elensing facultie.TherootofNarcissus stamped with honyandapplied plaister-wise, helpeththemthatareburnedwith fire,andjoinethtogether sinuesthatarecutinsunder. Being used in manner aforesaidithelpeth the great wrenchesofthe aneles,theachesandpainsofthejoints.Thesame applied with honyandnettle seed helpethSunburning. Being stamped with the mealeofDarnelandhony, it draweth forth thornsandstubsoutofanypartofthe body.SOW-BREADThecommon kindeofSow-bread, called in shopsPanis porcinus,andArthanita,hath many greeneandroundleaves like unto Asarabacca, savingthattheupperpartoftheleaves are mixed hereandthere confusedlywith6

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Sow-breadwhite spots,andundertheleaves nextthegroundofa purple colour:amongwhich riseuplittle stemmes like unto the stalkesofviolets, bearingatthetop small purple floures, whichturnethemselves backward (being full blowne) like aTurkscap,orTulepan,ofa smallsentor savour,ornoneatall: which being past, there succeed littleroundknopsorheads which containe slender browne seeds: these knops are wrapped after a few daies in the small stalkes, asthredabouta bottome, whereitSow-breadremaineth so defended fromtheinjurieofWinterclose upontheground, covered also withthegreene leaves aforesaid, by which meanesitiskeptfromthefrost, even fromthetimeofhis seeding, which is in September, untillJune:atwhich timetheleaves doe fade away,thestalkes & seed remaining bareandnaked, wherebyitinjoyeththeSun (whereof it waslongdeprived)thesooner tobringthemunto maturitie. Sow-bread groweth plentifully about ArtoiesandVermandois in France,andintheForestofArden,andin7

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SpringBrabant.Itisreported unto mee by menofgood credit,thatCyclamenorSow-brea,d growethuponthe mountaines ofWales;onthehilsofLincolnshire,andin Somerset shire. Being beatenandmadeupinto trochisches,orlittle flat cakes,itisreported to be a good amorous medicine to make one in love,ifit be inwardly taken.MusCARI,0RMusKEDGRAPE-FLOUREYellow Muscarie hathfiveor six long leaves spreadupontheground, thicke, fat,andfullofslimie juyce,turningandwinding themselves crookedly this wayandthatway, hollowed alongstthemiddle like a trough, as are thoseoffaire haired Jacinth, whichatthe firstbuddingorspringingupareofa purplish colour;butbeing growne to perfection, becomeofa darke greene colour; amongst the which leaves riseupnaked, thicke,andfat stalkes, infirmeandweake in respectofthethicknesseandgreatnesse thereof, lying alsouponthegroundas do the leaves; set fromthemiddle to the toponevery side with many yellow floures,everyonemade like a small pitcherorlittle box, with a narrow mouth, exceeding sweetofsmell likethesavourofmuske, whereofit tookethenameMuscari.Theseed is closed in puffedorblowneupcods, confusedly made without order,ofa fatandspongeous substance, wherein is containedroundblacke seed.Theroot is bulbousoronion fashion, whereunto are annexed certaine fatandthicke strings like thoseofDogs-grasse.Theseplants came from beyondtheThracianBos phorus,outofAsia,andfromaboutConstantinople,andbythemeansofFriends have beenbroughtinto these partsofEurope,whereofourLondongardens are possessed.Therehathnotas yet anythingbeene touched concerningthenatureorvertuesofthese Plants, onelytheyarekeptandmaintained in gardens forthepleasant8

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Winde-fiouressmelloftheir floures,butnot for their beauty, forthatmany stinking field floures do in beautie farresurpasse them.WIND-FLOURESThestocke or kindredoftheAnemonesor Winde-floures, especially in their varietiesofcolours,arewithout number,orattheleastnotsufficiently knowne untoanyonethathathwrittenofplants.Myselfe have in my garden twelve different sorts:andyet I do heareofdivers more differing very notably from anyofthese: every new yearebringingwithitnewandstrangekindes;andeverycountryhis peculiar plantsofthissortwhich aresentuntous from far countries, in hope to re ceive from ussuchasourcountry yeeldeth.Thefirst kindeofAnemoneorWinde-flourehathsmall leaves verymuchsniptorjaggedalmost likeuntoCamo mile,orAdonis floure:amongAnemonewhich risethupa stalke bareornaked almost untothetop;atwhich place is set twoorthree leaves liketheother:andatthetopofthestalke commeth forth a faireandbeautifull floure compactofseven leaves,andsometimes eight,ofa violet colour tending to purple.Itis impossible to describethecolour in his full perfection, consideringthevariable mixtures.Theroot is tuberous or knobby,andvery brittle.9

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SpringThesecondkindofAnemonehath leaves like totheprecedent, insomuchthatitishardto distinguishtheone fromtheotherbutby the floures onely: for thoseofthis plant areofa mostbrightandfaire skarlet colour,andas double astheMarigold;andtheothernot so.ThegreatAnemonehathdouble floures, usually calledtheAnemoneofChalcedon (whichisa city in Bithynia)andgreat broad leaves deep ely cut intheedges, notunlike to thoseofthefield Crow-foot,ofan overworne greene colour: amongst which risethupa naked bare stalke almostuntothetop, where therestandtwoorthreeleavesinshape liketheothers,butlesser; sometimeschangedinto reddish stripes, confusedly mixed hereandthereinthesaid leaves.Onthetopofthestalkestandetha most gallant floure very double,ofa perfectredcolour,thewhich is sometimesstripedamongsttheredwith a little lineortwoofyellow inthemiddle; from which middlecommethforthmany blackishthrums.Theyfloure fromthebeginningofJanuarie totheendofApril,atwhattimetheflours do fade,andtheseed flieth awaywiththewind,iftherebe any seedatall;thewhich I could never as yet observe.Anemone,orWind-floure, is so called, forthefloure doth never open it selfebutwhenthewinddoth blow, asPlinywriteth.WALL-FLOURES,ORYELLOWSTOCKEGILLOFLOURESThestalksoftheWal-floure are fulofgreene branches,theleaves are long, narrow, smooth, slippery,ofa blackishgreencolor,andlesserthantheleavesofstocke Gillo floures.Thefloures are small, yellow, very sweetofsmell,andmadeoffoure little leaves; whichbeingpast,theirsucceedlongslender cods,inwhichiscontained flat reddish seed.Thewhole plant isshrubby,ofa10

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Wall-fioures wooddy substance,andcan easilyendurethecoldofWinter.Thedouble Wal-flourehathlongleaves greeneandsmooth, setuponstiffe branches,ofa wooddy substance: whereupon doe grow most pleasant sweet yellow flours very double; which plant is so well knowne to all,thatit shall be needlesse tospendmuchtimeaboutthedes cription.Ofthis double kinde we have another sortthatbringethhis flouresopenallatonce, whereastheotherdoth floure by degrees, by meanes whereof it islonginflouring.Thefirst growethuponbrickeandstone walls, inthecornersofchurches every where, as alsoamongrubbishandotherstony places.Thedouble Wall-floure groweth in most gardensofEngland.They floure forthemostpartalltheyeere long,butespeciallyinWinter,whereupon the people in CheshiredocallthemWinter-Gillofloures.TheWall-floure is calledinLatine, Viola lutea,andLeucoium luteum: inEnglish,Wall-Gillofloure, WaIl floure, yellow stocke Gillofloure,andWinter-Gillofloure.Theleavesstampedwitha little bay salt,andboundaboutthewrestsofthehands,takeawaytheshakingfitsoftheAgue.WATERCROW-FOOTWater Crow-foothathslender branches trailing far abroad,whereupongrowleavesunderthewater, most finelycutandjagged:those abovethewater are somwhat round, informenotunlikethesmaltenderleavesoftheMallow,butlesser:amongwhichdoegrowthefloures, small,andwhiteofcolour, madeoffine little leaves,withsome yellownesse inthemiddleliketheflouresofthestrawberry,andofa sweet smell.Theroots be very small hairy strings.II

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SpringWaterCrowfoot growes by ditchesandshallow springs,andin other moistandplashy places.WaterCrow-footCUCKOWPINT,ORWAKE-RoBINArumorCockowpinthath great, large, smooth, shining, sharpe pointed leaves, bespotted hereandtherewithblackish spots, mixedwithsome blewnesse:amongwhich risethupa stalke, nine inches long, bespeckled inmanyplaces with certaine purple spots.Itbeareth also a certainelonghoseorhood,inproportion liketheeareofan hare: inthemiddleofwhich hood commethfortha pestleorclapperofa darkemurryorpalepurplecolour: which being past, there succeedeth in place thereof abunchorclusterofberries in mannerofabunchofgrapes, greeneatthefirst,butafter they be ripeofa yellowishredlike corall,andfullofjuyce, wherein lie hid oneortwo littlehardseeds.Theroot is tuberous,ofthebignesseofa large Olive, whiteandsucculent, with somethreddyadditaments annexed thereto. Cockowpintgroweth in woods neere unto ditches under hedges, every whereinshadowie places.Theleaves12

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Frogge-bitFROGGE-BITThere fiotethorswimmeth upontheupperpartsofthewater a small plant, whichweusually call Frog-bit, hav ing littleroundleaves, thicke and fullofjuyce, very like to the leavesofwallPeniwort:the floures growuponlong13Cuckowpintappeare presently afterWinter:thepestell shewethitselfeoutofhis huskeorsheath inJune,whilesttheleaves are in withering:andwhen they are gone,thebunchorclusterofberries becommeth ripe, which is inJulyandAugust.Thecommon Cuckowpintis called in Latine, Arum :inEnglish, Cuckow pint,andCuckow pintle, wake-Robin, Priests pintle, Aron, Calfes foot,andRampe;andofsome Starchwort. Beares after they have lienintheir dens forty daies without any mannerofsustenance,butwhat they getwithlickingandsucking their owne feet, doeassoone as they comefortheattheherbe Cuckow-pint,throughthewindie nature thereof thehungrygutis openedandmadefitagain to receive sustenance: for by abstaining from food solonga time,thegutisshrunkeordrawne so close together, that in a manner itisquiteshutup, asAristole, .lianus, Plutarch, Pliny,and others do write.Themostpureandwhite starch is madeoftheroots of Cuckow-pint;butmost hurtfull tothehandsoftheLaundressethathaththehandlingofit, for it choppeth, blistereth,andmakeththehandsroughandrugged, and withall smarting.

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Springstems among the leaves,ofa white colour, with a certain yellowthrumin the middle consisting of three leaves:instead of roots it hath slender strings, which growoutof a short and small head,asit were, from whencetheleaves spring, in the bottomofthe water: from which head also come forth slopewise certain strings, by which growing forth it muItiplieth it selfe.Itisfound swimming or floting almostinevery ditch, pond, poole, or standing water, in all the ditchesaboutSaint George his fields, andintheditches bytheThames side neere to Lambeth Marsh, where any thatisdisposed may see it.Itflourishethandfloureth most partofalltheyeare.Itisthought to be a kindeofPond-weed (or ratherofWaterLillie).LITTLEDAISIESTheDaisie bringeth forth many leaves from a threddy root, smooth, fat, long, and somwhatroundwithall, very sleightly indented about the edges, forthemostpartlying upon the ground: among which rise up the floures, everie one with his owne slender stem, almost like thoseofCamomill,butlesser,ofa perfect white colour,andvery double.ThedoubleredDaisieislike unto the precedentineverie respect, saving in the colorofthe floures; for this plant bringeth forth flouresofa red colour;andthe other white as aforesaid.Thedouble Daisies are plantedingardens: the others grow wilde everywhere.TheDaisieiscalledofsome,Herba Margarita,orMargarites herb: in French,Marguerites:InEnglish, Daisies,andBruisewort.TheDaisies do mitigate all kindeofpaines,butespecially in the joints,andgout,ifthey be stampedwithnew butter unsalted,andapplied uponthepained place:14

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Daisiesbut they worke more effectuallyifMallowes be added thereto.Thejuiceofthe leavesandroots sniftupintothenosthrils,purgeththe head mightily,andhelpeththemegrim.Thesame given to little dogs with milke, keepeth them from growing great.DaisieTheleaves stamped take away bruisesandswellings proceedingofsome stroke,ifthey be stampedandlaid thereon; whereupon it was called in old time Bruisewort. The juiceputintotheeies cleareth them,andtakethawaythe wateringofthem.Thedecoctionofthefield Daisie (whichisthe best for physicks use) made in water and drunke,isgood against agues.GROUND-Ivy,ORALE-HOOFEGroundIvyisa low or base herbe;it creepethandspreads upon thegroundhitherandthither all about, with many stalkesofanuncertaine length, slender,andlike those of the Vine: whereupon grow leaves something broad and round: amongst which come forth the floures gaping like little hoods, not unlike to thoseofGermander,ofaIS

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Springpurplish blew colour: the whole plantisofastrongsmellandbitter taste.Itisfound as well in tilledasin untilled places,butmost commonly in obscureanddarke places,uponbanksunderhedges,andbythesidesofhouses.Itremaineth greene not onely in Summer,butalso inWinteratany timeofthe yeare:it floureth from Aprill till Summer be far spent.Itiscalled in English Ground-Ivy, Ale-hoofe, Gill go by ground, Tune-hoof,andCats-foot. Ground-Ivy, Celandine,andDaisies,ofeach a like quanti tie, stampedandstrained,anda little sugarandrose waterputthereto,anddropped with a feather -intotheeies, taketh away all mannerofinflammation, spots, webs, itch, smarting, or any griefe whatsoever in the eyes, yea althoughthesight were nigh hand gone: itisproved to be the best medicine in the world.Theherbes stampedasaforesaid,andmixed with a little aleandhoney,andstrained, take awaythepinneandweb, or any griefeoutoftheeyesofhorseorcow,orany other beast, being squirted intothesame with a syringe,orImighthave saidtheliquor injected intotheeies with a syringe. But I list not to be over eloquent among Gentlewomen, to whom especially myWorkesare most necessarie.ThewomenofourNortherneparts, especially about WalesandCheshire, doturnetheherbe Ale-hoof into their Ale;butthe reason thereof I knownot:notwith standing without all controversieitis most singular againstthegriefes aforesaid; beingtunnedup in aleanddrunke,italsopurgeththehead from rheumaticke humors flowing fromthebraine.GROUNDSELLThestalkeofGroundsellisround, chamferedanddivided16

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"GroundsellGroundsellinto many branches.Theleaves be green, long,andcut in the edges almost like thoseofSuccorie,butlesse, like in a manner totheleavesofRocket.Thefloures be yellow,andturnto down, whichiscarried away withthewind.Theroot is fullofstringsandthreds. These herbs are very common throughoutEnglandanddo grow almost every where.Theyflourish almost every moneth of the yeare. GroundseliscalledinLatineSenecio,becauseitwaxeth old quickly.TheleavesofGroundsel boiledinwine or water,anddrunke, healethepaineandach ofthestomacke that pro ceedsofCholer. Stampedandstrained into milkeanddrunke, they hel pe the red gumsandfrets in Children.Dioscoridessaith,Thatwith the fine pouderofFrankincenseithealeth wounds in the sinues.Thelike operation haththedowneofthefloures mixed withvineger. Boiledinale with a little honyandvineger,itprovoketh vomit, especiallyifyouaddethereto a few rootsofAsarabacca.DANDELIONThehearbe which is commonly called Dandelion doth send forth fromtheroot long leaves deeply cutandgashed intheedges like thoseofwild Succorie, I7

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DandelionSpringbutsmoother:uponevery stalke standeth a floure greaterthanthatofSuccorie,butdouble,&thicke set to gether,ofcolour yellow,andsweetinsmell, which isturnedinto arounddowny blowbalthatis carried away withthewind.Theroot is long, slender,andfullofmilky juice, when any partofitis broken, as istheEndiveorSuccorie,butbitterer in tastthanSuccorie.Theyarefoundoften in medowes neereuntowater ditches, as alsoingardensandhigh wayesmuchtroden. Theyfloure most times inthe .;,J yeare, especiallyifthewinter be not extreme cold.LETTUCEGardenLettucehath a long broad leafe, smooth,andofalightgreene colour:thestalke is round, thicke set with leaves fullofmilky juice, bushedorbranched atthetop:whereupon do grow yellowish floures, whichturneinto downethatis carried away withthewinde.Theseedstickethfastuntothecottony downe,andflieth away likewise, whiteofcolour,andsomewhatlong:theroothathhangingonit manylongtoughstrings, which beingcutor broken, do yeeld forth in like manner as doththestalkeandleaves, a juice like to milke.Andthis isthetruedescriptionofthenaturall Lettuce,andnotofthe artificiall; for by manuring, transplanting,andhaving a18

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Lettuce regard to theMooneandother circumstances,theleaves of the artificiallLettuceare oftentimes transformed into another shape: for either they are curled,orelse so drawne together, as they seeme to be like a Cabbageorheaded Colewort,andtheleaves which be withinandinthe middest are something white,tendingto a verylightyellow. Lettuce delighteth to grow in a mannured, fat, moist, anddungedground:itmustbe sowen in faire weatherinplaces where there is plentyofwaterandprospereth best if it be sowen very thin.Itmay well be sowenatany time of the yeare,butespeciallyatevery first Spring,andso soone asWinteris done, till Summer be wellnighspent. GardenLettuceis calledinLatine, Lactuca sativa,ofthe milky juice which issueth forthofthewoundedstalks and roots. Lettuce cooleththeheatofthestomacke, calledtheheart-burning;andhelpeth it whenitis troubled with choler:itquencheth thirst,andcauseth sleepe. Lettuce maketh a pleasant sallad, being eaten raw with vineger, oile,anda little salt:butifit be boiled it is sooner digested,andnourisheth more.Itis served in these daies,andin these countries inthebeginningofsupper,andeaten first before anyothermeat: which also Martiall testifieth to be done in his time, marvelling why some did useitfor a serviceattheendofsupper,inthese verses:Tellmewhy Lettuce, whichourGrandsires last did eate, Is nowoflate become to bethefirstofmeat? Notwithstandingitmay nowandthenbe eatenatboth those times tothehealthofthebody: for being taken before meatitdoth many times stirupappetite: and eaten aftersupperitkeepeth away drunkennesse which commeth bythewine;andthatis by reasonthatit staieththevapours from risingupintothehead.19

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Field Cowslip April COWSLIPSThefirst, whichiscalled in English the field Cowslip, is as common as the rest, therefore I shal not need to spendmuchtime about the description.Thesecond is likewise well knowne by the nameofOxlip,anddiffereth not from the other save that the floures are not so thickethrusttogether, and they are fairer, and notsomanyinnumber,anddonot smellsopleasantasthe other:ofwhichkindwe have one lately come intoourgardens, whose floures are curledandwrinkled after a most strange maner, which our women have namedJack-an-apes on horsebacke. DoublePaigle, the English gar den Cowslip with double yellow floures, is so commonly knowne that it needeth no description.Thefourth is likewise known bythenameofdouble Cowslips, havingbutone floure within another, which maketh the same once double, wheretheotherismany times double, called by Pena, Geminata, forthelike nesseofthefloures, which arebroughtforth as things against nature,ortwinnes.Thefifth beingthecommon whitish yellow field Primrose, needeth no description.Thesixth, which is our garden double Primrose,ofalltherestisofgreatest beauty,thedescription whereof I refer unto your owne consideration. 20

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FieldPrimroseCowslipsTheseventh is also very well known, being aPrimrose with greenish floures somwhat weltedabouttheedges. CowslipsandPrimrosesjoyinmoistanddankish places,butnot altogether covered with water: they are found in woodsandthebordersoffields.Theyflourish from Aprill totheendofMay,andsome oneorotherofthem do floure allWinterlong.Theyare commonly calledPrimula veris,because they are the first among those plants that doe floure intheSpring,orbecause they floure with the first.Thegreater sort, called for the mostpartOxlipsorPaigles, are named of diversHerba S. Petri:in English, Oxlip,andPaigle. A practitionerofLondonwho was famous forcuringthe phrensie, after hehadperformed his cure bythedue observationofphysick, ac customed every yeare inthemonethofMayto dyet his Patients after thismanner:Taketheleavesandfloures of Primrose, boilethema little in fountaine water,andin some roseandBetony waters,addingthereto sugar, pepper, salt,andbutter, which being strained, he gavethemto drinke thereof firstandlast.TherootsofPrimrose stampedandstrained,andthe juice sniffed intothenose with a quillorsuch like,purgeththebrain,andqualifieththepainofthemegrim.21

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AprilAnunguentmade withthejuiceofCowslipsandoileofLinseed,curethall scaldings or burnings with fire, water,orotherwise.BEARESEARES,ORMOUNTAINECOWSLIPSThisbeautifullandbrave planthaththicke, greene,andfat leaves, somewhat finely sniptabouttheedges,notaltogether unlike thoseofCowslips,butsmoother, greener,andnothingroughorcrumpled:amongwhich risethupa slenderroundstema handfull high, bearing atuftofflouresatthetop,ofa faire yellow colour, notmuchunlike totheflouresofOxe-lips,butmore openandconsistingofone only leafe like Cotiledon:theroot is very threddy,and like untotheOxe-lip.Theygrow naturallyupontheAlpishandHelvetian mountaines: mostofthemdo growinourLondonGardens.Eithertheantientwriters knew not these plants,orelsethenamesofthemwere not bythemortheir suc cessors diligently committeduntoposterity.Matthiolusandotherlater writers have given names according tothesimilitude,oroftheshapethatthey beareuntootherplants: theythatdwellabouttheAlpes doe callitby reasonoftheeffects thereof; fortheroot isamongstthemingreat request forthestrengthningofthehead,thatwhenthey are onthetopsofplacesthatare high, giddi nesseandtheswimmingofthebraine maynotafflictthem:itistherecalledtheRocke-Rose, forthatit growethupontherockes,andresembleththebrave colouroftherose.ThosethathuntintheAl psandhighmountaines after Goatsandbucks, do as highly esteeme hereof asofDoronicum,by reasonofthesingular effectsthatithath,but(as 1 said before)oneespecially, eveninthatit preventeththelosseoftheir best joynts(Imeane their22

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Pasque flouresneckes) if they take the roots hereof before they ascend the rocks or other high places.PASQUEFLOURESThe firstofthese Pasque floures hath many small leaves finely cut or jagged, like thoseofCarrots: among whichriseup naked stalkes, roughandhairie; whereupon doegrowbeautifull floures bell fashion,ofa bright delaied purple colour: in the bottome whereof groweth a tuftofvellowthrums,andin the middleofthe thrums it thrust eth forth a small purple pointell ; when the whole floureispast there succedeth an head or knob compactofmany gray hairy lockes,andin the sollid parts of the knobs lieth the seed flatandhoary, every seed having his owne small haire hangingatit.Therootisthickeandknobby, of a finger long, running right downe,andtherefore not unlike to those of theAnemone,whichitdoth in all other parts very notably resemble,andwhereof no doubt thisisa kinde.Thewhite Passe floure hath many fine jagged leaves, closely couched or thrust together, which resembleanHoly-water sprinckle, agreeing with the other in roots, seeds, and shapeoffloures, savingthatthese areofa white colour, wherein chiefly consisteth the difference.ThePasse-floure groweth in France in untoiled places: in Germany they grow in roughandstony places,andoftentimes on rockes. Those with purple flouresdogrow very plentifully in the pasture or close belonging to the parsonage houseofasmallvillage six miles from Cambrige, called Hilder sham: the Parson's name that livedatthe impression hereofwasMr.Fuller,a very kindandloving man,andwilling to shew unto any man the said close, who desired the same. They floure for the most part about Easter, which23

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AprilhathmoovedmeetonameitPasque-Floure,orEasterfloure:andoftentheydoe floureagaineinSeptember.InCambridge-shirewheretheygrow,theyarenamedCoventriebe1s.ThereisnothingextantinwritingamongAuthorsofanypeculiar vertue,buttheyserve one1y fortheadorningofgardensandgarlands,beingflouresofgreatbeautie.SWEETSAINTJOHNSANDSWEETWILLIAMSSweetJohnshaveroundstalkes as havetheGillofloures,(whereoftheyarea kinde) acubithigh,whereupondoegrowlongleavesbroaderthanthoseoftheGillofloure,ofagreenegrassie colour:theflouresgrowatthetopofthe stalkes, very likeuntoPinkes,ofaperfectwhitecolour.WehaveinourLondonGardensakindehereofbearingmostfineandpleasantwhitefloures,spottedvery confusedlywithreddishspots,whichsettethforththebeautiethereof;andhathbintakenofsome(butnotrightly)tobetheplantcalledofthelaterWritersSuperba Austriaca,orthePrideof Austria.ThegreatSweet-Williamhathroundjoyntedstalkesthickeandfat,somewhatSweet-Williamreddishaboutthelower24

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St.ockeGillo-flouresjoynts, a cubit high, with long broadandribbedleaves likeasthoseofthePlantaine,ofa greene grassie colour.Theflouresatthetopofthestalkes are very like tothesmall Pinkes, many joyned together in onetuftorspoky umbell,ofa deepe red colour. These plants arekeptandmaintained in gardens more for to pleasetheeye,thaneitherthenoseorbelly.Theyare not used either in meat or medicine,butesteemed for their beauty to deckeupgardens,thebosomesofthebeautifull, garlandsandcrownes for pleasure.STOCKEGILLO-FLOURESThestalkeofthegreat stocke Gillo-floureistwo foot highorhigher, round,andparted into divers branches.Theleaves are long, white, soft,andhavinguponthemasit were a downe like untotheleavesofwillow,butsofter:thefloures consistoffoure little leaves growing all alongtheupperpartofthebranches,ofa white colour, exceeding sweetofsmell: in their places comeuplongandnarrow cods, in whichiscontained broad, flat,androundseed.Therootisofa wooddy substance, asisthestalke also.Thepurple stocke Gillo-floureisliketheprecedent in each respect, savingthattheflouresofthis plant areofa pleasant purple colour,andtheothers white, which setteth forththedifference:ofwhich kinde we have somethatbeare double floures which areofdivers colours, greatly esteemed forthebeautieofthefloures,andpleasant sweet smell. These kin desofStocke Gillofloures do grow in most GardensthroughoutEngland.Theyfloure inthebeginningoftheSpring,andcon tinue flouring alltheSummer long.TheStocke Gillofloure is called in Latine,Viola alba:in Italian,Viola bianca:in Spanish,Violetta blanquas:25

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April inEnglish, Stocke Gillofloure, Garnsey Violet,andCastle Gillofloure.Theyare not usedinPhysicke, except amongst cer taine EmpericksandQuacksalvers, about loveandlust matters, which for modestie I omit.WHITEANDBLEWPIPEPRIVETThewhitePipegroweth like an hedgetreeor bushyshrub;fromtheroot whereof arise many shoots which inshorttime grow to be equall withtheold stocke, whereby in a little timeitincreaseth to infinit numbers, like the commonEnglishPrimorPrivet, whereof doubtlesse itisa kinde,ifwee consider every circumstance.Thebranches are covered with aruggedgray barke:thetim beriswhite, with some pithorspongie matter inthemiddest like Elder,butlesse in quantitie.Theselittle branches are garnishedwithsmall crumpled leavesoftheWhitePipeshapeandbignesseofthePearetree leaves,andvery like in form:amongwhich come forththeflours, growingintufts, compactoffour small leavesofa white colour,andofa pleasant sweet smell;butin myjudgmenttheyaretoo sweet, troublingandmolesting the head in very strange manner. I oncegatheredtheflouresandlayedthemin my chamber window, which smelled more strongly after they had lien26

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PipePrivettogether a few houres, with such an unacquainted savor that they awakedmeoutofsleepe,sothatI couldnotrest till Ihadcastthemoutofmy chamber.The flou;res being vaded,thefruit follows, which is small, curled,andasitwere compactofmany little folds, broad towards the upper part,andnarrow toward the stalke,andblack when itisripe, whereiniscontained a slenderlongseed.Theroot hereof spreadethitselfe abroadinthegroundafterthemanneroftherootsofsuch shrubby trees.TheblewPipe groweth likewise in mannerofa small hedge tree,withmany shoots rising fromtheroot liketheformer, asourcommon Privet doth, whereof itisa kind.Thebranches have a small quantityofpith inthemiddle of the wood,andare covered with a darke blacke greenish barkeorrinde.Theleavesareexceeding greene,andcrumpledorturneduplikethebrimmesofa hat, in shape very like untotheleavesofthePoplar tree:amongwhich cometheflours,ofanexceeding faire blew colour, com pactofmany smal floures in the formofabunchofgrapes: each floureisin shew like thoseofValeriana rubra Dodontei, consistingoffour parts like a little star,ofanexceeding sweet savourorsmell,butnotsostrongastheformer.Whenthese floures be gon there succeed flat cods, and somwhat long, which being ripe areofa light colour, with a thinne membraneorfilmeinthe middest, wherein are seeds almost foure square, narrow,andruddy. These trees grow not wild in England,butI have them growing in my garden in very great plenty.Theyfloure in AprillandMay,butasyet they have not borne any fruit in my garden,thoughinItalyandSpain their fruitisripein September.Thelater Physitians callthefirstSyringa,thatisto say a Pipe, becausethestalkesandbranches thereof whenthepithistakenoutare hollow like aPipe:itisalso many times syrnamedCandidaorwhite,orSyringa Candidaflore,orPipewith a white floure, becauseitshoulddiffer 27

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AprilfromLillach,whichissomtimes namedSyringacceruleaorblew Pipe.PLUMTREETowriteofPlumsparticularly would require a peculiar Volume,andyettheendnotbe attained unto, northestockorkindredperfectly known, neither to be dis tinguishedapart:thenumbersofthesorts or kinds arenotknown toanyoneCountry, every clymathathhis own fruit, farre differing fromthatofother places: my selfe have sixty sortsinmy garden,andall strangeandrare: there be inotherplaces many more common,andyet yearly commeth toourhands others not before known.ThePlumorDamsontreeisofa _bignesse, itiscovered with a smoothbarke:thebranchesarelong, whereon do grow broad leaves morelongthanround,nickedintheedges:thefloures arewhite;theplums do differ in colour, fashion,andbignesse, they all consistofpulpandskin,andalsoofkernell, whichisshutupin a shellorstone. Some plums areofa blackish blew,ofwhich some be longer, others rounder, othersofthecolourofyellow wax, diversofa crimson red, greater forthemostpartthantherest.Therebe also green plums,andwithall very long,ofa sweetandpleasant taste: more over,thepulpormeatofsome is drier,andeasilier separatedfromthestone;ofother-someitis moister,andcleaveth faster.OurcommonDamsonis known to all,andtherefore not to be stoodupon. .TheMirobalanPlumtree groweth totheheightofa great chargedwithmany great armesorboughes, which divide themselves into small twiggy branches, by means whereofityeeldeth a goodlyandpleasant shadow:thetrunkeorbody is coveredwitha finerandthinnerbarkethananyoftheotherPlumtrees:theleaves do somewhat resemble thoseoftheCherrie tree, they are28

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Plumvery tender,indentedabouttheedges:thefloursbewhite:thefruitis round,hanginguponlongfoot-stalks pleasant to behold, greeneinthebeginning,redwhen it is almost ripe,andbeeing fullripeitglistereth like purple mixedwithblacke:thefleshormeat is fullofjuice, pleasantintast:thestone is small,orofa meane bignesse:thetreebringethforth plentyoffruitevery other yeare.TheBullesseandtheSloe tree are wildekindesofPlums, which do vary in their kind, even asthegreater andmanuredPlumsdo.OftheBullesse, somearegreater andofbetter tastethanothers. Sloes are someofonetaste,andsomeofothers, moresharp;some greater,andothers lesser;thewhich to distinguish withlongdescrip tions were to small purpose, considering they be allandeveryofthemknowne even untothesimplest: therefore this shall suffice for their severall descriptions.ThePlumtrees growinall knowne countriesoftheworld: they require a loose ground, they also receive a difference fromtheregions where they grow, not onlyofthe forme or fashion,butespeciallyofthefaculties.ThePlumtrees are also many times graffed into trees of other kindes.ThewildePlumsgrowinmost hedgesthroughEngland.ThecommonandgardenPlumtrees do bloome in April:theleaves comeforthpresentlywiththem:thefruitisripe in Summer, some sooner, some later. Plummesthatbe ripeandnew gathered fromthetree, what sort soever they are of, do moistenandcoole,andyeeld untothebody very little nourishment,andthesame nothing goodatall. Dried Plums, commonly calledPrunes,are wholesomer, and more pleasant tothestomack, they yeeldmorenourishmentandbetter.

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AprilCHERRYTREETheEnglish Cherry tree groweth to an highandgreat tree, the body whereofisofa mean bignesse, which is parted above into very many boughes, with a barke some what smooth,ofa brown crimson colour, toughandpliable; the substanceortimberisalso brown in the middle, and the outer partissomwhat white: the leaves be great, broad, long, set with veins or nerves,andsleightly nicked about the edges: the floures are white,ofa mean bignes, consist ingoffiveleaves, and having certain threds in the middleofthe like colour.TheCherries be round, hanging upon long stemsorfoot stalks, with a stone in the middest whichiscovered with a pulp or soft meat; the kerneIl thereofisnot un. pleasant to the taste, though somwhat bitter.Thelate ripe Cherry tree growethuplike unto our wild English Cherry tree, with the like leaves,Double-flouredCherrybranchesandfloures, sav-ingthat they are somtimes once doubled: the fruitissmall, round, andofa darke bloudy colour when they be ripe, which the French-men gather with their stalkes, and hang themupin their houses in bunchesorhandfuIls against Winter, which the Physitions do give unto their patients in hot and burning fevers, being first steeped in a3

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Cherry little warme water,thatcauseththemto swellandplumpeasfullandfresh as when they didgrowuponthetree.Thedouble floured Cherry-tree growesuplikeuntoan hedge bush,butnotsogreatnorhighas anyoftheothers;theleavesandbranches differ not fromtherestofthe Cherry-trees.Thefloures hereof are exceeding double,asarethefloursofMarigolds,butofa white colour,andsmelling somewhat liketheHawthornefloures; after, which come se1dome or never any fruit, although some Authors have saidthatitbeareth sometimes fruit, whichmyselfe have notatany time seen; notwithstandingthetree hath growne in my Garden many yeeres,andthatinan excellent good place by a bricke wall, whereithaththereflectionoftheSouth Sunne, fit for a treethatisnotwilling to bearefruitinourcold climat.Myselfe with divers others have sundry other sortsinour gardens, one calledtheHartCherry,thegreaterandthe lesser; oneofthegreat bignesse,andmost pleasantintaste, which we callLuke WardesCherry, because he was the firstthatbroughtthesameoutofItaly;another we have calledtheNaples Cherry, becauseitwas firstbroughtinto these parts from Naples:thefruitis very great, sharpe pointed, somewhat like a mans heart in shape,ofa pleasant taste,andofa deepe blackish colourwhenitis ripe, as it wereofthecolourofdried bloud.Wehave anotherthatbringeth forth Cherries also very great, biggerthananyFlanders Cherrie,ofthecolourofJet, orburnishedhorne,andofa most pleasant taste, as witnessethMr.Bull,theQueenes Majesties Clocke maker, whodidtasteofthefruit(the tree bearing one1y one Cherry, which he did eate,butmyse1fenever tastedofit)attheimpression hereof.Wehave also another, calledtheAgriotCherry,ofa reasonable good taste. Another we havewithfruitofaduncolour,tendingto a watchet.Wehave oneofthedwarfe Cherries,that31

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Aprilbringethforthfruitasgreatas mostofourFlanders Cherries, whereasthecommon sorthathvery small Cherries,andthoseofan harsh taste.Theseandmany sorts morewehave inourLondongardens, whereof to write particularly would greatly enlargeourvolume,andto small purpose: therefore what hath beene said shall suffice.TheCherrie-trees bloome inAprill;somebringforththeirfruitsooner; some later:theredCherries be alwaies betterthantheblackeoftheir owne kinde.ManyexcellentTartsandother pleasant meatsaremade with Cherries, sugar,andotherdelicat spices.PEARETREETowriteofPearesandApplesinparticular, would require a particular volume:thestocke or kindredofPeares are not to benumbred:every country hath his peculiar fruit: my selfe knowes one curious in graffing&plantingoffruits, who hath in one pieceofground,atthepointofthree-score sundry sortsofPeares,andthose exceeding good,notdoubtingbutifhis minde had been to seeke after multitudes, hemighthave gotten togetherthelikenumberofthoseofworsekinds:besidesthediversitiesofthosethatbe wilde, experience sheweth sundry sorts:andtherefore Ithinkeitnot amisse to set downe one generall description for that,thatmightbe saidofmany, which to describe apart, were to sendanowle to Athens,ortonumberthose things which are without number.ThePearetree is forthemostparthigherthantheAppletree, having boughes not spread abroad,butgrowingupinheight;thebody is many times great:thetimberorwooditselfe is very tractable or easie to bewroughtupon, exceeding fit to make mouldsorprints to be graven on,ofcolourtendingto yellownesse: the leafeis32

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Pearesomewhat broad, finely nickedintheedges, greene above, and somewhat whiter underneath:thefloures are white:thePeares, thatisto say,thefruit, are forthemost part long, andinforme like aTop;butin greatnesse, colour, forme, and taste very much differing among them selves; they be also covered with skins or coatsofsundry colours: the pulpe or meate differeth,aswell in colour as taste: there is contained in them kernels, blacke when they be ripe:theroot groweth straight downe with some branchesrunningaslope.ThewildePearetree growes likewise great, upright, fullofbranches, for the most part Pyramides like, orofthefashionofa steeple, not spred abroad as istheApple or Crab tree: the timberofthetrunkeor bodyofthetreeisvery firmeandsollid,andlikewise smooth, a wood veryfitto make divers sortsofinstruments of, as also the haftsofsundrytooles to worke withal;andlikewise serveth tobecut into many kindesofmoulds, not only such prints as these figures are made of,butalso many sortsofpretty toies, for coifes, brest-plates,andsuch like, used amongourEnglish gentlewomen.Thetame Peare trees are planted in Orchards, as be the apple trees, and by grafting,thoughupon wilde stockes, come much varietyofgoodandpleasant fruits.Thefloures doe for the most part come forthinAprill, the leaves afterwards: all peares are not ripeatone time: some be ripe in July, othersinAugust,anddiversinSeptemberandlater. Wine madeofthe juyceofPeares called in English, Perry,issoluble, purgeth those that are not accustomedtodrinke thereof, especially whenitis new; notwith standing itisas wholesome a drinke being taken in small quanti tie as wine;itcomfortethandwarmeth the stomacke, and causeth good digestion. 33

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AprilSPERAGEORASPARAGUSThemanuredor garden Sperage, hathathis first risingoutofthegroundthicke tender shoots very softandbrittle,ofthethick nesseofthegreatest swans quill, in taste likethegreen bean, having atthetop a cer taine scaly soft bud, whichintime groweth to a branchoftheheightoftwo cubits, divided into divers other smaller branches, wheron are set many little leaves like haires, more finethantheleavesofDill:amongst which come forth small mos sie yellowish floures which yeeld forththefruit, greenatthefirst, afterward asredas Corall,ofthebignesseofGardenSperagea small pease;wherein is contained grosse blackish seed exceeding hard, which isthecausethatit lieth solonginthegroundafter his sowing, before itspringup:theroots are many thicke softandspongie stringshangingdowne from one head,andspredthemselves all about, wherebyitgreatly increaseth.Ourgarden Asparagus groweth wilde in Essex, in a medow neere to a mill, beyond a village calledThorp;andalsoatSingletonnotfar from Carby,andinthemedowes neereMoultoninLincolnshire. Likewiseitgrowes in great plenty neere Harwich,ata place called Bandamar lading,andatNorthMoultoninHollandapartofLincolnshire. 34

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Horse-taileThebare naked tender shootsofSperagespringupinAprill,atwhattime they are eaten in sallads; they floure inJuneandJuly,thefruit is ripe in September.Itis named Asparagus,oftheexcellency, becauseasparagi,orthesprings hereof are preferred before those of other plants whatsoever: for thisLatinewordAsparagusdoth properly signifiethefirstspringorsproutofevery plant, especially whenitis tender,andbefore it dogrowinto anhardstalk, as arethebuds, tendrels,oryongspringsofwild Vineorhops,andsuch like.Thefirst sproutsornaked tender shoots hereof be often times soddeninfleshbrothandeaten;orboiled in faire water,andseasoned with oile, vineger, salt,andpepper, then are servedupasa sallad: they are pleasant tothetaste.HORSE-TAILEORSHAVE-GRASSEGreat Horse-taile risethupwith aroundstalke hollow within like a reed, a cubit high, compactasitwereofmany small pieces oneputintotheendofanother, som timesofa reddish colour, very rough,andsetatevery joint with many stiffe Rush-like leaves,orroughbristles, which makeththewhole plant to resemblethetaileofa horse, whereofittooke his name. Smallandnaked Shave-grasse, wherewith Fletchers and Combe-makers doerubandpolish their worke, riseth outofthegroundlikethefirst shootsofAsparagus, jointed or kneed by certain distances liketheprecedent, but altogether without such bristly leaves,yetexceeding roughandcutting:theroot groweth aslope intheearthlike thoseoftheCouch-grasse. DodontCus sets forth another Horse-taile, which he called climing Horse-taile,orHorse-tailofOlympus.Belloniuswritesinhis Singularities,Thatit hath bin seen to be equall in height withthePlanetree. Shave-grasseisnot without cause namedAsprella,of35

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Aprilhis ruggednesse, whichisnot unknowne to women, who scoure their pewter and wadden thingsofthe kitchen therewith: and therefore someofour huswivesdocallitPewter-wort.Dioscoridessaith, that Horse-taile being stamped and laid to, doth perfectly cure wounds, yea although the sinues be cut' in sunder,asGalenaddeth.Theherb drunke either with waterorwine,isan excellent remedy against bleeding at the nose. Horse-taile with his roots boiled in wineisvery profitable for difficultieofbreathing.COLTS-FOOT,ORHORSE-FOOTTussilagoor Fole-foot hath many white and long creeping roots, somewhatfat;fromwhich rise up naked stalkes (inColts-foot3 6

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Hearts-eau the beginningofMarchandAprill) about a spanne long, bearingatthetop yellow floures, which change into downeandare caried away withthewinde:whenthestalkeandseed is perished, there appearespringingofoutthe earth manybroadleaves, greene above,andnextthegroundofa white hoarie or grayish colour, fashioned like anHorsefoot; for which causeitwas called Fole-foot,andHorse-hoofe: seldome or never shall you find leavesandflouresatonce,buttheflours are past beforetheleaves comeoutoftheground;as may appeare bythefirst picture, which setteth forththenaked stalkesandfloures; and bythesecond, which pourtraiteththeleaves only. A decoction madeofthegreene leavesandroots,orelse asyrrupthereof, is good forthe coug11. Thefumeofthe dried leaves takenthrougha funnell or tunnell,burnedupon coles, effectually helpeth thosethataretroubledwiththeshortnesseofbreath,andfetchtheirwinde thickeandoften. Beingtakenin manner as theytakeTobaco, it mightily prevaileth againstthediseases afore said.HEARTS-EASE,ORPANSIESTheHearts-easeorPansiehathmanyroundleavesatthefirst commingup;afterward they grow somewhat longer, sleightly cut abouttheedges, trailing or creepingupontheground:thestalksare.weakeandtender, whereupongrowfloures in form&figure liketheViolet,andforthemost partofthesame bignesse,ofthreesundrycolours, whereof it tookthesyrnameTricolor,thatis to say, purple, yellow, and whiteorblew; by reasonofthebeautyandbraverieofwhich colours they are very pleasing totheeye, for smel they have littleornone at all.ThereisfoundinsundryplacesofEnglanda wilde kinde hereof, having flouresofa feint yellow colour, withoutmixtureofanyothercolour, yet having a deeper37

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Aprilyellow spot inthelowest leafe with foure orfiveblackish purple lines, wherein it differeth fromtheother wilde kinde: and this hath been takenofsome youngHerbarists to betheyellow Violet.TheHearts-ease growethinfields in many places,andin gardens also,andthat oftentimesofit selfe: itismore gallant and beautifull than any ofthewilde ones.CROWNEIMPERIALLTheCrowne Imperiall hath for his root a thicke firmeandsolid bulbe, covered with a yellowish filmeorskinne, fromthewhich risethupa great thicke fat stalke two cubits high, inthebareandnaked partofa dar ke overworne dusky purple colour.Theleaves grow confusedly aboutthestalke like thoseofthewhite Lilly,butnarrower:thefloures grow atthetopofthestalke, incompassing it round, in formeofanImperiall Crowne, (whereof it tooke his name) hanging their heads downward as it were bels; in colour itisyellowish; or to give youthetruecolour, which by words otherwise cannot be ex pressed,ifyou lay sap berries in steep in faire water for the spaceofCrowne Imperialltwo houres,andmix a little saffron in that infusion,andlay it upon paper, it sheweththeperfect colour to limne or illuminethefloure withall.Theback side ofthesaid floureisstreaked with purplish lines, which doth greatly set forththebeauty therof.Inthebottomofeachofthese bels there is placed sixe dropsofmost cleare shining sweet water,intaste like sugar3 8

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Great Celandine resembling in shew faire orient pearles;thewhich dropsifyou take away, there do immediatly appearethelike: notwithstandingifthey may be suffered tostandstillinthe floure according to his own nature, they will never fall away, no notifyou striketheplant untillitbe broken. Among these dropstherestandethouta certain pestel, as alsosundrysmall chivestippedwith small pendants like thoseoftheLilly: abovethewhole flourestheregroweth a tuftofgreen leaves like thoseuponthestalke,butsmaller.Mterthefloures .be faded,therefollow. codsorseed-vessels six square, wherein is contained flat seeds tough & limmer,ofthecolourofMace:thewhole plant,aswel roots as floures do savororsmell very like a fox.Astheplant groweth old, so doth it wax rich,bringingforth a Crowneoffloures amongsttheuppermost green leaves, which some make a second kinde,althoughintruththey arebutoneandtheselfe same, which intimeisthoughtto grow to a triple crowne, which hapneth by the ageoftheroot,andfertilitieofthesoile.Thisplant hath beenbroughtfrom Constantinople amongst other bulbous roots,andmade denizonsinourLondon gardens, whereof I have great plenty.ItflourethinAprill,andsometimes inMarch,when as the weather is warmeandpleasant.GREATCELANDINEORSWALLOW-WORTThegreat Celandinehatha tender brittle stalke, round, hairy,andfullofbranches, set with leaves not unliketothoseofColumbine,buttenderer,anddeeper cutorjagged,ofa grayishgreenunder,andgreene ontheothersidetendingto blewnesse:thefloures grow atthetopofthe stalks,ofa gold yellow colour, in shape like thoseofthe Wal-floure: after which comelongcods fullofbleak or pale seeds:thewhole plant isofastrongunpleasant smell,andyeeldeth a thicke juiceofa milky substance,39

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AprilofthecolourofSaffron:therootisthickeandknobby, with some threds anexed thereto, which beeing brokenorbruised, yeeldeth a saporjuiceofthecolourofgold.Itgrowethinuntilled places by common way sides,amongbriersandbrambles, about old wals,andin the shade ratherthanin the Sun. Itisgreene all the yeare:itfloureth from Aprill to a good partofSummer:thecads are perfectedinthemean time.Itiscalled in LatineChelidonium majus,andHir undinarium major:inEnglish, Celandine, Swallow wort,andTetter-wort.Itiscalled Celandine not becauseitfirstspringethatthecomming inofSwal lowes,ordieth when they go away, (for as we have said,itmay be found all the yere)butbecause some hold opinion,thatwith this herbthedams restore sight toGreatCelandinetheiryangoneswhenthey cannot see.Whichthings are vainandfalse; forCornelius Celsus, lib.6. witnesseth,Thatwhenthesightoftheeiesofdiversyangbirdsisputforth by some outward means,itwill after a time be restoredofitselfe,andsoonestofallthesightofthe Swallow: whereupon (as the sameAuthorsaith)thetale grew, how thorowanherbthedams restorethatthingwhich healethofitselfe.Thevery same dothAristotleall edge,lib.6.deAnimal.The4

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\Vood SorrellWood SorrelleiesofSwallowes (saith he)thatarenotfledge,ifa mandoprickethemout, do afterwards grow againeandperfectly recover their sight.Thejuiceofthe herbeisgood to sharpenthesight, for it clensethandconsumeth away slimie thingsthatcleave abouttheballofthe eye,andhinderthesight,andespeci ally being boiled with honyina brasen vessell.Theroot being chewed is reported to be good against the toothache.Therootcutinto small piecesisgood to be given untoBauksagainstsundrydiseases, wherunto they are subject.WOODSORRELL,ORSTUBWORTOxysPliniana,orTrifolium acetosum,being a kindeofthree leafed grasse, is a lowandbase herbewithoutstalke;theleaves immediately rising fromtherootuponshort stemmesattheir first comming forth folded together, but afterward they dospredabroad,andareofa faire light greene colour, innumberthree, liketherestoftheTrefoiles,butthateach leafe,hatha deep cleftorrift in the middle:amongthese leaves comeupsmallandweaketendersterns,suchasthe leaves do grow upon, which beare small starre-like flouresofa white colour, with some brightnesofcarnation dasht over the same:thefloure consistethoffive small leaves ; after which come littleroundknaps or huskes fullofyellow ish seed. These plants grow in

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Aprilwoodsandunderbushes, in sandieandshadowie placesinevery countrey.WoodSorrellorCuckow Sorrell is called inLatineTrifolium acetosum:theApothecariesandHerbarists callitAlleluya,andPanis Cuculi,orCuckowes meate, because eithertheCuckow feedeth thereonorbyreason whenitspringethforthandf10ureththeCuckowsingethmost,atwhichtime alsoAlleluyawas wont to besungin Churches. SorrellduBoisorWoodSorrell stampedandused for greene sauce, is good for them thathave sickeandfeeble stomackes; foritstrengthneththestomacke, procureth appetite,andofall Sorrell sauces isthebest, not onely in vertue,butalso inthepleasantnesseofhis taste.DocKEThegreat water-dockhathvery longandgreat leaves, stiffeandhard, not unliketothegardenPatience,butmuchlonger.Thestalke risethupto a great height, oftentimes totheheightoffive foot or more.Thef10uregrowethatthetopofthestalkinspoky tufts,brownofcolour.Theseed is contained in chaffie husksthreesquare,ofashiningpale colour.Theroot is very great, thick, brown withoutandyellowish within.Thesmal water-Dockhathshortnarrow leaves setupona stiffe stalke.Thef10ures grow fromthemiddleofthestalke upwardinspoky rundles, setinspacesbycer tain distancesroundaboutthestalk, as arethef10uresofHorehound:whichDockeisofallthekinds most com mon,andofleast use,andtakes no pleasureordelight inanyonesoile or dwelling place,butis found almost every where, as wellupontheland asinwaterie places,butespeciallyingardensamonggoodandwholsome pot herbs,beingtherebetterknowne,thanwelcome or desired: wherefor Iintendnottospendfarther time about his description. 42

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DockeThegarden Patiencehathverystrongstalks furrowed or chamfered,ofeightornine foothighwhen it groweth in fertile ground, setaboutwith great large leaves like to thoseofthewater-Docke, having alongstthestalkes towardthetop flouresofalightpurple colour declining to brownnesse.Theseed isthreesquare, contained inthinchaffie husks like thoseofthecommon Docke.Therootisvery great, browne withoutandyellow within, in colour and taste likethetrueRubarb.Bloudwort is best knowne unto allofthestockeorkindredofDockes:ithathlongthinleaves sometimesredin everypartthereof,andoftenstripedhere&therewith linesandstrakesofa darkeredcolour:amongwhich rise up stiffe brittle stalkesofthesame colour:onthetopwhereof come forth such flouresandseed asthecommon wildDockehath.Theroot is likewise red,orofa bloudy colour.TheMonksRubarbiscalled Patience, which word is borrowedoftheFrench, who call this herbPatience:ofsomeMonksRubarb,because asitseemes someMonke01other hath usedtheroot hereof in steadofRubarb.Bloudwortorbloudy Patience is calledofsome,SanguisDraconis,ofthebloudy colour wherewiththewhole plant is possest:itisofpot-herbsthechiefeorprincipall, havingthepropertieofthebastardRubarb,butoflesse force in hispurgingqualitie.MonksRubarborPatienceisanexcellent wholsome pot-herb, for beingputintothepottage in some reason able quantitie, it helpsthejaundice,andsuchlike diseases proceedingofcold causes.IfyoutaketherootsofMonksRubarbandredMadderof each halfe a pound, Sena foure ounces, Anise seed and Licoriceofeach two ounces, ScabiousandAgrimonie of each onehandfull;slicetherootsoftheRubarb,bruisetheAnise seedandLicorice, breaketheherbs withyourhandsandputtheminto a stone pot called a43

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April stean, with foure gallonsofstrongale, to steeporinfusethespaceofthree daies,andthendrinke this liquor asyourordinarydrinkforthreeweeks togetherattheleast,thoughthelonger you take it, so muchthebetter;providingina readinesse another stean so prepared,thatyoumay have oneunderanother, being alwaies carefull to keep a good diet:itpurifieththebloudandmakesyongwenches look faireandcherry-like.Therehave not bin anyotherfacultiesattributedto this plant, eitheroftheantientorlater writers,butgenerallyofallithath bin referred totheother: DocksorMonksRubard:ofwhichnumberI assure myse1fethis isthebest,anddoth approch neerest untothetrueRubarb.Otherdistinctionsanddifferences I leave tothelearned PhysitionsofourLondoncolledge, who are very well able to search this matter, as athingfar above my reach, being no Graduat,buta Country Scholler, asthewhole frameofthis historie doth well declare:butI hope my good meaning will be well taken, considering I do my best:andIdoubtnotbutsomeofgreater learning wil perfectthatwhich I havebegunaccording to my small skill, especiallytheice beingbrokento him,andthewood rough-hewn to his hand. Notwithstanding Ithinkeitgood to say thusmuchmore in my own defence,Thatalthoughtherebe many wantsanddefectsinmee,thatwere requisite to performesucha worke;yetmay my long experience by chancehappenuponsome onethingorotherthatmay dotheLearnedgood.DUCKSMEATDucksmeat is asitwere a certain green mosse, with very littleroundleavesofthebignesofLentils:outofthemidst whereofonthenether side grow downe very fine threds like haires, which are tothemin steadofroots:ithathneither stalke, fIoure, nor fruit.44

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Cuckow-FlouresItisfound in ponds, lakes, city ditches, & other standing waters every where.ThetimeofDucks meatisknown to all. Duckes meatiscalled Ducks herb, because Ducksdofeed thereon; where upon also itiscalled Ducks meat. Ducks meat mingled with fine wheaten floure, and applied, prevaileth much against hot Swell ings.CueK0W-FLO-uRESThefirstoftheCuckow flours hath leavesathisDucksmeatspringingupsomwhat round,&thosethatspring afterward growjaggedlike the leavesofGreek Valerian; among which risethupa stalk a foot long, set withthelike leaves,butsmallerandmore jagged, resembling thoseofRocket.Thefloures growatthetop in small bundles, whiteofcolour, hollow inthemiddle, resemblingthewhite sweet-John: after which come small chaffie huskes or seed-vessels, whereintheseediscontained. These floure forthemostpartinAprillandMay, whentheCuckow begins to sing her pleasant notes with out stammering. They are commonly calledinLatineFlos Cuculi;andalsosome call themNasturtium aquaticum minus,orlesser water-Cresse:ofsome,Carda mine :in English, Cuckow4S

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Aprilflours: in Norfolk, Canturbury bels: at the Namptwich in Cheshire my native country, Lady-smockes.BROOMEBroomisa bush or shrubby plant,ithath stalksorrather wooddy branches, from which do spring slender twigs, cor nered, green, tough, andthatbe easily bowed, many times divided into smal branches; about which do grow little leavesofanobscure green colour,&brave yellowf1oures,andatthelength flat cods, which beeing ripe are black,asare thoseofthe common Vetch, in which doe lie flat seeds, hard, something brown ish,andlesser than Lentils.TheSpanish Broome hath likewise wooddy stems, from whence growupslender pliant twigs, which be bareand naked without leaves,orat the least havingbutfew smallSpanish Broomeleaves, set hereandthere far distant one from another, with yellowf10uresnot much unlike thef10uresofcommon Broome,butgreater. Small leafedorthin leafed Broome hath many tough pliant shoots risingoutofthe ground, which grow into hardandtough stalks, which are divided into divers twiggy branches whereon doe grow very small thin leaves,ofa whitish colour; whereupon some have called itGenista alba,white Broome: thef10uresgrowatthe topofthe stalkes, in shape like thoseofthe common Broom 4 6

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Broomebutofa white colour, wherein it specially differeth from the other Broomes.Thecommon Broome groweth almost every where in dry pasturesandlow woods. Spanish Broome growethindivers kingdomesofSpaineandItaly; we have it inourLondon gardens.TheWhiteBroome groweth likewise in Spaine and other hot regions; itisa stranger inEngland;of thisTitus Calphurniusmakes mention in his second Eclogofhis Bucolicks, writing thus: See Father, how the Kine stretch out their tender sideUnderthe hairy Broome, that growes in field so wide. Broome floureth in the endofAprillorMay, and then the young budsofthe floures are to bee gathered and laid in pickle or salt, which afterwards being washedorboyled, are used for sallads,asCapers be, and be eaten with nolessedelight.TheSpanish Broome doth floure sooner, andislonger in flouring. There is madeofthe ashesofthe stalkes and branches dryed and burnt, a lie with thin white wine,asRhenishwine,whichishighly commendedofdivers forthegreene sickenesseanddropsie; but withall it doth by reasonofhissharpe quality many timeshurtand fret the intrailes. The young budsorlittle floures preserved in pickle, and eatenasa sallad, stirre up an appetite to meate.Thatworthy Princeoffamous memoryHenry8. King of England, was wont to drinke the distilled waterof floures, against surfets and diseases thereof ansmg. SirThomas FitzherbertKnight,waswont to cure the blacke jaundice with this drink onely.Takeasmany handfulls (as you thinke good)ofthe dried leavesofBroome gatheredandbrayed to pouder in the moneth of May, then take unto each handfullofthe dried leaves,onespoonful and a halfeofthe seedofBroome brayed47

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Aprilinto pouder: mingle these together,andletthesicke drinke thereof each day a quantity, firstandlast, untill he finde some ease.Themedicine must be continuedandso long used, untillitbe quite extinguished: foritisa disease not very suddenly cured,butmustby little and little be dealt withal!.FURZE,GORSSE,WHIN, OR PRICKLEYBROOMETherebe divers sortsofprickely Broome, calledinourEnglishtongue bysundrynames, according to the speechofthecountrey people where they doe grow: in some places,Furzes;in others, Whins, Gorsse,andof some, prickly Broome.TheFurzebushisa plant altogether aThorne,fully armedwithmost sharpe prickles, without any leaves at all except in the Spring,andthose very fewandlittle,andquickly falling away:itisa bushy shrub, often risingupwith many wooddy branches to the heightoffoure orfivecubitsorhigher, according tothenatureandsoile where they grow:thegreatestandhighestthatI did ever see do grow about ExcesterintheWestpartsofEngland, where the great stalks are dear elyboughtforthebetter sortofpeople,andthesmall thorny spraies forthepoorer sort.Fromthese thorny branches grow little floures like thoseofBroome,andofa yellow colour, whichinhot regions undertheextreme heatoftheSunneareofa very perfect red colour: inthecolder countriesofthe East,asDanzicke, Brunswicke,andPoland, there is not any branch hereof growing, except some few plants and seeds which my selfe have sent toElbingotherwise called Meluin, where they are most curiouslykeptin their fairest gardens,asalsoourcommon Broome, the which I have sent thither likewise, being first desiredbydivers earnest letters.

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WillowWehave inourbarren groundsoftheNorthpartofEngland another sortofFurze, bringing forththelike prickly thornesthattheother have: the onely difference consistethinthecolourofthe floures; fortheothersbringforth yellow flouresandthoseofthis plant are as white as snow. PettyWhin(growing uponHampsteadheath neere London,andin divers other barren grounds, where, in manner nothing else will grow) hath many weakeandflexible branchesofa wooddy substance: whereon doe grow little leaves like thoseofTyme:amongwhich are set innumberinfinite most sharpe prickles,hurtinglike needles, whereofittooke his name.Thefloures growonthe topsofthe branches like thoseofBroome,andofa pale yellow colour.WILLOWTREEThe common Willowisanhigh tree, with a bodyofa meane thicknesse,andrisethupashighasother treesdoeifitbe not topped inthebeginning, soone afteritisplanted;thebarke thereof is smooth, tough,andflexible: the wood is white, tough,andhardto be broken:theleavesarelong, lesserandnarrower than thoseofthe Peach tree, somewhat greeneonthe upper sideandslipperie,andonthenether side softerandwhiter:theboughes be covered either with a purple,orelse with a white barke:thecatkins which growonthe toppesofthebranches come firstofall forth, being longandmossie, and quicklyturneinto whiteandsoft downe,thatiscarried awaywiththewinde.TheOziarorWaterWillowbringethforthofthe head, which standeth somewhat out, slender wandsortwigs, with a reddishorgreene barke, good to make basketsandsuch like workes of:itis planted bythetwigs or cads beingthrustintotheearth,theupperpart whereof49

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Aprilwhen they are growne up,iscutoff, sothatwhichiscalledthehead increasethunderthem, from whencetheslender twigs doe grow, which being oftentimes cut,thehead waxeth greater: many times alsothelong rodsor wands ofthehigherWithytrees be lopped offandthrustintothegroundfor plants,butdeeper, and above mansheight:ofwhich do grow great rods, profi table for many things, and commonly for bands, where with tubsandcasks are bound.TheSallow treeorGoats Willow, groweth to a tree ofCommon Willowa meane bignesse: the trunkeorbodyissoftandhollow timber, coveredwitha whitishroughbarke:thebranches are setwithleaves somewhat rough, greene above, and hoarieunderneath:amongwhich comeforthroundcat kins,oragletsthatturneinto downe, which is carried awaywiththewinde.TheRose Willow growethuplikewise totheheightandbignesseofashrubbytree;thebody whereofiscoveredwitha scabbyroughbarke:thebranches are many, whereupon do grow very many twigsofa reddish colour, garnished with smalllongleaves, somewhat whitish: amongst which comeforthlittle floures, or rather a multiplicationofleaves,joynedtogetherinformeofa Rose,ofa greenish white colour, whichdoenot only make a gallant shew,butalso yee1d a mostSo

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Larch cooling aireinthe heatofSummer, being setup In houses, for the deckingofthe same. These Will owes growindivers placesofEngland: the Rose-Willow groweth plentifully in Cambridge shire, by the rivers and ditches there in Cambridge towne they grow abundantly about the places called ParadiseandHell-mouth, in the way from Cambridge to Grand chester.Thegreene boughes with the leaves may very well be brought into chambers and set aboutthe bedsofthose that be sickeoffevers, for they doe mightily coole the heateofthe aire, which thingisa wonderfull refreshingtothe sicke Patients.Thebarke hath like vertues:Dioscorideswriteth,Thatthis beingburntto ashes, ahd steeped in vineger, takesawaycomesandother like risings in the feetandtoes.LARCHTREEThe Larch is a treeofno small height, with a body growing straightup:the barke whereof in the neither part beneath the boughesisthicke, ruggedandfullofchinkes; which being cut in sunderisred within,andin the other part above smooth, slipperie, something white without:itbringeth forth many boughes divided into other lesser branches, which be toughandpliable.Theleavesare smallandcut into many jags, growing in clusters thicke together like tassels, which fall awayatthe approchof \\Tinter: the floures,orrather the firstshewesofthe conesorfruit be round,andgrowoutof the tenderest boughes, being at the lengthofa brave red purplecolour: the cones be small,andlike almost in bignesse to thoseofthe Cypresse tree,butlonger,andmadeupofa multitudeofthin scales like leaves: under which lie small seeds, having a thin velme growing on them very like to the wingsofBeesandwasps: the51

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Maysubstanceofthe woodisveryhardofcolour, especiallythatin the midst somewhat red,andvery profitable for workesoflongcontinuance.Itisnot truethatthe woodoftheLarchtree cannot be setonfire,asf7itruviusreportethofthe castle made ofLarchwood, which Cesar besieged, foritburnethin chimneies,andisturnedinto coles, which are very profitable for Smithes.Thereisalso gatheredoftheLarchtree a liquid Rosin, very like in colourandsubstance to the whiter hony, asthatofAthensorofSpaine, which notwithstandingissueth not forthofitselfe,butrunnethoutofthestockeofthe tree, whenithath beene bored even totheheart with a greatandlongaugerandwimble.Ofall the Cone treesonely theLarchtreeisfoundtobe without leavesintheWinter:in the Spring grow fresh leavesoutofthesame knobs, from which theformer did fall.Thecones are to be gathered beforeWinter,sosoonasthe leaves are gone:butafter the scales are loosedandopened, the seeds drop away:theRosinemustbe gathered in the Summer moneths.WHITETHORNEORHAWTHORNETREEThewhiteThornisa greatshrubgrowing often to theheightofa peare tree, thetrunkorbodyisgreat, the boughesandbrancheshardandwoody, set with long sharp thorns: the leaves be broad,cutwith deep gashes into divers sections, smooth,andofa glistering green colour: the floures grow upon spokyrundIes,ofa pleasant sweet smell, somtimes white,andoften dasht over with alightwashofpurple, which have moved some to thinke a difference in the plants: after which come the fruit, beingroundberries, greenatthe first,andredwhen they be ripe; whereinisfound a soft sweet pulpe and52

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LillyoftheValleycertaine whitish seed: the root growes deepe intheground,ofahardwooddy substance.TheHawthornegrowethinwoodsandin hedges neere unto highwaies almost every where.TheHawthornefloures in May, whereupon many docallthe treeitselfetheMay-bush, as a chiefe tokenofthe comminginofMay:the leaves come forth a little sooner: the fruitisripeinthe beginningofSeptember, andisa food for birds inWinter.LILLYINTHEVALLEY,ORMAYLILLYTheConvall Lilly,orLillyofthe Vally, hath many leaves likethesmallest leavesofWaterPlantaine;amongwhich risethupa naked stalke halfe a foot high, gar nished with many white floures like little bels, with bluntandturnededges,ofastrongsavour, yet pleasantenough;which being past, there come smallredberries, much like the berriesofAsparagus,whereintheseediscontained.Therootissmallandslender creeping far abroadin the ground.Thesecond kindeofLillyoftheValleyMayLilliesisliketheformer in every respect; and herein variethordiffereth,inthatthis kindehath53

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Mayreddish floures,andisthoughtto have the sweeter smell.Thefirst groweth onHampstedheath, foure miles from London, in great abundance: neere to Lee in Essex,andupon Bushie heath, thirteene miles from London,andmany other places.Theother kinde with theredfloureisa stranger inEngland:howbeit I have the same growing in my garden.Theyfloure in May,andtheir fruitisripe in Septem ber.TheLatines have named itLilium Convallium:in French,Mugue/:yetthere is likewise another herbe which they callMuguel,commonly named in English, Woodroof.ItiscalledinEnglish, Lilly of the Valley,orthe Convall Lillie,andMayLillies,andin some places Liriconfancie.Thefloures of the Valley Lillie distilled with wine, and drunke the quantitieofa spoonefull, restore speech unto those that have the dumb palsieandthatare falne intotheApoplexie,andare good against the gout,andcom fort the heart.Thewater aforesaid doth strengthen the memory that is weakenedanddiminished; it helpeth also the inflam mationsofthe eies, being dropped thereinto.TheflouresofMayLilliesputinto a glasse,andsetina hillofants, close stopped forthespaceofa moneth,andthen taken out, therein you shall finde a liquor that appeaseth the paineandgriefeofthe gout, being out wardly applied; whichiscommended to be most excellent.ENGLISHJACINTH,ORHARE-BELLSTheblew Hare-bellsorEnglish Jacinthisvery commonthroughoutall England.Ithath long narrow leaves leaning towards the ground,amongthe which spring up naked or bare stalks loden with many hollow blew floures,54

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Jacinthof a strong sweet smell somewhat stuffing the head: after which come the codsorroundknobs, containing a great quantitieofsmall blacke shining seed.Therootisbulbous, full of a slimie glewish juice, which will serve to set feathersuponarrowesinsteadofglew, or to paste bookes with: hereofismadethebest starch next untothatofWake-robin roots.Theblew Hare-bels grow wilde in woods, Copses,andinthe bordersoffields every where thorow England.OurEnglish Hyacinth is calledHyacinthus Anglicus,forthatitisthoughtto grow more plentifullyinEnglandthan elsewhere.Theroots, after the opinionofDioscorides,being beatenandapplied with white Wine, hinderorkeepe backe the growthofhaires. Two Feigned PlantsI havethoughtitcon venient to conclude the his torieoftheHyacinths withFalsebumbastJacinththese two bulbous Plants, received by tradition from others,thoughgenerally holden for feignedandadulterine.Theirpictures I could willingly have omitted in this historie,ifthe curious eye could elsewhere have found themdrawneanddescribedinour EnglishTongue:butbecause I findethemin none, I will laythemdowne here, to theendthatitmay serveforexcuse to others who shall come after, which list nottodescribe them, beingasI said condemned for feined55

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ThefloureofTygrisMayandadulterine nakedly drawne onely.Thefloures (saiththeAuthor) are no lesse strange than wonderful!.Theleavesandroots are like to thoseofHyacinths.Thefloures resembletheDaffodilsorNarcissus.Thewhole plant con sistethofa woollyorflockiematter:which description with thePicturewas sent unto Dodonus byJohannes Aicholzius.Thesecond feigned picture hath beene takenoftheDis covererandothersoflate time, to be a kindeofDragons not seene by anythathave written thereof; which hath moved them to thinkeita feigned picture like wise; notwithstanding you shall receivethedescription thereofasithathcome to my hands.Theroot (saith my Author) is bulbousorOnionfashion, outwardly blacke; fromthewhich springuplongleaves, sharpe pointed, narrow,andofa fresh greene colour: inthemiddestofwhich leaves riseupnakedorbare stalkes,atthe top whereof groweth a pleasant yellow floure, stained with many smallredspots hereandthere confusedly cast abroad :andinthemiddestofthefloure thrustethforthalongredtongueorstile, which in time groweth to be the codorseed-vessell, crookedorwreathed, whereinistheseed.Thevertuesandtemperature arenotto be spoken of, consideringthatwe assuredly per suadeourselvesthatthere are no such plants,butmeere fictionsanddevices, as we terme them, to give his friend a gudgeon.

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WhiteLilliesWHITELILLIESThe white Lilly hath long smoothandfull bodied leavesofa grassieorlightgreen colour.Thestalks betwocubits high,andsomtimes more, setorgarnished with the like leaves,butgrowing smallerandsmaller toward thetop;anduponthem do grow faire white flouresstrongofsmell, narrow toward the footofthestalke whereon theydogrow, wideoropen in themouthlike a bell.Inthe middlepartofthem doe grow small tender pointals tipped with a dusty yellow colour,ribbedor chamfered on the back side, consistingofsix small leaves thickeandfat.Therootisa bulb madeofscaly cloves, fulloftoughandclammy juice, wherewith the whole plant doth generally abound.Thewhite LillyofConstantinople hath very large&fat leaves like the former,butnarrowerandlesser.Thestalke risethupto theheightofthree cubits, setandgarnished with leaves also like the precedent,butmuchlesse.Whichstalke oftentimes doth alteranddegenerat from his naturall roundnesse to a flat forme, asitwere a lathofwood furrowedorchanelled alongst the same, as it were ribsorwelts.Thefloures growatthe top liketheformer, savingthatthe leaves doeturnethemselves more backward like theTurkscap,andbeareth many more floures thanourEnglishwhite Lilly doth.OurEnglishwhiteLillygroweth inmostgardensofEngland.Theothergroweth naturally in Constantinopleandthe parts adjacent,from whence wehadplants forourEnglish gardens, where they flourishasin their owne countrey.TheLillyiscalledinLatine,Rosa Junonis,orJuno'sRose, becauseasitisreporteditcameupofher milke that felluponthe ground.Butthe Poets feign,ThatHercules,whoJupiterhadbyAlcumena,wasputtoJuno'sbreasts whilest shee was asleepe;andafter the sucking there fell away aboundanceofmilk,andthatonepartwas 57

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Mayspiltinthe heavens,andtheotherupontheearth;andthatofthissprangthe Lilly,andoftheother the circle intheheavens calledLacteus Circulus,ortheMilkyway, or otherwiseinEnglishWatlingstreet.S.Basilin the ex plicationofthe44Psalmsaith,Thatno floure so lively sets forththefrailtyofmans life astheLilly.Therootofthe garden Lilly stamped with hony gleweth together sinuesthatbecutin sunder.Florentinusa writerofHusbandrysaith,Thatifthe root be curiously opened,andtherein beputsome red, blew,oryellow colourthathathno causticke orburningqualitie,itwill causethefloure to beofthe same colour.MOUNTAINELILLIESThegreat mountain Lilly hath a clovedbulbor scaly root, yellowofcolour, very small in respectofthegreatnesseoftheplant; fromthewhich risethupa stalke, som times twoorthree, according to the ageoftheplant, whereofthemiddle stalke commonlyturnethfrom his roundnesse into a flat forme, as thoseofthe white LillyofConstantinople.Uponthese stalks do grow faire leavesofa blackish greene colour, in roundlesandspaces astheleavesofWoodroofe, not unlike totheleavesofwhite Lilly,butsmalleratthetopofthestalkes.Thefloures be innumberinfinite, oratthe leasthardto be counted, very thicke setorthrusttogether,ofan overworne purple, spottedontheinside withThegreat mountaine Lilly58

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Persian Lillymany smal specksofthe colourofrusty iron.Thewhole floure dothturneitselfe backward at such time as thesunhath cast his beamesuponit, like unto theTulipaorTurkscap, as the LillyorMartagonofConstantinopledoth;from the middle whereof do come forth tender pendants hanging thereat,ofthecolourthefloure is spotted with.Therehath not bin anythingleft inwriting eitherofthe nature or vertuesofthese plants: notwithstandingwemay deem,thatGodwhich gavethemsuchseemely and beautifull shape,hathnot leftthemwithout their peculiar vertues,thefindingoutwhereof we leave tQ thelearnedandindustrious searcherofNature.PERSIANLILLYThe Persian Lillyhathfor his root a great white bulbe, differinginshape from the other Lillies, having one great bulbefirmeorsolid, fullofjuice, which commonly each yere setteth offorencreaseth one other bulbe,andsome times more, whichthenext yere after is taken fromthemother root,andso bringeth forth such floures astheold plant did.Fromthis root risethupa fat thickeandstraightstemoftwo cubits high, whereuponisplacedlongnarrow leavesofa greene colour, declining to blewnesse as doe thoseofthe woad.Thefloures grow alongst the naked partofthe stalk like little bels,ofan overworn purple colour,hangingdown their heads,everyonehaving his own foot-stalkeoftwo inches long, as also his pestellorclapper fromthemiddlepartofthe floure; whichbeingpastandwithered, there isnotfoundany seedatall, as in other plants,butis encreased onlyinhis root.ThisPersian Lilly groweth naturally in Persiaandthose places adjacent, whereofittooke his name,andisnow(by the industryofTravellers into those countries, loversofplants) made a denizon in some fewofourLondon gardens.59

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MayThereisnot anythingknownofthe nature or vertuesofthis Persian Lilly, esteemedasyetfor his rarenesseandcomely proportion; although (if Imightbeesobold with a stranger that hath vouchsafed to travell so many hun dredsofmiles forouracquaintance) wee haveinour English fields many scoresoffloures in beauty far excelling it.DAYLILLIETheflouresoftheDayLillie be like the white Lillie in shape,ofanOrenge tawny colour:ofwhich floures muchmightbe said which I omit.Butinbriefe, this plant bringeth forthinthemorning his bud, whichatnoone is full blowne,orspredabroad,andthe same dayinthe eveningitshutsitselfe,andin ashorttime after becomes as rottenandstinkingasifithadbeenetroddenin a dunghill a moneth together,infouleandrainie weather: whichisthe causethatthe seed seldome followes,asin the otherofhis kinde, notbringingforth anyatall that I could ever observe; according to the old proverbe, Soone ripe, soone rotten.TheseLilliesdogrowinmy garden,asalsointhe gardensofHerbarists,andloversoffineandrare plants;butnot wilde inEnglandasinothercountries.Theydofloure somewhat beforetheother Lillies. Itisfitly called, Faireorbeautifull for a day:andsoweinEnglish may rightly tearmeitthe Day-Lillie, or Lillie for a day.Therootsandtheleaves be laidwithgood successeuponburningsandseal dings.TURKIEORGINNY-HENFLOURETheChecquered Daffodill,orGinny-hen Floure, hath small narrow grassie leaves; among which there riseth60

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Ginny-hen Floureup a stalke three hands high, havingatthetop oneortwofloures,andsometimes three, which consistethofsixsmall leaves checquered most strangely: wherein Nature,orrathertheCreatorofall things,hathkepta very wonderfull order, surpassing (asinallotherthings) the curious est paintingthatArtcan set downe.Onesquare isofa greenish yellow colour,theotherpurple, keep ing the sameorderas wellonthe backsideofthefloure as onetheinside, although they are blackishinone square, andofa Violet colourinanother; insomuchthatevery leafe seemeth to bethefeather of aGinnyhen, whereofittooke his name.Theroot is small, white,andofthebig nesseofhalfe a garden beane.TheGinnyhenfloure is calledofDodonus,FlosMe/eagris:ofLobe/ius, Lilionarcissusvariegata,forthatit hath the floureofa Lilly, andtherootofNarcissus:ithath beene calledFritillaria,of the tableorboorduponwhichmenplayatChesse,Fritillariewhich square checkersthefloure doth verymuchre semble; somethinkingthatitwas namedFritillus:where of there is no certainty; forMartialseemeth to callFritillus, Abacus,ortheTables whereon men playatDice,inthefifth bookeofhisEpigrams,writingtoGalla.Thesad Boy now his nuts cast by, Is call'd to Schoole by Masterscry:61

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MayAndthedrunkeDicer nowbetray'dBy flattering Tables as he play'd,Isfrom his secret tipling house drawne out,AlthoughtheOfficer he much besought,&c.InEnglishwe may callitTurky-henorGinny-hen Floure,andalso Checquered Daffodill,andFritillarie, according totheLatine.Ofthefacultieofthese pleasant floures there is nothingsetdowneinthe antientorlaterWriter,butthey are greatly esteemed for the beautifyingofourgardens,andthe bosomsofthebeautifulI.TULIPA,ORTHEDALMATIANCAPTulipaortheDalmatian Cap is a strangeandforrein floure, oneofthenumberofthebulbedfloures, whereof there besundrysorts, some greater, some lesser, with which all studiousandpainefullHerbaristsdesire to be better acquainted, becauseofthatexcellent diversitie of most brave floures whichitbeareth.Ofthistherebe two chiefeandgene raIl kindes, viz.Prtcox, and Serotina;theone doth beare his floures timely,theotherlater.Tothese twowewill adde anothersortcalled Media, flouring betweeneboththeothers.Andfrom thesethreesorts, as from their heads, allotherkindes doe proceed, which are almost infiniteinnumber. Notwithstanding,myloving friendMr.James Garret, a curious searcher of Simples,andlearned ApothecarieofLondon, hathundertakento finde out,ifitwere possible, their infinite sorts,bydiligent sowingoftheir seeds,andby planting thoseofhis owne propagation,andbyothers received from his friends beyondtheseas forthespaceoftwenty yeares,notbeing yet able to attaine to theendofhis travel, forthateach new yearebringethforth new plants ofsundrycoloursnotbefore seen; all which to describe62

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Tulipa particularly were to rolle Sisiphus stone,ornumberthesands.Sothatitshall suffice to speakeofanddescribe one, referringtherest to somethatmeane to writeofTulipa a particular volume.TheTulipaofBoloniahathfat thickeandgrosse leaves, hollow, furrowedorchanelled,bendeda little backward,andasitwere foldedtogether:whichattheir firstcommingupseeme to beofa reddish colour,andbeing throughly growneturneinto a whitish greene.Inthemidstofthose leaves risethupa naked fat stalke a foot high,orsomthingmore;onthetop whereofstandethoneortwo yellow floures, somtimes threeormore, con sistingofsix smal leaves, after a sort like to a deepe wide open cup, narrow above,andwideinthebottome. Afterithathbeen some few dayes floured,thepointsandbrimsofthefloureturnback ward, like a DalmatianorTurkishCap, calledTulipan,Clusius hisgreaterTulipTolepan,Turban,andTur-fan,whereofittooke his name.Thechivesorthredsinthe middleofthefloure be somtimes yellow, otherwhiles blackishorpurplish,butcommonlyofoneoverworne colourorother,Natureseeming to play more with this flaurethanwith anyotherthatI do know.Thisfloureisof a reasonable pleasant smell,andtheotherofhis kinde have littleorno smelatall.Theroot is bulbous, and very like to a common onionofS.Omers.63

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MayWehave likewise anotherofgreater beautie,andverymuchdesiredofall, with white floures dashtonthe back side, with alightwashofwatched colour.Tulipagroweth wildeinThracia, Cappadocia, andItaly;inBizantiaaboutConstantinople;atTripolis and AleppoinSyria.Theyare now commoninall theEnglishgardensofsuchas affect floures.Theyfloure fromtheendofFebruarie untothebeginningofMay,andsomwhat after: althoughAugerius Busbequiusinhisjourneyto Constantinople, saw be tweeneHadrianopleandConstantinople, great abound anceofthemin floure everie where, eveninthemidstofWinter,inthemonethofJanuarie, whichthatwarmeandtemperat clymat may seeme to performe.ThelaterHerbaristsby aTurkishorstrange name callitTulipa,oftheDalmatian cap calledTulipa,the forme whereoftheflourewhenitisopenseemeth to represent.Itis calledinEnglishafter theTurkishname Tulipa,oritmay be called Dalmatian Cap,ortheTurksCap.WhatnametheantientWritersgaveitis not certainly knowne.FLoUREDE-LUCEThecommon Floure de-Iucehathlongandlarge flaggy leaves like the bladeofa sword with two edges, amongst whichspringupsmoothanaplaine stalks two foot long, bearing floures towardthetop compactofsix leavesjoynedtogether, whereof threethatstanduprightarebentinward one towardanother;andinthose leaves thathangdowneward there are certaineroughorhairy welts, growingorrising from the netherpartofthe leafe up ward, almostofa yellow colour.Theroots be thicke, long,andknobby, with many hairy threds hanging thereat.

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Flaurede-IuceThewater Floure de-luce,orwater Flag,orAcarus,is like untothegarden Floure de-luce in roots, leaves,andstalkes,buttheleaves aremuchlonger, sometimesofthe heightoffoure cubits,andaltogether narrower.Thefloureisofa perfect yellow colour,andthe root knobby liketheother;butbeing cut,itseemes to beofthecolourofraw flesh.Thewater Floure de-luceoryellow Flag prospereth well in moist medowes,andin the bordersandbrinksofRivers, ponds,andstand ing lakes.Althoughitbe a watery plantofnature,yetbeing plantedingardensitprospereth well.TurkyFlourede-lucehathlongand narrow leavesofa blackish green likestinkingGladdon;amongwhich riseupstalks two foot long, bearingatthe topofeach stalke one floure compactofsix great leaves: the threethatstanduprightare confusedlyandvery strangely striped, mixedwithwhiteanda duskish blacke colour.Thethree leavesthathangdownward are like a gaping hood,andare mixedinlike manner,(butthe white is nothing sobrightasofthe other) and are asitwere shadowed overTurkyFloure de-Iucewith a darke purple colour somwhatshining;sothataccording to myjudgment,the whole floure isofthecolourofa Ginny hen, a rareandbeautifull floure to behold.TheFlourede-luceofFlorence, whose rootinshops and generallyevery wherearecalledfreas,orGrice(whereof sweet waters, sweet pouders,andsuch like are made)isaltogether like unto the common Floure de-luce,65

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MaysavingthattheflouresoftheIreosisofa white colour,andtheroots exceeding sweetofsmell,andtheotherofno smellatall.Thegreat Floure de-IuceofDalmatiahathleaves much broader, thicker,andmore closely compact togetherthananyoftheother,andsetinorderlike wingsorthe finsofaWhalefish, greene towardthetop,andofa shining purple colour toward the bottome, even totheground:amongstwhich risethupa stalkeoffoure foot high,asmy selfe did measureofttimes in my garden: whereupon doth grow faire large flouresofalightblew,oras wetermeita watchet colour.Thefloures do smell exceeding sweet,muchliketheOrengefloure.Theroothathnosmellatall.Therootofthecommon Floure de-Iuce cleane washed,andstamped with a few dropsofRose-water,andlaid plaisterwiseuponthefaceofmanorwoman, doth in two daiesatthemost take awaytheblacknesseorblew nesseofany strokeorbruse;sothatiftheskinneofthe same womanoranyotherperson be very tenderanddelicate,itshall be needfullthatye lay a pieceofsilke, sindall,ora pieceoffine laune betweenetheplaisterandtheskinne;for otherwiseinsuchtender bodies it often causeth heatandinflammation.Thereisanexcellent oyle madeofflouresandrootsofFloure de-Iuce,ofeach a like quantitie, calledOleum Irinum,made afterthesame mannerthatoyleofRoses, Lilliesandsuchlike be made: which oyle profitethmuchtostrengthenthesinewesandjoynts, helpeththecrampe proceedingofrepletion,andthedisease calledinGreekePeripneumonia.PEIONIEPeioniehaththickeredstalkes a cubitlong:the leaves be greatandlarge, consistingofdivers leaves growing orjoynedtogetheruponone slender stemmeorrib, not66

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Peioniemuchunlike the leavesofthe Wallnuttree bothinfashionandgreatnesse:atthe topofthe stalkes grow faire large redde floures very like roses, having alsointhe ) midst, yellow thredsorthrums like theminthe rose calledAnthera;which being vadedandfallen awaytherecomeinplace threeorfoure great codsorhusks, which do open when they areripe;whereiniscontained blacke shiningandpolished seeds,asbigasa Pease.Apuleiussaith,thattheseedsorgrainesofPeionie shine in thenighttime like a candle,andthatplentyofThedouble Peionieitisin thenightseason foundoutandgathered by the shepheards. k:lianus saith,thatitisnot pluckedupwithoutdanger;andthatitisreported how hethatfirst touched it,notknowing the nature thereof, perished. Therefore astringmust be fast ned toitinthe night,andahungrydogtiedtherto, who being allured by the smellofrosted flesh set towards him, may pluckeitupby the roots. Moreover,itisset downe by the said Author,thatofnecessitieitmustbe gatheredinthenight;forifanymanshall pluck offthefruitinthe day time, being seeneofthe Wood-peeker,heisindanger to lose his eies.Thelike fabulous tale hath been set forthofMandrake.Butallthese things be most vaineandfrivolous: fortheroot of Peionie, as alsotheMandrake, may be removedatany time ofthe yeare, dayorhoure whatsoever.67

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MayButitis no marvell,thatsuch kindesoftrifles,andmost superstitiousandwicked ceremonies arefoundinthebooksofthe mostAntientWriters;for there were many things in their time very vainly feinedandcoggedinfor ostentation sake, as by the .!Egyptiansandothercounterfeit mates, as Pliny doth truly testifie.Itis reportedthatthese herbes tookethenameofPeionie,orP .can, ofthatexcellent Physitionofthe same name, who firstfoundoutandtaughtthe knowledgeofthis herbe unto posteritie.CORNE-FLAGFrenchCorne-flaggehathsmall stiffe leavesribbedorchamfered withlongnervesorsinuesrunningthroughthesame,inshape like thoseofthesmall Floure de-Iuce,orthe bladeofa sword, sharpe pointed,ofan overwornegreencolour,amongwhich risethupastifbrittle stalk two cubits high,wherupondo grow in comlyordermany faire purple floursgapinglike thoseofSnapdragon,ornotmuch differing from the Fox-glove calledinLatineDigitalis.Afterthemcomeroundknobby seed-vessesl fullofchaffie seed, very light,ofa brown reddish colour.Theroot consistsoftwo bulbes one setupontheother;theuppermost whereof inthebeginningofthespringis lesser,andmore fullofjuice;thelower greater,butmore looseandlithie, whichshortly after perisheth.ThesekindesofCorne-flags growinmedowesandin earable groundsamongcorne,inmany placesofItaly, as alsointhepartsofFranceborderingthereunto.NeitherarethefieldsofAustriaandMoravia without them.Wehave great plentyoftheminourLondongardens, especially forthegarnishinganddeckingthemupwiththeir seemly flowers.TheflouresoftheCorne-flagarecalledoftheItalians,Monacuccio:inEnglish, Corne-Flag, Corne-Sedge, Sword Flag, Corne Gladin:inFrench,Glais.68

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ColumbineTherootstampedwith the pouderofFrankincense and wine,andapplied, draweth forth splintersandthornesthatsticke fastinthe flesh.Thecods withtheseed driedandbeaten into pouder, anddrunkin Goats milke or Asses milke, presently taketh away the paineofthe Colique.COLUMBINETheblew Columbine hath leaves like the great Celandine, but somewhat rounder, indented ontheedges, parted into divers sections,ofa blewish green colour, which beeing broken, yeeld forth little juiceornoneatall:thestalkeisa cubitanda halfe high, slender, reddish,andsleightly haired: the slender sprigs whereofbringforth everie oneone floure with five little hollow homes, asitwere hanging forth, with small leaves standing upright,ofthe shapeoflittle birds: these floures areofcolour som times blew,atother timesofaredor purple, often white,orofmixt colours, which to distinguish severally were to small purpose, being things so familiarly known to all: after the floures growupcods, in whichiscontained little blackandglittering seed: the roots are thicke, with some strings theretoColumbinebelonging, which continue many yeres.69

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SnapdragonMayTheyare setandsowne in gardens forthebeautieandvariable colourofthefloures. Columbine is calledofthelater Herbarists,Aquilegia:ofsome,Herba Leonis,ortheherbe whereintheLiondoth delight.Theyareusedespecially to deckethegardensofthecurious, garlandsandhouses.CALVESSNOUT,ORSNAPDRAGONThepurple Snapdragonhathgreatandbrittle stalks, which dividethitselfe into many fragile branches, whereupondo growlongleaves sharpe pointed, very greene, likeuntothoseofwilde flax,butmuchgreater, set by couples one opposite against another.Thefloures growatthetopofthestalkes,ofa purple colour, fashioned like a frogs mouth,orrather a dragons mouth, from whencethewomen havetakenthename Snapdragon.Theseed is blacke, con tained inroundhuskes fa shioned like a calves snout, (whereupon some have calleditCalves snout)orinmine opinionitis more like untothebonesofa sheeps headthathathbeenelonginthewater,ortheflesh consumeddeaneaway.Thesecond agreeth withtheprecedentinevery part, exceptinthecolourofthe floures, for this plant bringethforth white floures,andtheotherpurple, wherein consiststhedifference.

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PeachbellsPEACH-BELLSANDSTEEPLE-BELLSThePeach-leaved Bell-flourehatha greatnumberofsmallandlongleaves, risingina great bushoutof the ground, like the leavesofthe Peach-tree:amongwhich risethupa stalke two cubitshigh:alongst the stalke grow many floures like bells, sometime white, and forthemostpartofa faire blew colour;butthe bells are71Peach-bellsTheyellow Snapdragonhathalongthicke wooddy root, with certain strings fastnedthereto;from which risethupa brittle stalkeoftwo cubitsanda halfe high, divided from the bottome to the top into divers branches, whereupon do grow long greene leaves like thoseoftheformer,butgreaterandlonger.Thefloures growatthe topofthe maine branches,ofa pleasant yellow colour,inshape like unto the precedent.Thatwhich hath continued the wholeWinterdothfloureinMay, andtherestofSummer afterwards;andthat whichisplanted later,andintheendofSummer, flourethinthe Springofthefollowing yeare: they do hardly endure the injurieofourcold "Vinter. Snapdragoniscalled in English, Calves snout, Snap dragon,andLyons snap:inFrench,Testedechien,andTestedeVeau.Theyreport (saithDioscorides)thattheherbe being hanged about one preserveth amanfrom being bewitched,andthatitmaketh a may graciousinthe sightofpeople.

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Maynothingsodeepeastheyofthe other kindes;andthese are more dilated or spread abroad than anyofthe rest.Theseed is small likeRampions, and the root atuftof laces or small strings.Thesecond kinde of Bell-floure hath a great numberoffaire Blewish orWatchetfloures, like the other last before mentioned, growing upon goodly tall stems two cubitsanda halfe high, which are garnished from the topofthe plant unto thegroundwith leaves like Beets, dis orderly placed.Thiswhole plantisexceeding full of milke, insomuch asifyou dobutbreake one leafe of the plant, many \ dropsofa milky juice will fall upon the ground.Theroot is very great,andfull of milke also: likewisetheknops wherein the seed should be are emptyandvoidofseed, sothatthe whole plantisaltogether barren, and must be increased with slippingofhis root.TheseBell-floures growinourLondonGardens, andnotwildeinEngland.CRANES-BILLDoves-foot hath many hairy stalks, trailing or leaning toward the ground, of a brownish colour, somewhat kneed orjoynted;wherupon do grow rough leaves ofanoverworn green color, round, cut about the edges,andlike unto thoseofthecommon Mallow: amongst which come forth the flouresofa bright purple colour: after which is the seed, set together like the headandbillofabird;wheruponitwas called Cranes-bill,orStorks-bill.Itisfound neere to common high waies, desart places, untilled grounds,andspecially uponmudwalls almost every where.Itis commonly called in Latine,Pes Columbinus:in French,PieddePigeon:hereuponitmay be calledGeranium Columbinum:in English, Doves-foot, and Pigeons foot.72

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ThriftTheherbeandroots dried, beaten into most fine pouder,and given halfe a spoonfull fasting,andthe like quanti tie to bedwards inredwine,orold claret, forthespaceofoneandtwenty daies to gether, cure miraculously rupturesorburstings, asmyselfe have often proved,whereby'I have gotten crownesandcredit:iftheruptures be inagedpersons,itshall be needfull to adde theretothepowderofredsnailes (those without shels) dried in an oveninnumbernine, which fortifieththeherbesinsuch sort,thatitnever faileth,althoughtheDoves-footrupturebe greatandoflongcontinuance: it likewise profitethmuchthosethatarewounded into the body,andthedecoctionoftheherbe madeinwine, prevaileth mightilyinhealing inward wounds, as my selfe have likewise proved.THRIFT,OROURLADIESCUSHIONThrift is a kindeofGillofloure, which brings forth leaves in great tufts, thickethrusttogether,amongwhich riseupsmalltenderstalkesofa spanne high, nakedandwithout leaves;onthetops whereofstandlittle floures in a spokie tuft,ofa white colourtendingto purple.Thriftisfoundinthemost salt marshes inEngland,asalsoinGardens, for the borderingupofbedsandbankes, for the whichitserveth very fitly.73

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MayTheyfloure from May, till Summer be farre spent.Thriftis calledinEnglish,Thrift,Sea-grasse,andour Ladies Cushion.Theiruse in Physicke as yet is not knowne, neitherdothany seeke intotheNaturethereof,butesteemethemonly for their beautieandpleasure.CROW-FEETTherebe divers sortsorkindsofthese pernitious herbes comprehendedunderthenameofRanunculus,orCrow foot, whereof most are very dangerous to be taken intothebody,andtherefore they require a very exquisite moderation, with a most exactanddue maner of tempering,notanyofthemare to betakenalone by themselves, because they areofmost violent force,andtherefore havethegreater needofcorrection.Thesedangerous simples are likewise many timesofthemselves beneficial,&oftentimes profitable: for someofthemare not so daungerous,butthatthey may in some sort,andoftentimes in fitanddue season profitanddoe good.Thecommon Crow-foot hath leaves divided into many parts, commonly three, sometimes five,cuthereandthereinthe edges,ofa deep green colour,inwhichstanddivers white spots:thestalks be round,somthinghairie, someofthem bow downe towardtheground,andputforth many little roots,Common Crow-footwherebyittaketh holdofthe74

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Medow Trefoilegroundasittraileth along: someofthem stand upright, a foot high or higher; on the tops whereof grow small flours withfiveleaves apiece,ofa yellow glittering colour like gold. Crow-footiscalled in English King Kob, Gold cups, Gold knobs, Crow-foot, and Butter-floures. Manydouse to tie a littleofthe herbe stamped with salt unto anyofthe fingers, against the painofthe teeth; which medicine seldome faileth; for it causeth greater paine in the finger than was in the tooth, by the meanes whereof the greater paine taketh away the lesser. Cunning beggers do use to stampe the leaves, and lay it unto their legsandarms, which causeth such filthy ulcersaswe dayly see (among such wicked vagabonds)tomove the people the more to pittie. Crow-footofIllyria spoileth the sencesandunder standing, and draweth together the sinewes and muscles of the face in such strange manner, that those who behold ing suchasdied by the taking hereof, have supposedthatthey died laughing; so forceably hathitdrawneandcon tracted the nerves and sinewes, that their faces have beene drawne awry,asthough they laughed, whereas contrariwise they have died with great torment.MEDowTREFOILEMedow Trefoile bringeth forth stalkes a cubit long, round and something hairy, the greater partofwhich creepeth upon the ground: whereon grow leaves consistingofthree joined together, one standing a little from another.Thefloures growat the topsofthe stalksina tuft or small Fox-taile eare,ofa purple colour, and sweetoftaste. Common medow Trefoile grows in medowes, fertile pastures,andwaterish grounds. Meadow Trefoile is called in English Common Trefoile, Three leafed grasse:ofsome, Suckles, Hony-suckles,andCocks-heads:inIrish,Shamrocks.7S

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MayHERBETWO-PENCEOxenandother cattell do feedontheherb, as also calvesandyonglambs.Theflours are acceptable to Bees.Plinywritethandsettethit downe for certaine,thattheleaves hereof do trembleandstandrightupagainstthe commingofa stormeortempest.MedowTrefoileHerbeTwo-pencehatha smalandtenderroot,spredinganddispersingitselfe far withintheground, from which riseupmany little, tender, flex ible stalks trailinguponthe ground, set by couplesatcer taine spaces, with smooth greene leaves somewhat round, whereofittooke his name: fromthebosomeofwhich leaves shoot forth smalltenderfoot-stalks, whereon do grow little yellow floures, like thoseofCinkefoile or Tormentill.Itgroweth neere unto ditchesandstreames,andother waterie places,andis somtimesfoundinmoist woods: IfoundituponthebankeoftheriverofThames,rightagainsttheQueenes palaceofWhite-hall;andalmostinevery countrey where I have travelled.Itfloureth fromMaytill Summer be well spent.HerbTwo-pence is called inLatineNummulariaandCentummorbia:andofdiversSerpentaria.Itis reported,thatifserpents behurtorwounded, they do heale themselves with this herb,wheruponcamethenameSerpentaria:anditis calledNummulariaoftheforme of7 6

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Neesingrootmoney, whereuntotheleaves are like:inEnglish,Moneywoort,HerbeTwo-pence, andTwo-pennygrasse.Theflouresandleaves stampedandlaiduponwoundsandulcers docurethem:butitworketh most effectually being stamped and boiled in oile olive, with some rosin, wax,andturpentineaddedthereto. Boiled with wineandhony itcureththe woundsoftheinward parts,andulcersofthelungs;&ina word, thereisnot a betterwoundherb,nonot Tabacoitselfe, nor anyotherwhatsoever.Theherb boiledinwine, with a little honyorm:ead,prevailethmuchagainsttheHerbeTwo-pencecough in children, calledtheChin-cough.NEESINGROOTORNEESEWORTWhiteHelleborhath leaves likeuntogreat Gentian,butmuch broader,andnotunliketheleavesofthegreat Plantaine, folded into pleits like agarmentplaited tobelaid upina chest: amongst these leaves risethupa stalke a cubit long, set towardsthetop fulloflittle star-like floures of an herby green colourtendingto whitenes: whichbeingpast,therecome small husks containingtheseed.Therootisgreatandthicke, with many small thredshangingthereat. whiteHelleborgrowethontheAlpsandsuchlike77

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MILKEWORTTherehave been many plants neerely resem blingPolygala,and yet not the same indeed, which doth verifie the Latine saying,Nullumsimileestidem.This neere resemblance doth rather hinder those that have spent much time in the knowledge ofCreeping MilkwortMaymountains where Gentian growes.Itwas reported unto me by the BishopofNorwich,Thatwhite Hellebor groweth in a wood of his owne neere to his houseatNor wich. Some say likewise that it doth grow upon the moun taines of Wales. I speake this upon report, yet I thinke it may be true. Howbeit I dare assure you that they growinmy gardenatLondon.Therootofwhite Helleborisgood against phrensies, sciatica, dropsies, poison, and against all cold diseases that beofhard curation. This strong medicine madeofwhite Hellebor, ought not to bee given inwardly unto delicate bodies without great correction;butit may be more safely given unto countrey people which feed grosly, and have hard tough and strong bodies.Thepouder drawne up into the nose causeth sneesing,andpurgeth the brain from grosse and slimie humors.Theroot killeth rmiceandrats, being made up with hony and floure of wheat.

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Milke wortSimples, than increase their knowledge:andthis also hath been an occasionthatmany have imagined a sundriePolygalaunto themselves,andsoofother plants.Ofwhich number this whereof I speakeisone, obtaining this nameofthe best writersandherbaristsofourtime, describingitthus:Ithathmany thicke spreading branches creeping on the ground, bearing leaves like thoseofHerniaria,standinginrowes like the seCl. Milkwort;amongwhich grow smal whorlesorcrownetsofwhite floures, the root being exceeding smallandthreddy.Thesecond kindeofPolygalaisa small herbe with pliant slender stemmes,ofa wooddy substance,anhand full long, creeping by theground:the leaves be smallandnarrow like to Lintels,orlittle Hyssop.Thefloures grow at the top,ofa blew colour, fashioned like a little bird, with wings, taile,andbody easie to be discerned bythemthat do observe the same: which being past, there suc ceed small pouches like thoseofBursa pas/oris,butlesser. The root is smallandwooddy.ThisthirdkindeofPolygalaorMilkwort, hath leaves and stalkes like the last before mentioned,anddiffereth fromitonly herein,thatthis kindehathsmaller branches, and the leaves are not so thickethrusttogether,andthe floures are like the other,butthatthey beofaredorpurple colour.Thefourthkinde is like the last spokenofin every respect,butthatithath white floures, otherwiseitis very like.PurpleMilkewort differeth fromtheothersinthecolourofthe floures,itbringeth forth moe branches than the precedent,andthe floures areofa purple colour, wherin especially consists the difference.ThesixtMilkwortislike untotherestineach respect, savingthatthefloures areofanoverworne ilfavored colour, which makethitto differfromalltheotherofhiskinde.79

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MayTheseplantsorMilke-worts grow commonly in every woodorfertil pasture wheresoever I have travelled.Milkwortis called by Dod011d!US, FlosAmbarualis,becauseitdoth especially floure in the CrosseorGangweeke,orRogation weeke:ofwhich floures the maidens which use inthecountries to walketheProcession do make themselves garlandsandNosegaies:inEnglishwee may callitCrosse-floure,orProcession floure, Gang floure, Rogation-floure,andMilkwort,oftheir vertuesinprocuringmilke inthebrestsofnurses.ARCHANGELLORDEADNETTLEWhiteArchangellhathfoure square stalkes a cubit high, leaning this wayandthatway, by reasonofthegreat weightofhis ponderous leaves, which are in shape likeuntothoseofNettles, nickedroundabout the edges, yetnotstingingatall,butsoftandasitwere downy: the floures compassethestalkesroundaboutatcertaine distances. Yellow Archangellhathsquarestalks rising from athreddyroot, set with leaves by couples verymuchcutorhackt abouttheedges,andsharp pointed, the upper most whereof are oftentimesofa faire purple colour:theflours growamongthesaid leaves,ofa gold yellow colour, fashioned like thoseofthewhiteArchangell,butgreater,andwidergapingopen.White Archangell80

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Black BrionieRedArchangell, being calledUrticanonmordax,ordead Nettle, hath many leavesspredupontheground;among which riseupstalkes hollowandsquare, where upon growroughleavesofanoverworne colour,amongwhich come forth purple floures set aboutinroundwharlesorrundles.Therootissmall,andperishethatthe first approchofwinter. These plants are foundunderhedges, old walls, com mon waies,amongrubbish, in the bordersoffields,andinearable grounds, oftentimes in gardensillhusbanded.Thatwith the yellow floure groweth not so commonasthe others. I have founditunderthehedgeonthelefthandas you go fromthevillageofHampstedneer London to the Church,&inthe wood therby, as alsoinmanyothercopsesaboutLeein Essex, neerWatford&Bushy in Middlesex,andin the woods belonging to the Lord Cobham in Kent.Theyfloure forthemost part all Summer long,butchiefe1yinthe beginningofMay. Archangell is calledinEnglish, Archangell, blinde Nettle,anddead Nettle.Thefloures are bakedwithsugar as Roses are, whichiscalled Sugar roset: as alsothedistilled waterofthem, which is used to maketheheart merry, to make a good colour intheface,andto refresh the vitalI spirits.BLACKBRIONIE,ORTHEWILDEVINEThe black Briony hathlongflexible branchesofa woody substance, covered with agapingorclovenbarkgrowing very far abroad, windingitselfe with his small tendrels about trees, hedges,andwhatelse is next unto it, like untothebranchesofthe vine: the leaves are like unto thoseofIvieorgarden Nightshade, sharpe pointed,andof a shining greene colour:thefloures are white, small, and mossie; which being past, there succeed little81

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Mayclustersofredberries, somewhat biggerthanthose ofthesmall RaisinsorRibes, which wee call Currans or small Raisins.Theroot is very greatandthicke, often times asbigas a mans leg, blackish without,andvery clammyorslimywithin;which beeingbutscraped with a knifeoranyotherthingfit forthatpurpose,itseemes to be a matter fit tospreduponcloathorleather in mannerofa plaisterofSear-cloath: which being so spredandused,itserveth to layuponmany infirmities,andunto verie excellent purposes, as shal be declared.Theseplants grow in hedgesandbushes almost every where.TheyspringinMarch,bringforth the floures in May,andtheir ripefruitin September.Theyongandtendersproutings arekeptin pickle,andreserved to be eaten with meat, asDioscoridesteacheth.Matthioluswriteth,thatthey are servedatmens tablesinourage alsoinTuscanie;others alsoreportthelike tobedone in Andolosia oneofthekingdomesofGranado.Therootsspreduponsheeps leather inmannerofa plaister, whilestitisyetfreshandgreene, taketh away blackeandblew marks, all scarsanddeformitieofthe skin, breakshardapostems, drawes forth splinters and broken bones, dissolveth congealed bloud,andbeing laidonanduseduponthehiporhuckle bones, shoulders, armes,oranyotherpartwhere there is great paine and ache,ittakesitawayinshortspace,andworketh very effectually.BINDE-WEEDThecommonroughBind-weedhathmany branches set fulloflittle sharpe prickles, with certaine clasping ten drels, wherewithittaketh holduponhedges, shrubs,andwhatsoever standeth nextuntoit,windingandclaspingitselfe about fromthebottome to thetop;whereon are placedateveryjointone leafe likethatofI vie, with-8'2

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Binde-weed .... L.....'-...... outcorners, sharpe pointed, lesserandharderthanthoseofsmooth Binde-weed, often times marked with little white spots,andgardedor borderedaboutthe edges with crooked prickles.Thefloures growatthe topofcrooked stalksofa white colour,andsweetofsmell. Aftercommeththefruit like thoseofthe wilde Vine, gree.p.e atthefirst,andredwhen they be ripe,andof abitingtaste; wherein is contained a blackish seed in shape like thatofhempe. ,Theroot is long, somewhat hard,andpartedinto very many branches.Itisa strangethinguntoCommonroughBindeweedme,thatthenameofSmilax should be so largely extended, asthatitshouldbe assigned to those plantsthatcomenothingneerethenature,andscarslyuntoanypartoftheformeofSmilax indeed.Butwe will leave controversies tothefurtherconsiderationofsuch as love to danceinquag-mires,andcometo thisourcommon smooth Smilax, calledandknowne bythatnameamongus,orrather moretrulybythe nameofConvolvulus major,orVolubilis major:itbeareththelongbranchesofa Vine,buttenderer,andforthelengthandgreat spreading thereofitis very fit to make shadows in arbors:theleaves are smooth like I vie, but somwhat bigger,andbeingbrokenare fullofmilke: amongst which come forth great whiteandhollow floures like bells. ScammonieofSyriaorpurgingBindweed hath many83

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Maystalkes rising from one root, which are long, slender, and like the clasping tendrels of the vine, by which it climeth and taketh holdofsuch thingsasare next unto it.Theleaves be broad, sharpe pointed like thoseofthe smooth or hedge Bind-weed: among which come forth very faire white floures tendingtoa blush colour, bell-fashion.Therootislong, thicke, and white within:outofwhichisgathered a juyce that being hardned,isgreatly usedinPhysicke: for whichconsideration, there is notany Ii plant growing upontheearth, the knowledge whereofSyrian Scammoniemore concerneth a Physition, both for his shape and properties, than this Scammonie, whichPenacallethLactaria scansoriaque volvula,that is, milky and climbing Windweed, whereofitisa kinde. And although this herbe be suspected,andhalfecondemned of learned men, yet there is notanyother herbe to be found, whereofsosmall a quantity willdosomuch good: neither could those whichhavecarpedatit, and reproved this herbe, finde any simpleinrespectofhis vertues to beputin his roome: and hereof ensueth great blame to all practitioners, who havenotendevoured to be better acquainted with this herbe, chiefely to avoid the deceitofthe crafty Drug-sellerandMedicine-makerofthis confected Scammony, brought us from farre places, rather to be called I feare infected Scammony, or poysoned Scammony, than confected. 84

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Rinde-weedAlthoughwe have great plentyofthe rootsofBinde weedofPeru,which we usually callyZarza,orSarsa parilla, wherewith divers griefesandmaladies are cured, and that these roots are very well knowne to all;yetsuchhath beenethecarelessnesseandsmall providenceofsuch as have travelled intotheIndies,thathithertonotany have given us instruction sufficient, either concerning the leaves, floures,orfruit: onelyMonardussaith,thatithathlongroots deepethrustinto theground:which is as much asifa great learned man should tellthesimple, thatourcommon carrion Crow wereofa blacke colour. For who is so blindethatseeththerootitselfe,butcan easily affirmetheroot to be very long? Notwithstanding, there is in the reportsofsuch as say they have seenetheplantitselfe growing, some contradictionorcontrarietie: some reportthatitisakindofBindweed,andespeciallyoneoftheroughBindweeds.ZarzaparillaofPeruisa strange plant,andisbroughtunto us fromtheCountriesofthenew world called America;andsuchthings as arebroughtfrom thence, although they also seemeandare like to thosethatgrowinEurope, notwithstanding they do often differ invertueand operation: for the diversitieofthesoileandoftheweather dothnotonly breed an alteration intheforme but doth mostofall prevaile inmakingthe vertuesandqualities greaterorlesser. Such things as grow inhotplaces beofmore force,andgreater smell;andin cold,oflesser. Some thingsthatare deadlyandpernitious,beingremoved wax mil de,andare made wholesome: soinlike manner,althoughZarzaparillaofPerube like toroughBind-weed,orto SpanishZarza parilla, notwithstandingbyreasonofthetemperatureoftheweather,andalso through the natureofthesoile,itisofa great deale more forcethanthatwhich groweth either in Spaineorin Africke.Theroots are a remedie againstlongcontinuall paine85

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Mayofthe joyntsandhead,andagainst cold diseases.Theyare good for all mannerofinfirmities wherein there is hopeofcure by sweating, so that there be no ague joyned.WOOD-BINDE,ORHONY-SUCKLEWood-bindeorHony-suckle climethupaloft, havinglongslender wooddy stalkes,partedinto divers branches:aboutwhich stand by certaine distances smooth leaves,settogether by couples onerightagainstanother;ofalightgreene colour above, underneathofa whitish greene.Thefloures shew themselves in the topsofthe branches, many in number, long, white, sweetofsmell, hollowwithin;in onepartstandingmore out, with certaine threddes growingoutofthe middle.Thefruitis like little bunchesofgrapes, redwhenthey be ripe, wherein is contained small hard seed.TheWoodbindegroweth in woodsandhedges, anduponshrubsandbushes, oftentimeswindingitselfe sostraightandhardabout,thatitleaveth hisprintupon those things so wrapped.Thedouble Honisuckle groweth now in my Garden,andmany others likewiseingreat plenty, although notlongsince, very rare andhardto be found, exceptinthe gardenofsome diligentHerbarists.Theleaves come forthbe-WoodbindeorHonisuckIetimes inthespring:the86

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Swallow-wortflouresbudforth inMayandJune:the fruitisripe in Autumne.Thefloures steeped in oile,andset intheSun, are goodtoannointthebody thatisbenummed,andgrowne verycold.SWALLOW-WORTSwallow-wort with white floures hath diversuprightbranchesofa brownish colour,ofthe heightoftwo cubits, beset with leaves not unlike to thoseofDulcamaraorwooddy Night-shade, somewhat long, broad, sharpe pointed,ofa blackish greene colour,andstrongsavor;amongwhich come forth very many small whiteflouresstar-fashion, hanging upon little slender foot stalkes: after which come in place thereof longsharp pointed cods, stuffed fullofa most perfect white cotton resembling silk, as well in shew as handling (ourLondonGentlewomen have nameditSilken Cislie), among whichiswrapped soft brownish seed.Theroots are very many, white, threddie,andofastrongsavour.Itiscalledofthelater HerbaristsVincetoxicum:in English, Swallow-woort. LEsculapius (who is said to bethefirst inventorofphysick, whom therefore the GreekesandGentiles honored as a god) calleditafter his ownenameAsclepiasor LEsculapius herbe, for that he wasthefirstthat wrote thereof,andnowitis called in shopsHirundinaria.Dioscorideswriteth,ThattherootsofAsclepiasorSwallow-woort boiled in wine,andthe decoction drunke,area remedy againstthestingingsofSerpents,andagainst deadly poyson, being one of. the especiallest herbes againstthesame. There groweth inthatpartofVirginia, or Norembega,whereourEnglish men dwelled (intending there to erect a certaine Colonie) a kindeofAsclepias,orSwallowwoort,whichtheSavages callWisanck:there risethup87

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Mayfrom a single crooked root, oneuprightstalk a foot high, slender,andofa greenish colour: whereupon do grow faire broad leaves sharp pointed, with many ribs or nervesrunningthroughthe same like thoseofRibwortorPlaintaine, set together by couplesatcertaine dis tances.Thefloures come forthatthe topofthestalks, which asyetarenotobserved by reasonthemanthatbroughtthe seeds&plants hereof didnotregardthem: after which, there come in place two cods (seldome more)sharppointed like thoseofourSwallow-woort, but greater, stuffed fullofa mostpuresilkeofa shining white colour:amongwhich silke appeareth a small longtongue(which istheseed) resembling thetongueofa bird,orthatoftheherbe calledAdderstongue. The cods arenotonly fullofsilke,butevery nerveorsinew wherewiththeleaves beribbedare likewise most pure silke;andalsothepillingofthestems, even asflaxistomefrom his stalks.Thisconsidered, behold the justiceofGod,thatas hehathshutupthose peopleandnations in infidelityandnakednes, sohathhe not as yet giventhemunderstandingto cover their nakednesse,normater wherewith to do the same; notwithstanding the earth is covered over with this silke, which daily theytreadundertheir feet, which were sufficient to apparell many kingdomes,ifthey were carefullymanuredand cherished.Itgroweth, as before is rehearsed, in the countriesofNorembega, now called Virginia, by the honourableKnightSirWalter Raleigh,whohathbestowed great sumsofmoney inthediscoverie thereof; wherearedwellingatthis presentEnglishmen.SOLOMONSSEALESolomons Sealehathlongroundstalks, set forthemostpartwithlongleaves somewhat furrowedandribbed,88

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SolomonsSealenot much unlike Plantain,butnarrower, which for the mostpartstandalluponone sideofthestalke,andhath small white floures resemblingtheflouresofLilly Conval:ontheother side whenthefloures be vaded, there come forthroundberries, whichatthefirstaregreenandofa blacke colourtendingto blewnesse,andbeing ripe, areofthebignesseofIvyberries,ofa very sweetandpleasant taste.Theroot is whiteandthicke, fullofknobsorjoints,insomeplacesresemblingthemarkofa seale, whereof Ithinkeit tookethenameSigillumSolomonis;itis sweetatthefirst,butafterwardofa bitter taste with some sharpnesse.Dioscorideswriteth,Thattheroots are excellent goodforto sealeorcloseupgreene wounds, being stampedandlaidthereon;whereuponitwascalledSigillumSalomonis,ofthe singular vertuethatithath in sealingorhealingupwounds,brokenbones,andsuchlike. Some havethoughtit tookethenameSigillumofthe markesupontheroots:Solomons Sealebut the first reason seemes to be more probable.TherootofSolomons sealestampedwhileitis fresh and greene,andapplied, taketh away in one night,ortwoatthemost,anybruise, blackeorblew spots gotten by falsorwomens wilfulnesse, instumblingupon their hasty husbands fists,orsuch like.Galensaith,thatneither herbe nor root hereof is to be given inwardly:butnotewhatexperience hathfoundout,89

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Mayandoflate daies, especially among the vulgar sortofpeopleinHampshire,whichGalen, Dioscorides,oranyotherthathave writtenofplants have not so muchasdreamedof;which is,Thatifanyofwhatsexoragesoever chance to have any bones broken, inwhatpartoftheir bodies soever; their refuge is to stampetheroots hereof,andgiveituntothe patient in ale to drinke: which sodorethandglues together the bones in veryshortspace,andvery strangely, yea althoughthebones bebutslen derlyandunhandsomely placedandwrapped up. More over,thesaid people do giveitin like manner unto their cattell,ifthey chance to have any bones broken, with good successe; which they do also stampeandapply out wardlyinmannerofa pultesse, as well unto themselves as their cattell.Theroot stamped and appliedinmannerofa pultesse,andlaiduponmembersthathave beeneoutofjoynt, and newly restored to their places, driveth awaythepaine,andknitteththejoyntvery firmely,andtakethawaytheinflammation,ifthere chance to be any.Thatwhichmightbe writtenofthis herbe as touchingtheknittingofbones,andthattruely, would seeme unto some incredible;butcommon experience teacheth, thatintheworld there is not to be foundanother herbecomparable toitforthepurposes aforesaid:andthereforeinbriefe,ifitbe for bruises inward,theroots mustbestamped, some aleorwineputthereto, strained,andgiven to drinke.LINEORLINDENTREEThefemaleLineorLindentree waxeth very greatandthicke, spreading forth his branches wideandfarre abroad, being a tree which yeeldeth a most pleasant shadow,underandwithin whose boughes may bemadebravesummerhousesandbanquetingarbors, because9

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Lindenthemorethatitissurcharged with weightoftimberandsuch like, the betteritdoth flourish.Thebarkeisbrownish,very smooth,andplaineonthe outside,butthatwhich is next to the timber is white, moistandtough, serving very well for ropes, trases,andhaIters.Thetimberiswhitish, plaineandwithout knots, yea very soft and gentleinthecuttingorhandling. Bettergunpouderismadeofthe coalesofthis woodthanofWillow coales. The leaves are greene, smooth, shining,andlarge, some what sniptortoothed about the edges: the floures are little, whitish,ofa good savour,andvery manyinnumber, growing clustering together fromoutofthe middleofthe leafe:outofwhich proceedeth a small whitishlongnarrow leafe: after the floures succeed cornered sharpe pointed Nuts,ofthebignesseofHasell Nuts.ThemaleTiNaorLinetree groweth also very great and thicke, spreadingitselfe far abroad like the other Linden tree: his barkeisvery toughandpliant,andserveth to make cordsandhaIters of.Thetimberofthis treeismuchharder, more knotty,andmore yellowthanthetimberofthe other, not much differing from the timberoftheElme tree: the leaves hereof are notmuchunlike Ivy leaves, not very greene, somewhatsniptabout the edges:fromthe middle whereof come forth clustersoflittle white flours liketheformer: which being vaded, there succeed smallroundpellets, growing clustering togetherlikeIvy berries, within which is contained a littleroundblackish seed, which fallethoutwhen the berry is ripe.ThefemaleLindentree growethinsome woodsinNorthamptonshire;also neere Colchester,andinmanyplacesalongstthehighway leading fromLondonto Henningham, in the countyofEssex.ThemaleLindentree growethinmyLordTreasurersgardenintheStrand,andinsundryother places, asatBarn-elmes,andina gardenatSaint Katherines neere London.TheleavesofTiliaboyledinSmithes water with a91

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MaypieceofAllumanda little honey, cure the soresinchildrens mouthes.Thefloures are commended by divers against paine ofthehead proceedingofa cold cause, against dissinesse,theApoplexie,andalso the falling sicknesse,andnot one1ythefloures,butthedistilled water thereof.TheleavesoftheLinden(saithTheophrastus)are very sweet,andbe a fodder for mostkindofcattle:thefruit can be eatenofnone.BIRCHTREEThecommon Birch tree waxeth likewise a great tree, having many boughs besetwithmany small rodsortwigs, very limberandpliant;thebarkeoftheyong twigs and branches is plain, smooth,andfullofsap,incolour likethechestnut,buttherindofthe bodyortrunkishardwithout, white, rough,anduneven, fullofchinksorcrevises:underwhichisfoundanother fine barke, plaine, smooth,andas thinaspaper, which heretofore was used in steadofpapertowrite on, before the makingofpaper was knowne:inRussiaandthese cold coun triesitservethinsteadoftilesandslate to cover their houses withall.Thistreebeareth for his flours certaine .'.:e aglets liketheBaseltree, :::; butsmaller, whereintheBirchseed is contained. 92

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AppleThecommon Birch tree grows in woods, fenny grounds, and mountains, in most placesofEngland.Thecatkins or aglets do first appear,andthentheleaves,inAprillora little later. Concerning the medicinable useofthe Birch tree,orhisparts, there isnothingextant eitherintheoldornew writers.Thistree, saithPliny, lib.16.cap.18.Mirabili candore&tenuitate terribilis magistratuum virgis:forintimes past the magistrats rods were made thereof;andinourtimealsoSchoolmastersandParentsdo terrifie their children with rods madeofBirch.Itserveth well tothedeckingupofhousesandban queting rooms, for placesofpleasure,andfor beautifying of streetsinthe CrosseandGangweeke,andsuchlike.ApPLETREETheAppletreehatha bodyortrunkecommonlyofa meane bignesse,notvery high, havinglongarmesorbranches,andthe same disordered: the barke somewhat plaine,andnotveryrugged:the leaves bee also broad, morelongthanround,andfinely nickedintheedges. The floures are whitishtendinguntoa blush colour.ThefruitorApples do differingreatnesse, forme, colour, and taste; some covered with a redde skinne, others yelloworgreene, varying infinitely according tothesoyle and climate, some very great, some little,andmanyofa middlesort;some are sweetoftaste,orsomething soure; most beofa middle taste betweene sweetandsoure,thewhich to distinguish Ithinkeitimpossible; notwith standing I heareofonethatintendethto write a peculiar volumeofApples,andtheuseofthem;yetwhen hehathdonewhathe cr...n doe, heehathdonenothingtouchingtheir severall kindes to distinguish them.Thisthathathbeene said shall suffice forourHistory.93

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JuneThetameandgraffed Apple trees are plantedandsetingardensandorchards made forthatpurpose: they delight to growingoodandfertilegrounds:Kentdothaboundwith Applesofmost sorts.ButI have seeneinthe pasturesandhedge-rowsaboutthe groundsofa worship full Gentleman dwelling two miles from Hereford, calledMasterRoger Bodnome,so many treesofall sorts,thatthe servants drinke for the mostpartnootherdrinkebutthat which is madeofApples.Thequantity is such,thatbythereportofthegentleman himselfe,theParsonhathfor tithe many hogsheadsofSyder.Thehogs are fed with the fallingsofthem, which are so many,thatthey make choiseofthose Apples they do eate, who will not taste of anybutofthe best.Anexample doubtlesse to be followedofGentlementhathave landandliving:butenvie saith, the poore will breake downeourhedges,andwee shall havetheleastpartofthe fruit;butforwardinthenameofGod, graffe, set, plantandnourishuptreesinevery corner of your ground, the labour is small,thecostisnothing, the commodityisgreat,yourselves shall have plenty, the poore shall have somwhatintimeofwantto relieve their necessitie,andGod shall rewardyourgood mindes and diligence.R0SESTheRose doth deserve the chiefandprime place among all f10ures whatsoever; beeingnotonely esteemed forhisbeauty, vertues,andhis fragrantandodoriferous smell;butalso becauseitisthehonorandornamentofourEnglishScepter, as by the conjunction appeareth,intheunitingofthose two most Royall HousesofLancasterandYorke.Whichpleasantf10uresdeservethechiefest place in crownesandgarlands, asAnacreon Thiusa most antient GreekePoetaffirmesinthose Versesofa Rose beginningthus;94

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RosesTheRose isthehonourandbeautyoffloures,TheRoseinthe careandloveoftheSpring:TheRose isthepleasureofth'heavenlyPow'rs.TheBoyoffaireJ7enus,Cythera'sDarling,Dothwrap his headroundwith garlandsofRose,Whentothedancesofthe Graces he goes.Augerius Busbequiusspeakingofthe estimationandhonor of the Rose, reporteth,ThattheTurkscan by no meansendureto seetheleavesofRoses fall to the ground, because someofthemhave dreamed,thatthefirstormost antient Rose didspringoutofthebloudofJ7enus:andothersoftheMahumetans saythatitsprangofthesweatofMahumet.Butthere are manv kindesofRoses, differing inthebignesseofthefloures,ortheplantitselfe, roughnesseorsmoothnesse,orinthemultitudeorfewnesseoftheflours,orelseincolourandsmell; for diversofthemarehighandtall, othersshortandlow, some have five leaves, others very many.More-The ProvinceorDamaske Roseover, some be red, others white,andmostofthemorall sweetly smelling, especially thoseofthegarden.Ifthe Curious could so be content, one generall descriptionmightserve to distinguishthewhole stockorkindredofthe Roses, being things so weI knowne: not withstandingIthinkeitnotamisse to saysomthingof95

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Junethemseverally,inhope to satisfie all.Thewhite Rose hath verylongstalkesofa wooddy substance, setorarmedwith divers sharpe prickles:thebranches wherof are likewise fullofprickles, whereon grow leaves consistingoffiveleaves forthemost part, setupona middleribby couples,theold leafstandingatthe pointofthe same,andevery oneofthose small leaves somwhat sniptaboutthe edges, somewhat rough,andofan overworne greene colour: from the bosome whereof shoot forthlongfoot-stalks, whereon grow very faire double floursofa white colour,andvery sweet smell, having in the middle a few yellow thredsorchives; which being past, there succeedeth alongfruit, greeneatthefirst,butredwhenitis ripe, and stuffed with a downy choking matter, wherein is contained seed ashardas stones.Theroot is long, tough,andofa wooddy substance.TheredRose groweth very low in respectofthe former:thestalks are shorter, smoother,andbrowner of colour:Theleaves are like, yetofa worse dusty colour:Thefloures growonthetopsofthebranches, consistingofmany leavesofa perfectredcolour: the fruit is like wise red when itisripe:theroot is wooddy.Thecommon Damaske Rose in stature, prickely branches,andinotherrespects is likethewhite Rose;theespeciall difference consists inthecolourandsmellofthe flours: for these areofa paleredcolour,ofa more pleasant smel,andfitter for meatandmedicine.TheRosa Provincialis minor or lesser Province Rose differeth not fromtheformer,butis altogether lesser:theflouresandfruit are like:theuse in physickealsoagreeth with the precedent.TheRose without prickles hath manyyoungshoots comming fromtheroot, dividing themselves into divers branches, tough,andofa wooddy substance as are all the restoftheRoses,oftheheightoftwoorthreecubits, smoothandplain without any roughnesse or prickles at9 6

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Rosesall: whereon grow leaves like thoseoftheHollandRose, of a shining deep green colour ontheupperside,underneath somewhat hoaryandhairy.Theflours growatthetops ofthebranches, consistingofaninfinitenumberofleaves, greaterthanthoseoftheDamaskeRose, more double,andofa colour betweentheredanddamask Roses,ofa most sweet smell.Thefruitisround,redwhen itisripe,andstuffed withthelike flocksandseedsofthoseofthedamaske Rose.Theroot is great, wooddy, and far spreading.TheHollandorProvince Rosehathdivers shoots proceeding from a wooddy root fulofsharpe prickles, dividingitselfe into divers branches, wheron grow leaves consistingoffive leaves set on aroughmiddle rib,&thosesniptabouttheedges:theflours growonthetops of the branches, in shapeandcolour likethedamaske Rose,butgreaterandmore double, insomuchthattheyellow chivesinthemiddle arehardto be seene;ofa reasonable good smell,butnot fully so sweet as the com mon damaske Rose:thefruitis liketheotherofhis kinde. All these sortsofRoses we have inourLondongardens, exceptthatRose without pricks, which asyetis astrangerinEngland.Thedouble white Rose groweth wildeinmany hedgesofLancashire in great aboundance, even as Briers do with us in these Southerly parts.Thesefloure fromtheendofMaytotheendofAugust,and divers times after,byreasonthetopsandsuperfluous branches arecutaway intheendoftheir flouring: and then doe they somtimes floure even untill October and after.Thedistilled waterofRoses is good forthestrengthningoftheheart,andrefreshingofthespirits,andlikewisefor all thingsthatrequire a gentle cooling.Thesame beingputinjunkettingdishes, cakes, sauces,andmany other pleasant things, giveth a fineanddelectable taste.97

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JuneItmitigateth the paineofthe eies proceedingofa hot cause,bringethsleep, which also the fresh roses them selves provokethroughtheir sweetandpleasant smell.Oflikevertuealso are the leavesofthese preserved in Sugar, especiallyifthey be onely bruised with the hands,anddiligently tempered with Sugar,andso heatatthe fireratherthanboyled.TheconserveofRoses, as wellthatwhich is crudeandraw, asthatwhich is made by ebullitionorboiling, takeninthemorningfasting,andlastatnight,strengthneththeheart,andtaketh awaytheshakingandtrembling thereof,andinawordisthemost familiarthingto be used for the purposes aforesaid,andis thus made:TakeRosesatyourpleasure,putthemto boyleinfaire water, havingregardtothequantity;forifyou have many Roses you may take more water;iffewer, the lesse water will serve: the which you shall boyleatthe least three or foure houres, even as you would boile a pieceofmeate, untillintheeating they be very tender,atwhich time the Roses will lose their colour,thatyou wouldthinkeyour labour lost,andthethingspoiled.Butproceed, for thoughtheRoses have lost their colour,thewaterhathgotten the cincture thereof;thenshall youaddeuntoone poundofRoses, fourepoundoffinesugarinpurepouder,andsoaccording totherestofthe Roses.Thusshall you letthemboyle gently after thesugarisputtherto, continuallystirringitwith a woodden Spatula untillitbe cold, whereofonepoundweight isworthsixpoundofthecrudeorraw conserve, as well forthevertues.andgoodnesseintaste, as also forthebeautifull colour.Themakingofthecrude or raw conserveisvery well knowne, as also Sugar roset,anddivers other pretty things madeofRosesandSugar, whichareimpertentuntoour history, because Iintendnetherto makethereofanApothecaries shop,nora Sugar-Bakers storehouse, leavingtherest forourcunningconfectioners.9 8

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Muske Roses MUSKEROSESTherebe divers sortsofRoses planted in gardens, besides those writtenofintheformer chapter, which areofmost writers reckonedamongthewilde Roses, notwithstandingwethinkitconvenient toputtheminto a chapter betweene thoseofthegardenandthebrier Roses,asindifferentwhetherto makethemofthewilde Roses,orofthetame, seeing we have madethemdenizons inourgardens for divers respects,andthatworthily.ThesingleMuskeRose hath diverslongshoots of a greenish colourandwooddy substance,armedwith very sharpe prickles, dividingitselfe into divers branches: whereon doe growlongleaves, smooth and shining, madeofdivers leaves setupona middle rib, liketheotherRoses: the floures growonthetopsofthebranches,ofa white colour,andpleasantTheYellow Rosesweet smell, likethatofMuske,whereofittooke his name; having certaine yellowseeds in the middle, astherestoftheRoses have:thefruitisredwhenitis ripe,andfilled withsuchchaffie flockesandseeds as thoseoftheother Roses:theroot istoughandwooddy.Theyellow Rose (as divers do report) was byArtso coloured,andalteredfromhis first estate, by grafting a wilde Roseupona Broome-stalke; whereby (say they)it99

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Junedothnotonely change his colour,buthis smellandforce.Butfor mypartI havingfoundthe contrary by mine owne experience, cannot beinducedto beleeve thereport:for the rootsandoff-springsofthis Rose havebroughtforth yellow roses, such as the maine stockormotherbringethout, which eventisnottobeseen in allotherplantsthathave been graffed. Moreover, the seedsofyellow roses havebroughtforth yellow Roses, such asthefloure was from whence they weretaken;which they shouldnotdo by any conjecturall reason,ifthatofthemselves they werenota naturall kindeofRose. Lastlyitwere contrary tothattrueprinci pIe, Naturte sequitur feminaquodque SUte: thatis to say.Everyseedandplantbringethforth fruit likeuntoitselfe,bothinshapeandnature:butleavingthaterrour, I will proceed tothedescription:theyellow rosehathbrowneandprickly stalksorshoots,fiveor six cubits high, garnished with many leaves, likeuntotheMuskerose,ofanexcellent sweet smell,andmore pleasant thantheleavesoftheEglantine:thefloures come forthamongtheleaves,andatthe topofthebranchesofa faire gold yellow colour: thethrumsinthemiddle, are also yellow: which being gone, there follow such knopsorheads as theotherRoses do beare.TheCanellorCinnamon Rose, ortheRose smelling like Cinnamon,hathshotsofa brown colour, foure cubits high, beset withthornyprickles,andleaves like unto thoseofEglantine,butsmallerandgreener,ofthe savourorsmellofCinnamon, whereofit tooke his name,andnotofthe smellofhis floures (as some have deemed) which have little or no savouratall:theflouresbeexceeding double,andyellowinthe middle,ofa paleredcolour,andsometimesofa carnation: the root isofa wooddy substance.TheseRoses are planted inourLondonGardens,andelse-where,butnot found wildeinEngland.100

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WildeRosesTheMuskeRose floureth inAutumne,orthefallofthe leafe:therest flourewhentheDamaskandredRosedo.Thefirst is calledRosa Moschata,ofthesmellofMuske,aswe have said: in Italian,Rosa Moschetta:inFrench,Roses Musquees,orMuscadelles:in lowDutch,Musketroosen:inEnglishMuskRose:theLatineandEnglishtitles may serve for the rest.Thewhite leaves stamped in a wooden dish with a piece ofAllumandthejuycestrained forth into some glased vessell, dried in the shadow,andkept,isthemost fineandpleasant yellow colourthatmay be divised,notonely to limneorwash picturesandImagerie in books,butalso to colour meatsandsauces, which notwithstandingtheAllum is very wholesome.WILDEROSESThesweet Brierdothoftentimes grow higherthanall the kin desofRoses;theshootsofitare hard, thicke,andwooddy;theleaves are glittering,andofa beautifull greene colour,ofsmell most pleasant:theRoses are little,fiveleaved, most commonly whitish, seldomtendingto purple,oflittle or no smellatall:thefruitis long,ofcolour somewhat red, like a little olive stone,&likethelittle heads or berriesofthe others,butlesserthanthoseofthegarden:in whichiscontainedroughcotton,orhairy downeandseed, foldedandwrappedupinthesame, which is smallandhard:therebe likewise foundabouttheslender shoots hereof, round, soft,andhairy spunges, which we call Brier Balls,suchas growaboutthe prickles of the Dog-Rose.WehaveinourLondongardens another sweet Brier, having greater leaves,andmuchsweeter:thefloures likewise are greater,andsomewhat doubled, exceeding sweetofsmell, whereinitdiffereth from the former.101

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JuneTheBrier Bush orHeptree,isalso calledRosacanina,whichisa plantsocommon and well knowne, thatitwere to small purpose to use many words in the description thereof: for even children with great deligh eat the berries thereof when they be ripe, make chainesandother prettie gewgawesofthe fruit: cookesandgentlewomen makeTartsandsuch like dishes for pleasure thereof,andthere fore this shall suffice for the description.ThePimpinell Roseislikewise oneofthe wilde ones, whose leaves, consistingofdivers small ones, are set upon a middle rib like thoseofBurnet, whereupon it was called the Burnet Rose.Itgrowes very plentifully in a field as you go from a village in Essex, called Graies (upon the brinkeofthe river Thames) untoHorndonon the hill, insomuch that the field is full fraught there with all over.Itgroweth likewise in a pastureasyou goe from a village hard by London called Knights brige unto Fulham, a Village thereby.Thefruit whenitisripe maketh most pleasant meatsandbanqueting dishes, as tartsandsuch like; the making whereof I commit to the cunning cooke,andteeth to eate them in the rich mans mouth.LARKSHEELEORLARKSCLAWThegarden Larks spur hath aroundstem fulofbranches, set with tenderjaggedleaves: the floures grow alongst the stalks toward the topsofthe branches,ofa blew colour, consisting offivelittle leaves which grow together and make one hollow floure, having a taile orspuratthe endturningin like the spurofTodeflax. After cometheseed, very blacke, like thoseofLeekes:theroot perisheth at the first approch of Winter.Thesecond Larksspurislike the precedent, but somewhat smaller in stalkesandleaves: the floures are also like in forme,butofa white colour, wherein especially102

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Larks spuristhe difference.Thesefloures are sometimesofapurplecolour, sometimes white, murrey, carnation,andofsundryothercolours, varying infinitely, according tothesoile or country wherein they live.ThewildeLarksspurhathmost finejaggedleaves,cutandbackt into divers parts, confusedly setupona small middle tendrell:amongwhich growthefloures, in shape liketheothers,buta great deale lesser, sometimes purple,otherwhiles white,andoftenofa mixt colour.Theroot is smallandthreddy.Theseplants are setandsowne in gardens:thelast groweth wildeincorne fields,andwhere cornhathgrown.Theyfloure forthemostpartallSummerlong, fromJunetotheendofAugust,andoft-times after.Larksheele is calledFlosRegius:ofdivers,Consolidaregalis:who makeitoneoftheConsoundsorComfreyes.ItisWhiteorredLarksspuralsothoughtto betheDelphi-niumwhichDioscoridesdescribesinhisthirdbooke; wherewithitmay agree: forthefloures,andespecially before they be perfected, have a certaine shewandlike nesseofthose Dolphins, which old picturesandarmesofcertainantientfamilies have expressed with a crookedandbending figure orshape;by which signe alsotheheavenly Dolphine is set forth.Wefinde little extantofthevertuesofLarksheele, either intheantientorlater writers,worththenoting,or1

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Juneto be credited; yet it is set downe,thatthe seedofLarksspurdrunkenis good against the stingingsofScorpions; whose vertues are so forceable,thattheherbe onely throwne before the Scorpionoranyothervenomous beast, couseththemto be without force orstrengthto hurt, insomuchthatthey cannot moveorstirre untill the herbe be taken away: with manyothersuch trifling toyes not worththereading.ROSECAMPIONThefirstkindofRose Campionhathroundstalks very knottyandwoolly,andateveryknotorjointtheredostandtwo woolly soft leaves like Mullein,butlesser&muchnarrower: the floures growatthe topofthe stalke,ofa perfect red colour.Thesecond Rose Campion differs not fromthepre cedent in stalks, leaves,orfashionofthe floures;theonly difference consists inthecolour, for the flouresofthis plant areofa milke white colour,andtheotherred.TheRose Campion groweth plentifullyinmost gardens. Because the leaves thereof be soft, & fittomakeweeks for candles, according to the testimony ofDioscorides,it was calledLychnis,thatis, aTorchorsuch like light, according to the significationofthe word, cleere, bright,andlight-giving floures:andtherefore they were called the Gardeners Delight, or the GardenersEye.GARDENPOPPIESTheleavesofwhitePoppieare long, broad, smooth, longerthanthe leavesofLettuce, whiter,andcutin the edges: the stemorstalke isstraightandbrittle, often times ayardanda halfehigh:onthe top whereof grow white floures, in whichattheverybeginningappeareth a1

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Garden Poppiessmall head, accompanied with anumberofthredsorchives, which being full growneisround,andyet some thing long withall,andhatha coverorcrownetuponthetop; itiswith many filmes orthinskin divided into coffers or severall partitions,inwhich is contained abundanceofsmallroundandwhitish seed.Theroot groweth deepe, and isofno estimation nor continuance.Likeuntothis is the blacke garden Poppy, savingthatthe floures are not so whiteandshining,butusually red, oratleast spotted or straked with some linesofpurple.Theleaves are greater, morejagged,andsharper pointed.Theseed is likewise blacker.Thereare divers varietiesofdouble Poppies,andtheir colours are commonly either white, red, darke purple, scarlet,ormixtofsomeofthese.ThesekindsofPoppies are sowne in gardens,anddo afterward comeofthe fallingsoftheir seed.Theseed is perfected inJulyandAugust.Thisseed, asGalensaith inhisbookeofthe facultiesofNourishments, is good to season bread with,butthewhite is betterthantheblack.Healso addeth,thatthesame is coldandcauseth sleep, and yeeldeth no commendable nourishment to thebody:itisoften used in comfits, servedatthetable withotherjunkettingdishes.Theoile which is pressedoutofitis pleasantanddelightfull to be eaten,&is taken with breadoranyotherwaies with meat, without any senceofcooling. A greater force is intheknobs or heads, which do specially prevaile to move sleepe,andto stayandrepresse distillationsorrheums,andcome neere in force toOpium,but more gentle.Opium,orthecondensed juiceofPoppyheads, is strongestofall;Meconium(which isthejuiceofthe headsandleaves) is weaker. Bothofthemany waies taken either inwardly,oroutwardly applied tothehead, provoke sleepe.Opiumsomewhat too plentifullytakendoth alsobringdeath.1

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JuneItmitigateth all kindsofpaines;butitleaveth behindeitoftentimes a mischiefe worsethanthediseaseitselfe,andthathardto be cured, as a dead palsieandsuch like.Soalso collyries or eye medicines made withOpiumhave bin hurtfull to many; insomuchthatthey have weakenedtheeiesanddulled the sightofthosethathaveusedit:whatsoever is compoundedofOpiumto mitigatetheextreame painesoftheeares, bringeth hardnesse of hearing. Wherefore all those medicinesandcompounds are to beeshunnedthatare to be madeofOpium,andarenotto be usedbutin extreame necessitie;andthatis,whennoothermitigater or assuagerofpaine doth anythingprevaile.TheleavesofPoppieboiled in water with a little sugaranddrunke, cause sleep:orifitbe boiled without sugar,andthehead, feet,andtemples bathed therewith,itdoth effect the same.TheheadsofPoppieboiled in water withsugarto a syrrup cause sleepe,andare good against rheumesandcatarrhes that distilandfall down from the brain into the lungs,andeasethecough.CORNE-RoSEORWILDEPOppyThestalksofredPoppybe blacke, tender,andbrittle, somewhat hairy:theleaves arecutroundaboutwith deepe gashes like thoseofSuccorie or wild Rocket.Theflours grow forthatthetopsofthestalks,beingofa beautifullandgallantredcolour, with blackish threds compassingaboutthemiddlepartofthehead, which being fully growne, is lesserthanthatofthegardenPoppy:the seedissmallandblacke.Thefields are garnishedandoverspred with these wilde PoppiesinJuneandAugust.Mostmen being led rather by false experiments than106

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GARDENFLAXEFlaxereason, commendthefloures againstthePleurisie, giving to drinke as soon asthepain comes, either the distilled water,orsyrrup made by often infusing the leaves.Andyet many timesithappens,thatthepaine ceaseth bythatmeanes,thoughhardly sometimes.WildPoppy Flax ,risethupwith slenderandroundstalks.Theleaves thereof bee long, narrow,andsharpe pointed:onthetopsofthesprigs are faire blew floures, after whichspringuplittleroundknobsorbuttons,inwhich is containedtheseed,informe somewhat long, smooth, gliborslipperie,ofa darke colour.Plinysaiththatitistobe sowne in gravelly places, especially in furrowes:andthatitburneththeground, and makethitworser: whichthingalsoVirgiltestifieth inhisGeorgickes.InEnglishthus : FlaxeandOtes sowne consumeThemoistureofa fertile field:Thesame workethPoppy,whose J uyce a deadly sleepe doth yeeld. Flaxe is sowne inthespring,itflourethinJuneandJuly. Afteritiscutdowne (asPliny, lib.19.cap.I.saith) the stalks areputintothewater, subject totheheatof1

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JunetheSun,&some weight laidonthemto be steepedtherein;the loosenesofthe rinde is a signewhenit is well steeped:thenisittakenupanddriedinthe Sun,andafter used as most huswives can tell betterthanmy selfe.Theoile which is pressedoutofthe seed, is profitable for many purposesinPhysickeandSurgerie;andis usedofpainters, picture makers,andotherartificers.Theseeds stamped withtherootsofwild Cucumbers, draweth forth splinters, thomes, broken bones,oranyotherthingfixed in anypartofthe body.FOX-GLOVESPurpleFox-glovesFox-glove with the purple floure is most common; the leaves whereof are long, nickedintheedges,ofalightgreene,inmanner like thoseofMullein,butlesser,andnot so downy:thestalke is straight, fromthemiddle whereof tothetopstandthe floures, set in a course one by anotheruponone sideofthe stalke,hangingdownwards withthebottome upward, in forme long, like almost to finger stalkes, whereof it tooke his nameDigitalis,ofaredpurple colour,withcer taine white spots dasht within the floure; after which comeuproundheads,inwhich liestheseed somewhat browne,andas small asthatofTime.Theroots are many slender strings.108

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Woljes-baneTheFox-Glove with white floures differs not fromtheprecedentbutinthecolourofthefloures; for astheotherwere purple, these contrariwise areofa milke-white colour.Wehave inourGardens another sort hereof, which bringeth forth most pleasant yellow floures,andsomewhat lesser than the common kinde, wherein they differ. Fox-glove growethinbarren sandy grounds,andunderhedges almost every where. Fox-gloves some callinFrench,Gantes nostre dame.TheFox-gloves inthatthey are bitter, are hotanddry, with a certaine kindeofclensing qualitiejoynedthere with; yet are theyofno use, neither have they any place amongst medicines, according totheAntients.WOLFES-BANEAconite,ofsome calledThora(others adde theretotheplace whereitgrowethingreat aboundance, which is the Alps,andcallitThora Valdensium),tooke his nameoftheGreekewordsignifying corruption, poison,ordeath, which are the certaine effectsofthis pernitious plant: for this they use verymuchin poison,andwhen they mean to infect their arrow heads, the more speedilyanddeadly to dispatchthewilde beasts which greatly annoy those MountainesoftheAlpes.Towhich purpose alsoitis brought intotheMarttownes neere those places, to be sold untothehunters, the juyce thereof being prepared by pressing forth,andsokeptinhomesandhoofesofbeast for the most speedy poysonoftheAconites: for an arrow touched therewith leavesthewounduncurable (ifitbutfetchbloudwhereitentredin) unlessethatroundaboutthewoundtheflesh bee speedilycutawayingreat quantitie : this plant therefore may rightly be accountedasfirstandchiefeofthose called SagittariesorAconites,byreasonofthemalignant qualities aforesaid.Thisthat1

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Junehath beene sayd, argueth also thatMatthiolushath un properly calleditPseudoaconitum,that is, falseorbastard Aconite; for without question there is no worse or more speedie venome in the world, nor no Aconite or toxible plant comparable hereunto.Andyet let us con sider the fatherly care and providenceofGod, who hath provided a conquerour andtriumpher over this plantsovenomous, namely his Anti gonist, Antithora,orto speake in shorter and fewer syllables,Anthora,which is the very anti doteorremedie against this kindeofAconite.Theyellow kindeofW olfes bane hath large shining green leaves fashioned like a vine.Hisstalks growupto the height of three cubits, bearing veryfineyellow floures, fantastically fash ioned, and in such manner shaped, that I can very hardly describe them to you. This plant groweth natunill y in the darke hilly forrests,&shadowie woods, that are not travelled nor haunted,butby wilde andBroad leafed Wolfs-banesavage beasts, and is thought to bee the strongest and next untoThorain his poisoning qualitie,ofall the restofthe Aconites, or W oolfes banes; insomuch thatifa fewofthe floures be chewed in the mouth, and spit forth againe presently, yet forthwith it burneth the jawsandtongue, causing them to swell, and making a certain swimming or giddinesse in the head.Thiscalleth to my remem brance an historyofa certain Gentleman dwelling in Lincolneshire, calledMahewe,the true report whereof110

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Monkeshoodmyvery good friendMr.NicholasBelson,somtimes FellowofKings Colledge in Cambridge, hath delivered unto me:Mr.Mahewedwelling in Boston, astudentinphysick, having occasion to ridethroughthe fensofLincolnshire, found a root that the hogshadturnedup, which seemed unto him very strangeandunknowne, for thatitwas in the spring beforetheleaves wereout:thishetasted,anditso inflamed his mouth, tongue,andlips, thatitcaused them to swell very extremely, so that beforehecould get to the towneofBoston, he could not speake, and no doubt had lost his lifeifthattheLordGodhadnot blessed those good remedies which presently he pro curedandused. I have herethoughtgood to expresse this history, for two speciall causes; the first is,thatsome industriousanddiligent observerofnature may be pro voked to seeke forththatvenomous plant,orsomeofhiskindes: for I am certainly persuadedthatitiseither theThoraValdensium,orAconitum luteum,whereof this gentleman tasted, which two plants havenotatany time binthoughtto grow naturallyinEngland:theother cause is, for that I would warne others to bewarebythat gentlemans harme.MONKESHOODHelmet-floure, or the great Monkes-hood, beareth very faireandgoodly blew floures in shape like anHelmet;which are so beautifull,thata man would thinke theywereofsome excellent vertue,butnonestsemper fides ha.'>{';tda fronti.Thisplantisuniversally knowne inourLondon gardensandelsewhere;butnaturally it growethinthe mountainesofRhetia,and in' sundry placesofthe Alps, where you shall find the grassethatgrowethrounditeatenupwith cattell,butnopartofthe herbeitselfe touched, except by certaine flies, who in suchabundantIII

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June measure swarme about the same that they cover the whole plant:and(which is very straunge) although these flies do withgreatdelight feed hereupon, yetofthem there is confected an Antidot or most availeable medicine againstthedeadly bite of the spider called Tarantala,orany other venomous beast whatsoever; yea, an excel lent remedy not only against the Aconites,butall other poisons whatsoever.Themedicineofthe foresaidfliesis thusmade:Takeofthetheflies which have fed them selves as is above mentioned, innumbertwentie,ofAristolochiarotunda,andbole Armoniack,ofeach a dram.Theforceandfacultie of this Wolfs-bane is deadlytomanandall kin desofbeasts:Monkeshoodthesame was triedoflate in Antwerpe,andisasyetfresh in memorie, byanevident experiment,butmost lamentable; forwhenthe leaves hereof were by certaineignorantpersons servedupinsallads, allthatdid eat thereof were presently taken with most cruell symptomes,andso died.Thesymptomesthatfollow thosethatdoe eatofthese deadlyHerbsare these; their lippsandtongue swell forthwith, their eyeshangout, their thighes are stiffe,andtheir wits are taken from them, as Avicen writes,lib.4.Theforceofthis poison is such,thatifthepointsofdartsorarrowes be touched therewith,itbrings deadlyhurtto thosethatarewoundedwith the same.112

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Monkes hoodAgainst so deadly a poisonAvicenreckonethupcer tain remedies, which help afterthepoyson is vomitedup:andamongthese he maketh mentionoftheMouse(as the copies every where have it) nourishedandfedupwithNapellus,which is altogether an enemie to the poisonsome natureofit,anddeliverethhimthathathtaken it from all perillanddanger.Antonius GuaneriusofPavia, a famous physition in his age, in his treatyofpoisons isofopinion,thatitisnota mouse which Avicen speaketh of,buta fly: for he telleth of a certaine Philosopher who did very carefullyanddiligently make search after this mouse,andneither could findatany time any mouse, northerootsofWolfs bane gnawnorbitten, as hehadread:butin searching he found many flies feedingontheleaves, whichthesaid Philosopher tooke,andmadeofthemanantidoteorcounterpoison, which heefoundto be goodandeff"ectuall againstotherpoisons,butespecially againstthepoisonofWolfs-bane.Thecomposition consistethoftwo ouncesofTerra lemnia,as manyoftheberriesoftheBay tree,andthelike weightofMithridate,24ofthe fliesthathave taken their repastuponWolfes-bane,ofhonyandoile Olive a sufficient quanti tie.Thesame opinionthatGuaneriusis of,PenaandLobeldo alsohold;who affirme,thattherewas never seeneatany time any mouse feeding thereon, butthatthere bee flies which resortuntoitby swarmes, and feednotonlyuponthefloures,butontheherbalso.Therehathbin little heretofore set down concerning the VertuesofAconites,butmuchmightbe saidofthehurtsthathave come hereby, asthewofull experienceasthelamentable exampleatAntwerpyetfresh in memorie, doth declare, as we have said.113

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JuneMITHRIDATEWOLFES-BANEThisplant calledAnthora,being the antidote against the poisonofThora, AconiteorWolfes bane,hathslender hollow stalkes, very brittle, a cubit high, garnished with finecutorjaggedleaves, very like toNigella Romana,orthecommonLarksspurre, calledConsolida regalis:atthe topofthe stalks grow faire floures, fashioned like a little helmet,ofan overworne yellow colour; after which come small blackish cods, whereiniscontained blacke shining seed like thoseofOnions: the root consistethofdivers knobsortuberous lumps,ofthebignesseofa mans thumbe.Thisplant growet'h abundantly in the Alpes, calledRhetici,in Savoy,andin Liguria.TheLigurians ofTurnin,andthosethatdwell neerthelake Lemane, havefoundthis herbe to be a present remedie against the deadly poisonoftheherbThora,andtherestofthe Aconits, providedthatwhenitisbroughtinto the garden there to bekeptfor phisicks use,itmustnot be planted neere to anyofthe Aconites: forthroughhis attractive qualitie,itwill draw unto itselfe the maligneandvenomous poisonofthe Aconite, wherebyitwil becomeofthe like qualitie,thatis, to become poisonous likewise: butbeingkeptfar off, it retaineth his owne naturall qualitie still.Theroot is wonderfull bitter,itkillethanddriveth forth allmannerof w\Jrmes ofthebelly.Itis calledAnthora,asthoughthey shouldsayAntithora,becauseitisanenemy toThora,anda counterpoyson tothesame.ThoraandAnthora,orTuraandAntura,seem to be new words,butyet they are used inMarcellus Empericus,anoldwriter, who teaches us a medicine to be madeofTuraandAntura,againstthepinandweb in the eies: in English, yellow Monks-hood, yellowHelmetfloure,andAconitesMithridate.

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SeaLavanderSEALAVANDERTherehathbeeneamongwriters fromtimeto timegreatcontentionaboutthisplantLimonium,no oneAuthoragreeingwithanother:for some have called this herbeLimonium;someanotherherbebythisname;andsomeinremoovingtherocke, havemiredthemselves inthemud,asMatthiolus,who described two kindes,butmade no distinctionofthem,noryetexpressed which wasthetrueLimonium;butas amanhereinignorant,hespeakes not awordofthem.Nowthentoleave controversiesandcavilling,thetrueLimoniumisthatwhichhathfaire leaves, liketheLimonorOrengetree,butofa darke greene colour, somewhat fatter,anda littlecrumpled:amongstwhich leavesrisethupanhardandbrittlenakedstalkeofa foot high, dividedatthetopintosundryothersmall branches,whichgrowforthemostpartuponone side, fulloflittle blewish floures,inshew like Lavander,withlongred seed,anda thickerootlikeuntothesmallDocke.SeaLavanderThereis akindeofLimoniumlikethefirstineach respect,butlesser,whichgrowethuponrockesandchalkie cliffes.Thefirstgrowethingreatplentyuponthewallsofthe fortagainstGravesend:butabundantlyonthebankesof theRiverbelowthesame towne, as also belowthelIS

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JuneKings Store-houseatChattam:andfast bytheKingsFerreygoing into the IsleofShepey: inthesalt marshes byLeein Essex: intheMarshby Harwich,andmanyotherplaces.ThesmallkindI could never find in anyotherplacebutuponthechalky cliffe going fromthetowneofMargatedowne to the sea side,upontheleft hand.Itshall be needlesse to trouble you with any otherLatinenamethanis exprest in their titles:Thepeople neere the sea side where it growes do callitMarsh ander,andsea Lavander.SERAPIA'STURBITH,ORSEASTARWORTTripoliumhathlongandlarge leaves somewhat holloworfurrowed,ofa shining green colour declining to blew nesse:amongwhich risethupa stalkeoftwo cubits highandmore, which towardthetop is divided into many small branches garnished with many floures like Camo mill, yellow inthemiddle, set about orborderedwith small blewish leaves like a pale; which grow into a whitishroughdownethatflieth away withthewind.Theroot islongandthreddy.Theseherbs grow plentifully alongsttheEnglish coasts in many places, as bythefortagainst Gravesend,intheIsleofShepey insundryplaces, in a marsh which isunderthe town walsofHarwich, inthemarshbyLee in Essex,in a marsh whichisbetweentheIsleofShepeyandSandwich, especially whereitebbethandfloweth: beingbroughtinto gardensitflourisheth alongtime,butthereitwaxethhuge, great,andranke,andchangeththegreat roots into strings.Itis reported by menofgreat fameandlearning, That thisplantwas calledTripoliumbecauseitdoth changethecolourofhis floures thrice in a day.ThisrumorweI16

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LandPlantainemaybeleeve as true, forthatwe seeandperceive things ofasgreatorgreater wonder to proceedoutoftheearth. This herbe I planted in my garden, whither in his season I did repaire to findeoutthetruthhereof,butI couldnotespy any such variablenesse herein: yet thusmuchI maysay,thatastheheateofthesundoth changethecolour of divers floures, soitfelloutwith this, which inthemorning was very faire,butafterwardofa paleorwan colour.Whichproveththatto bebuta fable whichDioscoridessaith is reported by some,thatin one dayitchangeththecolourofhis floures thrice;thatis to say,inthemorningitis white,atnoone purple,andintheevening crimson.Butitis not untrue,thatthere may be found three coloursofthe floures in one day, by reason thatthefloures arenotall perfected together, (as before I partly touched)butone after another by littleandlittle. And there may easily be observed three colours in them, which is to be understoodofthemthatarebeginningtofloure,thatare perfectly floured,andthosethatare falling away.Fortheythatare blowingandbenotwide openandperfect areofa purplish colour,andthosethatareperfectandwide openofa whitish blew,andsuch ashavefallen away have a white down: whichchanginghapneth untosundryother plants.Thisherbe is calledofSerapio, Turbith:womenthatdwell by the sea sidecallitinEnglish,blew Daisies,orblew Camomill;&aboutHarwichitis calledHogsbeans, forthattheswinedogreatly desire to feed thereon, as also forthatthe knobs abouttheroots doe somewhat resemblethegardenbean.LANDPLANTAINEAsthe Greeks have called some kindsofherbs Serpents tongue,Dogstongue,andOxtongue;so have they termed a kindeofPlantainArnoglosson,which is asifyou should sayLambstongue, well known to all, byreason 117

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PlantaineJuneofthegreat commoditieandplentyofitgrowing every where;andtherefore it is needlesse tospendtime about them.Thegreatnesandfashionoftheleaveshathbeenthecauseofthe varietiesanddiversitiesoftheir names.Thesecond is like the first,anddiffereth in that, that this Plantainehathgreaterbutshorter spikes or knaps;andtheleaves areofanhoaryoroverworne green colour:thestalks are likewise hoaryandhairy.Thejuicedroppedin the eies cooles the heateandinflammation thereof. I findinantient writers many good morrowes, which I thinkenotmeet tobringinto your memorie againe; as, That three roots will cureonegriefe, foure another disease, sixhangedaboutthenecke are good for another malady,&c.all which arebutridicu lous toyes.SPURGEThefirst kindeofSea Spurge riseth forthofthesands,orbaichofthesea, withsundryreddish stemsorstalkes growinguponone singleroot;andthestalkes are beset with small, fat,andnarrow leaves like untotheleavesofFlax.Thefloures are yellowish,andgrowoutoflittIe dishesorSaucers likethecommon kindeofSpurge. Afterthefloures come triangle seeds, as intheother Tithymales.118

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SpurgeThesecond kinde (calledHelioscopius,orSolisequius:and in English, according to his Greeke name, Sunne Spurge,ortime Tithymale,ofturningorkeeping time with the Sunne)hathsundryreddish stalkesofa foot high:theleaves are likeun--c toPurslane,notso greatnorthicke,butsniptabouttheedges: the floures are yel lowish,andgrowing in little platters.Thefirst kindeofSpurge growethbythe sea sideuponthe rowling SandandBaich,asatLeein Essex,atLangtree pointrightagainstHarwich, atWhitstablein Kent, and in many other places.Thesecond groweth in groundsthatlie waste,andinbarren earable soile, almost every where. Firstthemilkeandsap isinspeciall use, then the fruit and leaves,buttheroot isofleast strength.ThestrongestSpurgekindeofTithymale,andofgreatest force isthatofthe sea. Some writebyreportofothers,thatitenflameth exceedingly,butmyselfe speakbyexperience; for walk ing alongthesea coastatLeein Essex, with a Gentleman calledMr.Rich,dwelling inthesame towne, I tookebutonedropofitintomymouth;which neverthelesse did so inflameandswell inmythrotethatI hardly escaped withmylife.Andin like case was the Gentleman, which causedusto takeourhorses,andposte forourlivesuntothenext farme house to drinke some milke to quenchtheextremitieofourheat, which then ceased.I19

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JuneThejuyce mixed with hony, causeth haire to fall fromthatplace which is anointed therewith,ifitbe done in the Sun.Thejuyceormilkeisgood to stop hollow teeth, beingputinto them warily, sothatyou touch neither the gums)noranyofthe other teeth in themouthwith the said medicine.Thesame cureth all roughnesseofthe skin,andthe white scurfeofthehead.Itkilleth fish, being mixed with anythingthat they will eat.Theseherbes by mine advise wouldnotbe received into the body, consideringthatthere be so many other goodandwholesome potions to be made with other herbes,thatmay be taken without perilloNAVELWOORT,ORPENNIWOORTOFTHEWALLThegreat Navelwoorthathroundandthicke leaves, somewhat bluntly indented about the edges, and somewhathollow in the midst on theupperpart, having ashorttender stemme fastened to the middestoftheleafe,onthe lower side underneath the stalke, whereon the floures do grow, is small and hollow, an handfull high and more, beset with many small flouresofan overworne incarnate colour.Therootissmall like an olive,ofa white colour.Thesecond kindeofWallPenniwortorNavelwoorthathbroad thicke leaves somewhat deep ely indentedaboutthe edges: spred upon thegroundin mannerofa tuft, set about the tender stalke; among which riseth up atenderstalke whereon doe grow the like leaves. The floures stand onthetop consistingoffivesmall leaves of a whitish colour, with red de spots in them.Thereisa kindeofNavelwoortthatgroweth in watery places, whichiscalledofthe husbandman Sheeps bane, becauseitkilleth sheepethatdo eat thereof:itisnot much120

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Sampierunliketheprecedent,buttheroundedgesofthe leaves are not so even astheother;andthis creepethupontheground,andtheother upon the stone walls.ThefirstkindofPenniwoort groweth plentifully in Northamptonuponevery stone wall about the towne,atBristow, Bathe, Wells,andmost placesoftheWestcountrieuponstone walls.Itgroweth uponWestminsterAbbey, over the doorethatleadeth fromChaucerstombetothe old palace.ThesecondandthirdgrowupontheAlpes neere Piedmont,andBavier,anduponthemountainesofGer many: I foundthethirdgrowinguponBieston Castle in Cheshire. Navelwoort is calledofsome,Bartus Veneris,orVenus garden,and Terr umbilicus,ortheNaveloftheearth:inEnglish, Penniwoort, Wall-Penniwoort, Ladies Navell, HipwoortandKidney-woort.WaterPenniwoort is called inEnglish,Sheepe-killing Pennigrasse.TheignorantApothecaries doe usetheWaterPennywort in steadofthisofthewall, which they cannot doe withoutgreaterror,andmuchdangerto the patient: for husbandmen know well,thatitis noisomeuntoSheepe,andother cattellthatfeed thereon,andfor the mostpartbringeth deathuntothem,muchmore to menbya stronger reason.SAMPlERRocke Sam pierhathmany fatandthicke leaves somwhatlikethoseofthe lesser Purslane,ofa spicie taste, with a certain saltnesse; amongst which risesupa stalk divided into many smal spraiesorsprigs, onthetop whereof grow spoky tuftsofwhite Roures, like the tuftsofFennellorDill; afterthatcomestheseed, liketheseedofFenell, but greater:theroot is thickeandknobby, beeingofsmelldelightfullandpleasant.121

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JuneThesecond Sampier, called Pastinaca marina, orseaParsnep,hathlong fat leaves very muchjaggedor cut even tothemiddle rib, sharp or prickely pointed, which are setuponlarge fatjointedstalks; on the top wherof do grow tuftsofwhitishorelse reddish floures. The seed is wrapped in thorny husks:theroot is thickeandlong,notunlike to the Parsenep, very good and wholsome to be eaten. Rocke Sam pier growes on the rockydiftsatDover, Winchelsey,byRie, about Southampton,theIsleofWight,andmostrocks abouttheWestandNorth partsofEngland.Thesecond groweth neeretheseauponthe sandsandBaych betweeneWhitstableandtheIsleofTenet,by Sandwich, andbythesea neere West chester.Theleaveskeptin pickle,SeaParsnepandeaten in sallads with oileandvineger, is a pleasant sauce for meat.GLASSESALTWORTGlasseworthathmany grosse thickeandroundstalks a foot high, fulloffatandthicke sprigs, set with many knotsorjoints, without any leavesatall,ofa reddish greene colour:thewhole plant resembles a branchofCoral!.Theseplants are to be found in salt marshes almost everie where.122

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s.JohnsWortStones are beaten to pouderandmixed with ashes, which beeing melted together, become the matter whereof glasse is made.Whichwhileitis made redhotinthefurnace,andis melted, becomming liquidandfit to worke upon, doth yeeld asitwere a fat floting aloft; which whenitiscold waxeth ashardas a stone,yetisitbrittleandquickly broken. A great quanti tie taken is mischievousanddeadly:thesmelandsmoke alsoofthis herb beingburntdrives away serpents.S.JOHNSWORTSaintJohnsworthathbrownish stalks beset with many smallandnarrow leaves, whichifyou behold betwixtyoureiesand the light, do appeare asitwere boredorthrustthorow in an infinitenumberofplaces with pinnes points. The branches divide themselves intosundrysmal twigsatthe top whereof grow many yellow floures, which with the leaves bruised do yeeld a reddish juiceofthecolour of bloud.Theseed is contained in little sharp pointed huskes blackeofcolour,andsmelling like Rosin.Theroot is long, yellow,andofa wooddy substance.Theygrowvery plentifully in pastures in every countrie.S.Johnswortis called inLatineHypericum:in shops,Perforata:ofdivers,Fuga dmonum: inFrenchMille Pertuys:in English,S.Johnswort,orS.Johnsgrases.Theleaves, floures,andseeds stamped,andputinto a glasse with oile olive,andset in thehotsun for certain weeks together,andthen strained from those herbs,andthe like quantitieofnewputinandsunned in like manner, doth make an oileofthecolourofbloud, which is a most pretious remedie for deep woundsandthosethatare thorowthebody, forthesinuesthatare prickt,oranywound made with a venomed weapon. I am accustomed to make acompoundoile hereof,themakingofwhichyoushall receiveatmyhands, because I knowthatintheworld123

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S. Johns Wortthere isnota better, nonotthenaturall Balsamitselfe;forI dare undertake to cureanysuchwoundas absolutely in each respect,ifnotsoonerandbetter, as any man shallormay with naturall Balsam.Takewhite wine two pintes, oile olive foure pounds, oileofTurpentinetwo pounds,theleaves, floures, and seedsofS.Johnswortofeach twogreathandfulls gently bruised;putthemall together into agreatdouble glasse,andsetitin the Sun eightorten daies; then boile theminthesame glasseper Balneum Mari, thatis, in a kettleofwater, with some straw inthebottome, whereintheglassemuststand to boile: which done, straintheliquor fromtheherbs,anddo as you did before,puttinginthelike quanti tieofherbs, floures,andseeds,butnot anymore wine.Thushave you a great secret forthepurposes afore-said.HOUSLEEKEORSENGREENEGreatHousleekorSengreene (syrnamed tree Housleeke) bringeth forth a stalke a cubit high, somtimes higher, and often two; which is thick, hard, wooddy, tough,andthat can hardly be broken, parted into divers branches,and124

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Housleekecovered with a thick grosse bark, which in the lowerpartreserveth certaine printsorimpressed markesoftheleaves that are fallen away.Theleaves are fat, well bodied, full of juice, an inch longandsomewhat more, like little tongues, very curiously minced in the edges, standing upon the topsofthe braunches, having inthemthe shapeofaneye.Thefloures growoutofthebranches, which are divided into manysprings;which floures are slender, yellow,andspred like astar;in their places commethupvery fine seed,thesprings withering away:theroot is parted into many off-springs.Thisplant is alwaies greene, neither is ithurtbythecold in winter, growing inhisnative soile; whereuponitis named Sempervivum, orSengreene. Great Sengreene is found growingofitselfe onthetops of houses, old walls,andsuch like places, in very many provincesoftheEast,andofGreece,andalso intheIslandsoftheMediterranean sea, as in Creet, now called Candy, Rhodes,Zant,andothers: neither is Spainwithoutit; for (asClusiuswitnesseth)itgroweth in many placesofPortingall; otherwise it is cherished in pots.Incold countriesandsuch as lie Northward, as inboththeGer manies,itneither growethofitselfe, nor yet lasteth long, thoughitbe carefully planted,anddiligently looked unto, butthroughthe extremitieoftheweatherandtheover much coldofwinteritperisheth.Theytake awaythefireofburningsandscaldings,andbeing applied with barly meale dried, do take awaythepaineofthe gout.ThejuiceofHousleeke, garden Nightshade,andthebudsofPoplarboiled inAxungiapard,orhogs grease, makethemost singular Populeonthatever was used in Surgerie.Thejuicehereof taketh away cornes from the toesandfeet,ifthey be washedandbathed therewith,andeverydayandnightasitwere emplaistered withtheskinofthe125

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Junesame Housleeke, which certainly taketh them away withoutincision or such like,ashath been experimented bymyverie good friendMr.Nicholas Belson,a man painfullandcurious in searching forth the secretsofnature.ThedecoctionofHousleekorthe juice thereof cooleth the inflammationofthe eyes, being dropped thereinto, and the herb bruised and layd upon them.OURLADIESSLIPPEROurLadies Shoo or Slipperhatha thicke knobbed root from which risethupa stiffe and hairy stalke a foot high, set by certaine spaces with faire broad leaves.Atthe topofthe stalke groweth one single floure, seldome two, fashioned on the one side like anegge;on the other sideitisopen, empty, and hollow,andofthe formofa shooorslipper, whereofittooke his name;ofa yellow colour on the outside,andofa shining deep yellow on the in-,'. side.Themiddlepartis com-,""'-passed about with foure leavesOurLadiesSlipperofabrightpurple colour, oftenofalightredorobscure crimson,andsometimes yellow as in the middle part, which in shapeislike an eggeasaforesaid. Ladies Slipper growethuponthe mountainsofGer many,Hungary,andPoland. I have a plant thereofinmygarden, which I received fromMr.GarretApothe carie, my very good friend.Touchingthe facultiesofourLadies shoo wehave126

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Bell-j/ouresnothing to write,itbeeingnotsufficiently known totheold writers, no nor tothenew.BELL-FLoUREsCoventry-Bells have broad leavesroughandhairy,notunlike to thoseoftheGolden Buglosse,ofa swart greene colour:amongwhich do riseupstiffe hairie stalkesthesecond yeare after the sowingoftheseed: which stalkes divide themselves intosundrybranches, whereupon grow many faireandpleasant bell-floures, long, hollow,andcutonthe brim with five sleight endingin five corners toward night, whenthefloureshuttethitselfeupasdoe mostoftheBell-floures: in the middleofthe flouresbethreeorfoure whitish chives, as alsomuchdownie haire, such as is intheearesofaDog,orsuch like beast. The whole floure isofa blew purple colour: which being past, there succeed great squareorcornered seed-vessels, divided ontheinside into divers celsorchambers, whereindolie scatteringly many small browne flat seeds.Therootislongandgreat like a Parsenep, garnished with many threddy strings, which perisheth whenithathperfectedhisseed, which is inthesecond yeare after his sowing, and recovereth it selfe againebythefallingoftheseed.Theygrow in woods, mountaines,anddarkvallies,andunder hedges amongthebushes, especiallyaboutCoventry, wheretheygrow very plentifully abroad inthefields,andare there called Coventry bells,andofsome about London,Canterburybells;butunproperly, for that there is another kindeofBell-floure growing inKentabout Canterbury, which may more fitly be called Canter bury Bells, because they grow there more plentifullythaninanyothercountrey.Thesepleasant Bell-floures weehaveinourLondongardens especially forthebeautyoftheir floure, although they be kindsofRampions,andtheroots eaten as Rampions are.127

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JuneTheyfloure inJune,July,andAugust;theseed waxeth ripe inthemean time; for these plantsbringnotforth their floures all at once,butwhen one floureth another seedeth. Coventry bels are called in LatineViola mariana:inEnglish,MercuriesViolets,orCoventry Rapes,andof some,Mariets.Theroot isnotused in physicke,butonly for a sallet root boiledandeaten, with oile, vineger,andpepper.VALERIAN,ORSETWALLValerian Thetameorgarden ValerianandlikewisetheGreeke Valerian are planted in gardens;the wilde ones are found in moist places hard to rivers sides, ditches, and waterypits;yetthegreaterofthese isbroughtinto gar dens where it flourisheth, but the lesser hardly prospereth. GenerallytheValerians are called by one name,inLatine,Valeriana;in shoppes alsoPhu:inEnglish,Vale rian, Capons taile,andSetwall;butunproperly,for that name belongeth toZedoaria,which is not Valerian.Thedryroot isputinto counterpoysonsandmedicines preservative againstthepestilence: whereuponithath been had (and is to this dayamongthepoore peopleofourN ortherne parts) in such venerationamongstthem,thatno broths, pottageorphysicall meats are worthanything,ifSetwall werenotatanend:whereupon some128

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ChervillChervillupon some woman Poet or other hath made these verses.Theythatwill have their heale,MustputSetwall in their keak CHERVILLThe leavesofChervill are slender, and diversly cut, something hairy,ofa whitish greene: the stalkes be short, slender, round, and hollow within, whichatthefirsttogether withtheleavesareofa whitish green,buttending to a red when the seeds areripe:the flouresbewhite,andgrow upon ", scattered tufts. Great Chervill hath largeleavesdeep ely cut or jagged,inshew very likeuntoHemlockes,ofa very good and pleasant smellandtaste like unto Chervill, and something hairy, which hath caused ustocall it sweet Chervil!.The great sweet Chervill growethinmy garden, and inthe gardensofother men who havebin diligent in these matters. Chervillisused verymuchamong theDutchpeople in a kindeofLoblolly or hotchpot which they do eat, called Warmus.Theleavesofsweet Chervill are exceeding good, wholesomeand pleasant among other sallad herbs, giving the tasteofAnise seed untotherest.Theseeds eaten as a sallad whiles they are yet green129

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Junewith oile, vineger,andpepper, exceed all other sallads bymanydegrees,bothin pleasantnesseoftaste, sweetnesseofsmell,andwholsomnesse for the coldandfeeble stomacke.Theroots are likewise most excellent in a sallad,ifthey be boiledandafterwards dressed as thecunningCooke knoweth howbetterthanmyselfe: notwithstanding I use to eatthemwith oileandvineger, being first boiled; which is very good for old peoplethatare dull and without courage:itrejoicethandcomforteth the heart,andincreaseth their lust and strength.WILDETIMEThefirst isourcommon creepingTime,whichisso well knowne,thatit needeth no description;yetthis ye shall under stand,thatitbeareth flouresofa purple colour, as every body knoweth.Ofwhich kinde I found another sort, with floures as white as snow, and have planted it inmygarden, where it becommethan herbeofgreat beauty.ThiswildeTimethat ..bringethforth white WIlde TlmeofCandyfloures differethnotfromtheother,butonely in the colourofthe floures, whenceitmay be calledSerpillum vulgare flare alba,WhiteflouredWildeTime.WildeTimeofCandy is likeuntotheotherwild13

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ElecampaneTimes, savingthathis leaves are narrowerandlonger, and more innumberateach joynt.Thesmellismore aromaticall than anyofthe others, whereinisthe difference.Thefirst groweth upon barren hillsanduntoiled places: the second groweth in Gardens.Thewhite kinde I found at South fleet in Kent.Theyfloure fromMayto theendof Summer.WildTimeiscalled in Latine,Serpillum, d serpendo,ofcreeping: in English, wildeTime,Puliall mountaine, Pella Mountaine,runningTime,creepingTime,Motherof Time. .lianus in his ninth bookeofhissundryHistories seemeth tonumberwildeTimeamong the floures.Dionysius Junior(saith he) comming into the city Locris in Italy, possessed mostofthe housesofthe city, and did strew them with roses, wilde Time, and other such kindesoffloures. YetVirgilin the second Eclogofhis Bucolicks doth most manifestly testifie,thatwildeTimeisanher be, in these words:Thestilisfor mowerstyr'dwith parching he ate, Garlicke, wilde Time, strong smelling herbesdothbeate.Outofwhich placeitmay be gathered,thatcommon wilde timeisthetrueandrightSerpillum,orwildeTime.ELECAMPANEElecampanebringeth forth presently from the rootgreatwhite leaves, sharpe pointed, almost like thoseofgreatComfrey,butsoft,andcovered with a hairy downe,ofa whitish greene colour, and are more white underneath, sleightly nicked in the edges: the stalkeisa yardanda halfe long, about a finger thicke, not without downe, dividedatthe top into divers branches,uponthe topofevery sprig standgreatfloures broadandround,ofwhich not only the long smal leavesthatcom passeroundabout are yellow,butalso the middle ballorcircle, whichis131

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Junefilledupwith an infinitenumberofthreds, andatlength isturnedinto fine downe;underwhich is slender and long seed:therootisuneven, thicke,andasmuchas a manmay gripe, not long, oftentimes blackish without, white within,andfullofsubstance, sweetofsmell, andbitteroftaste.Itgroweth in medowesthatare fatandfruitfull: it is also oftentimes found upon mountains, shadowie places,thatbe not altogetherdry:itgroweth plentifullyinthe fields onthelefthandas you go from Dunstable to Puddlehill : also in an orchard as you go from Col brooke toDittonferry, whichisthe way to Windsor, and insundryother places, asatLidde,andFolkestone, neere toDoverby the sea side.Thefloures are in their bravery inJuneandJuly:the roots be gathered in Autumne, and oftentimes in AprillandMay.Some repoft thatthis plant tooke the nameHeleniumofHelenawife toMenalaus,whohadherhands fullofit whenParisstoleheraway into Phrygia.Therootofthis Elecampaneismarvellous good formanythings.Itisgood for shortnesseofbreath, and an old cough,andfor such as cannot breathe unlesse they hold their neckesupright.Itisofgreat vertue both given in a looch, whichisa medicine to be licked on, and likewise preserved, as also otherwise given topurgeand voidoutthicke, tough, and clammy humours, which sticke in the chest and lungs.TherootofElecampane is with good success mixed with counter poisons :itisgood for themthatare burstenandtroubled with cramps and convulsions.ORCHISTherebe divers kindesofFox-stones, differing very much in shapeoftheir leaves, as also in floures: some have132

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Orchisfloures, wherein is to be seen the shapeofsundry sortsofliving creatures; sometheshapeandproportionofflies,inother gnats, some humble bees, others likeuntohoney Bees; some like Butter-flies,andotherlikeWaspesthatbedead;some yellowofcolour, others white; some purple mixed with red, othersofa brown overworne colour:thewhich severally to distinguish, as well those here set downe, as also thosethatoffer themselves daily toourviewandconsideration, would require a particular volume; for there isnotanyplant which doth offersuchvarietieuntous as these, except theTulipa'swhich go beyond all account: forthatthemostsingular Simplestthatever was in these later ages,Carolus Clusius(who for his singularindustryandknowledge herein is worthy triple honor)hathspentattheleast 3Syeares, sowingtheseedsofTulipa'sfrom yeare to yeare,andto thisdayhecould never attain totheendorcer taintyoftheirseveralkindsofcolours.BirdsNestButterflyOrchisorSatyrion beares nexttheroot two verybroadleaves like those of the Lilly, seldomethree:thefloures be whiteofcolour, resemblingtheshapeofa butterfly:thestalkeisa foothigh.TheWaspeSatyrion growethoutoftheground,havingstalks smallandtender:theleaves are liketheformer, but somwhat greater, declining to a brownordarkcolour.Theflours be small,ofthecolourofadry133

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Juneok en leafe, in shape resembling thegreatBee called inEnglishanHornet,or drone Bee.TheleavesofBee Satyrion are longerthanthe last before mentioned, narrower,turningthemselves againsttheSun asitwere round.Thestalkisround, tender, and very fragile.Atthe top growthefloures, resembling in shape the dead carkasseofa Bee.Thebulbesoftheroots be smallerandrounder than the last described. Birds nesthathmany tangling roots plattedorcrossed one over another very intricately, which resembleth a Crows nest madeofsticks;from which risethupa thicke soft grosse stalkofa browne colour, set with small short leavesofthe colourofadryoken leafethathath lienunderthe tree all the winter long.Onthe topofthe stalke groweth a spiky eareortuftoffloures.Thisbastardorunkindely Satyrionisvery seldome seene in these Southerly partsofEngland.Theother kindesofOrchis grow for the mostpartinmoist medowesandfertile pastures, as also in moist woods.Thatkind which resembleth the white Butter-fly groweth upon the decliningofthe hillatthe endofHampsted heath, neere to a small cottage there in the way side, as yee goe fromLondontoHendena village there by.Itgroweth in the fields adjoyning to the foldorpin-fold without the gate,ata village calledHigh-gate,neere London.Thereisnogreatuseofthese in physicke,butthey are chiefly regarded for the pleasantandbeautifull floures wherewithNaturehathseemed to playanddisport her selfe.ROSEMARYRosemarieisa wooddy shrub, growing oftentimes to theheightofthreeorfoure cubits, especially whenitis set by a wall :itconsistethofslender brittle branches, whereondo grow very many long leaves, narrow, somewhat 134

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Rosemaryhard,ofa qui eke spicy taste, whitish underneath,andofa full greene colour above,orintheupperside, with a pleasant sweetstrongsmell;amongwhich come forth little flouresofa whitish blew colour:theseed is blackish: the roots q.re toughandwooddy. Rosemary groweth in France, Spaine,andinotherhot countries; in woods,andin untilled places: there is such plentythereofin Languedocke,thatthe inhabitants burne scarceanyotherfuell: they make hedgesofitin the gardensofItalyandEngland,being agreatorna mentuntothesame:itgroweth neither inthe fidds norgardensoftheEasternecold countries;butis carefully and curiouslykeptin pots, set intothestovesandcellers, againsttheinjuriesoftheir coldWinters.Rosemary floureth twice a yeare, intheSpring,andafter inAugust.Itis called in Latine,Rosemarinus Coronaria:itissurnamedCoronaria,because women have beene accustomed to make crownesandgarlands thereof.Thedistilled wateroftheflouresofRosemary being drunkeatmorningandevening firstandlast,takethawaythestenchofthemouthandbreath,andmakethitvery sweet,ifthere be added thereto, to steep or infuse for certaine daies, a few Cloves,Mace,Cinnamon,anda little Annise seed.TheArabiansandotherPhysitions succeeding, do write,thatRosemary comforteth the braine,thememorie, the inward senses,andrestoreth speechuntothemthatare possessed withthedumbepalsie, especially the conserve madeoftheflouresandsugar,oranyotherwayconfected with sugar, being taken every day fasting.Thefloures madeupinto plates with Sugar afterthemannerofSugarRosetandeaten, comforttheheart, and makeitmerry, quickenthespirits,andmakethemmore lively.135

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JuneWORTSORWORTLEBERRIESVaccinia nigra,the blackeWortleorHurtle,isa base and lowshruborwooddy plant, bringing forth many branchesofa cubit high, set fullofsmall leavesofa darke greene colour, notmuchunlike the leavesofBoxorthe Myrtle tree: amongst which come forth little hollow flouresturninginto small berries, greeneatthefirst, afterward red,andatthe lastofa blacke colour,andfullofa pleasantandsweet juyce: in which doe lie divers little thinne whitish seeds: these berries do colourthemouthandlipsofthosethateat them, with a blacke colour: the rootiswooddy, slender,andnow and then creeping.Vaccinia rubra,orred Wortle,islike the former in themannerofgrowing,butthatthe leaves are greater and harder, almost like the leavesoftheBox tree, abiding greene all theWinterlong:among which come forth small carnation floures, longandround, growinginclustersatthe topofthe branches: after which succeed small berries, in shewandbignesse like the former, butthatthey areofan excellent red colourandfullofjuyce,ofso orient and beautifull a purple to limme withall, that IndianLaccais not to be compared thereunto, especially when this juyce is preparedanddressed with Allom according to art,asmyselfe have proved by experience: the tasteisroughandastringent:theroot isofa wooddy substance.Theseplants prosper best in a leane barren soile, and in un toiled wooddy places: they are nowandthen found onhighhills subject to the winde,anduponmountaines: they grow plentifully inboththe Germanies, Bohemia,andin divers placesofFranceandEngland;namelyinMiddlesex onHampstedheath,andin the woods thereto adjoyning, and alsouponthe hills in Cheshire called Broxen hills, neere Beeston castle, seven miles from the136

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Goos e-ber1'ie Nantwich;andinthewoodbyHighgatecalled Finchley wood,andin diversotherplaces.TheWortleberries do floure inMay,andtheirfruitisripe inJune.ThepeopleofCheshire do eattheblackeWortlesin creameandmilke, as in these South parts we eate Straw berries.GOOSE-BERRIE,ORFEA-BERRYBUSHTherebe divers sortsoftheGoose-berries; some greater, others lesse: someround,otherslong;andsomeofaredcolour:thefigureofone shall serve fortherest.TheGoose-berrybushis ashrubofthreeorfoure cubits high, set thicke with most sharpe prickles: it is likewise fullofbranches, slender, wooddy,andprickly: whereon dogrowroundleavescutwith deepegashes into divers parts like thoseoftheVine,ofa very greene colour:thefioures be very small,ofa whitish greene, with some littlepurpledashed hereandthere:thefruitisGoose-Berryround,growingscatteringly uponthebranches, greeneatthefirst,butwaxing a little yellowthroughmaturitie; fullofa winiejuycesomewhat sweet in taste when they beripe;in which is contained hard seedofa whitishcolour:theroot is wooddy,andnotwithoutstrings annexed thereto. 137

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JuneThereis another whosefruitis almost as big as a small Cherry,andveryroundin forme: as also anotherofthelike bignesse,ofan inch in length, in taste and substance agreeing with the common sort.Wehave also inourLondongardens another sort altogether without prickles: whosefruitis very smal, lesserbymuchthanthecommon kinde,butofa perfectredcolour, whereinitdiffereth fromtherestofhis kinde.Theseplants doe grow inourLondonGardens and else-where in great abundance.Theleaves come forthinthebeginningofA prillorsooner:thefruit is ripe inJuneandJuly.Thisshrubhathno nameamongtheoldWriters,who as we deeme knew it not, or else esteemed itnot:inEnglish,Goose-berry, Goose-berry bush,andFea-berrybushin Cheshire,mynative country.Thefruit is used in divers sauces for meat, as thosethatare skilfull in cookerie canbettertell thanmyselfe.Theyare used in broths in steadofVerjuice, whichmakeththebrothnotonely pleasant tothetaste,butisgreatly profitable to such as are troubled with an hotburningague.Theyare diversly eaten,butthey every way ingender rawandcold bloud: they nourishnothingorvery little.STRAW-BERRIESTherebe divers sortsofStraw-berries; one red, another white, athirdsort greene,andlikewise a wilde Straw berry, which is altogether barrenoffruit. Straw-berries do growuponhillsandvallies, likewise in woodsandothersuch placesthatbee somewhat shadowie:theyprosper well in Gardens.Thefruitorberries are called inLatineby Virgil andOvid, Fraga:neither have theyanyothername138

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Medow-Grassecommonly knowne: inFrench,Fraises:inEnglish,Straw-berries.Theleaves boyledandapplied inmannerofa pultis taketh awaytheburningheate inwounds:thedecoction thereofstrengthneththegummes,andfastneththeteeth.Thedistilled waterdrunkewith whiteWineis good againstthepassionoftheheart, revivingthespirits,andmakingtheheartmerry.Theripe Strawberriesquenchthirst,andtake away,ifthey be often used,thered nesseandheateoftheface.MEDOW-GRASSETherebesundryandin finite kin desofGrassesnotmentionedbytheAntients, either as unnecessarie to be set downe,orunknownetothem:only they makementionofsome few, whose wants we meane to supply, in such as have come toourknowledge, referringtheStraw-Berriesrest tothecurious searcher ofSimples. CommonMedowGrassehathvery small tuftsorroots, with thicke hairy threds dependinguponthehighestturfe,mattingandcreeping onthegroundwithamostthickeandapparantshewofwheaten leaves, liftinguplongthinnejointedandlightstalks,afootoracubit high, grow ing smallandsharpeatthetop, with a loose earhangingdownward, likethetuftortopofthecommon Reed. SmallMedowGrasse differeth fromtheformer inthe139

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Medow-GrasseJunevanetleofthesoile; for asthefirst kinde growethinmedowes, so doth this small Grasse clothethehilly andmoredrygroundsuntilled,andbarrenbynature;a Grasse more fit for sheepe than for greater cattell.Andbecausethekin desofGrasse do differ apparantly in root, tuft, stalke, leafe, sheath, eare,orcrest, we may assureourselvesthatthey are endowed with severall Vertues, formed bytheCreator fortheuseofman,althoughthey have beenbyacommon negli gence hiddenandunknowne.Andtherefore in this ourLaborwe haveplaced eachofthemin their severall bed, wherethediligent searcher ofNature,mayifso he please, place his learned observa tions. Common Medow-Grasse growethofitselfeunsetor unsowne, every where; butthesmall Medow-Grasse forthemostpartgroweth upondryandbarren grounds,aspartly we have touchedintheDescription. Concerningthetime when Grassespringethandseed eth, I suppose there is none so simplebutknoweth it,andthatitcontinueth allthewhole yeare, seedinginJuneandJuly.Neitherneedethitanypropagation or replanting by seedorotherwise; nonotsomuchas the watery Grasses,butthatthey recover themselves againe,althoughthey have beene drowned in water all theWinterlong, as may appeare inthewilde fennesinLincolnshire,andsuch like places.14

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ReedsGrasse groweth,goeth,orspreadethitselfeunsetorunsowne naturally over all fieldsorgrounds, cloathing them with a faireandperfect green.Itis yearely mowed,insome places twice,andin some rare places thrice.ThenisitdriedandwitheredbytheheateoftheSun,withoftenturningit;andthen isitcalled inEnglish,Hay:in French,Leherbedupraiz.REEDSOfReedstheAncients have set downe many sorts.ThecommonReedhathlong strawie stalkes, fullofknottyjoints or knees likeuntocorne, whereupon doegrowvery longroughBaggy leaves.Thetuftorspokie eare dothgrowatthetopofthestalkes, browneofcolour, barrenandwithoutseed,anddothresemble abushoffeathers, whichturnethinto fine downeorcotton whichiscaried away with the winde.Theroot is thicke, long, and fullofstrings, dispersing themselves farre abroad, wherebyitdothgreatly increase.ThegreatsortofReedsorCaneshathno particular description to answeryourexpectation, forthatasyetthere isnotany man whichhathwritten thereof, especi allyofthemannerofgrowingofthem, eitherofhis owne knowledgeorreportfrom others, sothatitshall suffice that heknowthatthatgreatcane isusedespecially in Constantinopleand.thereabout,ofagedandwealthy Citisens,andalso Noblemenandsuchgreatpersonages,tomakethemwalking staves of, carvingthematthetop withsundryScutchions,andprettytoyesofimagerie for the beautifyingofthem;andso theyofthebettersortdoegarnishthembothwith silverandgold.ThecommonReedgroweth in standing watersandin the edgesandbordersofrivers almost every where;andtheotherbeingtheangling Cane for fishers groweth in SpaineandthosehotRegions.141

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JulyTheyflourish and floure from Aprill totheendofSeptember,atwhich time they arecutdowne fortheuseofman,asall do know.Therootsofreed stamped small draw forth thornsandsplinters fixed in anypart of mans body.Thesame stamped with vinegre ease all luxationsandmembersoutofjoynt.Andlikewise stamped they healehotand sharpe inflammations.Theashesofthemmixed with vinegre helpe the scalesandscurfeofthe head,andthe fallingofthe haire.Thegreat ReedorCaneisnotused in physicke,butisesteemed to make slears for Weavers,sundrysortsofpipes, as also to light candlesthatstand before Images,andto make hedgesandpales, as we dooflatsandsuch like;andalso to make certain divisions in ships to dividethesweet oranges fromthesowre,thePomecitron and lemmons likewise in sunder,andmanyotherpurposes.PAPERREEDPaperReedhathmanylarge flaggie leaves somewhat triangularandsmooth, notmuchunlike thoseofCats taile, rising immediately from atuftofroots compact of many strings, amongstthewhichitshootethuptwo or three naked stalkes, square,andrising some sixorseven cubitshighabove the water:atthe top whereof there stands atuftorbundleofchaffie threds set in comely order, resembling atuftoffloures,butbarrenandvoid of seed.ThiskindeofReedgrowesinthe Rivers about Babylon,andneere the city Alcaire, in the river Nilus,andsuch other placesofthose countries.ThisReed, which I have EnglishedPaperReed, orPaperplant,isthe same (as I doe reade)thatPaperwasmadeofinlEgypt,before the inventionofpaper madeoflinnen clouts was found out.Itisthoughtby men of 142

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Burre-Reedgreat learningandunderstanding in the Scriptures)andset downe bythemfor truth)thatthis plantisthe same Reed mentioned in the second chapterofExodus;where of was madethatbasketorcradle) which was dawbed withinandwithout with slimeofthatcountrey) calledBitumenJudaicum)whereinMoseswasputbeing com mitted to the water) whenPharaohgave commandement that all the male childrenoftheHebrewesshould be drowned.PaperReedTherootsofPaperReeddoe nourish)asmay appearebythe peopleoflEgypt)which doe use to chew them in their mouthes)andswallow downe the juice) finding thereingreatdelight and comfort.BURRE-REEDThe firstofthese plantshathlong leaves) which are double edged)orsharpe onbothsides) with a sharpe143

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Julycrest inthemiddle, in suchmannerraisedupthatit seemeth to be triangleorthree-square.Thestalks growamongthe leaves,andare two or three foot long, being divided into many branches, garnished with many prickly husksorknopsofthe bignesseofanut.Theroot is fullofhairy strings.Thegreatwater Burre differethnotin anythingfrom the first kinde in rootsorleaves, savethatthe first hath his leaves rising immediatly fromthetuftorknopofthe root;butthis kinde hath a long stalke comming from the root, whereupon a little abovetheroot the leaves shootoutroundaboutthe stalke successively, some leaves still growing above others, even to the topofthe stalke,andfrom the top thereof downward by certaine distances.Itisgarnished with manyroundwharles orroughcoronets, having hereandthere amongthesaid wharles one single short leafeofa pale greene colour. Both these are very com mon,andgrow in moist medowesandneereuntowaterBranched Burre Reedcourses.Theyplentifullygrowin the fennygroundsofLincolnshireandsuch like places; intheditchesaboutS.Georgesfields,andin the ditchrightagainsttheplaceofexecutionatthe end of Southwark, calledS.ThomasWaterings.Some callthefirstSparganiumramosum,orbranchedBurreReed.144

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LavanderJASMINE,ORGELSEMINEJasmine,orGelsemine, isofthenumberofthose plants which have need to be supported or propped up,andyetnotwithstandingofitselfe claspethnotorwindeth his stalkes about such things as stand neere unto it,butonely leanethandlieth upon those things that are prepared to sustainitabout arborsandbanqueting houses in gardens, by whichitis heldup:the stalkes thereof are long, round, branched,jointedorkneed,andofa green colour, having within a white spongeous pith.Theleaves standupona middle rib, set together by couples like thoseoftheash tree,butmuchsmaller,ofa deepe greene colour: the floures growatthe uppermostpartofthe branches, stand ing in a small tuft far set one from another, sweet in smell, of colour white:theseedisflatandbroad like thoseofLupines, which seldom come to ripenesse: the root is toughandthreddy.Theoile which is madeofthe flours hereof wasteth away raw humors,andis good against coldrheums;butin thosethatareofahotconstitution it causeth head-ache, and the overmuch smell thereof maketh the nose to bleed. Itisgood to be anointed after baths, in those bodiesthathave a need to be suppledandwarmed.LAVANDERSPIKELavander Spikehathmany stiffe branchesofa wooddy substance, growingupin themannerofa shrub, set with many long hoarie leaves,bycouples forthemost part,ofastrongsmell,andyet pleasantenoughto suchasdo lovestrongsavors.Thefloures growatthetopofthe branches, spike fashion,ofa blew colour.Thesecond differeth not from the precedent;butin the colourofthefloures:Forthis plantbringethmilke white floures;andtheotherblew, wherein especially consisteththedifference.145

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JulyWehave inourEnglishgar dens a small kinde, whichisaltogether lesser than the other. Lavander SpikeiscalledinLatineLavendula,andSpica:inSpanish,Spigo,andLanguda.Thefirstisthe male,andthe second the female.Itis thoughtofsome to beethatsweet herbeCasia,whereofVirgilmaketh mention in the second Eclogofhis Bucolicks:Andthen shee'l Spike and such sweet hearbs infoldAndpaint theJacinthwith the Marigold.Andlikewise in the fourthofhis Georgickes, where he intreatethofchusingofseatsLavanderandplaces for Bees,andfor the ordering thereof,hesaiththus:Aboutthem let fresh LavanderandstoreOfwildeTimewithstrongSavorie to floure.Thedistilled waterofLavander smelt unto,orthe templesandforehead bathed therewith,isa refreshing to themthathavetheCatalepsy, alightmigram, andtothemthathave the falling sicknesse,andthatusetoswoune much. But when thereisabundanceofhumours,itisnot then to be used safely, neitheristhe composition to be taken whichismadeofdistilled wine: in which such kindsofherbes, floures,orseeds,andcertain spices are infusedorsteeped,thoughmost men do rashly and at adventure give them without making any difference ataI.Forby using such hot thingsthatfilland stuffe the head,146

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Clove Gillojlouresboth the disease is made greater,andthesick man also brought into daunger, especially when lettingofbloud,orpurging havenotgon before.Thusmuchbywayofadmonition, becausethatevery where some unlearned Physitiansanddivers rash&overbold Apothecaries,andother foolish women, dobyandby give such com positions,and others ofthelike kind, not only to thosethathave the Apoplexy;butalso to thosethatare taken,orhave the CatucheorCatalepsis with aFever;to whom theycangive nothing worse, seeing those things do verymuchhurt, and oftentimesbringdeathitselfe.TheflouresofLavander picked fromtheknaps, I meane the blewpartandnotthehusk, mixed with Cin namon,Nutmegs,&Cloves, made into pouder,andgiven to drinke in the distilled water thereof, doth helpe the pantingandpassionoftheheart, prevaileth against giddinesse,turning,orswimmingofthebraine,andmembers subject tothepalsie. Conserve madeofthe floures with sugar, profiteth much againstthediseases aforesaid,ifthe quanti tieofa beane be takenthereofinthemorningfasting.CLOVEGILLOFLOURESThere areatthis dayunderthenameofCariophylluscomprehended diversandsundrysortsofplants,ofsuch various colours,andalso severall shapes,thatagreatandlarge volume wouldnotsuffice to writeofeveryoneatlarge in particular; considering how infinite they are, and how every yeare every clymateandcountrybringethforth new sorts, such as havenotheretofore been written of; somewhereofare called Carnations, others Clove Gillofloures, some Sops in wine, some Pagiants,orPagioncolor, Horse-flesh, blunket, purple, white, doubleandsingle Gillofloures, as also a Gillofloure with yellow flours: the which a worshipfulMerchantofLondon147

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JulyMr.Nicholas Leteprocured from Poland,andgave methereofformygarden, which beforethattime was never seen nor heardofin these countries.ThegreatCarnation Gillo-flourehatha thick round wooddy root, from which risethupmanystrongjoynted stalks set with long green leaves by couples: onthetopofthe stalks do grow very fair flouresofan excellent sweet smell, and pleasant Carnation colour, whereof it tooke his name.TheClove Gillofloure dif ferethnotfrom the Carnationbutin greatnesse as wellofthe flowres as leaves.Thefloure is exceeding well knowne,asalso thePinkesandother Gillofloures; wherefore I will not stand longuponthede scription.TheseGillofloures, espe ciallytheCarnations, are kept in pots fromtheextremitie ofourcoldWinters.TheClove Gillofloureendurethbetterthecold,andthereforeisplanted in gardens.TheClove Gillofloureiscalledofthelater HerbaristsCaryophylleusFlos,ofthe smellofcloves wherewith itThedouble Clove Gillofioureis possessed.Johan.nesRue/Nussaith,ThattheGilloflourewasunknowne to the old writers: whosejudgementis very good, especially because thisherbisnotlike to thatofVetonica,orCantabrica.Itis marvell, saith he, that such a famous floure, so pleasant & sweet, shouldliehid,andnotbe made knownbytheold writers: which 148

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Medow-sweetmay bethoughtnotinferior totherose in beautie) smell,andvarietie.Theconserve madeofthe flouresofthe Clove Gillo floureandsugar) is exceeding cordiall,andwonderfully above measuredothcomfort the heart, being eaten now and then.MEDE-SWEET)ORQUEENEOFTHEMEDOWESThis herbehathleaves like Agrimony, consistingofdi vers leaves set upon a middle rib like thoseofthe ash tree, every small leaf sleightlysnipt about the edges, white on the inner side,andon theupperside crumpledorwrinkled likeuntothoseoftheElmetree; whereof it tooke the nameUlmaria,ofthe simili tudeorliken esse thattheleaves have with theElmeleaves.Thestalke is threeorfoure foot high, rough, and very fragileoreasie tobeebroken,ofa reddish purple colour: onthetop whereof are very many little floures clusteringandgrowing to gether,ofa white colour tendingtoyellownesse,andQueeneoftheMedowof a pleasant sweet smell, as are the leaves likewise.Itgroweth inthebrinkesofwaterie ditchesandrivers sides,andalso in medowes:itliketh wateryandmoist places,andgroweth almost every where.Itfloureth and flouresheth inJune,July,andAugust.149

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JulyIt is calledofthe later ageRegina prati:in English, Meads-sweet, Medow-sweet,andQueenofthemedowes. It is reported,thatthefloures boiled in wine anddrunke,do make theheartmerrie.Theleavesandfloures farre excell allotherstrowing herbes, for to deckeuphouses, to straw in chambers, halls,andbanquetinghouses in theSummertime;for the smellthereofmakestheheartmerrie, delighteth the senses: neither dothitcause headache,orlothsomenesse to meat, as someothersweet smelling herbes do..Thedistilled wateroftheflouresdroppedinto the eies, taketh awaytheburninganditching thereof, and cleareth the sight.WATER-FERNE,OROSMUNDTHEWATER-MANWater-Fernehathagreattriangle stalke two cubits high, beset upon each side with large leaves spred abroad like wings,anddentedorcut like Polypody: these leaves are like the large leavesoftheAsh-tree;for doubtlesse when I first sawthema far off it caused me to wonder thereat,thinkingthatI had seeneyoungAshes growingupona bog,butbeholdingita little neerer, I might easily distinguishit fromtheAsh,bythebrowne roughandroundgrainesthatgrew onthetopofthebranches, which yet are not the seed thereof,butare very like untotheseed.Theroot isgreatandthicke, foldedandcovered over with many scalesandinterlacing roots, having in the middleofthegreatandhardwooddypartthereofsome small whitenesse, whichhathbeene calledtheheart ofOsmundthe water-man.Itgroweth in themidstofabogatthefurtherendofHampstedheath fromLondon,atthebottomeofahilladjoyning to a small cottage,andin diversotherplaces,asalsoupondivers bogges on a heathora common neere15

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Spleene-woortunto Bruntwood in Essex, especially neereuntoa place therethatsome have digged, totheendto finde a nestormineofgold;butthebirds were over fledge,andflowneawaybefore their wings could be clipped.Itis called inEnglish,Water-Ferne,OsmundtheWater-man:ofsome, Saint Christophers herbe,andOsmund.Therootandespeciallytheheartormiddlepartthereofboyledorelse stamped,andtaken with some kindeofliquor, isthoughtto be good for thosethatare wounded, dry-beatenandbruised;thathave fallen from somehighplace:andforthesame causetheEmpericksdoputit in decoctions, whichthelater Physitians doe callwounddrinkes: sometakeitto be so effectuall,andofsogreata vertue, asthatitcan dissolve cluttered bloud remaininginany inwardpartofthebody,andthatitalso can expellordriveitoutbythewound.Thetendersprigsthereofattheir first comming forthareexcellent gooduntothepurposes aforesaid,andaregoodto beputinto balmes, oyles,andconsolidatives,orhealing plaisters,andintounguentsappropriateuntowounds, punctures,andsuch like.SPLEENE-WOORTORMILT-WASTESpleen-wort, beingthatkindeofFerncalledAspleniumorCeterach,andthetrueScolopendria,hathleaves a spanlong,jaggedorcutuponbothsides, evenhardtothemiddle rib, everycutorincisurebeingasitwerecuthalfe round (wherebyitis knowne fromtheroughSpleenwort)notonecutrightagainst another,butone besidestheother, set in several order, being slipperieandgreen ontheupperside, softanddownyunderneath;which whentheybee withered are foldeduptogetherlike a scrole,andhairy without,muchlike to theroughBear-worme wherewithmenbaittheir hooks to catch fish.Theroot151

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July is small, blacke,andrough,muchplattedorinterlaced, having neither stalke, floure, hor seeds.RoughSpleenwort is partly liketheotherFernsinshew,andbeareth neither stalk nor seed, having narrow leaves a foot longandsomewhat longer, slashed on the edges even to the middle rib, smooth ontheupperside,andofa swart green colour underneath. Ceterach growethuponold stone wallsandrocks in darkeandshadowie places throughouttheWestpartsofEng land.TheroughSpleenwort growethuponbarren heaths,drysandy bankes, and shadowie places in most partsofEngland,butespeciallyona heathbyLondoncalledHampstedheath, where it grows in great aboundance.TherebeEmpericksorblinde practitionersofthisagewho teach,thatwith this herbnotonelythehardnesse and swellingofthespleene,butallinfirmitiesoftheliveralsomay be effectually,andinRough Spleenwortveryshorttime removed, inso-muchthatthe sodden liverofa beast is restored tohisformer constitution againe,thatis, made likeuntoarawliver,ifitbe boiled again with this herb.Butthisisto be reckonedamongtheoldWivesfables,andthatalso whichDioscoridestells of, touchingthegatheringofSpleene-wort inthenight,andothermost vain things, which are found hereandthere scatteredinold books; from which mostofthe laterWritersdonot152

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Scorpion Grasseabstaine, who many timesfilluptheir pages with liesandfrivolous toyes,andbyso doing do not a little deceive yong Students.MooNE-W0RTThe smallLunaryspringeth forthofthegroundwith one leafe like Adders-tongue,jaggedor cut on both sides intofiveor six deepe cutsornotches,notmuchunliketheleavesofScolopendria,orCeterach,ofa greene colour; whereupondothgrow a small naked stemofa finger long, bearingatthetop many little seeds clusteringtogether;which being gatheredandlaid in a platterorsuch like thing for the spaceofthree weekes, there will fall from thesamea finedustor mealeofa whitish colour, whichistheseedifitbringforth any.Theroot is slender,andcompactofmany smallthreddystrings. Small Moone-woort is singular to heale greeneandfresh wounds.Ithathbeene used among the Alchymists and witches to doe wonders withall, who say,thatit willlooselockes,andmake them to fall from the feetofhorses that grase where it doth grow,andhathbeene calledofthemMartagon,whereas intruththey are allbutdrowsie dreamesandillusions;butitis singular for wounds as aforesaid.SCORPIONGRASSEScorpion grassehathmany smooth, plaine, even leaves,ofa darke greene colour; stalkes small, feebleandweake, trailingupontheground,andoccupying agreatcircuitinrespectoftheplant.Thefloures grow upon longandslender foot-stalks,ofcolour yellow, in shape like totheflouresofbroome; after which succeed long, crooked, rough cods, in shapeandcolour likeuntoa Caterpiller; wherein is contained yellowish seed likeuntoa kidney in153

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Julyshape.Theroot is smallandtender: the whole plant perisheth whentheseed is ripe.Thereis another sort almost in every shallow gravellyrunningstreame, having floures blewofcolourandsome times with a spotofyellow among the blew.Thereis likewise another sort growing upon most dry gravellyandbarren ditch bankes, with leaves like thoseofMouse-eare: this is calledMyosotesscorpioides:ithathroughandhairy leaves,ofan overworne russet colour: the floures doe growuponweake, feeble,androughbranches, as is all the restoftheplant.Theygrow forthemostpartatone sideofthe stalke, blewofcolour, with a like little spotofyellow astheother,turningthemselves backe againe likethetailofa Scorpion.TheseScorpion grassesgrownotwilde inEngland,notwithstanding I have re ceived seedofthe first from beyond the seas,andhave dis persedthemthroughEngland,Mouse-eare Scorpion grassewhich are esteemedofgentlewomen for the beautie and strangnesseofthecrooked cods resembling Caterpillers.Dioscoridessaith,thattheleavesofScorpion grasse applyed totheplace, are a present remedy againstthestingingofScorpions:andlikewise boyled in wineanddrunke, prevaile againstthesaid bitings, as alsoofaddars, snakes,andsuch venomous beasts: being made in an unguent with oile, wax,anda littlegumElemni,they are profitable against suchhurtsas require an healing medicine.154

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Cud-weedSLEEPYNIGHTSHADEDwale or sleeping Nightshadehathroundblackish stalkessixfoot high, whereupon do grow great broad leavesofa dark green colour:amongwhich grow smal hollow floures bel-fashion,ofan overworn purple colour; in the place whereof come forth greatroundberriesofthe bignesseofthe black chery, greenatthe first,butwhen they be ripe of the colourofblackjetor burnished horne, soft,andful of purplejuice;amongwhich juice lie the seeds, liketheberriesofIvy:theroot is very great, thick,andlong lasting.ThiskindeofNightshadecauseth sleep, troubleth the mind,bringethmadnesseifa fewoftheberries be in wardly taken,butifmoe be given they also killandbringpresent death.Ifyou will followmycounsell, dealenotwith the same in any case,andbanish it from your gardens and the useofit also, being a plant so furiousanddeadly:forit bringeth such as have eaten thereof into a dead sleepe wherein many have died, ashathbeene often seeneandprovedbyexperiencebothinEnglandandelsewhere. But to give you an example hereofitshallnotbe amisse:Itcame to passethatthree boiesofWisbichin the IsleofElydideateofthe pleasantandbeautifull fruit hereof, two whereof died il1 lesse than eight houres afterthatthey had eatenofthem.Thethirdchild had a quantitieofhoney and water mixed together given him to drinke, causinghimto vomit often:Godblessed this meanesandthechild recovered.COTTON-WEEDORCUD-WEEDEnglish Cudweedhathsundryslenderanduprightstalks divided into many branches,andgroweth as high as commonWormwood, whose colourandshapeitmuchresembleth.Theleaves shoot from the bottomeofthe155

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Julyturfe fullofhaires, among whichdogrowsmall pale coloured floures like thoseofthesmalConizaorFlea bane.Thewhole plant isofa bitter taste.Thereis a kindeofCotton-weed, beingofgreater beautie thantherest,thathathstrait anduprightstalkes 3 foothighor more, covered with a most softandfinewooH,andin such plentifull manner,thata man may with his hands takeitfrom the stalke ingreatquanti tie : which stalke is beset with many small longandnarrow leaves, greeneuponthe inner side,andhoary ontheotherside, fashioned somewhat like the leavesofRosemary, but greater.Thefloures do growatthe topofthe stalkesinbundlesortufts, consistingofmany small flouresofa white colour,andvery double, com pact,oras it were consistingoflittle silver scales thrust close together, whichdoemake the same very double.Whentheflourehathlong flourished,andis waxenold,then comes there in the middestoftheflourea certaine --:: browne yellow thrumme, suchHerbe un p'OU.kdCddas is in themiddestoftheIs,orWICeu weeD... fl aISle: whIch oure bemg gathered when it is young, may bekeptin .such mannerasitwas gathered(1meane in such freshne,sseandwellliking)bythe spaceofa whole yeare after, inyourchestorelsewhere: whereforeourEnglishwomen have calleditLive-long, or Live for ever, which name doth aptly answer his effects.

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FetherfewSmall Cudweedhaththreeorfoure small grayish cottonyorwoolly stalkes, growing strait fromtheroot, and commonly divided into many little branches:theleaves be long, narrow whitish, softandwoolly, liketheotherofhiskinde:the fioures beroundlike buttons, growing very many togetheratthetopofthe stalkes,butnothing so yellow as Mouse-eare, whichturneinto downe,andare caried away withthewinde.WickedCudweed is likeuntothe last beforementioned, in stalkes, leaves,andfioures,butmuchlarger, and for the mostpartthose fioures which appeare first are the lowest,andbasest,andthey are overtoptbyotherfloures which come on younger branches,andgrowhigher, as children seeking to overgroworovertop their parents, (as many wicked children do) for which causeithath beene calledHerba impia,thatis,thewickedHerbe,orHerbeImpious.Thefumeorsmokeofthe herbe dried,andtaken with a funnell, beingburnedtherein,andreceived insuchmanner as we use to takethefumeofTabaco,thatis, with a crooked pipe made for the same purposebythePotter, prevaileth against the coughofthelungs,thegreat acheorpaineofthehead,andclean seththebreast and inward parts.FETHERFEWFeverfewbringethforth many littleroundstalkes, divided into certaine branches.Theleaves are tender, diversly torneandjagged,andnickt ontheedges likethefirstandnethermost leavesofCoriander,butgreater. The fioures stand onthetopsofthe branches, with a small paleofwhite leaves, setroundabout a yellow ballorbutton, likethewild field Daisie.Theroot ishardandtough: the whole plant isofalightwhitish greene colour,ofastrongsmell,andbitter taste.157

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JulyThecommon single Feverfew groweth in hedges, gardens,andabout old wals,itjoyethto grow among rubbish.Thereis oftentimes found when it isdiggedup a little coleunderthestringsoftheroot,andnever without it, whereofCardanein his bookeofSub til ties setteth down divers vaineandtrifling things. Feverfew driedandmade into pouder,andtwo dramsofittaken withhonyorsweet wine,purgethbysiege melancholyandflegme; whereforeitis very goodforthemthatare giddie inthehead,orwhich have the turningcalledVertigo,thatis, a swimmingandturningin the head. Also it is good for such as be melancholike, sad, pensive,andwithout speech.MULLEINThemaleMulleinorHigtaperhathbroad leaves, very soft, whitishanddowny; in themidstofwhich risethupa stalk, straight, single,andthesame also whitishallover, with a hoary down,andcovered withthelike leaves,butlesserandlesser even tothetop;amongwhich taper wise are set amultitudeofyellow floures consistingoffiveleaves apiece: intheplaceswherofcomeuplittle round vessels, in which is contained very small seed.Therootislong, a finger thicke, blacke without,andfullofstrings.ThefemaleMulleinhathlikewise many white woolly leaves, setuponan hoary cottonyuprightstalkeoftheheightoffoureorfive cubits:thetopofthestalke resembleth a torch decked with infinite white floures, which isthespeciall marke to knowitfromthemale kinde, being like in everyotherrespect.Theseplantsgrowofthemselves neerethebordersofpastures, plowed fields,orcausies&drysandy ditch banks,andinotheruntilled places.Theygrow in great plenty neereuntoa lyme-kilnupontheendofBIacke heath next to London, as alsoaboutthe Queenes houseat158

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GoatsBeardEltham neere to Dartford inKent;in the highwayes about Highgate neere London, and in most countriesofEnglandthat areofa sandy soile.Theyare found with their floure fromJulyto September, andbringforth their seed the second yeare after itissowne. Mulleiniscalled in English Mullein,orrather Woollen, Higtaper, Torches, Longwort, and Bullocks Longwort; andofsome,Haresbeard.Thecountry people, especially the husbandmen in Kent, do give their cat tel the leaves todrinkagainst the coughofthelungs, being an excellent approved medicine for the same, wherupon they callitBullocks r1: Lungwort.Thereport goeth (saithPliny)that figs do not putrifie at all that are wrapped in the leavesof Mullein.White floured MulleinGOATSBEARD,ORGoTOBEDATNOONEGoats-beard, or Go to bedatnoone hath hollow stalks, smooth, andofa whitish green colour, whereupon do grow long leaves crested downe the middle with a swelling rib, sharp pointed, yeelding a milkie juice whenitisbroken, in shape like thoseofGarlick: fromthebosomeofwhich leavesthrustforth smal tender stalks, set with the like leaves,butlesser: the floures grow atthetopofthe stalks, consistingofanumberofpurple leaves, dasht overasit were with a little yellow dust, set about159

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Julywith nine or ten sharp pointed green leaves:thewhole floure resembles a Star when it is spred abroad; for itshuttethit selfeattwelveofthe clock,andsheweth not his face open untiIl the next daies Sunne doth makeitfloure anew, whereuponitwas caIled Go to bedatnoone: when these floures be come to their fuIl maturitieandripenesse, they grow into a downy Blow-baIl like thoseofDandelion, whichiscarried away with the winde.TheyeIlow Goats beardhaththe like leaves, stalks, root, seed,anddownie blow baIls that theotherhath, and also yeeldeth the like quantitieofmilke, insomuchthatifthe piIling whileitis greenebepuIled from the stalks, the milky juice foIloweth: but whenithath there remained a little whileitwaxeth yeIlow.Thefloureshereofareofa gold yeIlow colour.Thefirst growes not wildinEnglandthatI could everseeor heare of, except in Lanca shire onthebanksoftheriver Chalder, neere tomyLadyHeskithshouse, two miles fromWhawley:itis sown in gar-Goats-Bearddens forthebeautyofthe floures almost every where.Theother growes plentifully in mostofthefieldsaboutLondon,andin divers other places. Goats-beard is caIled in English,Joseph'sfloure, StarofJerusalem, Noon tide,andGo tobedatnoone.TherootsofGoats-beard boiled in wineanddrunk, asswageth the painandpricking stitchesofthesides.160

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WildClarieThesame boiled in water untill they be tender,andbuttered as parnsepsandcarrots, are a most pleasantandwholesome meate, in delicate taste far surpassing either ParseneporCarrot: which meat procuresappetite, warmeththestomacke,andstrengthneththose that have been sickeofa long lingring disease.ANGELICAAngelica is very common inourEnglishgardens;inotherplacesitgrowes wild without planting, as in Norway, and in an IslandoftheNorthcalled Island, whereitgroweth veryhigh;it is eatenoftheinhabitants,thebarkbeing pilled off, as weunderstandbysomethathave travelled into Island, who were sometimes compelled to eathereoffor wantofotherfood;andtheyreportthatithath a goodandpleasant taste tothemthatarehungry.It groweth likewise in divers mountainsofGermanie,andespeciallyofBohemia.Therootofgarden Angelica is a singular remedy against poyson,andagainsttheplague,andall infections takenbyevillandcorruptaire;ifyou doebuttake a piece of the rootandholditinyourmouth,orchewthesame betweenyourteeth,itdoth most certain ely drive awaythepestilentiall aire, yea althoughthecorruptaire have pos sessedthehart, yetitdrivethitoutagaine, asRueandTreacle do.WILDCLARIE,OROCULUSCHRISTIOculusChristiis a kindeofClarie,butlesser:thestalkes are many, a cubit high, squaredandsomewhat hairie; the leaves be broad,rough,andofa blackishgreenecolour.Theflouresgrowalongst the stalkes,ofa blewishcolour.Theseed isroundandblackish,theroot is thickeandtough, with some threds annexed thereto.161

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JulyThepurple Clariehathleaves somewhat round, layed over with a hoary cottony substance,notmuchunlikeHorehound:amongwhich riseupsmall hairy square stalkes, set toward the top with little leavesofa purple colour, which appeareatthe first view to be flours, and yet are nothing elsebutleaves,turnedinto an excellent purple colour:andamong these beautifull leaves come forth smal flouresofa blewishorwatched colour, in fashion like to the flouresofRose marie; which being withered, the husks wherein they do grow containe certaine blacke seed,thatfalleth forthuponthegroundvery quickely, becausethatevery suchhuskedothturneandhangdowne his head toward theground.Theroot diethatthefirst approch ofWinter.Thefirst groweth wildeindivers barren places, almostinevery country, especially in the fieldsofHalborne neere unto Grayes Inne, inthehighway by theendofa brickewall: at theendofChelsey nexttoPurpleClarieLondon,inthehighway as yougofromtheQueenes pall aceofRichmondtothewaters side,andin diversotherplaces.Theotheris a strangerinEngland:itgroweth inmyGarden.WildeClarie is called aftertheLatinenameOculusChristi,ofhis effect in helping the diseasesofthe eies.Theseedputwhole into the eies, cIensethandpurgeththem exceedingly from waterish humors, rednesse, inflamma tion,anddiversothermaladies, or allthathappen unto162

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Sagethe eies,andtakes awaythepaineandsmarting thereof, especially beingputinto the eies one seedatone time,andnomore, which is a generall medicine in Cheshireandother countries thereabout, knowneofall,andused with good success.SAGEWehave inourgardens a kindeofSage, the leaves where of arereddish;partofthose red leaves are stripped with white, others mixed with white, greene,andred, even as Nature list to play with such plants.Thisis an elegant variety,andis calledSalvia variegata elegans,Variegated or painted Sage.Wehave also another, the leaves whereof are forthemostpartwhite, somewhat mixed with greene, often one leafe white,andanother greene, even asNaturelist, as we have said.Thisisnotso rare as the former,norneere so beautifull, whereforeitmay be termedSalvia variegata vulgaris,Common painted Sage. Sage is singular good fortheheadandbraine;itquickneththesencesandmemory,strengthneththesinewes, restoreth health to thosethathavethepalsie, takes away shakingortremblingofthemembers;andbeingputupintothenosthrils,itdraweth thin flegmeoutof the head.Itis likewise commended against thespittingofbloud, the cough,andpainesofthesides,andbitingsofSerpents.Noman needs todoubtofthewholesomnesseofSage Ale, being brewed asitshould be, with Sage, Scabious, Betony, Spikenard, Squinanth,andFennell seeds.Theleavesofred Sageputinto a woodden dish, whereinisputvery quicke coles, with some ashes inthebottome of the dish to keepethesame fromburning,anda little vinegre sprinkleduponthe leaves lyinguponthecoles,163

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Julyandso wrapped in linnendoath,andholden veryhotuntothesideofthosethatare troubled with a grievous stitch, taketh awaythepaine presently.BAWMEApias/rum, or Melissa, is our common best knowne BalmeorBawme, having many square stalkesandblackish leaves,ofa pleasant smell, drawing neere in smell and savouruntoaCitron:the floures areofa Carnation colour. Bawme ismuchsowen and set in Gardens,andoften timesitgrowethofitselfe inWoodsandmountaines, andotherwilde places:itis profit ably planted in Gardens,asPliny writeth,aboutplaces where Bees are kept, because they are delighted with this _..... above others, where upon ithathbeene called Apiastrum: for, saith he, whenBastard Bawmewithwhite flouresthey are straied away, they doe finde their way home againebyit, as l7irgil'writeth in his Georgicks:--Hereliquors cast in fitting sort,Ofbruised Bawmeandmore baseHonywort.Bawmedrunkein wine is good againstthebitingsofvenomous beasts, comfortstheheart,anddriveth away all melancholyandsadnesse.164

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BorageThehivesofBees beingrubbedwiththeleavesofBawme, causeththeBees to keep together,andcauseth others to comeuntothem.Thelater age, together withtheArabiansandMauritanians, affirme Balme to be singular good fortheheartand to be a remedy against the infirmities thereof; forAvicenin his booke writtenofthe infirmitiesofthe heart, teacheththatBawme makestheheartmerryandjoyfull, andstrengtheneththevitalI spirits.Dioscorideswriteth,Thatthe leavesdrunkewith wine, or applied outwardly, are good against the stingingsofvenomous beasts,andthebitingofmaddogs;alsoitheIr eth the tooth-ache,themouthbeing washed with the decoction,andis likewise good for thosethatcannot take breath unlesse they hold their neckesupright.Smiths BawmeorCarpenters Bawme is most singulartohealeupgreene woundsthatare cut withyron;itcureththerupturein short time.Plinysaiththatitisofsogreat vertue,thatthoughit bebuttied to his sword thathathgiventhewound, it stancheth the bloud.BORAGEBoragehathbroad leaves, rough, lying flatupontheground,ofa blackeorswart green colour:amongwhich risethupa stalke two cubits high, divided into divers branches, wherupon dogrowgallant blew floures, com posedoffive leaves apiece;outofthemiddleofwhich grow forth blacke thredsjoinedinthetop,andpointed like a brochorpyramide:theroot is threddy,andcannot away withthecoldofWinter.Borage with white floures is likeuntotheprecedent, but differeth inthefloures, for thoseofthis plant are white,andotherofa perfect blew colour, wherein isthedifference.Thesegrowinmygardenandin others also. Borage165

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Julyfloures and flourishes most partofall Summer, and tillAutumnebe far spent. Borage is called in shopsBorago: Plinycalleth itEuphrosinum,becauseitmakes amanmerryandjoyfull: whichthingalso the old verse concerning Borage doth testifie:Ego Borago gaudia semperago.I Boragebringalwaies courage.Thoseofourtime do use the floures in sallads, to exhilerate and make the minde glad.Therebe also many things madeofthem,used for the comfortofthe heart, to drive away sorrow,&increase thejoyofthe minde.Theleaves and flouresofBorrageputinto wine make menandwomen glad and merry, driving away.allsadnesse, dulnesse,andmelancholy. Syrrup madeofthe flouresofBorrage comforteth the heart,purgethmelancholy,andquieteth the phren tickeorlunaticke person. Syrrup madeofthe juiceofBorrage with sugar, adding thereto pouderoftheboneofa Stags heart, is good against swouning, the cardiacke passionofthe heart, against melancholyandthe falling sicknesse.ALKANETORWILDEBUGLOSSETheseherbes comprehendedunderthe nameofAnchusa,were so calledofthe Greeke word,thatis, to colour or paint anything:Whereuponthose plants were calledAnchusa,ofthatflourishingandbrightred colour which is in the root, even as redaspureandcleare bloud. Alkanethathmany leaves likeEchiumorsmall Bug losse, covered over with a pricky hoarinesse, having commonlybutone stalke, which is round, rough, and a cubit high.Thecupsofthe floures areofa sky colour166

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Tarragontending to purple: the seed is smaIl, somwhat long,andofa pale colour: the root is a finger thicke, the pithorinnerpartthereofisofa wooddy substance, dyingthehandsorwhatsoever toucheth the same,ofa bloudy colour,orofthecolourofSanders. Diversofthelater Physitions do boile withtherootofAlkanetandwine, sweet butter, such ashathinitno saltatall, untiIl such time asitbecommeth red, which they call red butter,andgiveitnot only to thosethathave falne from somehighplace,butalso reportitto be good to drive forththemeaselsandsmall pox,ifitbe drunke inthebeginning withhotbeere.Therootsofthese are used to color sirrups, waters, gellies,&such like infections asTurnsoleis.JohnofArdernhathset down a composition calledSanguis Veneris,which is most singular in deep punctures or wounds made with thrusts, as follows: takeofoile olive a pint, the rootofAlkanet two ounces, earth worms purged, innumbertwenty, boilethemtogether&keep it totheuse aforesaid. ., TheGentlewomenofFrance dopainttheir faces with these roots, asitis said.TARRAGONTarragonthesallade herbehathlongandnarrow leaves of a deep green colour, greaterandlongerthanthoseofcommon Hyssope, with slender brittleroundstalkes two cubiteshigh:aboutthebranches whereofhanglittle round floures, never perfectly opened,ofa yellow colour mixed with blacke, like thoseofcommon Wormewood.Tarragonis cherished in gardens,andis encreasedbytheyoungshoots:Ruelliusandsuch others have reported many strange taleshereofscarceworththenoting, saying, thattheseedofflaxputinto aRaddishrootorsea Onion, and so set,dothbringforth this herbeTarragon.167

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JulyItis greene all Summer long,andagreatpartofAutumne,andfloureth inJuly.Itiscalled in Latine,Draco;in French,Dragon;inEnglish,Tarragon.Simeon SethitheGreeke also maketh mentionofT archon.Tarragonisnotto be eaten alone in sallades,butjoyned withotherherbs, as Lettuce, Purslain,andsuch like, that it may alsotemperthecold nesseofthem, like as Rocket doth, neither do we know whatotheruse this herbe hath.INDIANCRESSESCressesofIndia have many weakeandfeeble branches, rising immediatly from theground,dispersing them selves far abroad; by meanes whereof one plantdothoc ,cupie agreatcircuit ofTarragonground,as doththegreat Bindeweede.Thetender stalks divide themselves intosundrybranches, trailing likewiseuponthe ground, somewhat bunchedorswollenupateveryjointor knee, which are in colourofalightred,butthespaces be tweenethejointsare greene.Theleaves areroundlike wall peniwort, called Cotyledon,thefoot-stalkeofthe leafe commeth forth onthebacke-side almost inthemid destofthe leafe, as thoseofFrogbit,in tasteandsmell likethegarden Cresses.Theflours are dispersedthroughoutthewhole plant,ofcolour yellow, with a crossed star overthwarttheinside,ofa deepe Orange168

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IndianCressesCumincolour: unto the backe-partofthe same doth hang a taileorspurre, such ashaththe Larkes heele, called in LatineConsolida Regalis;butgreater,andthespurorheele longer; which beeing past there succeedbunchedandknobbedcoddesorseed vessells, wherein is contained the seed, rough, browneofcolour,andlikeuntothe seedsofthe beete,butsmaller.Theseedsofthis rareandfaire plant came fromtheIndies into Spaine,andthence into FranceandFlanders, from whence I received seed that bore with meebothfloures&seed, especially those I received frommyloving friendJohn RobinofParis.ThisbeautifullPlantis called in Latine,Nasturtium Indicum:in English, Indian Cresses.Althoughsome have deemedita kindofConvol vulus,orBinde-weed; yet Iamwell contentedthatit retaine the former name, for thatthesmellandtaste showitto be a kindeofCresses.CUMINThisgardenCumin is a loworbase herbeofa foothigh:the stalke divideth it self into divers small branches, whereon doegrowlittlejaggedleaves very finelycutinto small parcels, like thoseofFennell,butmore finely cut, shorterandlesser,thespoky tufts growatthe topofthe169

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July branchesandstalkes,ofa red or purplish colour: after which cometheseed,ofastrongorrancke smell, and biting taste: the root is slender, which perisheth when ithathripened his seed. Cumin is husbandedandsowne in ItalyandSpaine,andis very common in otherhotcountries, as in l:Ethiopia,Egypt,Cilicia,andallthelesser Asia.Itdelights to grow especially in putrifiedandhot soiles: I have provedtheseeds inmygarden, where they havebroughtforth ripe seedmuchfairerandgreaterthananythatcomes from beyondtheseas.Itis to be sown inthemiddleofthespring;a showreofrain presently followingmuchhindreththegrowth thereof, as Rue/lius saith.Myself did sowitinthemidstofMay,whichsprungupin six daies after: andtheseed was ripe intheendofJuly.Being taken in asuppingbrothitis good forthechestandcold lungs.Itstancheth bleedingatthenose, being tempered with vinegerandsmelt unto. Being quilted in a little bag with some small quantitieofBay salt,andmadehotupona bed-pan with fire or such like,andsprinkled with good wine vineger, and applied totheside very hot,ittaketh awaythestitch and paines thereof,andeaseth the pleurisie very much.WATERSALIGOT,WATERCALTROPS,ORWATERNUTSWaterCaltrops have long slender stalks growingupand rising fromthebottomofthe water,andmountingabovethesame: the root is long, having here&thereunderthe water certaine tassels fullofsmall stringsorthreddy haires: the stem towardsthetopofthewater is verygreatin respectofthatwhich is lower;theleaves are largeandsomewhat round,notunlikethoseofthePoplarorElmetree leaves, a little crevisedornotched 17

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SEAHOLLYWaterCaltropsSeaHollyhathbroad leaves almost like to Mallow leaves,butcornered intheedges,andsetroundaboutwithhardprickles, fat,ofa blewish white,andofan aromaticalorspicy taste:thestalke is thick, about acubithigh, nowandthensomwhatredbelow:itbreaketh forth in the tops into pricklyroundheadsorknops,ofthebig nesseofaWall-nut,held in forthemostpartwithsix prickly leaves compassingthetopofthestalkeroundabout; which leaves as well astheheads areofa glistering blew:thefloures forthoftheheads are likewise blew, with white threds inthemidst:theroot isofthebignesse of a mans finger, so very long, asthatitcannot be all171Sea Holly amongstorundertheleaves growthefrUlt, IStrtangled, hard, sharp pointedandprickly,inshape lrke those hurtfull engins inthewars, cast inthepassageoftheenemy to annoythefeetoftheir horses, called Caltrops, whereof this tookeit'sname:within these headsorNutsis contained a white kern ell in taste almost like the Chesnut, which is reported to bee eaten green,andbeing driedandgroundto serve in steadofbread.Cordussaiththatitgroweth in Germanie in myrie lakes, andin city ditchesthathavemudinthem:in BrabantandotherplacesoftheLowcoun tries it is found oftentimes in standing watersandsprings.

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Julypluckedupbutvery seldome; set hereandthere with knots,andoftaste sweetandpleasant.Eryngium marinumgrowesbythesea sideuponthe baichandstonyground.I founditgrowing plentifullyatWhitstablein Kent, atRieandWinchelsea in Sussex,andin EssexatLandamerlading,atHarwich,anduponLangtreepoint ontheothersideofthewater, from whence Ibroughtplants formygarden.Theroots conditedorpreserved withsugaras here after followeth, are exceeding good to be given to old and aged peoplethatare consumedandwithered with age,andwhich want natural moisture: they are also good forothersortsofpeople that have no delight, nourishing and restoringtheaged,andamendingthedefectsofnatureintheyonger. The mannertocondite Eringos.Refine sugar fit for the purpose,andtake apoundof it,thewhiteofan egge,anda pinteofcleer water, boilethemtogetherandscum it, then let it boile untilitbe come to goodstrongsyrrup,andwhenitis boiled, as it cooleth adde thereto a saucer fullofrose water, a spoone fullofCinnamon water,anda grainofmuske, which have been infused togetherthenightbefore,andnow strained: into which syrrup being morethanhalfe coldputinyourroots to sokeandinfuse untillthenext day;yourroots being ordered inmannerhereafter following:Theseyourroots being washedandpicked,mustbeboiled in faire waterbythespaceoffoure houres, til they be soft: thenmustthey be pilled clean as ye pil parsneps,&the pithmustbe drawnoutattheendoftheroot: butifthere be any whosepithcannot be drawnoutatthe end, then youmustslitthemandso takeitout:these youmustalso keep frommuchhandling,thatthey may be clean: let them remain inthesyrrup tillthenext day,andthen setthemonthefire in a faire broad pan untill 172

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Teaselsthey be very hot,butlet themnotboileatall: letthemremain overthefire an houreormore, remoovingthemeasily inthepan from one placeto another with a wooden slice.Thisdone, have in a readinesse great caporroyall papers, whereupon strow some sugar,uponwhich lay your roots, having taken themoutofthe pan.Thesepapers youmustputinto a stouve or hot-house toharden;butifyou havenotsuch a place, laythembefore a good fire: in this manerifyou condite your roots, there isnotanythatcan prescribe you a better way.Andthusyou may condite anyotherroot whatsoever, which willnotonly be exceeding delicat,butvery wholsome,andeffectual againstthediseases above named.Theyreportofthe herb sea Holly,ifone goat takeitintohermouth, it causethherfirst to stand still,andafterwardsthewhole flocke,untill such time asthesheep heard takeitfrom her mouth.Plutarch.TEASELSGarden Teasell bringeth forth a stalkethatis straight, very long, jointed,andfulofprickles:theleavesgrowforthofthejoyntsbycouples,notonely oppositeorset onerightagainst another,butalso compassingthestalke about,andfastenedtogether;andso fastened,thatthey hold dewandraine water inmannerofa little bason: these be long,ofalightgreene colour,andlike to those of Lettice,butfullofprickles intheedges,andhave on the outsid,e all alongsttheridge stiffer prickles: onthetopsofthestalkes stand heads with sharpe prickles like thoseoftheHedge-hog,andcrooking backwardatthepoint like hookes:outofwhich headsgrowlittle floures:Theseed is like Fennell-seed,andin tastebitter:theheadswaxwhite when they grow old,andthere are found in the midstofthemwhen they are cut, certaine little magots: the root is white,andofa meane length.173

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JulyThetame Teasell is sowne in thiscountryin gardens, to servetheuseofFullersandClothworkers. Teasell is called in Latine,Dipsacus,andLaverLavacrum,oftheformeoftheleavesmadeupin fashionofa bason,whichis neverwithoutwater:inEnglish,Teasell,CardeTeasell,andVenus bason.Itis needlessehereto alledgethosethingsthatare addedtouchingthelittle wormesormagotsfoundintheheadsoftheTeasell,andwhichare to behangedaboutthenecke,ortomentionthelikethingthatPlinyreportethofGaledragon:for they arenothingelsebutmost vaineandtrifling toies, asmyselfe have proved a little beforetheimpres sion hereof,havinga most grievous ague,andoflongcontinuance:notwithstandingPhysickecharmes, these wormshangedaboutmyneck,spidersputintoawalnutshell,anddiverssuchfoolish toiesthatI was constrained to takeWildeTeasellbyfantasticke peoples pro-curement;notwithstanding, I say,myhelpe came fromGodhimselfe, for these medicinesandallothersuchthingsdidmenogoodatall.RUE,ORHERBEGRACEGardenRueis ashrubfullofbranches,nowandthenayardhigh,orhigher:thestalkeswhereofare coveredwitha whitish barke,thebranches aremoregreen:the174

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Rueleaves hereof consistofdivers parts, and be divided into wings, about which are certaine little ones,ofan odde number, something broad, more long than round, smoothandsomewhat fat,ofa gray colourorgreenish blew: the floures in the topofthe branches areofa pale yellow consistingoffoure little leaves, something hollow:inthe middleofwhich standethupa little headorbuttonfoure square, seldomefivesquare, containingasmanylittle coffers asithath corners, being compassedaboutwith divers little yellow threds:outofwhichhangprettyfinetipsofone colour; the seed groweth in the little coffers: the root is wooddy,andfastned with many strings: thisRuehath a very strongandranke smell,anda biting taste. Plinysaiththatthereissuchfriendship betweenitand the fig-tree, thatitprospers nq where so well asunderthefigtree.Thebest for physicks useisthatwhich growethunderthe fig tree, asDioscoridessaith:thecause is all edged byPlutarch, lib.I.ofhisSymposiacksorFeasts, for he saithitbecomes more sweetandmilde in taste, by reasonittaketh asitwere somepartofthesweetnesseofthe fig tree, whereby the over-ranke qualitieoftheRueis allayed; unlesseitbethatthe figge tree whilestitdrawes nourishment toitselfe, drawethalsothe ranknesse away from the Rue.Theherb a little boiledorskalded,andkeptin pickleasSam pier,andeaten, quickens the sight.Thesame applied with honyandthe juiceofFennell, is a remedie againstdimeies.ThejuiceofRuemadehotin the rindeofa pomegranat anddroppedinto the eares, takes awaythepainofthereof.Dioscoridessaith,ThatRueputupin the nosthrils stayeth bleeding.So'saithPlinyalso; when notwithstand ing it isofpower rather to procure bleeding,throughits sharpeandbiting quality.175

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JulyDioscorideswriteth,Thata twelve penny weightofthe seeddrunkein wine is a counterpoison against deadly medicinesorthepoisonofW olfes-bane, M ushroms or Toad-stooles,thebitingofSerpents,thestinging of Scorpions, Bees, hornets,andwasps;andis reported,Thatifa man bee anointed withthejuiceofRue, these willnothurthim;andthattheserpent is driven away atthesmellthereofwhen it isburned:insomuchthatwhentheWeesellisto fight withtheserpent, sheearmethher selfe by eating Rue, againstthemightoftheSerpent.TheleavesofRueeaten with the kernelsofWalnutsorfigs stamped togetherandmade into a masseorpaste, is good against all evill aires, the pestilenceorplague, resists poisonandall venome.Rutasylvestrisor wildRueis more vehementbothinsmelandoperation,andtherefore the more virulentorpernitious; for sometimesitfumethouta vapororaire so hurtfullthatitscorchesthefaceofhimthatlookethuponit, raisingupblisters, wheals,andotheraccidents:itvenometh their handsthattouch it,andwill infect the face alsoifitbe touched before they be clean washed: wherfore it is not to be admitted tomeatormedicine.ONIONSTheOnionhathnarrow leaves,andhollowwithin;the stalke is single, round, biggest inthemiddle, onthetop whereof groweth aroundhead covered with athinskinorfilm, which being broken, there appeare little white floures madeupin formofa ball,andafterward blacke seed three cornered, wrapped inthinwhite skins.Insteadofthe root there is a bulbeorroundhead compactofmany coats, which often times becommeth greatinmannerofaTurnep,many times long like an egge. To be briefe, it is covered with very fine skins forthemostpartofa whitish colour. 176

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OnionsTheOnion requireth a fat ground well digged and dunged,asPalladiussaith.Itis cherished everie whereinkitchen gardens, now and then sowne alone, and many times mixed with other herbs.TheOnions do bite, attenuate or make thin, and cause drynesse: being boiled they do lose their sharpnesse, es peciallyifthe water be twice or thrice changed, andyetfor all that they doe not lose their attenuating qualitie.ThejuiceofOnions snuffedupinto the nose, purgeth the head, and draweth forth raw flegmaticke humors. Stamped with Salt, Rue, and Honey, andsoapplied, they are good against the bitingofa mad Dog. Rosted in the embersandapplied, they ripen andbr.eakecold Apostumes, Biles,andsuch like.ThejuiceofOnions mixed with the decoctionofPenni royall, and anointed upon the goutie member with a feather,oradoathwet therein, and applied, easeth the same very much.Thejuice anointed upon a pild or bald head intheSun, bringeth the haire againe very speedily.Thejuice taketh away theWhite Onionsheatofscalding with water or oile,asalso burning withfire&gunpouder,asisset forth by a very skilfull SurgeonMr.William Clowesoneofthe Queens Surgeon;andbefore him by Ambrose Parey,in his treatiseofwounds made by gun-shot. Onions sliced and dipped in the juiceofSorrell, and 177

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July givenuntotheSickeofa tertian Ague, to eat, takes away the fit in onceortwice so taking them. TheOnion being eaten, yeathoughitbe boiled, causeth head-ache,hurteththeeyes,andmaketha man dim sighted, dulleth the sences,andprovoketh overmuchsleep, especially being eaten raw.SKIRRETSTheleavesofthe Skirret consistofmany small leaves fastened to one rib, every particular one whereof is somethingnicked intheedges,butthey are lesser, greener,&smoother than thoseofthe Parsnep.Thestalkes be short,andseldome a cubithigh;thefloures inthespokie tufts are white, the roots bee many in number, growingoutof one head anhandbreadth long, most commonly not a finger thick, they are sweet, white, good to be eaten, and most pleasant in taste.Thisskirret is planted in Gardens,andespeciallybytheroot, forthegreaterandthicker ones being taken away,thelesser areputintotheearthagaine: whichthingis best to be done inMarchorAprill, before the stalkes come up,andatthis timetheroots whichbeegathered are eaten raw,orboyled.Thisherbis called in Latine, Sisarum, in English, SkirretandSkirwort.Andthis isthatSiserorSkirret which TiberiustheEmperourcommanded to 'bee con veieduntohimfrom Gelduba a castleabouttheriver of Rhene, as Pliny reporteth in lib.16.cap. 5.TheSkirret is a medicinable her be,andis the samethattheforesaidEmperourdid somuchcommend, insomuchthathedesiredthesame to bebroughtuntohimevery yeare outofGermany.Theroots be eaten boiled, with vineger, salt,anda little oyle, after themannerofa sallad,andoftentimes theybefried in oileandbutter,andalso dressed after other 178

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Fennellfashions, according to the skillofthecooke,andthetasteoftheeater.FENNELLTheFennell, called in Latine, Fceniculum, is so well knowne amongst us,thatit werebutlost labour to descri bethesame. Thesecond kindeofFennell is likewise well knownebythe nameofSweet Fennell, so called becausetheseeds thereofare in taste sweet likeuntoAnnise seeds, resemblingtheIcommon Fennell, savingthattheleaves are largerandfatter,ormore oleous:theseed greaterandwhiter,andthewhole plant in each respect greater.Theseherbs are setandsowne in gardens.ThepouderoftheseedofFennelldrunkefor certaine daies together fasting preserveththeeye-sight:whereof was written this DistichonCommon Fennellfollowing:OfFennell, Roses, Vervain,Rue,andCelandine, Is made a water good to cleerethesightofeine.PARSNEPSThere is a goodandpleasant foodorbread madeoftherootsofParsneps, asmyfriendMr.Plathathset forthinhis booke of experiments, which I have madenotryall of,normeane to do.179

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JulyCUCUMBERSTheCucumbercreepes alongstuponthegroundall about, with longroughbranches;whereupon doe grow broadroughleaves unevenabouttheedges: fromthebosome whereof come forth crooked clasping ten drels like thoseoftheVine.Thefloures shoot forth betweenethestalkesandtheleaves, setupontenderfoot stalkes composedoffive small yellow leaves: which being past,thefruit succeedeth, long, cornered, rough, and set with certaine bumpesorrisings, greeneatthefirst,andyellow when they be ripe, wherein is contained a firmeandsollid pulpeorsubstancetransparentor thorow-shining, which together withtheseed is eaten a little before they be fully ripe.Theseeds be white, long,andflat.Therebe also certaine long cucumbers, which were first made (as is said)byartandmanuring, which Nature afterwards did preserve: foratthefirst, when asthefruit is very little, it isputinto some hollow cane,orotherthingmadeofpurpose, in whichthecucumbergroweth very long, by reasonofthatnarrow hollownesse, which being filled up,thecucumberencreaseth in length.Theseedsofthis kindeofcucumber being sowne bringeth forthnotsuch as were before,butsuch asarthathframed; whichoftheir owngrowthare found long,andoftentimes very crookedlyturned:andthereupon they have beene calledAnguini,orlongCucumbers.TheCucumberis named generallyCucumis:in shops,Cucumer:in English, CowcumbersandCucumbers.Thefruitcutin piecesorchopped as herbes tothepot,andboiled in a small pipkin with a pieceofmutton,being made into potage with Ote-meale, even asherbpotage are made, whereof a messe eaten to break-fast, asmuchto dinner,andthe like tosupper;taken in thismannerfor the spaceofthree weekes together without intermission, doth180

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Cucumbers perfectly cure all mannerofsauce flegme and copper faces, redandshining fierie noses (as redasred Roses) with pimples, pumples, rubies,andsuch like precious faces. Provided alwaiesthatduringthe timeofcuring you doe use to washorbathe the face with this liquor following.Takea pinteofstrongwhite wine vinegre, pouderofthe rootsof!reosorOrrice three dragmes, searcedorbolted into most fine dust, Brimmestone in finepouderhalfe a ounce, Camphire two dragmes, stamped with two blanched Almonds, foureOkeApplescutthorow the middle,andthe juyceoffoure Limons:putthem all together in astrongdouble glasse, shake them together very strongly, setting the same in the Sunne forthespaceoften daies: with which let the face be washedandbathed daily, suffering it to drieofitselfe without wiping it away.Thisdothnot on ely helpe fierie faces,butalso taketh away lentils, spots, morphew, Sun-burne,andall other deformitiesoftheface. I havethoughtitgoodandconvenient in this place to set downe not onely the timeofsowingandsettingofCucumbers, Muske-melons, Citruls, Pompions, Gourds, and such like,butalso how to setorsow all mannerandkin desofothercolde seeds, as also whatsoever strange seeds arebroughtunto us from the Indies,orotherhotRegions:videl.Firstofall in the middestofAprillorsomewhat sooner (if the weather be anything temperate) you shall cause tobemade abedorbankeofhotandnew horsedung taken from the stable (and not from the dunghill)ofan ell in breadth,andthe like indepthorthicknesse,ofwhatlength you please, according to the quantityofyour seed: the whichbankyou shall cover with hoopsorpoles,thatyou maythemore conveniently cover the whole bedorbanke withMats,old painted cloth, straworsuch like,tokeepe it from the injurieofthe cold frosty nights,and181

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July nothurtthe things plan ted inthebed:then shall you coverthebed all over with the most fertilest earth finely sifted, halfe a foot thicke, wherein you shall setorsow your seeds:thatbeing done, castyourstraworother coverture over the same;andso let it rest without lookinguponit, or taking awayofyour covering forthespaceofseven or eight daies atthemost, for commonly inthatspace they willthrustthemselvesupnakedly forthoftheground:thenmustyou castupontheminthehottest timeofthe day some water that hathstood in the houseorintheSun a day before, becausethewater so cast uponthemnewly taken forthofa wellorpumpe, will so chillandcoole them beingbroughtandnourishedupin such ahotplace, that presently in one day you have lost allyourlabour;I mean not only your seed,butyour banke also; for in this spacethegreat heateofthedungis lostandspent, keeping in memorythateverynighttheymustbe coveredandopened when the day is warmed withtheSun beames: this must be done from time to time untillthattheplants have foure or six leaves a piece,andthatthedangerofthecold nights is past: thenmustthey be replanted very curiously withtheearth sticking totheplant, as neere as may beuntothe most fruitfull place,andwheretheSunhathmost forceinthegarden;providedthatuponthe removingofthemyoumustcoverthemwith someDockeleavesorwispes of straw, proppedupwith forked stickes, as well to keepethemfromthecoldofthe night, as alsotheheatoftheSun:for theycannot whilest they beyoungandnewly planted, endure neither overmuch cold nor overmuch heate, untill they are well rooted in their new place or dwelling. Oftentimesitfallethoutthatsome seeds are more frankerandforwarder thantherest, which commonlydoriseupvery nakedly with long necksnotunlike to the stalkeofa small mushrome,ofanightold.Thisnaked stalkemustyou cover withthelike fine earth even to the182

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Muske-Melongreene leaves, having regard toplace your banke sothatitmay be defended from the North-windes. Observe these instructions diligently,andthen you shall not have cause to complainethatyour seeds werenotgood, noroftheintemperancieofthe climat (by reason wherof you cangetno fruit) althoughitwere inthefurthest partsoftheNorthofScotland.MUSKE-MELON,ORMILLIONThatwhichthelaterHerbarists do callMuske-Melonsislike to the common Cucum ber in stalks, lying flatupontheground, long branched,andrough.Theleaves bemuchalike, yet are they lesser, rounder,andnot so cornered: the floures in like manner bee yellow; the fruit is bigger,atthefirst somwhathairy, somthing long, nowandthen somwhatround;oftentimes greater,andmany times lesser:thebarkeorrinde isofan over worne russet greene colour, ribbedandfurrowed very deepely, having often chapsSpanish Melonorchinksanda confused,roughnesse:thepulporinner substance which is to be eatenisofa fein t yellow colour; the middlepartwhereof is fullofa slimie moisture: amongst which is containedtheseed, like of thoseoftheCucumber,butlesser,andofa browner colour.ThesugarMelonhathlong trailing stalks lyingupon183

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Julytheground,whereon are set small clasping tendre1s like thoseoftheVine,andalso leaves likeuntothecommonCucumber,butofagreenercolour:thefruitcommeth forthamongthose leaves,standinguponslender foot stalkes,roundasthefruitofColoquintida,andofthe same bignesse,ofamostpleasant taste like sugar, whereofittookethesyrnameSaccharatus.TheSpanishMelonbringsforthlongtrailing branches,wheronare setbroadleaves slightlyindentedaboutthe edges,notdividedatall, as are alltherestoftheMelons.Thefruitgrowethneereuntothestalke.Theydelightinhotregions,notwithstandingI have seenattheQueenshouseatS.Jamesmanyofthefirstsortripe,throughthediligentandcurious nourishingofthembya skilfullgentlemanthekeeperofthesaid house calledMr.Fowle:andinotherplaces neere therighthonourableLordofSussex his houseofBermondseybyLondon,whereyearelythereisverygreatplenty, especiallyiftheweatherbeanythingtemperat.GOURDSThereare divers sortsofGourds, some wilde, otherstameofthegarden:somebearingfruitlikeuntoa bottle; others long,biggerattheend,keepingno certain form or fashion; some greater,otherslesse.TheGourdbringethforthverylongstalks asbethoseoftheVine, corneredandpartedintodivers branches, whichwithhis clasping tendrelstakethholdandclymethuponsuchthingsasstandneereuntoit:theleaves beeverygreat, broad,andsharpepointed, almost asgreatasthoseoftheClot-burre,butsofter,andsomwhatcovered asitwerewitha white freese, asbealsothestalkes and branches, like thoseofthemarishMallow:thefloures be white,andgrowforthfromthebosomeoftheleaves:intheirplaces comeupthefruit,whicharenotallofone 184

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Marvell of Perufashion, for oftentimes they have the formeofflagons and bottles, with a great large bellyanda small necke.TheGourd (saithPliny, lib.19.cap.s.)groweth into any forme or fashionthatyou would haveit;either like unto a wreathed Dragon, the legofa man,orany other shape, according to the mold whereinitisputwhileitisyang:being suffered to clyme upon anyarborwhere the fruit may hang,ithathbin seen to be nine foot long, by reason of his great weight whichhathstretcheditoutinthelength: the rinde whenitis ripe,isvery hard, woody,andof a yellow colour: the meatorinward pulpeiswhite; the seed long, flat, pointedatthe top, broad, below, with two peaks standingoutlike homes, white within,andsweet of taste. Gourds are cherished in the gardensofthese cold regions rather for pleasure than profit: in the hot coun tries where they come to ripenes they are sam times eaten, but with small delight; especially they arekeptfor the rinds, wherein theyputturpentine, aile, hony, and also serve them as pales to fetch water in,andmany other the like uses. A long Gourd or Cucumber being laid in the cradleorbed by theyanginfant whilest it is asleepandsickeofan ague,itshall be very quickly made whole.THEMARVELLOFTHEWORLDThis admirable Plant, called the MarvellofPeru,or the MarvelloftheWorld,springs forthofthegroundlike unto Basil in leaves; among whichitsendethouta stalketwocubitsanda halfe high,ofthe thicknesseofa finger,fullofjuice, very firme,andofa yellowish green colour, knottedorkneed with joints somewhat bunching forth, of purplish colour, as in the female Balsamina: which stalke dividethitselfe intosundrybranchesorboughes, and those also knottie like the stalke.Hisbranches areI8S

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TheMarvellofPeruAugustdecked with leaves growingbycouplesatthe joints like the leavesofwilde Peascods, greene, fleshy,andfull ofjoints;which beingrubbeddoe yeeld the like unpleasant smell as wilde Peascods do,andare in taste also very un savory, yet inthelater end they leave a tastandsharp smackofTabaco.Thestalks toward the top are garnished with long hollow singlefloures, folded asitwere intofiveparts before they be opened;butbeing fully blown,doresembletheflouresofTa baco, notendingin sharp corners,butblunt& round as the floursofBindweed, and largerthanthe flouresofTa baco,glittering oft times with a fine purple or crimson colour, many timesofan horse-flesh, sometimes yellow, sometimes pale,andsomtime resem bling an oldredoryellow colour; sometime whitish, and most commonly two colours occupyinghalfthe floure,orintercoursingthewhole floure with streaksororderly streames, now yellow,nowpurple, dividedthroughthe whole, having sometime great, somtime little spotsofa purple colour, sprinkled and scattered in a most variableorderandbrave mixture.Thegroundor fieldofthewhole floure is either pale, red, yellow,orwhite, containing inthemiddleofthehollow nesse a pricke or pointal setroundabout with six small stringsorchives.Thefloures are very sweetandpleasant, resemblingtheNarcisseor white Daffodill,andare very186

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Marvell oj Perusuddenly fading; foratnightthey are floured wide open, and so continueuntill eightofthe clocke the next morning, at which time they begin to close (afterthemanerofBindweed) especiallyiftheweather be veryhot:buttheaire being temperat, they remain openthewhole day,andare closed onlyatnight,andso perish, one floure lasting but oneIy one day, likethetrueEphemerumorHemerocallis.Thismarvellous variety dothnotwithout causebringadmiration to allthatobserve it.Forifthefloures be gatheredandreserved in severall papers,andcompared with those flouresthatwillspringandflourishthenext day, you shall easily perceivethatone isnotlike anotherincolour,thoughyou shall compare onehundredwhich floure one day,andanotherhundredwhich yougatherthenext day,andso from day to dayduringthetimeoftheir flouring.Itbringethnewfloures fromJulyuntoOctoberin infinitenumber,yea even untiII the frosts doe causethewhole plant to perish: notwithstanding it may be reservedinpots,andset in chambersandcellars that are warme, and so defended from the injurieofourcold climate; provided alwaiesthatthere be not any water castuponthepot, or set forth to takeanymoisture in the aire untiIIMarchfollowing; at which time itmustbe taken forthofthepotandreplanted inthegarden. By this meanes I have preserved many (though to small purpose) because I have sowne seedsthathave borne floures in as ample mannerandin as good time as those reserved plants.Ofthis wonderfull herbe there beothersorts,butnotso amiableorso fullofvarietie,andforthemostparttheirfloures are allofone color.ButI have sincebypractise foundoutanother way to keepetheroots for the yere following with very little difficuItie, which never faileth. Atthefirst frost I diguptherootsandputuporratherhide the roots in abutterferkin,orsuch like vessell, filled187

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August withthesandofa river,thewhich I suffer still to standinsome cornerofan house whereitnever receiveth moistureuntill AprillorthemidstofMarch,iftheweather be warme;atwhich timeItakeitfromthesandandplant it inthegarden, whereitdothflourish exceeding well and increaseth by roots; whichthatdothnotwhich was either sowneofseedthesame yeere, nor those plantsthatwere preserved aftertheothermanner.MADDEAPPLESRagingAppleshatharoundstalkeoftwo foot high, divided intosundrybranches, set with broad leaves somewhatindentedabouttheedges,notunliketheleaves of whiteHenbane,ofa darke browne greene colour, somewhatrough.Amongthewhich cometheflouresofa white colour,andsomtimes changing into purple, madeofsix parts wide open like a star, with certain yellow chivesorthrumsinthemiddle: which being past,thefruit comes in place, set in a cornered cuporhuskeafter themannerofgreatNightshade,greatandsomewhat long,ofthebignesseofa Swans egge,andsometimes much greater,ofa white colour, somtimes yellow,andoften brown, wherein is contained small flat seedofa yellow colour.Theroot is thick, with many threds fastned there to.ThisPlantgrowes inEgyptalmost every whereinsandy fields evenofitselfe,bringingforth fruitofthe bignesseofa great Cucumber, asPetrus Belloniuswriteth,lib.2.ofhis singular observations.Wehadthesame inourLondon gardens, whereithath borne floures;butWinterapproaching beforethetime of ripening,itperished: neverthelesseitcame to beare fruitofthebignesofa gooseeggoneextraordinarie temperate yeare, as I did see inthegardenofa worshipfull merchantMr.Harvyin Limestreet;butnever tothefull ripenesse.188

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Apples ojLoveThepeopleofToledoeat them withgreatdevotion, being boiled with fat flesh,puttingtoitsome scraped cheese, which theydokeep in vineger, hony,orsalt pickle all winter.Petrus BelloniusandHermolaus Barbarusreport,ThatinEgypt&Barbary they use to eat the fruitofMala insanaboiledorrostedunderashes, with oile, vineger, and pepper, as people use to eat M ushroms.ButIratherwishEnglishmento content themselves withthemeatand sauceofourowne country,thanwith fruitandsauce eaten with such perill; for doubtlesse these Apples have a mischievous qualitie,theuse whereof is utterly to bee forsaken. As wee seeandknow many have eatenanddo eat M ushroms more for wantonneseethanforneed;for there are two kindstherofdeadly, which being dressed byanunskilfull cooke may procure untimelydeath:itis there forebetterto esteem this plantandhaveitinthegardenforyourpleasureandtherarenesse thereof,thanfor any vertueorgood qualitiesyetknowne.ApPLESOFLOVETheAppleofLovebringethforth very longroundstalkes or branches, fatandfullofjuice, trailingupontheground,not able to sustain himselfeuprightbyreasonofthetendernesseofthestalkes,andalsothegreatweightoftheleavesandfruit wherewithitis surcharged.Theleaves are great,anddeeply cutorjaggedabouttheedges,notunlike totheleavesofAgrimonie,butgreater,andofa whiter greene colour:Amongstwhich come forth yellow floures growinguponshortstemsorfootstalkes, clustering together in bunches: which being fallen there doe come in place faireandgoodly apples, chamfered, uneven,andbunchedoutin many places;ofabrightshiningred colour,andthebignesseofa goose eggeora large pippin.Thepul peormeatis very fullofmoisture, soft, reddish,189

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Augustandofthe substanceofa wheat plumme.Theseedissmall, flat andrough:the root smallandthreddy: the whole plantisofa rankeandstinking savour.Therehathhappened untomyhands another sort, agreeing very notably with the former, as well in leaves and stalkesasalso in flouresandroots, on ely the fruit hereof was yellowofcolour, whereinconsisteth the difference. ApplesofLove grow in Spaine, Italie, and such hot Countries, from whencemyselfe have received seeds formygarden, where theydoeincreaseandprosper. Itissowne in the beginningofA prill in a bedofhothorsedung,after the maner of muske Melonsandsuch like cold fruits.TheA ppleofLoveiscalled in LatinePomum Aureum, Poma Am oris,andLycopersi cum:ofsome,Glaucium:inEnglish, ApplesofLove, and Golden Apples: in French,Pommesd'amours.Howbeit there be other golden Apples whereof the Poets doe fable,ApplesofLovegrowing intheGardensofthe daughtersofHesperus,which aDragonwas appointedtokeepe, who,asthey fable, was killed byHercules.TheGolden Apple, with the whole herbeitselfeiscold, yet not fully so cold asMandrake,after the opinionof Dodontus. Butinmyjudgementitisvery cold,yeaperhaps in the highest degreeofcoldnesse:myreasonis,because I have in the hottest timeofSummer cutaway19

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Thornie Applesthe superfluous branches from themotherroot,andcast them away carelesly in the alliesofmyGarden, the which (notwithstanding the extreme heateofthe Sun, the hard nesseofthe trodden allies, andatthattime when no rain at all did fal) have growneasfresh where I cast them,asbefore I didcutthem off; which argueth the great cold nesse contained therein.Trueitis,thatitdoth argue also a great moisture wherewith the plant is possessed,butasI have said, not without great cold, which I leave to every mans censure.InSpaineandthosehotRegions they use to eate the Apples preparedandboiled with pepper, salt, and oyle: but they yeeld very little nourishment to the body,andthe samenaughtandcorrupt. Likewise they doe eate the Apples with oile, vinegre and pepper mixed together for sauce to their meat, evenaswe in these cold countries doeMustard.THORNIEApPLESThestalkesofThorny-apples are oftentimes above a cubit and a halfe high, seldome higher, an inch thicke,uprightand straight, having very few branches, sometimes none at all,butoneuprightstemme: whereupon doegrowleaves smoothandeven, littleornothing indented about the edges, longerandbroader than the leavesofNightshade,orofthemad Apples.Thefloures come forthoflong toothed cups, great, white,ofthe formeofa bell,orliketheflouresofthegreatWithwindethatrampeth in hedges;butaltogether greaterandwider in the mouth, sharpe corneredatthebrimmes, with certaine white chivesorthreds in the middest,ofastrongponticke savour, offending the head whenitissmelledunto:in the placeofthe floure commethuproundfruit fullofshortandbluntpricklesofthebignesseofa greenWallnut whenitisatthe biggest, in which are the seedsofthe191

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Augustbignesseoftaresorofthe seedofMandrakes,andofthe same forme.Theherbeitselfe isofastrongsavor, anddothstuffethehead,andcauseth drowsinesse.Therootissmallandthreddy.Thereis another kinde hereof altogether greater than the former, whose seeds I receivedoftherighthonourabletheLordEdwardZouch;which hebroughtfrom Con stantinople,andofhis liberalitie did bestowthemupon me, as also manyotherrareandstrange seeds;anditisthatThorn-applethatI have dispersedthroughthis land, whereofatthis present I have great use in Surgery;aswell in burningsandscaldings, as also in virulent and maligne ulcers, apostumes,andsuch like.Thewhich planthatha very great stalke in fertile ground, bigger than aman'sarme, smoothandgreeneofcolour, which a little above thegrounddividethitselfe intosundrybranches or armes in mannerofan hedge tree;whereupon are placed manygreatleavescutandindented deepely about the edges, with many uneven sharpe corners: among these leaves come whiteroundfloures madeofone piece in mannerofa bell,shuttingit selfeupclose toward night,asdoetheflouresofthegreatBinde-weed, whereunto itisvery like,ofa sweet smell,butso strong,thatitoffends the sences.Thefruit followeth round, sometimesofthe fashionofan egge, set about on everypartwith most sharpe prickles; wherein is contained verymuchseed ofthebignesseoftares,andofthesame fashion.Therootisthicke, madeofgreatandsmall strings: this plantissowen, beareth his fruit,andperisheththesame yeare.ThejuiceofThorn-apples boiled with hogs grease to the formofanunguentorsalve, cures all inflammations whatsoever, allmannerofburningsorseal dings, as welloffire, water, boiling lead, gun-pouder, asthatwhich comes by lightning,andthatin very short time, as my selfe have found bymydaily practise, tomygreatcreditandprofit.Thefirst experience came from Colchester,192

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Bitter-sweetwhere MistresseLobela merchants wife there being most grievouslyburnedby lightning,andnot finding easeorcure in any other thing, by this found helpeandwas per fectly cured when all hope was past, by the reportofMr.William Rampublique Notarieofthe said towne.Theleaves stamped smallandboiled with oile Olive untill the herbs be asitwere burnt, then strainedandset to the fire again, with some wax, rosin,anda littleturpentine,andmade into a salve, doth most speedily cure new and fresh wounds.BITTER-SWEET,ORWOODDYNIGHTSHADEBitter-sweetbringethforth wooddy stalks as doththeVine, parted intomanyslendercreeping branches,bywhichitclimethandtaketh holdofhedgesandshrubs nextuntoit.Thebarkeofthe oldest stalks areroughandwhitish,ofthecolourofashes, withtheoutwardrindofabrightgreen colour,buttheyonger branches aregreenas are the leaves: the woodbrittle, having in it a spongiepith:itis clad with long leaves, smooth, sharp pointed, lesserthanthoseoftheBindweed.Atthelowerpartofthe same leavesdothgrow on either side one smal or lesser leafe likeBitter-sweetuntotwo eares.Theflouresbesmall,andsomewhat clustered together, consistingof193

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Augustfive little leaves apieceofa perfect blew colour, with a certain prickeoryellow pointal inthemiddle:whichbeingpast,theredocome in place faire berriesmorelongthanround,atthefirst green,butrveryredwhenthey be ripe;ofa sweet tasteatthefirst,butafter veryunpleas ant,ofastrongsavor,growingtogetherin clusters likeburnishedcoral.Theroot isofa mean bignesse,andfullofstrings. I havefoundanothersortwhichbringethforthmost pleasant white flours,withyellow pointalsinthemiddle: inotherrespectsagreeingwiththeformer. Bitter-sweet growes in moist placesaboutditches, rivers,andhedges, almost everie where.Theothersortwiththewhite floures Ifoundin a ditch side, againsttherighthonourabletheEarleofSussex hisgardenwall,athis house in BermondseystreetbyLondon, asyougofromthecourtwhich is fulloftrees,untoa ferm house neere thereunto.Theleaves comeforthinthespring,theflours in July,theberries are ripe inAugust.ThelaterHerbaristshavenamedthisplantDulcamara, Amaro dulcis,&Amaradulcis ; PlinycallethitMe/anum: Theaphrastus, Vitis sylvestris:inEnglishwe callitBitter sweet,andwooddyNightshade.ButeveryAuthormustfor his credit say something,althoughbutto smal pur pose; for Vitis sylvestrisisthatwhich wee callourLadies Seale, which is nokindeofNightshade.MANDRAKEThemaleMandrakehathgreatbroadlongsmooth leavesofadarkegreenecolour, flatspredupontheground:amongwhich comeuptheflouresofa pale whit ish colour,standingeveryoneupona single small and weake foot-stalkeofa whitishgreenecolour:intheir placesgrowroundApplesofa yellowish colour, smooth,194

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Mandrakesoft,andglittering,ofastrongsmell: in which are con tained flatandsmooth seeds in fashionofa little kidney, like thoseofthe Thorne-apple.Theroot is long, thicke, whitish, divided many times into two or three parts resembling the legsofa man, asithathbeenreported;whereas intruthit is no otherwise than intherootsofcarrots, parseneps,andsuch like, forkedordivided into twoormore parts, whichNaturetaketh no account of.Therehathbeene many ridiculous talesbroughtupofthis plant, whetherofold wives,orsome runnagate Surgeons or Physicke-mongers I know not, (a title badenoughfor them)butsure some oneormoethatsoughtto make themselves famousandskilfull above others, werethefirst brochersofthaterrour I speake of.Theyadde further,Thatitis neverorvery seldome to be found growing naturallybutundera gallowes, wherethematterthathath fallen fromthedead bodyhathgivenitthe shapeofa man;andthematterofa woman, the substanceofa female plant; with many other such doltish dreames.Theyfablefurtherandaffirme,Thathe who would takeupa plant thereofmusttie a dog therunto to pullitup, which will give agreatshreekeatthediggingup;otherwiseifa man should do it, he should surely die in short space after. Besides many fablesoflovingmatters, too fullofscurrilitietoset forth in print, which I forbeare to speake of. All which dreamesandold wives tales you shall from henceforth castoutofyour bookesandmemory; knowing this,thatthey are allandeveriepartofthemfalseandmostuntrue:for Imyselfeandmyservants also have diggedup,planted,andreplanted very many,andyetnever could either perceive shapeofmanorwoman,butsometimes one streight root, sometimes two,andoftensi,xorseven branches comming fromthemainegreatroot, even asNaturelist to bestowuponit, as tootherplants. Buttheidle dronesthathave littleornothingto dobuteateanddrinke, have bestowed someoftheir time in195

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Augustcarving the rootsofBrionie, formingthemtotheshape of menandwomen: which falsifying practisehathconfirmed theerrouramongstthesimpleandunlearned people, who have takenthemupontheirreportto be thetrueMandrakes.ThefemaleMandrakeis likeuntothemale, savingthattheleaves hereof beofa more swartorclarke greene colour:andthe fruit is long like a peare,andtheotherlike an apple.Mandrakegroweth inhotRegions, in woods and mountaines, as inmountGarganus in Apulia,andsuch like places; we havethemonely planted in gardens, and arenotelsewhere to be found inEngland.Mandrakeiscalled Circtea, ofCircethewitch, who byartcould procure love: forithathbeenethoughtthattheRoothereof serveth to win love.Thewine whereintheroothathbeen boyled or infused provoketh sleepeandasswageth paine.Thesmellofthe Apples moveth to sleepe likewise;butthejuice worketh more effectuallyifyou takeitin small quantitie. Greatandstrange effects are supposed to bee inMandrakes, to cause women to be fruitfullandbeare children,ifthey shallbutcarry the same neere to their bodies. Some do from hencegroundit, forthatRaheldesired to havehersistersMandrakes(asthetext is translated)butifwelook well intothecircumstances whichtherewe shall finde, we may rather deemitotherwise. YongRubenbroughthome amiableandsweet-smelling floures, (forsosignifieththeHebrewword, usedCantic.7.13.in the same sence) rather for their beautyandsmell, than for their vertue.NowintheflouresofMandrakethere isnosuch delectableoramiable smell as was in these amiable floures whichRubenbroughthome. Besides, we reade notthatRahelconceived hereupon, forLeahJacobswife had foure children before Godgrantedthatblessingoffruit fulnesseuntoRahel.Andlastofall, (which ismychiefest19 6

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ThetruefigureofGingerGingerreason)Jacobwas angry withRahelwhen shee said, Give mee childrenorels I die;anddemandedofher, whether he were inthesteadofGodorno, who had withheld from her the fruitofherbody.Andwe know theProphetDavidsaith, Children&the fruitofthe womb are the inheritance that commethoftheLord,Psal.127.GINGERGinger is most impatientofthecoldnesseoftheseourNortherneregions, as my selfe have foundbyproofe, forthatthere have beenebroughtuntome at severall timessundryplants thereof, fresh, greene,andfullofjuice, as well fromtheWestIndies, as from Bar baryandother places; which have sproutedandbuddedforth greene leaves inmygarden in the heateofSum mer,butas soone asithathbeenebuttouched withthefirst sharpe blastofWinter,ithathpresently perishedbothbladeandroot.Thetrueforme or picturehathnot be fore this time been set forth by anythathath written,butthe worldhathbeene deceived by a counterfeit figure. Ginger groweth in Spaine, Barbary, in the Canarie Islands,andthe Azores.Ourmen who sackedDomingointhe Indies, diggeditupthere insundryplaces wilde. Ginger flourisheth inthehottimeofSommer,andlosethhisleaves inWinter.197

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AugustGinger, asDioscoridesreporteth, isrightgood with meat in sauces,orotherwise in conditures; foritisofan heating and digesting qualitie,andis profitable for the stomacke,andeffectually opposethitselfe against all darknesseofthesight;answering the qualitiesandeffectsofpepper.HENBANEThecommon blackeHenbanehathgreatandsoft stalkes, leaves very broad, soft,andwoolly, somewhat jagged, especially thosethatgrow neere totheground,andthosethatgrowuponthestalke, narrower, smaller,andsharper,thefloures are bell-fashion,ofa feint yellowish white,andbrowne within towardsthebottome: when the floures are gone, there come hardknobbyhusks like small cupsorboxes, wherein are small brown seeds. BlackeHenbanegrows almost every where by high ways, in the bordersoffields about dunghilsanduntoiled places: the whiteHenbaneis not foundbutin the gardensofthosethatlove physicall plants:thewhich growethinmy garden,anddothsowitselfe from yeare to yeare.Henbanecauseth drowsinesse,andmitigatethallkindeofpaine:itis good againsthot&sharp distillationsofthe eyesandother parts.Theleaves stamped withtheointmentPopuleon,madeofPoplarbuds, asswageth the painofthegout.Towash the feet inthedecoctionofHenbanecauseth sleepe;andalso the often smelling to the floures.Theleaves, seed,andjuicetaken inwardly causeanunquietsleep likeuntothesleepeofdrunkennesse, which continueth long,andis deadly to the party.Theroot boiled with vinegre,&thesame holden hot inthemouth, easeththepainoftheteeth.Theseedisused byMountibanktooth-drawers whichrunabout the country, to cause worms come forthofthe teeth, by burn19 8

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YellowHenbaneing It In a chafing dishofcoles, the party holding his mouth over the fume thereof:butsome crafty companions to gain mony convey small lute-strings intothewater, persuading the patient, that those small creepers cameoutofhismouthor other parts.which he intended to ease.YELLOWHENBANE,ORENGLISHTABACOYellowHenbanegroweth totheheightoftwo cubits: the stalke is thicke, fat,andgreenofcolour, fulofa spongeous pith,andis divided intosundrybranches, set with smoothandeven leaves, thickeandfullofjuice.Thefloures grow at the topsofthe branches, orderly placed,ofa pale yellow color, somthing lesser than thoseofthe black Henbane.Thecups whereinthefloures do stand, are like, but lesser, tenderer,andwithout sharpe points, wherein is set the huske or cod somwhat round, fullofvery smal seed like the seedofmarjerom.Theroot is smallandthreddy. YellowHenbaneis sowne in gardens, whereitdothprosper exceedingly, insomuchthatit cannot be destroied where ithathonce sownitself,&itis dispersed into most partsofLondon.Itfloureth inthesummer moneths,andoftentimes till Autumne be farre spent, in which timetheseed commethtoperfection. YellowHenbaneiscalledHyoscyamus luteus:ofsome,Nicotiana,ofNicotaFrenchmanthatbroughtthe seeds from the Indies, as also the seedsofthetrueTabaco, whereof thishathbin taken for akind;insomuchthatLobelhathcalled itDubius Hyoscyamus,ordoubtfullHenbane,asa plant participatingofHenbaneandTabaco:and it is usedofdivers in steadofTabaco,andcalledbythe same name, forthatithathbinbroughtfromTrinidada; a place so called in the Indies, as also from Virginia 199

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Augustandotherplaces, forTabaco;anddoubtlesse, taken in smokeitworkeththesamekindofdrunkennesse thattherightTabacodoth.Thisherbavaileth against all botches,andsuch like, beeing made into anunguentor salve as followeth:Takeofthegreene leaves three poundsandan hal fe, stampethemvery smal in a stonemortar;ofoile Olive one quart: setthemto boile in a brasse pan or such like,upona gentle fire, continuallystirringituntill the herbs seem blacke,andwilnotboileorbubble any more:thenshall you have an excellent green oile; which beeing strained from the fecesordrosse,putthe cleareandstrained oile tothefireagain,addingthertoofwaxhalfa pound,ofrosen foure ounces,andofgood turpentine two ounces: meltthemall together,andkeepe it in pots foryouruse, to cure all cutsorhurtsin thehead;wherewith I have gotten both crownesandcredit.Itis usedofsome in steadofTabaco,butto small pur poseorprofit, althoughitdothstupifieordull the sences,andcausethatkindofgiddinesthatTabacodoth, and likewise spitting, whichanyotherherbofhottemperature will do, as Rosemary,Time,Winter-Savorie, sweet Marjerome,andsuch like:anyofthewhich I like bettertobe taken in smoke,thanthiskindofdoubtfulHenbane.TABACO,ORHENBANEOFPERUTherebe two sortsorkindsofTabaco, one greater, theotherlesser;thegreater wasbroughtintoEuropeoutoftheprovincesofAmerica, which we calltheWestIndies;theotherfromTrinidada,an Island neereuntothecontinentofthesame Indies. Some haveaddedathirdsort, and others maketheyellowHenbaneakindthereof. Tabaco,orHenbaneofPeruhathverygreatstalkes ofthebignesseofa childes arme, growing in fertileandwelldungedgroundofsevenoreightfoot high, dividing it200

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Tabaco selfe intosundrybranchesofgreatlength;whereon are placed in most comlyordervery faire long leaves, broad, smooth,andsharp pointed, soft,andofalightgreen colour, so fastnedaboutthestalke,thatthey seeme to embraceandcom passeitabout.Theflouresgrowatthetopofthestalks, in shape like a bell-floure, somewhat long and cornered, hollow within,ofalightcarnation colour, tending to whitenesse toward the brims.Theseed is con tained in long sharpe pointed codsorseed-vessels likeuntothe seedofyellowHenbane,but somewhat smaller,andbrownerofcolour.Therootisgreat, thicke,andofa wooddy substance, with some threddy strings annexed there unto.TrinidadaTabacohatha thicketoughandfibrous root, from which immediately rise up long proad leavesandsmooth,ofa greenish colour, lesse than thoseofPeru:among which risesupa stalk dividingitselfatthegroundinto divers branches, wheron are set confusedlythelikeIb tIAtthtTabaco,orHenbaneofPerueaves u esser. e op ofthestalks standuplong necked hollow flouresofa pale purpletendingto a blush colour: after which succeed the codsorseed-vessels, including many small seeds like unto the seedofMarjerom.Thewhole plant perishethatthe first approchofwinter.Thesewere firstbroughtintoEuropeoutofAmerica, which is calledtheWestIndies, in which istheprovince201

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AugustorcountreyofPeru:butbeing now planted in the gardensofEuropeitprospers very well,andcomes from seed in one yeare to beare both flouresandseed.Thewhich I take to bebetterfor the constitutionofourbodies,thanthatwhich isbroughtfromIndia;&thatgrowing inIndiabetterforthepeopleofthesamecountry:notwithstandingitis not sothoughtofourTabaconists;for according to theEnglishproverb,Farfetcht&dearboughtis best for Ladies.Tabacomustbe sowne in themostfruitfullgroundthat may be found, carelesly cast abroad in sowing, withoutrakingit in totheground,orany such pain orindustry taken as is requisit in the sowingofotherseeds, asmyself have foundbyproof, who have experimented every way to causeitquickly togrow:for I have committed some totheearthintheendofMarch,some in Aprill,andsome in thebeginningofMay,because Idurstnothasard allmyseedatone time, lest someunkindelyblast shouldhappenafterthesowing, whichmightbe agreatenemie thereunto.ThepeopleofAmerica callitPetun.Some, asLobelandPena,have givenittheseLatinenames,Sacra herba, Sancta herba,andSanasancta lndorum.Others,asDodo ntf!Us, call itHyoscyamus Peruvianus,orHenbaneofPeru.Nicolaus MonardusnamesitTabacum.ThatitisHyoscyami species,ora kindeofHenbane,notonly the forme being like to yellowHenbane,butthe qualitie alsodothdeclare; for itbringethdrowsinesse,troubleththe sences, andmaketha man asitweredrunkebytakingthefume only; asAndrewTheuettestifieth,andcommon experience sheweth:ofsomeitis calledNicotiana,the which I refer to the yellowHenbanefor distinctions sake.Tabacois a remedy for the tooth-ache,ifthe teeth andgumbsberubbedwith a linnen clothdippedin the juice,andafterward aroundballoftheleaves laiduntothe place.Theweightoffoure ouncesofthejuicehereofdrunke 202

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Tabacoprocureth afterward a longandsound sleepe, as wee have learnedofa friend by observation, who affirmed,Thata strong countreymanofa middle age having a dropsie, took it,andbeing wakenedoutofhis sleepe called formeatanddrinke,andafterthatbecame perfectly cured. Moreover,thesame man reported,Thathehadcuredmany countreymenofagues, with the distilled wateroftheleavesdrunkea little while before the fit. Likewise there is an oile to be takenoutoftheleaves that healeth merri-galls, kibed heeles,andsuch like.Thedryleaves are used to be taken in a pipe set on fire and suckt intothestomacke,andthrustforth againeatthe nosthrils, againstthepaines inthehead, rheumes, aches in anypartofthe bodie, whereof soevertheorigin all proceed, whether from France, Italy, Spaine, Indies,orfromourfamiliarandbest knowne diseases.Thoseleavesdopalliateorease for a time,butnever perform any cure absolutely: for although theyemptythebodyofhumors, yet thecauseofthegriefe cannot besotaken away.Butsome have learned this principle,Thatrepletiondothrequireevacuation;thatis to say,Thatfulnesse craveth empti nesse;andbyevacuation doe assure themselvesofhealth. But thisdothnottake away somuchwithitthis day,butthe nextbringethwithitmore.Asfor example, aWelldoth never yeeld such storeofwater as whenitismostdrawnandemptied.Myselfe speakebyproofe; who have curedofthatinfectious disease agreatmany, diversofwhichhadcoveredorkeptunderthesickenessebythehelpeofTabacoas they thought, yet intheendhave bin constrained to haveuntosuch anhardknot, acrabbedwedge,orelse had utterly perished. Some use todrinkit(asitis termed) for wantonnesse,orrather custome,andcannot forbeare it, nonotinthemidstoftheirdinner;whichkindeoftakingis unwhol someandvery dangerous:althoughto takeitseldom,andthat physically, is to be tolerated,andmay do somegood: 2

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AugustbutI commend the syrrup above this fumeorsmoky medicine.IItis takenofsome physically in a pipe once in a day atthemost,andthatinthemorningfasting, against paines inthehead, stomack,andgriefe in the brestandlungs: against catarrhsandrheums,andsuch as havegottencoldandhoarsen esse.Theythathave seene the proofe hereof, have credibly reported,ThatwhentheMooresandIndians have fainted either forwantoffoodorrest, thishathbin a present remedieuntothem, to supplytheone,andtohelpthemto the other.ThepriestsandInchantersofthehotcountries do take the fume thereof until they be drunke,thatafter they have lien for dead threeorfoure houres, they may tell the peoplewhatwonders, visions,orillusions they have seen,andso give them a prophetical directionorforetelling (if we maytrusttheDivell)ofthesuccesseoftheir businesse.Thejuyceordistilled waterofthefirstkindis very good against catarrhs,thedizzinesseofthehead, and rheumsthatfall downetheeies, againstthepain calledthemegram,ifeither you applyituntothetemples, or take oneortwo green leaves,oradryleafe moistnedinwine,anddried cunninglyuponthe embers,andlaid thereto.Itcleeres the sight,andtaketh awaythewebsandspots thereof, being annointed withthejuycebloud-warme.Theoile or juyce dropped intotheearesisgood against deafnesse; a cloth dipped in the sameandlayduponthe face, taketh awaythelentils, rednesse,andspots thereof.Manynotable medicines are madehereofagainst the oldandinveterat cough, against asthmaticallorpectorall griefes, all whichifI should set downeatlarge, would require a peculiar volume.Itis also givenuntosuch as are accustomed to swoune.Itis used in outward medicines, either the herbe boiled 204

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Tabacowith oile, wax, rosin,andturpentine, as before is set downeinyellowHenbane,ortheextractionthereofwith salt, oile, balsam,thedistilled water,andsuch like, against tumours, apostumes, old ulcersofhardcuration, botches, scabbes, stinging with nettles, carbuncles, poisoned arrowes,andwounds made withgunnesoranyotherweapons.Itis excellent good inburningsandscaldings with fire, water, oile, lightning,orsuch like, boiled with hogges grease into the formeofan ointment, as I have often prooved,andfound mosttrue;addinga littleofthejuiceofThorne-Appleleaves, spreadingitupona clothandso applying it. I doe make hereof an excellent Balme to cure deep woundsandpunctures madebysome narrow sharpe pointed weapon.WhichBalsamedothbringuptheflesh fromthebottome verie speedily,andalso heale simple cuts intheflesh according to the first intention,thatis,togleworsoderthelipsofthe wound together,notprocuringmatterorcorruption to it, as is commonly seene inthehealingofwounds.TheReceit isthis:TakeOileofRoses, OileofS.JohnsWort,ofeither one pinte,theleavesofTabacostamped small in a stonemortartwo pounds; boilethemtogethertotheconsumptionofthejuice, straineitandputittothefire againe,addingthereuntoofVeniceTurpentinetwo ounces, orOlibanumandMastickeofeither halfe an ounce, in most fineandsubtil pouder:thewhich you mayatall times make anunguentor salve,byputtingthereto waxandrosin to giveuntoita stiffe body, which worketh exceeding well inmalignantand virulent ulcers, as in woundsandpunctures. I send this jewelluntoyou womenofall sorts, especially such as cureandhelpethepooreandimpotentofyourcountrey without reward.Butuntothebeggarly rabbleofwitches, charmers,andsuch like couseners,thatregardmore togetmoney, than to helpe for chari tie, I wish these2

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Augustfew medicines far from their understanding,andfrom those deceivers, whom I wish to beignorantherein. But courteous gentlewomen, I maynotfor the malicethatI doe beareuntosuch, hide anythingfrom youofsuch importance:andtherefore take one morethatfolloweth, wherewith I have done manyandgood cures, althoughofsmall cost;butregarditnotthe lesse forthatcause.TaketheleavesofTabacotwo pounds,Hogsgrease one pound, stampe the herbe small in a stone morter, putting thereto a small cup fullofredorclaret wine, stirre them well together, coverthemorterfrom filth,andso let it rest untillmorning;thenputitto the fireandletitboile gently, continually stirringituntilltheconsumptionof the wine: straineitandsetittothefire againe, putting thereto thejuyceoftheherbeone pound,ofVenice turpentine foure ounces; boilethemtogetherto the consumptionofthejuice,thenadde thertooftheroots ofroundAristolochiaorBirthworth in most finepoudertwo ounces, sufficient wax to giveitabody;thewhich keep forthywounded poore neighbor.THEGARDENMALLOWCALLEDHOLLYHOCKEThetame or garden Mallowbringethforth broad round leavesofa whitish greene colour, rough,andgreater than thoseofthe wilde Mallow:thestalke is streight,oftheheightoffoureorsix cubits; whereon dogrowupon slender foot-stalks single floures,notmuchunlike to the wilde Mallow,butgreater, consisting onlyoffive leaves, sometimes whiteorred, nowandthenofa deep purple colour, varying diversly asNaturelist to play withit:intheir places growethuparoundknop like a little cake, compactormadeupofa multitudeofflat seeds like little cheeses.Theroot is long, white, tough, easily bowed,andgroweth deep in theground.206

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NigellaThedouble Hollihocke with purple floures hathgreatbroad leaves, confusedly indented about the edges,andlikewise toothed like a saw.TheseHollihockes are sowne in gardens, almost every where,andare in vainesoughtelsewhere.Thesecond yeere after they are sowne they brine forth their floures inJulyandAugust, when the seedisripe the stalke withereth, the root remainethandsendeth forth new stalkes, leavesandfloures, many yeares after.TheHollihocke is calledofdi vers,Rosa ultra-marina,orout landish Rose.GITH,ORNIGELLANigella, which isbothfaireandpleasant, called Damaske Nigella,isvery like unto the wilde Nigella in his smallcutandjaggedleaves,Doublepurple HollIhocke buthis stalke is longer: the floursaregreater,andevery flourehathfive small greene leaves under him, asitwere tosupportandbeare himup:which floures being gone, there succeedandfollow knopsandseed liketheformer,butwithout smellorsavour.Thetame are sowne in gardens: the wilde ones doe grow of themselves among corneandother graine, in divers countries beyond the seas. Gith is called in Italian,Nigella:in English, Gith,andNigella Romana, in Cambridgeshire, Bishops wort:andalso Dhja? Catherina? j1os,Saint Katharines floure.Theseed parchedordriedatthe fire,broughtinto2

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August pouder,andwrapped in a pieceoffine lawneorsarcenet,curethall murs, catarrhes, rheumes,andthepose, drieththebraine,andrestoreththesenceofsmellinguntothose which have lost it, being often smelleduntofrom day to day,andmade warme at the fire when it is used.Ittakes away freckles, being laid on mixed with vineger.Tobe briefe,asGalensaith,itis a most excel lent remedy.Itserveth well amongothersweets toputinto sweet waters, bagges,andodori ferous pouders.FLouRE-GENTLE Therebe divers sorts of Floure-gentle, differinginmany points very notably, as in greatnesseandsmal nesse; some purple, andiDamaskeNigellaothersofa skarlet colour;andone abovetherest wherewithNaturehathseemedtodelight her selfe, especially in the leaves, which in variable colours strives withtheParratsfeathers for beauty.PurpleFloure-gentle risethupwith a stalke a cubit high,andsomtimes higher, streakedorchamfered alongstthesame, often reddish towardtheroot,andvery smooth; which dividesitself towardthetop into smal branches, about which stand long leaves, broad, sharpe pointed, soft, slipperie,ofa greene colour,andsometimestendingto a reddish: in steadoffloures comeupearesorspoky tufts, very brave to look upon,butwithout smel,ofa shining208

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Floure-Gentlelight purple, with a glosse like Velvet,butfar passingit:which when they are bruised doe yeeld ajuicealmostofthe same colour,andbeing gathered, doe keep their beauty a long time after; insomuchthatbeingset in water,itwill revive again asatthe timeofhis gathering,andremaineth so,manyyeares; whereupon likewiseithathtakenit'sname.Theseed standeth intheripe eares,ofcolour blacke,andmuchglittering:theroot isshortand fullofstrings.Itfarre exceedethmyskilltodescribethebeautyandexcellencieofthis rareplantcalledFloramor;andIthinkethe pensil <;>f themost curious painter will beata stay, whenheshall come to setitdowneinhis lively colours.Butto colour it aftermybest manner, this I say,Floramorhatha thickeknobbyroot, whereondogrow many threddiestrings;PurpleF1oure-Gentlefrom which riseth a thicke stalke,buttenderandsoft, which beginneth to divideitselfe intosundrybranchesatthegroundandso upward, whereupondothgrowmany leaves, whereindothconsist his beauty: for infewwords, everie leafe resembleth in colourthemost faireandbeautifull featherofaParatespecially those feathersthatare mixed withmostsundrycolours,asastripeofred,anda lineofyellow, a dashofwhite,anda ribofgreen colour, which I cannot with words set forth, such are thesundrymixturesofcoloursthatNaturehathbestowed inhergreatest jolitie,uponthis floure.Thefloure doth grow2

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Augustbetweenethefoot-stalksofthose leaves,andthebodyofthestalkeortrunke, base,andofnomomentin respectofthe leaves, being asitwere little chaffie husksofan overworne tawny colour:theseed is black,andshininglike burn ished horne.Thesepleasant floures are sowne in gardens, especially for theirgreatbeautie.Theyfloure inAugust,andcon tinue flourishing tillthefrost overtake them,atwhattime they perish.Itis reported they stop all kin desofbleeding; whichisnotmanifestbyanyapparantquality in them, except per adventure bythecolour onelythattheredeares have: for some areofopinion,thatall red things stanch bleedinginanypartofthebody: because some thingsofredcolour doe stop bloud:ButGalen, lib.2& 4.desimp. jacult.plainly sheweth,thatthere can be no certainty gathered from the colours, touching the vertuesofsimpleandcompoundmedicines: wherefore they are ill persuaded, thatthinkethefloure Gentle to stanch bleeding, becauseofthe colour onely,iftheyhadnootherreason to induce them thereto. Go LDENRODGoldenRodhathlong broad leaves somewhat hoary and sharpepointed;among which riseupbrowne stalkestwofoot high, dividing themselves towardthetop into sundry branches, chargedorloden with small yellow floures; which when they be ripeturninto downe which is carried away withthewinde.Itis extolled above allotherherbes forthestopping of bloud in bleedingwounds;andhathin times past beenehadin greater estimationandregardthanin these daies: for inmyremembrance I have knownthedryherbe which came from beyondthesea sold in Bucklersbury in London for halfe a crowne an ounce.Butsinceitwas foundin210

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MarigoldsHampsteadwood, even asitwereatourtownes end, no man will give halfe a crowne for anhundredweightofit:which plain ely setteth forthourinconstancieandsuddenmutabilitie, esteeming no longerofany thing, how pretious soeveritbe,thanwhilestitis strangeandrare.ThisverifiethourEnglishproverbe,Farfetchtanddeareboughtis best for Ladies.Yetitmay be more truely saidofphantasticall Physitions, who when they have found an approved medicineandperfect remedy neere home against any disease; yetnotcontent therewith, they will seeke for a new farther off,andbythatmeanes many timeshurtmore than they helpe.ThusmuchI have spoken tobringthese new fangled fellowes backe againe to esteemebetterofthis admirableplantthanthey have done, which nodoubthavethesame vertue nowthatthen it had, althoughitgrowes so neereourowne homes in never sogreatquantity.MARIGOLDSThegreatest doubleMarigoldhathmany large, fat,broadleaves,springingimmediatly from a fibrousorthreddyroot:theuppersidesoftheleaves areofa deepe greene, and the lower sideofa morelightandshininggreene:among which riseupstalkes somewhat hairie,andalso somewhatjoynted,andfullofa spungeous pith.Thefloures inthetop are beautifull, round, very largeanddouble, something sweet, with a certainestrongsmell, of alightsaffron colour,orlikepuregold:fromthewhich follow anumberoflong crooked seeds, especially the outmost,orthosethatstandabouttheedgesofthefloure; which being sowne commonlybringforth single floures, whereas contrariwise those seeds inthemiddle are lesser,andforthemostpartbringforth such floures as that was from whenceitwas taken.ThisfruitfullormuchbearingMarigoldis likewise211

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Thegreat double MarigoldAugustcalledofthevulgar sortofwomen, Jacke-an-apes on horse backe:ithathleaves, stalkes,androots like the common sortofMarigold, differing intheshapeofhis flours, for this plantdothbringforthatthetopofthe stalke one floure liketheotherMarigolds;fromthewhichstartforthsundryothersmall floures, yellow likewise, andofthesame fashion as the first, whichifI benotde ceived commeth to passeper accidens,orby chance,asNatureoftentimes likethtoplay withotherfloures, or as children are borne with twothumbeson one hand,andsuch like, which living to be men, dogetchildren likeuntoothers;even soistheseedofthis Marigold, whichifitbe sowenitbrings forthnotone floure in a thousand liketheplan from whenceitwas taken.TheMarigold Boureth from AprillorMayeven untillWinter,andinWinteralso,ifitbee warme.ItiscalledCalendula:itis tobeseene in floure intheCalends almostofeverymoneth:it is also calledChrysanthemum,ofhis golden colour.Theyellow leavesofthefloures are driedandkeptthroughoutDutchlandagainstWinter,toputinto broths, in Physicall potions,andfor diversotherpurposes,insuch quantity,thatin some GrocersorSpice-sellers houses are to be found barrels filled with them,andretailed bythepenny moreorlesse, insomuchthat no broths are well made without dried Marigolds.212

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African MarigoldAFRICANMARIGOLDThecommon Africane,oras they vulgarly termeitFrenchMarigold,hathsmall weakeandtenderbranches trailinguponthe ground, reelingandleaning this wayandthatway, beset with leaves consistingofmany particu lar leaves, indentedabouttheedges, which being heldupagainstthesunne,ortothelight, are seene to be fullofholes like a sieve, even as thoseofSaintJohnswoort:thefloures standatthetopofthespringy branches forthoflong cupsorhusks, consistingofeightorten small leaves, yellow underneath, ontheuppersideofa deeper yellow tending tothecolourofa darke crimson velvet, as also soft inhandling:butto describe the colour in words, it is not possible,butthis way; layuponpaper with a pensill a yellow colour called Masticot, which being dry, lay the same over with a little saffron steeped in waterorwine, which setteth forth most livelythecolour.Thewhole plant isofa most rankeandunwholesome smell, and perishethatthefirst frost.Theyare cherishedandsowne in gardens every yere: they grow every where almost in Africkeofthemselves, from whence wee firsthadthem,andthatwas whenCharlesthefifth,EmperorofRomemade a famous conquestofTunis.Theunpleasant smel, especiallyofthatcommon sort with single flouresdothshewthatitisofa poisonsome and cooling qualitie;andalsothesame is manifestedbydivers experiments: for I remember, saith Dodond!Us, thatI did see a boy whose lippesandmouthwhen hee began to chewthefloures did swell extreameIy; asithathoften happeneduntothem,thatplayingorpipingwith quils or kexesofHemlockes, do holdthema while betweene their lippes: likewise he saith, we gave to a catthefloures with their cups, tempered with fresh cheese, shee forth with mightily swelled,anda little while afterdied:also213

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Augustmicethathave eatenoftheseed thereof have been found dead. All which things doe declarethatthisherbeisofa venomousandpoysonsome facultie;andthattheyarenotto be hearkned unto,thatsuppose thisherbto be a harmlesse plant: so to conclude, these plants are most venomousandfullofpoison,andthereforenotto be touchedorsmelled unto,muchlesse used inmeator medicine.FLOUREOFTHESUN,ORTHEMARIGOLDOFPERUTheIndian Sun,orthe golden floureofPeru,is a plantofsuch statureandtalnesse, that in one summer, beeing sowneofa seedin Aprill, it hath risenuptotheheightof fourteene foot inmygarden, where one floure was in weight threepoundandtwo ounces,&crosse over thwarttheflourebymeasure sixteen inches broad.Thestalks areupright&straight,ofthe bignesseofastrongmans arme, beset with large leaves even tothetop, likeuntothegreatClotbur:atthetop ofthestalk commeth forth for themostpartone floure, yetmanytimestherespringoutThegreater Sun-flouresuckingbudswhich come to no perfection: thisgreatfloure is in shape like totheCamo mil floure, besetroundabout with a paleorborderofgoodly yellow leaves, in shape liketheleavesoftheflouresofwhite214

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Sun-jloureLillies: the middle part whereof is made asitwereofunshorn velvet,orsome curiousdoathwroughtwiththeneedle: which brave worke,ifyou do thorowly viewandmarke well,itseemeth to be an innumerable sortofsmall floures, resembling the noseornosleofa candlestick broken fromthefoot thereof; from which small nosle sweats forth excellent fine anddeareturpentine, in sight, substance, savor,andtast.Thewhole plant in likemannerbeing broken smellethofturpentine: when the plant groweth to maturitie the floures fall away, in place whereof appeareth the seed, blackandlarge,muchlike the seedofGourds, set asthoughacunningworkmanhadofpurpose placed them in very good order,muchlikethehony combsofBees.Theseplants growofthemselves without settingorsowing, inPeru,andin divers other provincesofAmerica, from whence the seeds have beenebroughtinto these partsofEurop.Therehathbin seen in Spainandotherhot regionsa.plant sowneandnourishedupfrom seed, to attaine to theheightof24foot in one yeare.Theseed must be setorsowne in the beginningofApril,iftheweather be temperat, in the most fertillgroundthatmaybe,andwheretheSunhathmost power the whole day.Theflourofthe Sun is called inLatineFlos Solis,for that some have reportedittoturnwiththeSun, which I could never observe, although I have indeavored to findeoutthetruthofit:butI rather thinkeitwas so called becauseitresemblestheradiant beamsoftheSunne, whereupon some have calleditCorona Solis,andSol Indianus,the Indian Sunne-floure: others,Chrysan themum Peruvianum,orthe Golden floureofPeru:in English,thefloureofthe Sun,orthe Sun-floure.Therehathnot anythingbin set down eitherofthe antientorlater writers, concerningthevertuesofthese plants, notwithstanding we have found by triall,thatthe buds before they be floured boiledandeaten withbutter,215

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Augustvineger, and pepper, -after the mannerofArtichokes, are exceeding pleasant meat.BLEW-BoTTLEORCORNE-FLOUREThegreat Blew-Bottle hath long leaves smooth, soft, downy, and sharp pointed: among the leaves rise up crooked and pretty thicke branches, chamfered, fur rowed, and garnished with such leaves as are next theground:on the tops wherof stand faire blew flours tendingto purple, consistingofdivers little flours, set in a scaly huske or knap like thoseofKnapweed: the seedisroughor bearded at one end, smoothatthe other.Thecommon Corn-floure hath leaves somwhat hackt or cut intheedges: the floures grow at the topofthe stalks,ofa blew colour:theseed is smooth,brightshin ing, and wrapped in a woolly or flocky matter.Thefirst groweth inmygarden, and inthegardens of Herbarists,butnotwildethatI know of.Theother grows in corn fields amongWheat,Rie, Barley, and other graine: it is sowne in gardens, andbycunning looking to doth oft times becomeofother colours, and some also double.Theold Herbarists callitCyanus fios,oftheblew colour which it naturallyhath:in Italian,Baptisecula,as though it should be calledBlaptisecula,because it hindereth and annoyeth the Reapers, by dulling andturningthe edgesoftheirsidesin reapingofcorne:inEnglish it is called Blew-Bottle, Blew-Blow, Corne floure, andhurt-Side.CORNEThiskindeofWheateisthemost prineipallofall other, whose eares are altogether bareornaked, without awnes or chaffie beards.Thestalke riseth from a threddy root, 216

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Bright WheatOlescompactofmany strings, joyntedorkneedatsundrydistances; from whence shoot forth grassie bladesandleaves likeuntoRie,butbroader.Theplant is so well knowne to many,andso profitable to all,thatthe meanest and most ignorant need no larger description to know the same by.Wheat(saithGalen)isvery much usedofmen,andwith greatest profit.ThoseWheatsdonourish mostthatbe hard, and have their whole sub stance so closely compact as they can scarsely be bit asunder; for such do nourish verymuch:andthe contrary but little. Slicesoffine white bread laid to infuseorsteepe in Rose water,andso applieduntosore eyes which have manyhothumours falling into them, doe easily defend the humour, and cease the paine.Theoyleofwheat pressed forth betweene two platesofhot iron, healeth the chaps and chinksofthe hands, feet,andfundament, which comeofcold, making smooth the hands, faceorany other partofthe body.oTES Avena Vesca,common Otes, is calledVesca, a Vescendo,becauseitis used in many countries to makesundrysortsofbread, as in Lancashire, whereitistheir chiefest bread corne forJannocks,Havercakes, Tharffe cakes, 217

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Augustandthose which are called generallyOtencakes; and forthemostpartthey call the graineHaver,whereof they do likewise make drinke forwantofBarley.AvenaNudais likeuntothecommonOtes;differing in that,thatthese naked Otes immediately as they be threshed, without helpeofaMillbecome Otemealefitforouruse.Inconsideration whereof in Northfolke and Southfolke they are called unhulledornaked Otes. Someofthose good house-wivesthatdelightnotto have anythingbutfromhandto mouth, according to ourEnglishproverbe, may (while their pot doth seeth) go to the barne,andrubforth with their hands sufficient forthatpresent time,notwilling to provide for to morrow, according asthescripture speaketh,butlet the next daybringitforth. Common Otesputinto a linnen bag, with a little bay salt quilted handsomely forthesame purpose,andmadehotin a frying pan,andapplied very hot, easeththepaine intheside calledthestitch. Otemeale is good for to make a faireandweI coloured maid to looke like a cakeoftallow, especiallyifshe take nextherstomacke a gooddraughtofstrongvinegre after it.CANARIESEED,ORPETYPANICKCanarie seed,orCanarie grasse after some,hathmany small hairy roots, from which arise small strawy stalkesjoyntedlike corne, whereupon doe grow leaves like thoseofBarley, whichthewhole plant doth verywellresemble.Thesmall chaffie eare growethatthe top ofthestalk, wherein is contained small seeds like thoseofPanick,ofa yellowish colourandshining. Shakers orQuakingGrasse groweth to the height of halfe a foot,andsometimes higher, whenitgrowethinfertile medowes.Thestalke is very smallandbenty, set218

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Canarie seedwith many grassie leaves like the common medow-grasse, bearingatthe top a bushortuftofflat scaly pouches, like thoseofShepheards purse,butthicker,ofa browne colour, setuponthemostsmallandweak hairy foot stalksthatmay be found, whereupon those small pouches dohang;bymeansofwhich small hairy strings,theknapswhich are the floures do continually trembleandshake, in such sortthatitisnot possible with the most stedfasthandto hold it from shaking. Canary seed groweth naturally in Spain,andalsointheFortunator Canary Islands,andalso inEnglandoranyotherofthese cold regions,ifitbe sowne therein.QuakingPhalarisgroweth in fertile pasture, and indrymedowes.TheseCanarie seeds are sowne inMay,andare ripeinAugust. Canarie seedorCanarie Corne is calledoftheLatinesP halaris:in English, Canarie seed,andCanarie Grasse.P halaris pratensisQuaking Grasseiscalled alsoGramen tremulum:in Cheshire aboutNantwich, QuakersandShakers: in some places, Cow Quakes. Apothecaries, forwantofMillet, do use Canary Seed with good successe in fomentations; for indryfomenta tionsitserveth in stead thereof,andis hissuccedaneum,orquid proquo.Weuse it inEnglandalso to feed Canary Birds.219

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AugustHEATH,HATHER,ORLINGETherebe divers sortsofHeath,some greater, some lesser; some with broad leaves,and some narrower; somebringingforth berries,andothers nothing but floures.ThecommonHeathis a low plant,butyet wooddy and shrubby, scarce a cubithigh:it brings forth many branches, whereupon doe grow sundry little leaves somewhathardand rough, very like to those of Tamariskeorthe Cypres tree: the floures are orderly placed alongstthebranches, small, soft,andofalightred colour tending to purple: the root is also wooddy,andcreepethunderthe upper crustoftheearth:andthis is theSma111eafedHeathHeathwhichtheAntients tooke to betherightandtrueHeath.Thereis anotherHeathwhich differethnotfromtheprecedent, savingthatthisplantbringethforth floures as white as snow, wherein consisteththe wherefore we may calitErica pumila alba,DwarfeHeathwith white floures. CrossedHeathgrowes to the heightofa cubit and a hal fe, fullofbranches, commonly lying along upon the ground,ofadarkswart colour: whereon grow small leaves setatcertain spaces two upon one side,andtwo on the other, opposite, one answering another, even as do the leavesofCrossewort.Thefloures in likemannerstand along the branches crosse-fashion,ofadarkoverworne 220

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DwarfeCis/usgreenish colour.Theroot is likewise wooddy, asisall the restofthe plant.ThesteepleHeathhathlikewise many wooddy branches garnished with small leavesthateasily fall off from the dried stalks;amongwhich come forth divers little mossie greenish flouresofsmall moment.Thewhole bush for the mostpartgrowethroundtogether like a little cockofhay, broadatthe lowerpartandsharp above like a pyramideorsteeple, whereofittooke his name.Thesmall orthinneleafedHeathis also a lowandbase shrub, having many smallandslender shoots com ming from the root,ofa reddish browne colour; where upon doe grow very many small leaves not unlike tothemofcommonTyme,butmuchsmallerandtenderer:thefloursgrowin tuftsatcertaine spaces,ofa purple colour.Heathgroweth upondrymountaines which arehungryand barren, asuponHampsteedHeathneereLondon,where allthesorts do grow, exceptthatwith the white floures,andthatwhich beareth berries.Heathwiththewhite floures growethuponthe downes neereuntoGravesend.Thesekin desorsortsofHeathdo for the mostpartfloure alltheSummer, even untill the lastofSeptember.Thetender topsandfloures, saithDioscorides,are good to be laiduponthebitingsandstingingsofany venomous beast:ofthese floures the Bees dogatherbad hony.DWARFEKINDESOFCISTUSTheEnglishdwarfe Cistus is a lowandbase plant creep inguponthe ground, having many smalltoughbranches of a browne colour; wherupongrowlittle leavessettogetherbycouples, thicke, fat,andfulofsubstance,andcovered over with a soft downe; fromthebosome whereof come forthotherlesser leaves:thefloures before they be open are small knopsorbuttons,ofa browne colour 221

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Augustmixed with yellow, and beeing open and spred abroad are like thoseofthe wilde Tansie,&ofa yellow colour, with some yellower chives in the middle.Valerius CordusnamethitHelianthemum,andSolis jiosorSun-floure.Plinywriteth,thatHelianthemumgrowes in the champian countryTemiscyra in Pontus,andinThewhite dwarfe Cistwl ofGermaniethe mountainsofCilicia neere the sea: saying further,thatthe wisemenofthose countries&the KingsofPersia do anoint their bodies herewith, boiled with Lions fat, a little Saffron,andWineofDates,thatthey may seem faire and beautifull; and therefore have they calleditHeliocaliden,orthe beautyofthe Sun.CLOWNESWOUND-WORT,ORALL-HEALEClownes All-heale,ortheHusbandmansWound-wort, hath long slender square stalkesoftheheightoftwo cubits:atthe topofthe stalkes grow the floures spike fashion,ofa purple colour mixed with some few spots of white, in forme like to little hoods.222

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Clownes Wound-wortItgroweth in moist medowes by the sidesofditches, and likewise in fertile fieldsthatare somewhat moist, almost every where; especially inKentabout South-fleet, neer to Gravesend,andlikewise in the medowesbyLambethneere London.Itfloureth in August,andbringeth his seed to perfection in the endofSeptember.Theleaves hereof stamped with Axungia orhogs grease, and applied unto greene wounds in mannerofa pultesse, heale them in short time,andin such absolute manner,thatitishardfor anythathave nothadthe experience thereof to beleeve: for being inKentabout a Patient,itchancedthata poore man in mowingofPeason didcuthis leg with a sithe, wherein hee made a wound to the bones, and withall very largeandwide,andalso with great effusionofbloud; the poore man creptuntothis herbe, which he bruised with his hands, and tied a great quantitieofitunto the wound with a pieceofhis shirt, which presently stanched the bleeding,andceased the paine, insomuchthatthe pooremanpresently went to his daies worke againe,andso did from day to day, without resting one day untillhewas perfectly whole; which was accomplished in a few daies, by this herbe stamped with a little hogs grease,andso laid uponitin mannerofa pultesse, which didasitwere gleworsadder the lipsofthe wound together,andhealeitaccording to the first intention, as wee terme it,thatis, without drawingorbringing the wound to suppurationormatter; which was fully performed in seven daies,thatwould have required forty daies with balsamitselfe. I saw the wound and offered to heale the same for charity; which he refused, sayingthatI could not healeitso wellashimselfe: a clownish answer I confesse, without any thankes formygoodwill: whereupon I have nameditClownes Wound-wort, as aforesaid. Since which time my selfe have cured many grievous wounds,andsome mortall, with the same herbe; one for example done upon223

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Augusta GentlemanofGrayesInneinHolborne,Mr.EdmundCartwright,who wasthrustintothelungs,thewoundentringinatthelowerpartoftheThorax,orthe brest blade, eventhroughthatcartilaginous substance calledMucronata Carlilago,insomuchthatfrom day to daythefrothingandpuffingofthe lungs did spew forthofthewoundsuch excrements asitwas possessed of, besidestheGentleman was most dangerously vexed with a double quotidian fever; whom by Gods permission I perfectly cured in very short time,andwith this Clownes experiment,andsomeofmyforeknowne helpes, which were as followeth.FirstI framed a slightunguenthereofthus:I tooke foure handfullsofthe herbe stamped,andputtheminto a pan, whereunto I added foure ouncesofBarrowes grease, halfe a pinteofoyle Olive, wax three ounces, which I boyled unto the consumptionofthejuyce (whichisknowne whenthestuffe doth notbubbleatall) then did I straine it,puttingitto the fire againe,addingthereto two ouncesofTurpentine,the which I suffered to boile a little, reserving the same formyuse.Thewhich I warmed in a sawcer,dippingtherein small soft tents, which Iputintothewound, defending the parts adjoyning with a plaisterofCalcitheos,relented with oyleofroses: which mannerofdressingandpre serving I used even untill the wound was perfectly whole: notwithstanding once in a day I gavehimtwo spoonfullsofthis decoction following. I tooke aquartofgood Claret wine, wherein I boyled ;1.n handfulloftheleavesofSolidago Saracenica,or Saracens consound,andfoure ouncesofhoney, whereof I gave him in themorningtwo Spoonefulls to drinke in a smalldraughtofwine tempered with a little sugar.Inlike manner I cured a Shoo-makers servant inHolborne,who intended to destroy himselfe for causes knowne unto many now living:butI deemeditbetter to 224

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PIMPERNELLPimpernellPimpernel!cover the fault, than toputthe same in print, whichmightmove such a gracelesse fellow to attempt the like: his attempt was thus; First, he gave himselfe a most mortall wound in the throat, in such sort,thatwhen I gave him drinkeitcame forthatthe wound, which like wise didblowoutthe candle: another deepe and grievous wound in the brest with the said dagger,andalso two others inAbdomine:the which mortall wounds, by Gods permission, and the vertuesofthis herbe, I perfectly cured within twenty daies: for the which the nameofGod be praised. Pimpernell is likeuntoChickweed; the stalkes are foure square, trailing hereandthere upon the ground, whereupon do grow broad leaves, and sharpe pointed set togetherbycouples: fromthebosomes whereof come forth slender tendrels whereupon doe grow smallpurple floures tending to rednesse: which being past there suc ceed fineroundbul lets, likeuntothe seedofCoriander, whereiniscontained small dusty seed.Theroot consistethofslender strings.Thefemale Pimpernell differeth not from the male inanyonepoint,butin the colourofthefloures; for like 225

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Augustas the former hath reddish floures, this plant bringeth forth flouresofa most perfect blew colour; whereinisthe difference.Theygrow in plowed fields neere path waies, in Gar dens and Vineyards almost every where.Theyfloure in Summer, and especially in the monethofAugust,atwhat time the husbandmen having occasion to go unto their harvest worke, will first behold the flouresofPimpernell, whereby they know the weatherthatshall follow the next day after;asfor example,ifthe floures beshutclose up,itbetokeneth raineandfoule weather; contrariwise,ifthey be spread abroad, faire weather. Both the sortsofPimpernell areofa drying faculty without biting,andsomewhat hot, with a certaine drawing quality, insomuchthatitdoth draw forth splintersandthings fixed in the flesh.Thejuyce cures the tooth ach being sniftupinto the nosethrils, especially into the contrary nosethrilI.DIVELSBITDivelsbithath small uprightroundstalkesofa cubite high, beset with long leaves som what broad, very little or nothing snipt about the edges, somwhat hairieandeven.Divels bitThefloures also areofa dark purple colour, fashioned like the flouresofScabious: the seeds are smal and downy, which being ripe are carried away with the winde.226

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Eye-brightTheroot is blacke, thick, hard and short, with many threddie strings fastned thereto.Thegreatpartofthe root seemeth to be bitten away: old fantasticke charmers report,thatthe divel did bite it for envie, because itisan herbethathath so many good vertues, andisso beneficial to mankinde. Divels bit groweth in dry medows and woods,&about waies sides.Itfloureth in August, andishard to be knowne from Scabious, saving when it floureth.Itiscommonly calledMorsus Diaboli,or Divels bit,ofthe root (as it seems) thatisbitten off: for the super stitious people hold opinion, that the divell for envythathe beareth to mankinde, bit it off, because it would be otherwise good for many uses.EYE-BRIGHTEuphrasiaor Eye-bright is a small low herbe not above two handfulls high, fullofbranches, covered with little blackish leaves dented or snipt about the edges like a Saw.Thefloures are small and white, sprinkled and poudered on the inner side, with yellow and purple speckes mixed therewith.Therootissmall and hairie.Thisplant groweth in dry medowes, in greeneandgrassie waies and pastures standing against the Sun. Eye-bright beginneth to floure in August, and con tinuethuntoSeptember, and must bee gathered while it floureth for physicks use.Itisverymuchcommended for the eies. Being taken it selfe alone, or any way else, it preserves the sight,andbeing feeble&lost it restores the same: it is given most fitly being beaten into pouder; oftentimes a like quantitie of Fennell seedisadded thereto, and a little mace, to the which isputso much sugar as the weightofthem all commeth to. Eye-bright stamped and laid upon the eyes, or the227

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Augustjuice thereof mixed with white Wine, and dropped into the eyes,orthe distilled water, taketh away the darknesse and dimnesseofthe eyes, and cleareth the sight.Threepartsofthe pouderofEye-bright,andone partofmaces mixed therewith, taketh away all hurts from the eyes, comforteth the memorie,andcleareth the sight,ifhalfe a spoonefull to be taken every morning fasting with a cupofwhite wine.MARJEROMESweet Marjeromeisa low and shrubbie plant,ofa whitish colour&marvellous sweet smell, a footorsom what more high.Thestalkes are slender,andparted into divers branches, about which grow forth little leaves soft and hoarie: the floures growatthe topinscalieorchaffie spiked eares,ofa white colour.Thewhole plantandeverie part thereofisofa most pleasant tastandaromaticall smell,andperishethatthe first approchofWinter.Theseplants do grow in Spain, Italy, Candy, andWilde MarjeromcofCandyotherIslands thereabout, wild,andin the fields; from whence wee have the seeds for the gardensofourcold countries.Theyare to be watered in the middleofthe day, when the Sun shineth hottest, even as Basill should be, and not in the evening nor morning, as most plants are. 228

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MarjeromeBastard MarjeromeofCandyhathmany threddy roots; from which riseupdivers weakeandfeeble branches trailinguponthe ground, set with faire greene leaves,notunlike thoseofPennyRoyall,butbroaderandshorter:atthe topofthose branches stand scalieorchaffie earesofa purple colour.Thewhole plant isofa most pleasant sweet smell.Theroot endured inmygardenandthe leaves also greene all thisWinterlong, 1597. althoughithathbeene saidthatitdothperishatthe first frost, as sweet Marjerome doth.Englishwilde Marjeromeisexceedingly well knowne to all, to have long, stiffe, andhardstalkesoftwo cubits high, set with leaves like thoseofsweet Marjerome,butbroaderandgreater,ofa russet greene colour, on the topofthe branches stand tuftsofpurple flowers, com posedofmany small ones set together very closely umbell fashion. SweetMarjeromeis a remedy against cold diseasesofthe braineandhead, being takenany way toyourbest liking;putupinto the nosthrilsitprovokes sneesing, and draweth forthmuchbaggage flegme:iteaseththetooth-ache being chewed in the mouth.Theleaves boiled in water,andthe decoctiondrunke,easeth such as are given to overmuch sighing.Theleaves driedandmingled with honeyputaway black and blew markes after stripesandbruses, being applied thereto.Theleaves are excellent good to beputinto all odor iferous ointments, waters, pouders, brothsandmeates.Thedried leaves poudered,andfinely searched, are good toputinto Cerotes,orCere-clothes,andointments, profitable against cold swellings,andmembersoutofjoynt.Thereis an excellent oyle to be drawne forthofthese herbes, good againsttheshrinkingofsinewes, crampes, convulsions,andall aches proceedingofa colde cause.229

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August Bastard Marjeromeiscalled in shopsOriganum Hispanicum,Spanish Organy.Organygiven in wineisa remedyagainst the bitings,andstingingsofvenomous beasts, and cureth themthathavedrunkeOpium,orthejuyceofblackePoppy,orhemlockes, especiallyifitbe given with wine and raisonsofthe sunne.Itis profitably used in a looch,ora medicine to be licked, against the old coughandthe stuffingofthe lungs.Thejuyce mixed with a little milke, being poured into the eares, mitigateth the paines thereof.Thesame mixed with the oileoffreas,orthe rootsofthe white Florentine floure-de-Iuce, and drawneupinto the nosthrils, draweth downe waterandflegme: the herbe strowed upon thegrounddriveth away serpents.Theseplants are easie to be taken in potions,andthere fore to good purpose they may be usedandministred unto suchascannot brooke their meate,andto suchashave a sowre squamishandwatery stomacke, as also against the swouningofthe heart.PENNIEROYALL,ORPUDDINGGRASSEPulegium regium vulgatumissoexceedingly well knowne to allourEnglish Nation,thatitneedeth no description, being our common Pennie Royall.ThecommonPennyRoyall groweth naturally wild in moist and overflown places,asin the Common neere London called Miles end, about the holesandponds thereof in sundry places, from whence poore womenbringplenty to sell in London markets; anditgroweth in sundry other Commons neereLondonlikewise.Ifyou have when you areatthe seaPennyRoyall in great quantitie dry,andcastitinto corrupt water, it helpethitmuch, neither willithurtthemthatdrinke thereof. A GarlandofPennie Royall madeandworne about the23

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Vervaine headisofgreat force against the swimming in the head, and the painesandgiddinesse thereof.VERVAINEThestalkeofuprightVervaine riseth from the root single, cornered, a foot high, seldome above a cubit, and afterwards divided into many branches.Theleaves are long, greater than thoseofthe Oke,butwith bigger cutsanddeeper: the floures along the sprigs are little, blew,orwhite, orderly placed: the rootislong, with strings growing on it. Creeping Vervaine send eth forth stalkes like unto the former, nowandthen a cubit long, cornered, more slender, for the most part lying upon the ground.Theleaves are like the former,butwith deeper cuts,andmore in number.Theflouresatthetopsofthe sprigs are blew, and purple withall, very smallasthoseVervaineofthe last described,andplaced after the same manner and order.Theroot groweth straight downe, being slenderandlong, as is also the rootofthe former. Bothofthem grow in untilled places neere unto hedges, high-waies, and commonly by ditches almost every where. Vervaine is called in Latine,Verbena,andSacra herba: Verbente are any mannerofherbesthatwere taken from231

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AugusttheAltar, or from some holy place, which because the ConsullorPretor didcutup,they were likewise calledSagmina,which oftentimes are mentioned inLivyto be grassie herbes cutupintheCapitoll.InEnglish,Juno'steares, Mercuries moist bloud,Holy-herbe;andofsome, Pigeons grasse,orColumbine, because pigeons are delighted to be amongst it, as also to eat thereof, asApuleiuswriteth. It is reported to. beofsingular force against the TertianandQuartaine Fevers:butyoumustobserve motherBombiesrules, to takejustso many knotsorsprigs,andnomore, lestitfalloutsothatitdo you no good,ifyou catch no harmebyit.Manyodde old wives fables are written ofVervaine tending to witchchraftandsorcery, which you may reade elsewhere, for Iamnot willing to trouble your eares with reporting such trifles, as honest eares abhorre to heare.Mostofthe later Physitions do givethejuiceordecoc tion hereof tothemthathavetheplague:butthese men are deceived,notonly inthatthey looke for sometruthfrom the fatheroffalshoodandleasings,butalso because in steadofa goodandsure remedy they minister no remedyatall; foritis reported,thattheDivell did revealeitas a secretanddivine medicine.MINTSTherebe divers sortsofMints,someofthegarden, others wilde orofthe field;andalso someofthewater.ThetameorgardenMintcommethupwith stalks foure square,ofan obscure red colour somewhat hairy, which are covered withroundleaves nicked intheedges like a Saw,ofa deep green colour:thefloures are littleandred,andgrow about the stalkes circle-wise as those of Penny-Royall:theroot creepeth aslope intheground, having some strings on it,andnowandthen in sundry 232

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Mintsplacesitbuddethoutafresh:thewhole herb isofa pleasantsmel,anditrather lieth downe than standeth up.Cat-MintorNepgroweshigh:the floures areofa whitish colour, set inmannerofan eareorcatkin:thewhole herb is soft,andcovered with a white down.Itgroweth about the bordersofgardensandfields, neere to rough banks, ditches,andcommon wayes: itisdelighted with moistandwatery places,andisbroughtinto gardens.WaterMintis a kindeofWildeMintlike to gardenMint:thefloures inthetopsofthe branches are gathered together into aroundeare,ofa purple colour.Mintsdoe floureandflourish inSummer:in winter the roots only remain: being once set, they continue long,andremaine sureandfast intheground.ThesmellofMint,saithPliny,doth stirupthe minde,andthe taste to a greedy desireofmeat.Mintismarvel lous wholesome forthestomacke.Itis good against watering eies.Itis poured into the eares with honied water.Itis applied with salt tothebitingsofmaddogs.Itwillnotsuffer milke to cruddle inthestomacke(Plinyaddeth, to wax soure) thereforeitisputin milkethatis drunke, lest those that drinke thereof should be strangled.Itis laid tothestingingofwasps with good successe.ThelaterHerbaristsdoe callNepHerba Cattaria,&Herba Catti,because cats are verymuchdelighted herewith;forthesmellofitis so pleasantuntothem,thatthey rub themselvesuponit,& wa)lowortumble in it,andalso feed onthebranchesandleaves very greedily.Itis a present helpe forthemthatbe bursten inwardlyofsome fall received from anhighplace,andthat are very much bruised,ifthejuicebe given with wine or meade.ThesavororsmelloftheWaterMintrejoyceththeheartofman, for cause they use to strewitin chambersandplacesofrecreation, pleasure,andrepose, and where feastsandbanquets are made.233

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Cotton ThistleAugustCOTTONTHISTLEThecommon Thistle, whereofthe greatest quantityofdown is gathered for divers purposes, as well by the poore to stop pillowes, cushions,andbeds forwantoffeathers, as alsoboughtoftherich upholsters to mix with the feathersanddown they do sell, which deceit would be lookedunto:thisThistlehathgreat leaves, long and broad, gashed about the edges,andset with sharpeandstiffe prickles all alongst the edges, covered all over with a soft cottonordowne:outfrom the middest whereof risethupa long stalke about two cubits high, cornered,andset with filmes,andalso fullofprickles :theheads are likewise cornered with prickles,andbringforth floures consistingofmany whitishthreds:the seed which succeedeth them is wrappedupin downe; it is long,ofa light crimson colour,andlesser thantheseedofbastard Saffron: the root groweth deep intheground, being white, hard, wooddy,andnot without strings.TheseThistles grow byhighwaies sides,andinditches almost every where.Theyfloure fromJuneuntillAugust,the second yeare after they be sowne:andinthemean time the seed waxeth ripe, which being thorow ripe the herbe perisheth, as doe likewise mostoftheotherThistles, which live no longer than till the seed be fully come to maturity.234

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ArtichokeThisThistleis called in English, Cotton-Thistle, white Cotton-Thistle, wilde white Thistle,Argentineorthesilver Thistle.ARTICHOKETheArtichoke is to be planted in a fatandfruitfull soile: they doe love waterandmoist ground.Theycommit great error whocutawaythesideorsuperfluous leavesthatgrowbythe sides,thinkingthereby to increasethegreatnesseofthe fruit, when as intruththey deprivetheroot frommuchwaterbythatmeanes, which would nourish it tothefeedingofthefruit; forifyou marke thetroughor hollow channellthatis in every leafe, it shall appeare very evidently,thatthe Creator in his secret wisedome did ordaine those furrows, even fromtheex treme pointoftheleafe to thegroundwhereitis fastned to the root, for no other purposebutto guideandleadethatwater which falls farre off,untotheroot; knowingthatwithout such storeofwater the whole plant would wither, and the fruit pine awayandcome to nothing.Theyare planted for the mostpartabouttheKalendsofNovember,orsomewhat sooner.Theplantmustbee setanddungedwith good storeofashes, forthatkindeofdungisthoughtbest for planting thereof.Everyyearetheslipsmustbetomeorslipped off fromthebodyoftheroot,andthese are to be set in April, which will beare fruit aboutAugustfollowing, asColumella, Paladius,andcommon experience teacheth.Thenailes,thatis,thewhiteandthicke parts which are inthebotomeofthe outward scalesorflakesofthefruitofthe Artichoke,andalsothemiddle pulpe whereon the downy seed stands, are eatenbothraw with pepperandsalt,andcommonly boyled withthebrothoffat flesh, with pepper added,andare accounted a dainty dish, being pleasant tothetaste: so likewise the middle ribsofthe 235

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Augustleaves being made whiteandtender by good cherishingandlooking to, arebroughttothetable as agreatservice together withotherjunkets:they are eaten with pepperandsalt as be the raw Artichokes:yetbothofthemareofilljuyce;for the Artichoke containeth plentyofcholericke juyce,andhathanhardsubstance, insomuch asofthis is ingendred melancholy juyce,andofthatathinandcholericke bloud, asGalenteacheth in his bookeofthe facultiesofnourishments.Butit is best to eatetheArti choke boyled:theribbesofthe leaves are altogetherofanhardsubstance: they yeeld to the body a rawandmelan choly juyce,andcontaine inthemgreat storeofwin de.SUGAR-CANESugar Cane is a pleasantandprofitable Reed, having long stalkes sevenoreight foot high,joyntedorkneed likeuntothe great Cane;theleaves come forthofeveryjoynton every sideofthestalke one, likeuntowings, long, narrow,andsharpe pointed.TheCaneitselfe,orstalke isnothollow astheotherCanesorReeds are,butfull,andstuffed with a spongeous substance in taste exceeding sweet.TheSugar Cane groweth in many partsofEuropeat this day, as in Spaine, Portugal, Olbia,andin Provence.Itgroweth also in Barbarie, generally almost every whereintheCanarie Islands,andin thoseofMadera,in theEastandWestIndies,andmanyotherplaces.Myselfe did plant some shoots thereof inmygarden,andsomeinFlanders did the like:butthecoldnesseofourclymat made anendofmine,andIthinktheFlemmings will have the like profitoftheir labour.ThisCane is plantedatany timeoftheyeare in thosehotcountries whereitdothnaturally grow,byreason they feare no frosts tohurttheyoungshootsattheir first planting.

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Sugar CaneSugar-Cane Ofthe juyceofthis ReedISmade the most pleasant and profitable sweet, called Sugar, whereofismade infinite confections, confectures, Syrupsandsuch like, as also preserving and conservingofsundry fruits, herbes,andfloures, as Roses, Violets, Rosemary floures, and such like, which still retaine with them the nameofSugar,asSugar Roset, Sugar Violet, &c.Thewhich to writeofwould require a peculiar volume, and not pertinentuntothis historie, forthatitis notmypurpose to makeofmybooke a Confectionary, a Sugar Bakers furnace, a Gentle womans preservmg pan,noryet an Apothecaries shoporDispensatorie;butonely to touch the chiefest matterthatI purposed to handle in the beginning,thatis, the nature, properties,anddescriptionsofplants. Notwithstanding I thinkeitnot amisse to shew unto you the orderingofthese reeds when they be new gathered, as I receiveditfrom themouthofan Indian my servant: he saith,Theycutthemin small pieces,andput them into atroughmadeofone whole tree, wherein theyputa great stone in mannerofa mill-stone, whereunto they tie a horse, bufRe,orsome other beast which draweth itround:in whichtroughtheyputthose piecesofCanes, and so crushandgrindthemas we doe the barkesoftrees for Tanners,orapples for Cyder.Butin some places they use a great wheele wherein slaves doe treadandwalke as dogs do inturningthe spit: and some others doe feedas237

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Augustitwere the bottomeofthe said wheele, wherein are some sharpe orhardthings which doecutandcrush the Canes into powder.Andsome likewise have found the invention toturnethe wheele with water works, as we doeourIron mills.TheCanes being thusbroughtintodustorpowder, theyputtheminto great cauldrons with a little water, where they boile untill there be no more sweetnesse left inthecrushed reeds.Thendoe they straine them through matsorsuch like things, andputthe liquor to boile againeuntothe consistenceofhony, which being cold is likeuntosand both in shewandhandling,butsomewhat softer;andso afterwardsitis carried into all partsofEurope, whereitisby the Sugar Bakers artificially purgedandrefined tothatwhiten esse as we see.BEETSThecommon white Beet hath great broad leaves, smoothandplain: from which rise thicke crestedorchamfered stalks: the floures grow along the stalks clustering to gether, in shape like little stars, which being past, there succeedround&uneven prickly seed.Therootisthicke, hard,andgreat.Thereislikewise another sort hereof,thatwas broughtuntomefrom beyond the seas, bythatcourteousMerchantmasterLete,before remembred, the which hath leaves very great, and redofcolour, as is all the restofthe plant, as well root,asstalke, and floures fullofa perfect purple juyce tending to rednesse: the middle rib6fwhich leaves are for the most part very broad and thicke, like the middlepartofthe Cabbage leafe, whichisequall in goodnesse with the leavesofCabbage being boyled.Itgrew with me1596.to the heightofeight cubits, and didbringforth his roughanduneven seed very plentifully: with which plant nature doth seeme to playandsport herseIfe: for the seeds taken from that plant, which was altogetherofone238

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Hopscolour and sowen, doth bring forth plantsofmany and variable colours,asthe worshipfull Gentleman masterJoh!l Nordencan very well testifie: unto whom I gave some of the seeds aforesaid, which in his garden brought forth many otherofbeautifull colours.TheBeeteissowne in gardens: it loveth to grow in a moist and fertile ground. Being eaten when itisboyled, it nourisheth little or nothing, and is notsowholesomeasLettuce.Thejuyce conveighedupinto the nosthrils doth gently draw forth flegme, and purgeth the head.Thegreater red Beet or Roman Beet, boyled and eaten with oyle, vinegre and pepper, is a most excellent and deli cat sallad:butwhat might be madeofthe red and beautifull root (which is to be preferred before the leaves,aswell in beautieasin goodnesse) ftefer unto the curious and cunning cooke, who no doubt when hee had the view thereof, andisassured thatitisboth good and wholesome,willmake thereof many and diversdishes, both faire and good.Hops ,. TheHopdoth live and flourish by,.embracing and taking holdofpoles, pearches, and other things upon whichitclimeth.Itbringeth forth very long stalkes, rough, and hairie; also rugged leaves broad like thoseofthe Vine,orratherofBryony,butyet blacker, and with fewer dented divisions: the floures hang downe by clusters from the topsofthe branches, puffed up, setasit were with scales like little canes, or scaled Pine apples,ofa whitish colour tending to yellownesse, strongofsmell: the roots are slender, and diversly folded one within another.TheHopjoyeth in a fat and fruitfull ground: alsoitgroweth among briers and thomes about the bordersoffields,I meane the wilde kinde.Theflouresofhops are gathered in August and239

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AugustSeptember,andreserved tobeused in beere: in the Spring time come forth new shootsorbuds: in theWinteronely the roots remaine alive.Thebudsorfirst sprouts which come forth in the Spring are used to be eaten in sallads.Thefloures are used to season BeereorAle with,andtoo many do cause bitternesse thereof, and areillfor the head.Thefloures make bread light, and the lumpe to be sooner and easilier leavened,ifthe mealebetempered with liquor wherein they have been boiled.Themanifold vertuesofHops do manifestly argue the whole somenesseofbeere above ale;Hopsfor the hops rather make it a physicall drinke to keepe the body in health, thananordinary drinke for the quenchingofourthirst.ALMONDTREETheAlmond tree is like the Peach-tree, yetitis higher, bigger,oflonger continuance: the leaves be very long, sharpe pointed, snipt about the edges like thoseofthe Peach tree: the floures be alike: the fruitisalso like a Peach, having on one side a cleft, with a soft skin without,andcovered with a thin cotton,butunderthis thereisnone,orvery little pulpe, which ishardlike a gristle not eaten: thenutorstone within is longer thanthatofthe Peach, not so rugged,butsmooth; in which is contained the kernel, in taste sweet, and many timesbitter;the root24

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Peachof the tree groweth deepe: thegumwhich sokethouthereofislikethatofthe Peachtree.Thenaturall placeofthe Almond is in the hot regions, yet we have them inourLondon gardensandorchards in great plenty.TheAlmond floureth betimes with the Peach: the fruitisripe in August. Almonds taken before meate nourishbutlittle; not withstandingmanyexcellent meatesandmedicines are therewith made forsundrygriefes, yea very delicatandwholsomemeates, as Almond butter, creameofAlmonds, marchpane,andsuch like.Theydoe serve to make the Physicall BarleyWater,and Barley Creame, which are given in hot Fevers,asalso for other sickeandfeeble persons) for their further refresh ingandnourishments.TheoylewhichisnewlypressedoutofthesweetAlmondsisa mitigaterofpaine and all manerofaches.TheoileofAlmonds makes smooth the hands and faceofdeli cat per sons,andclenseth theskinfromall spots, pimples,and len tils.Anditisreportedthatfiveorsix Almonds being taken fasting do keepe a man from being drunke.Thesealso denseandtake away spotsandblemishes in the face, andinother partsofthe body.Withhony they are laid upon the bitingofmad dogs; being applied to the temples with vinegeroroileofRoses, they take away the head-ache.Theyare also good against the cough and shortnesseofwinde.PEACHTREEThePeach tree is a treeofno great bignesse:itsendeth forth divers boughes, which be so brittle, as oftentime they are broken with the weightof the fruitorwith the winde.Theleaves be long, nicked in the edges, like almosttothoseoftheWalnuttree, and in taste bitter: the flouresbeofa light purple colour.ThefruitorPeaches be round, 241

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Augustandhave as it were a chinkeorcleft ontheone side; they are coveredwitha softandthindowneorhairy cotton,beingwhite without,andofa pleasant taste; inthemiddlewhereofis aroughorruggedstone, wherein is contained a kernell likeuntotheAlmond;themeateaboutthe stoneisofa white color.Therootistoughandyellowish.TheredPeachtree is likewise a treeofnogreat bignesse: it also sendeth forth diversboughesorbranches whichbevery brittle.Theleavesbelong,andnicked in "' theedges like totheprece dent.Thefloures be also likeuntotheformer;thefruitorPeaches be round,andofaredcolour ontheoutside;themeate likewiseaboutthestone isofa gallant red 7"4 colour.Thesekin des of) \ Peaches are very like to wine in taste,andtherefore marvellous pleasant.Persica prtcocia, orthed'avantPeachtree is likeuntotheformer,buthis leaves are greaterandlarger.ThefruitorPeaches beofa russet colour ontheone side,TheWhitePeachandontheotherside nextuntotheSunofa red colour,butmuchgreaterthantheredPeach:thestones whereofare likeuntotheformer:thepulpeormeate withinisofa golden yellow colour,andofa pleasant taste.Persica lutea,ortheyellowPeachtree is likeuntothe former in leavesandflours, his fruit isofa yellow color on theoutside,andlikewise on the in side,harderthan therest:inthemiddleofthePeachisa wooddyhardand242

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Maple rough stone fullofcrestsandgutters, in which doth ly a kernelmuchlike tothatofthe almond,andwith such a like skin: the substance within is white,andoftaste some what bitter.Thefruit hereof isofgreatest pleasure,andofbest tasteofalltheotherofhiskinde;although there be foundatthis day divers other sortsthatareofvery good taste, not remembredofthe antient,orset down bythelaterWriters,whereof to speake particularly would not bee great toourpretended purpose, considering wee hasten toanend.Theyare setandplanted in gardensandVineyards. I havethemall inmygarden, with many other sorts.ThePeach tree soone comesup,itbeares fruit thethirdorfourth yeare afteritis planted,andit soon decayeth, beingnotoflong continuance.MAPLETREEThegreatMapleisa beautifullandhightree, with a barkeofa meane smoothnesse:thesubstanceofthe woodistenderandeasie to workeon;itsendeth forth on every side very many goodly boughesandbranches, which make an excellent shadow against the heatoftheSun;upon which aregreat, broad,andcornered leaves,muchlike to thoseofthe Vine,hangingby long reddish stalkes; the floureshangbyclusters,ofa whitish greene colour; afterthemcommethuplong fruit fastened togetherbycouples, onerightagainst another, with kernelsbumpingout neere totheplace in which they are combined: in all theotherparts flatandthin likeuntoparchment,orresemblingtheinnermost wingsofgrashoppers:thekernels be whiteandlittle.ThegreatMapleis a stranger inEngland,on elyitgroweth in the walkesandplacesofpleasureofnoble men, whereitespecially is planted fortheshadow sake,andunder the nameofSycomore tree. 243

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AutumnTHEOKEThecommonOkegroweth to agreattree;thetrunkeorbodywherofis covered over with a thickerough barke fullofchopsorrifts:thearmesorboughes are likewise great, dispersing themselves farreabroad:theleaves are bluntlyindentedabouttheedges, smooth,andofa shininggreenecolour, whereon is often found amostsweet dewandsomewhat c1ammie,andalso a fungous excrescence, which wee callOkeApples.Thefruitis long, coveredwitha browne, hard,andtoughpilling, set in aroughscaly cuporhusk:thereis often founduponthebodyofthetree,andalsouponthebranches, a certainekindoflongwhite mossehangingdowne fromthesame: and sometimesanotherwooddie plant, which we call Missel toe, being either an excres cenceoroutgrowingfromthetree it selfe,orofthedoung(asitis reported)ofabirdthathatheaten a certaine berry. T'heOkedothscarcely refuseanyground;foritgroweth in adryandbarrensoile,yetdothitprosperbetterin a fruitfullground;itgrowethuponhillsandmountaines,andlikewise in vallies:itcommethupevery where in all partsofEngland,butitisnotso commoninotheroftheSouthandhotreglOns.TheOkedothcast his leaves forthemostpartabouttheendofAutumne:someTheOke with his Acornes244

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Mushrumeskeepe their leaves on,butdryallWinterlong, untill they bethrustoffbythe new Spring. Acornesifthey be eaten are hardly concocted, they yeeld no nourishment to mans body,butthatwhich is grosse, raw,andcold. Swine are fatted herewith,andbyfeeding thereon have their fleshhardandsound.ThedecoctionofOkeApples steeped instrongwhite wine vineger, with a little pouderofBrimstone,andtherootofIreosmingled together,andset in the Sunbythespaceofa moneth,makeththehair blacke, consumeth proudandsuperfluous flesh, taketh away sun-burning, freckles, spots, the morphew, with all deformitiesofthe face, being washed therewith.TheOkeApples being broken insunderabout the timeoftheir withering, doe foreshewthesequelloftheyeare, astheexpert Kentish husbandmen have observed bytheliving things found inthem:asiftheyfinde an Ant, they foretell plentyofgraine to ensue:ifa white worme like a GentillorMagot,then they prognosticate murrenofbeastsandcattell;ifa spider, then (say they)weshall have a pestilence or some such like sicken esse to follow amongstmen:these things the learned also have observedandnoted;forMatthioluswritinguponDioscoridessaith,thatbefore they have an holethroughthem, they containe in them either a flie, a spider,oraworme;if a flie then warre insueth,ifa creeping worme,thenscarcitieofvictuals;ifarunningspider, then followeth great sicknesseormortalitie.MUSHRUMES,ORTOADsTooLESSomeMushrumesgrow forthoftheearth;otheruponthe bodiesofold trees, which differ altogether in kindes.Manywantonsthatdwell neerethesea,andhave fish at will, are very desirous for changeofdiet to feeduponthe birdsofthe mountaines;andsuch as dwelluponthe 245

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Autumn hillsorchampion grounds, do long after sea fish; many that have plentyofboth, dohungeraftertheearthy excrescences, calledMushromes:whereof some are very venomousandfullofpoyson, others not so noisome; and neitherofthem very wholesome meate; wherefore for the avoidingofthe venomous qualityofthe one,andthat the other which is lesse venomous may be discerned from it, I havethoughtgood to set forth their figure.GroundM ushrums growupin one night, standingupona thickeandroundstalke, like unto a broadhatorbuckler,ofa very white colour untilitbegin to wither,atwhat timeitloseth his faire white, declining to yell own esse : the lower side is somewhat hollow, setordecked with fine gutters, drawne along fromthemiddle centre to the circumference orroundedgeofthe brim. AllMushromsare without pith, rib, or veine: they differ not a little in bignesseandcolour, some are great,andlike a broad brimmedhat;others smaller, about the big nesseofa silver coine called a doller: mostofthem are redunderneath;some more, some lesse; others littleornothing redatall:theupper side which beareth out, is either paleorwhitish,orelse of an ill-favoured colour like ashes (they commonly call it Ash-colour) or elseitseemeth to be somewhat yellow.TheMushrumsorToodstooles whichgrowupon the trunkesorbodiesofold trees, verymuchresembling 246

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Mushrumes Auricula Judd!, thatis, Jewes eare, doe in continuanceoftime growuntothesubstanceofwood, which the Fowlers doe call Touchwood,andare for the most halfe circuledorhalfe round, whoseupperpartis somewhat plaine,andsometimes a little hollow,butthelowerpartis plaitedorpursed together.ThiskindeofMushrumis fullofvenomeorpoyson, especially those which growuponthe Ilex, OliveandOketrees.Thereis likewise a kindeofMushrumcalledFungus Favaginosus,growingupin moistandshadowie woods, whichisalso venomous, having a thickeandtuberous stalke, an handfull high,ofa duskish colour;thetop whereof is compactofmany small divisions, likeuntothe hony combe. Fusse balls,PuckeFusse,andBulfists, with which in some placesofEnglandthey use to killorsmolder their Bees, when they would drivetheHives,andbereavethepoore Beesoftheir meat, housesandlives: these are also used in some places where neighbours dwell far asunder, to carryandreserve fire from place to place, wherofittookethename,Lucernarum Fungus:in forme they are very round, stickingandcleavinguntotheground,without any stalksorstems;atthefirst white,butafter wardsofa duskish colour, having no holeorbreach in them, whereby a manmay see into them, which being troddenupondoe breath forth a mostthinandfine pouder, likeuntosmoke, very noisomeandhurtfulluntothe eies, causing a kindeofblindnesse, which is called Poor-blinde,orSandblinde.Mushrumscomeupabouttherootsoftrees, in grassie placesofmedowes,andLeyLandnewlyturned;in woods also wherethegroundis sandy,butyet dankish: they grow likewiseoutofwood, forthoftherotten bodiesoftrees,butthey are unprofitableandnothingworth. Poisonsome mushroms, asDioscoridessaith, groweth where old rusty iron lieth,orrotten clouts,orneere to247

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Autumnserpentsdens,orrootsoftreesthatbringforthvenomous fruit.Diversesteeme those forthebestwhichgrowin medowes,anduponmountainesandhilly places,asHoracesaith,ThemedowMushromsare inkindethebest;Itis illtrustinganyoftherest.Galenaffirmes,thattheyareallverycoldandmoist,andtherefore toapproachuntoa venomousandmurtheringfacultie,andingendera clammy, pituitous,andcoldnutrimentiftheybeeaten.Toconclude, fewofthemaregoodtobeeaten,andmostofthemdosuffocate andstrangletheeater.ThereforeI givemyadviceuntothosethatlovesuchstrangeandnew fangled meates,tobe wareoflickinghoneyamongthornes, leastthesweetnesseoftheonedonotcountervailethesharpnesse andprickingoftheother.HAsELLTREETheHaselltreegrowethlike ashruborsmall tree, partedintobougheswithoutjoints,toughandpliable:theleavesarebroad,greaterandfullerofwrincklesthanthose oftheAldertree,cutintheedges like a saw,ofcolour greene,andonthebacksidemorewhite,thebarkeisthin:therootis thicke,strong,andgrowingdeepe;insteadoffloureshangdowne catkins, aglets,orblowings, slender,andwellcompact:afterwhichcometheNutsstandingin atoughcupofagreenecolourandjaggedattheupperend,like almost tothebeards in Roses.Theshellissmoothandwooddy:thekernellwithinconsistethofa white,hard,andsoundpulpe,andis coveredwitha thin skin, oftentimesred,mostcommonlywhite;thiskernellis sweetandpleasantuntothetaste.CorylussylvestrisisourhedgeNutorHasellNuttree,whichis very well knowne,andthereforeneedethnotany description:whereofthereare alsosundrysorts, some248

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TheFilberdNutBeechgreat, some little, someratheripe, some later, as also onethatismanuredinourGar dens, which is very great,biggerthanany Filberd,andyet a kindeofHedgeNut:thisthenthathathbeene said shall suffice forHedgeNuts.TheHaselltrees doe commonlygrowinWoods,anddankishuntoiled places: they are also set inOrchards,theNutswhereofare better,andofa sweeter taste,andbemostcommonlyreddewithin.ThecatkinsorAglets come forth very timely, beforewinterbefully past,andfall away inMarchorAprill, so soone astheleaves come forth.BEECHTREETheBeech isanhightree,withboughesspreadingoften times inmannerofa circle,andwitha thickebodyhavingmanyarmes:thebarkeissmooth:thetimberis white, hard,andvery profitable:theleavesbesmooth,thin,broad,andlesser thoseoftheblackePoplar:thecatkinsorblowingsbealso lesserandshorterthanthoseoftheBirch treeandyellow:thefruitorMastis con tained in ahuskeorcupthatis prickly,androughbristled,yetnotsomuchasthatoftheChestnut:whichfruitbeingtaken forthoftheshellsorurchinhuskes,becoveredwitha softandsmooth skin like in colourandsmoothnesse totheChestnuts,butthey bemuchlesser,249

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Autumnandofanother forme,thatis to say, triangled or three cornered:thekernell within is sweet, with a certaine astriction or binding qualitie: the roots be few,andgrow not deepe,andlittle lower thanunderthe turfe.TheBeech tree loveth a plaineandopen country,andgroweth very plentifully in many Forrestsanddesart placesofSussex, Kent,andsundryothercountries.TheBeech floureth in AprillandMay,andthefruitisripe in September,atwhattimetheDeeredo eate the same very greedily, as greatly delighting therein; whichhathcaused forrestersandhuntsmen to callitBuck-mast.TheleavesofBeech are very profitably applied untohotswellings, blisters,andexcoriations;andbeing chewed they are good for chapped lips,andpaineofthe gums.Thekernelsormast within are reported to ease the paineofthe kidniesifthey be eaten.Withthese, miceandSqirrels are greatly delighted, who do mightily increase by feeding thereon: Swine also be fatned here with,andcertaineotherbeasts: alsoDeeredoe feed thereon verygreedily: they be likewise pleasant toThrushesandPigeons.Petrus Crescentiuswriteth,Thatthe ashesofthe wood is good to make glasse with.Thewaterthatis found inthehollownesseofBeechescureththe naughty scurfe, tetters,andscabsofmen, horses, kine,andsheepe,ifthey be washed there with.WALL-NUTTREEThisis a great tree with a thickeandtall body: the barke is somewhat greene,andtending tothecolourofashes,andoftentimes fullofclefts:theboughes spread them selves far abroad:theleaves consistoffiveorsix fastned to one rib, like thoseoftheash tree,andwith one standing 25

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Wall-nuton the top, which bee broaderandlonger than the par ticular leavesoftheAsh, smooth also,andofastrongsmell:thecatkinsoraglets come forth beforetheNuts:theseNutsdoe growhardto the stalkeofthe leaves,bycouples,orby three&three;whichatthe first when they be yetbuttenderhave a sweet smel,andbe covered with a greenhuske:underthatis a wooddy shell in which the kern ell is contained, being covered with a thin skin, parted almost into foure parts with a wooddy skin asitwere: theinnerpulpe whereof is white, sweetandpleasant tothetast;andthatis when it is new gathered, for afteritisdryitbecommeth oilyandrancke.TheWalnuttree groweth in fields neere common high wayes, in a fatandfruitfullground,andin orchards:itprospereth onhighfruitfull bankes,itloveth not to grow in watery places.ThegreeneandtenderNutsboyled in Sugarandeaten as Suckad, are a most pleasantanddelectable meat, comfortthestomacke,and expell poison.TheoyleofWalnutsmade in suchmanneras oyleof ,'I 'Almonds,makethsmooththe ,1" handsandface. Milkemadeofthekernels,asAlmondmilke is made, coolethandpleaseththeappetiteofthelanguishing sicke body.Withonions, saltandhoney,theyare good against thebitingofamaddogor man,iftheybelaid uponthewound.TheWalnutTree251

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AutumnCHESTNUTTREETheChestnut tree is a very greatandhightree:itcasteth forth very many boughes: the bodyisthicke, and sometimesofsogreata compasse asthattwo men can hardly fathomit:the timberorsubstanceofthewoodissoundanddurable: the leaves bee great, rough, wrinkled, nicked intheedges,andgreaterthantheparticular leavesoftheWalnuttree.Theblowings or catkins be slender, long,andgreene:thefruit is inclosed in a roundroughandprickly huske like to an hedge-hogorUrchin,which openingitselfe doth let falltheripe fruitorNut.Thisnutis not round,butflat ontheone side, smooth,andsharpe pointed:itis covered with ahardshell, which istoughandvery smooth,ofa darke browne colour: the meate or inner substanceofthenutis hardandwhite, and covered with a thin skin which isunderthe shell.TheHorseChestnut groweth likewise to be a very great tree, spreading hisgreatandlarge armes or branches far abroad,bywhich meanesitmaketh a very good coole shadow.Thesebranches are garnished with many beautifull leaves,cutordivided into five, six,orseven sectionsordivisions like to the Cinkefoile,orrather liketheleavesofRicinus,butbigger.Thefloures growatthe topofthe stalkes, consistingoffoure small leaves like the Cherry blossome, whichturneintoroundroughprickly heads like the former,butmore sharpeandharder:theNutsare also rounder.Thefirst growes on mountainesandshadowie places,andmany times inthevallies: they love a softandblacke soile.TherebesundrywoodsofChestnuts in England, as a mileanda halfe from Feversham in Kent,andinsundryother places: in some countries they be greaterandpleasanter: in others smaller,andofworse taste.TheHorseChestnut groweth in Italy,andinsundryplaces oftheEast-countries.252

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ElderTheblowingsoraglets come forth with the leaves in Aprill;buttheNutslater,andbe not ripe till Autumne.TheHorseChestnutiscalled in Latine,Equina Castanea:in English,HorseChestnut, forthatthe peopleoftheEastcountries do with the fruit thereof cure their horsesofthe cough, shortnesseofbreath,andsuch like diseases.Ourcommon Chestnuts are verydryandbinding,andbe neither hot nor cold,butin a mean betweeneboth:yet have they in them a certaine windinesse, and by reasonofthis, unlesse the shell be first cut, they skip suddenly with a crackeoutofthe fire whilest they be rosting.ELDERTREETherebe divers sortsofElders, someofthe land,andsomeofthe waterormarish grounds.ThecommonEldergrowethupnow and then to the bignesseofa mean tree, casting his boughes all about, and oftentimes remaineth ashrub:the bodyisalmost all wooddy, having very little pith within;butthe boughs, and especially the yong ones, which be jointed, are fullofpith within,andhavebutlittle wood without: the barkeofthe bodyandgreat armesisroughandfullofchinks, andofan ilfavoured wan colour like ashes:thatoftheboughsisnot very smooth,butin colour almost like;andthat is the outward barke; for thereisanotherunderitneerer to the wood,ofcolour green: the substanceofthewoodissound, somwhat yellow, andthatmay be easily cleft: the leaves consistoffiveorsix particular ones fastned toone ribbe, like thoseoftheWalnuttree,butevery particular oneislesser, nicked in the edges,andofa rankeandstinking smell.Thefloures growonspoky run dIes, which be thinandscattered,ofa white colour and sweet smell: after them growuplittle berries, greenat253

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Autumnthefirst, afterwards blacke,whereoutis pressed apurplejuice, which being boiledwithAllomandsuchlike things,dothserve very well forthePaintersuse, as also to colourvineger:theseeds in these are a little flatandsomwhat long.Theregrowethoften timesuponthebodiesofthose old treesorshrubsa certaine excrescence calledAuricula Judd! orJewes eare, which is soft, blackish, coveredwitha skin, somewhat like nowandthento amanseare, whichbeingpluckedoffanddried,shrinkethtogetherandbe comethhard.ThisEldergrowetheverywhere:itisplantedaboutCony-boroughs fortheshadowoftheConies.Thesekin desofEldersfloure in AprillandMay,andtheirfruit is ripe in September.Theseeds contained withintheberriesdriedaregoodforElderTreesuchas havetheDropsie, andsuchas are too fatandwould faine be leaner,ifthey betakenin amorningtothequantitieofadramwithwine for a certain space.Thegreen leavespounedwithDeeressuetorBulls tallow, aregoodtobelaid tohotswellingsandtumors,anddoe asswagethepainofthegout.ThegellyoftheElder,otherwise calledJewes eare,hathabindinganddryingqualitie:theinfusion thereof,inwhichithathbin steeped a few houres,takethaway inflammationsofthemouthandthroat,iftheybe washed therewith,anddothin likemannerhelptheuvula.254

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White SattinfloureTheElderRose groweth like an hedgetree:theleaves are likethevine leaves,amongwhich come forth goodly flouresofa white colour, sprinkledanddashed heereandtherewith alightandthin carnation colour,anddo growthickeandclosely compact together,ofgreatbeauty.Inmygardentheregrowethnotany fruituponthis tree, nor in anyotherplace, foroughtthatI canunderstand.Itiscalled in English, Gelders Rose.WHITESATTINFLOUREBo/bonaeortheSattin floure hathhardand round stalks, dividing themselves into manyothersmall branches, beset with leaves like Dames VioletsorQueenesGillofloures, somewhat broad,andsnipt about the edges,andin fashion almost like Sauce alone,or Jacke by the hedge,butthatthey are longerandsharper pointed.Thestalks are chargedorloden with many floures like the common stocke Gillofloure,ofa purple colour: which being fallen, the seed comes forth, con tained in a flat thin cod, with a sharp pointorprickeatone _...._"""""',L end, in fashionoftheMoon,butsomewhat blackish.ThisWhiteSattincodiscomposedofthreefUmesorskins, whereof the two outmost areofan overworne ash colour,andthe inner mostorthatin the middle, wheron the seed dothhangorcleave, is thinneandcleere shining, like a shredofwhite 255

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Autumn Sattin newlycutfrom the piece.Thewhole plant dieththesame yearethatithathborne seed,andmustbe sown yearly.Theroot is compactofmany tuberous parts like Key clogs,orlike thegreatAsphodill.ThesePlantsare setandsowne in gardens, notwith standing onehathbin found wild inthewoods aboutPinnerandHarrowon the hill12miles from London,andin Essex likewise aboutHorn-church.Wecall this herbe inEnglish,Pennyfloure,orMonyfloure, Silver Plate, Pricksong-wort; in Norfolke, Sattin,andwhite Sattin;andamongourwomenitis called Honestie.TheseedofBulbonac is sharpeoftaste, like in force to the seedofTreaclemustard:theroots likewise are somewhatofa biting qualitie,butnotmuch:they are eaten withsaIlads as certaine others root are. A certain Helvetian Surgeon composed a most singularunguentfor green wounds,oftheleavesofBolbonacandSanicle stamped together,addingthereto oile and wax.Theseedisgreatly commended against the falling sicknesse.TRUESAFFRONThefloureofSaffrondothfirst riseoutofthegroundnakedly in September,andhis long smal grassie leaves shortly after, never bearing floureandleafeatonce.Thefloure consistethofsix small blew leavestendingto purple, having inthemiddle many small yellow stringsorthreds;among which are two, three,ormore thicke fat chivesofa fierie colour somewhat reddish,ofa strong smell when they be dried, whichdothstuffeandtroublethehead. Commonorbest knowne Saffron groweth plentifully in Cambridge-shire, Saffron-Waldon,andotherplaces thereabout, as corne in the fields. Saffron beginneth to256

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True Saffronfloure in September,andpresently afterspringuptheleaves,andremaine greene all theWinterlong. Saffron is called in Latine,Crocus:in Mauritania,Saffaran:in Spanish,Arafron:inEnglish,Saffron: intheArabicke tongue,Zahafaran. Avicen affirmeth,Thatitcauseth head-ache,andis hurtfull tothebraine, which it cannot do by takingitnowandthen,butby toomuchusingofit;for the toomuchusingofitcuttethoff sleep,throughwantwhereoftheheadandsences areoutofframe.Butthe moderat usethereofis good forthehead,andmakeththesences more quickeandlively, shaketh off heavyanddrowsie sleepe,andmaketha man merry. Also Saffronstrengthneththe heart, concocteth crudeandrawhumorsofthechest, opensthelungs,andremoveth obstructions.Itis alsosucha speciall remedie for thosethathave consumptionofthelungs,andare, as wee terme it,atdeaths docre,andalmost past breathing,thatitbringethbreathagain,andprolongeth life for certaine dayes,iftenortwenty grainesatthemost be given with neworsweetWine.Forwe have foundbyoften experience,thatbeing taken inthatsort,itpresentlyandin amomentremoveth away difficultyofbreathing, which most dangerouslyandsuddenly hapneth.Theeyes being anointed withthesame dissolved in milkeorfennelorrose water, are preserved from beinghurtbythe small poxormeasels,andare defended thereby from humorsthatwould fal into them.Thechives steeped in water serve to illumineor(as we say) limne picturesandimagerie, as also to coloursundrymeatsandconfections.Theweightoften grainsofSaffron, the kernelsofWalnutstwo ounces,Figstwo ounces,Mithridateone dram,anda few Sage leaves stampedtogetherwith a sufficient quantitieofPimpernelwater,andmade into a 257

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Autumn masse or lumpe,andkeptin a glasse for your use,andthereofI 2 graines given in themorningfasting, preserveth from the pestilence,andexpellethitfrom thosethatare infected.MEDOWSAFFRONTherebesundrysortsofmedow Saffrons, differing very notably as well in the colouroftheir floures, as also in natureandcountry from whence theyhadtheir being,asshall be declared.MedowSaffronhaththree or four leaves rising immediately forthofthe ground, long, broad, smooth, fat, much like totheleavesofthe white Lillie in forme and smoothnesse: in the middle whereofspringupthreeorfoure thicke codsofthe bignesseofa small Wall-nut, standinguponshort tenderfoot-stalkes, three square, and opening themselves when they be ripe, fullofseed something round,andofa blackishredcolour:andwhen this seed is ripe,theleavesMdSfftogether withthestalkes doe fadeeearonandfall away.InSeptember the flouresbudforth, before any leaves appeare, standing uponshorttenderandwhitish stemmes, like in forme and colour totheflouresofSaffron, having inthemiddle small chivesorthredsofa pale yellow colour, altogether unfit for meat or medicine.Thesecond kindeofMedeSaffron is liketheprece dent, differing onely inthecolourofthefloures, for that this plantdothbringforth white leaves, whichofsome258

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Bramblehathbeene taken forthetrueHermodactylus;butin so doing they have committedthegreater error.Thethirdkindebringethforth his leaves intheSpringoftheyeare, thicke, fat, shining,andsmooth,notunliketheleavesofLillies, which doe continuegreeneuntotheendofJune;atwhich timetheleaves do wither away,butinthebeginningofSeptemberthereshooteth forthofthegroundnaked milke white floures without any greene leafeatall:butso soone asthePlanthathdone bearingoffloures,theroot remaines intheground, not sending forth anythinguntill Februarie intheyeare following. Divers nameitin LatineBulbus agrestis,orwild Bulbe: in French,Mort au chien.Some have taken it to bethetrueHermodactyl, yet falsely.Othersome callitFilius ante patrem,although there is a kindeofLysimachiaor Loose strife so called, because it firstbringethforth his long cods with seed,andthenthefloure after,oratthesame timeattheendofthesaid cod.Butin thisMedeSaffron it is far otherwise, becauseitbringethforth leaves in Februarie, seed inMay,andfloures inSeptember;which is athingdeanecontrarie to allotherplants whatsoever, forthatthey doe first floure,andafter seed:butthis Saffron seedeth first,andfoure moneths afterbringsforth flowers:andtherefore some havethoughtthis a fit name for it,Filius ante Patrem:andwe accordingly may call it,TheSonne beforetheFather.BRAMBLEORBLACKE-BERRYBUSHThecommon Bramblebringethforth slender branches, long, tough, easily bowed,rampingamonghedgesandwhatsoever stands neereuntoit;armedwithhardandsharpe prickles, whereon doe grow leaves consistingofmany setuponaroughmiddle rib be, greene on theupperside,andunderneathsomewhat white: on the topsofthe 259

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AutumnTheRaspis or Framboisebushhathleavesandbranchesnotmuchunlike the common Bramble,butnotsoroughnorprickly,andsometimes without any pricklesatall, having onely aroughhairinesse aboutthestalkes:thefruit in shapeandproportion is like thoseoftheBramble, red when they be ripe,andcovered over with a little downinesse; in taste not very pleasant.Theroot creepeth far abroad, wherebyit greatly encreaseth.TheBramble groweth forthemostpartin every hedgeandbush.TheRaspis is planted inTheBramble Bushgardens:itgroweth not wildethatI know of, except inthefieldbya village in Lancashire calledHarwood,not far from Blackeburne. I found it amongthebushesofa causey, neereuntoa village called Wisterson, where Iwentto schoole, two miles from the Nantwich in Cheshire.Thesefloure inMayandJunewiththeRoses: their fruit is ripe intheendofAugustandSeptember.260stalkes stand certaine floures, in shape like thoseofthe Brier Rose,butlesser,ofcolour white,andsometimes washt over with a little purple:thefruitorberryis likethatoftheMulberry,first red, blacke whenitis ripe, in taste betweene;:: sweetandsoure, very soft,andfull of grains: the root creepeth, and sendeth forth here andthereyoungsprings.

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MulberrieTheBramble is called in Latine,Rubus,andSentis,andVepres,asOvidwriteth inthefirst bookeofMetamorphosis:OrtotheHare,thatunderBramble closely lying, spiesThehostilemouthofDogs.--Itis called in French,Rouce:in English, Bramble bush,andBlacke-berry bush.TheRaspis is called in Latine,Rubus Idtt1, ofthemountaineIdaon which it groweth: in English, Raspis, Framboise,andHinde-berry.Theyongbuds ortendertopsoftheBramble bush,thefloures,theleaves,andtheunripefruit,beingchewed, stay allmannerofbleedings.Theyheale the eiesthathangout.Theripe fruit is sweet,andcontainethinitmuchjuyceofa tern perate heate, thereforeitisnotunpleasantto be eaten.TheleavesoftheBramble boyled in water, with honey, allum,anda little white wine added thereto, make amostexcellent lotionorwashing water,andthe same decoction fastneththeteeth.MULBERRIETREEThecommonMulberrietree is high,andfulofboughes:the bodywherofis many times great,thebarkerugged;andthatoftheroot yellow: the leaves are broadandsharpe pointed, something hard,andnicked ontheedges;in steadoffloures, are blowingsorcatkins, which are downy: the fruit is long, madeupofanumberoflittle graines, likeuntoa black-Berrie,butthicker, longer,andmuchgreater,atthefirst greene,andwhenitisripeblacke, yet isthejuyce(whereofitis full)red:theroot is parted many waies.ThewhiteMulberrietree growethuntill it be comeuntoagreatandgoodly stature, almost asbigastheformer:theleaves are rounder,notso sharpe pointed,nor 26r

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Autumnso deepelysniptabout the edges, yet sometimes sinuatedordeeply cut in on the sides, the fruit is like the former,butthat it is whiteandsomewhat more tasting like wine.TheMulberrietrees grow plentifully in Italy and other hot regions, where they doe maintainegreatwoodsandgrovesofthem,thattheir Silke wormes may feed thereon.TheMulberrytree is fitly set by the slip;itmay also be graftedorinoculated into many trees, beinggrafted in a white Poplar, it bringeth forth white Mulberries,asBeritiusin his Geoponickes reporteth.Thesegrowinsundrygardens inEngland.Ofallthetrees in theOrchardtheMulberrydothlast bloome,andnotbefore the cold weather is gone inMay(thereforetheoldWriterswere wont to callitthe wisest tree)atwhich time the Silke wormes do seeme to revive,ashaving then wherewith to feedandnourish themselves, which all the winter before do lie like small graines or seeds, as knowing theirpropertimesbothto performe their duties for which they were created,andalso when they may have wherewith to maintaineandpreserve their owne bodies,untotheir businesse aforesaid.Mulberriesare good to quench thirst, they stirupan appetite to meate, they are not hurtfull to the stomacke,butthey nourish the body very little, being taken in the second place,orafter meate.Thebarke being steeped in vineger helpeththetooth ache:ofthesame effect is alsothedecoctionoftheleavesandbarke, saithDioscorides,who sheweththatabout harvest time there issuethoutofthe root a juyce, whichthenext day after is found to be hard,andthatthesameisvery good againstthetooth-ache.THEOLIVETREEThetame ormanuredOlive tree growethhighandgreat with many branches, fulloflong narrow leavesnotmuch 262

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OliveunliketheleavesofWillowes,butnarrowerandsmaller:thefloures be whiteandvery small, growinguponclustersorbunches:thefruit is longandround, wherein is anhardstone; from which fruit is pressedthatliquor which we call oyle Olive.Thewilde Olive is likeuntothetameorgarden Olive tree, savingthattheleaves are something smaller; among which sometimes doegrowmany pricklythomes:the fruit hereof is lesser thanoftheformer,andmoe in number, which do seldome corne to maturityorripenes in so muchthattheoile which is madeofthose berries, continueth ever greene,andis called oile Omphacine, or oileofunripe Olives. Boththetameandthe wilde Olive trees grow in very many placesofItaly, France,andSpaine,andalso intheIslands adjoyning: they are reported to lovethesea coasts; for most doe thinke, asColumellawriteth,thatabove sixty miles from the sea they either die,orelseThemanuredOlive treebringforth no fruit:butthebest,andtheythatdoe yeeldthemost pleasant oile are thosethatgrowintheIsland called Candy. All the Olive trees floure inthemonethofJune:the fruit)s gathered inNovemberorDecember:when they be a little driedandbegin to wrinkle they areputintothepresse,andoutofthemissqueezed oyle, with wateraddedinthepressing: the Olives which are to bee preserved in263

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Autumn saltandpicklemustbe gathered before they be ripe,andwhilest they are greene.Thejuyceis pressed forthofthe stamped leaves, withWineadded thereto (which is better)orwith water,andbeing dried in the Sunitismadeupinto little cakes like perfumes.Theoileofripe Olives mollifiethandasswageth paine, dissolveth tumors or swellings, is good forthestiffen esseofthe joynts,andagainst cramps, especially being mingled according toart,withgoodandwholesome herbes appropriateuntothose diseasesandgriefes, asHypericon,Cammomill, Dill, LiIIies, Roses,andmany others, which do fortifieandincrease his vertues.QUINCETREETheQuince treeisnotgreat,butgrowes low,andmany times in manerofashrub:itis covered with aruggedbarke, whichhathonitnowandthen certain scales: it spreadeth his boughes in compasse like other trees, about which stand leaves somewhatroundlike thoseofthecommonApple tree, greeneandsmooth above,andunder neath softandwhite:theflours beofa white purple colour:thefruit is like an Apple, savingthatmany timesithathcertain embowed&swelling divisions: it differeth in fashionandbignesse; for some Quinces are lesser and round,trustuptogetheratthetop with wrinckles, others longerandgreater:thethirdsort beofa middle manner betwixtboth;they are allofthem set with a thinne cottonorfreese,andbeofthecolourofgold,andhurtfull to the headbyreasonoftheirstrongsmell; they all likewise have a kindeofchoking tast:thepulp within is yellow,andthe seed blackish, lying inhardskins as do the kernelsofotherapples.TheQuince groweth in gardensandorchards,andisplanted oftentimes in hedgesandFences belonging to 26 4

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TurkieCorneGardensandVineyards:itdelighteth to grow on plainandeven grounds,andsomwhat moist withall.TheMarmaladorCotiniat madeofquincesandsugaris goodandprofitable to strengthenthestomack,thatitmay retainandkeep the meat therein untillitbe perfectly digested.WhichCotiniat is made in thismanner:Takefaire Quinces, paire them,cutthem in pieces,andcast away the core, thenputuntoevery poundofQuinces apoundofSugar,andto everypoundofSugar a pinteofwater: thesemustbe boiled together over a stil fire till they be very soft, then let it be strained or ratherrubbedthrougha straineroran hairy Sive, which is better,andthen set it over the fire to boile againe, untillitbe stiffe,andso boxitup,andas it coolethputthereto a little Rose water,anda few grainesofmuskemingled together, which will give a goodly taste totheCotiniat.Thisistheway to makeMarmalad.Takewhole Quincesandboilethemin water until they be as soft as a scalded codlingorapple, then pill off the skin,andcutofftheflesh,andstampitin a stone morter, then straineitas you didtheCotiniat; afterwardputitin a pan to dry,butnotto seethatall,anduntoeverypoundofthe fleshofquincesputthree quartersofapoundofsugar,andin the cooling you mayputin rose wateranda little muske, as was said before.Manyotherexcellent daintyandwholesome Confec tions are to be madeofQuinces, as jellyofQuinces,andsuch like conceits, which for brevities sake I do nowletpasse.TURKIECORNEThestalkofTurkywheat is likethatoftheReed.Thefruit is contained in veriebigeares, coveredwithcoatsandfilmes like husks&leaves, asifit were a certain sheath.Theseeds are great,ofthebignesseofcommon peason.

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AutumnThesekindsofgrain were firstbroughtinto Spaine,andthenintootherprovincesofEurope:not(as some sup pose)outofAsia minor, which istheTurksdominions;butoutofAmericaandtheIslands adjoining, asoutofFlorida,andVirginia or Norembega, wheretheyuse to soworsetittomakebreadofit, whereitgrowes muchhigherthan inothercountries.Itis planted inthegardensoftheseNorthernregions, whereitcommeth to ripenesse whenthesummerfallethoutto be faireandhot;asmyselfe have seenby proof in myne owne garden.TurkyWheatinthehuske, as also nakedorbareItis sowen in these countries inMarchandAprill, andthefruit is ripe in September.Turkywheat doth nourish far lessethaneither wheat, rie, barly,orotes.Thebread which is madethereofismean ely white, withoutbran:itishardanddryasBisket is,andhathinitno clamminesse at all; for which cause itisofharddigestion,andyeeldeth tothebody littleornonourishment.Weehave as yet no certaine proofe or experience concerningthevertuesofthis kindeofCorne; althoughthebarbarous Indians, which know no better, are constrained to make a vertueofnecessitie,andthinkeita good food: whereas we may easilyjudge,thatit nourishethbutlittle,andisofhardandevill digestion, a more convenient food for swine than for man. 266

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Potato'sPOTATO'SThisplant (which is calledofsome SkyrretsofPeru)is generallyofus calledPotatusor Potato's.Ithathlongroughflexible branches trailinguponthegroundlike unto thoseofPompions, whereupon are set greene three cornered leaves very like thoseofthewilde Cucumber.Theroots are many, thicke,andknobby, likeuntotherootsofPeonies, or ratherofthe white Asphodill,joinedtogetheratthetop into one head, inmanerofthe Skyrret, which being divided into divers partsandplanted, do make a great increase, especiallyifthegreatest roots becutinto divers goblets,andplanted in goodandfertile ground.ThePotato'sgrow in India, Barbarie, Spaine,andotherhotregions;ofwhich I planted divers roots (which IboughtattheExchangein London) inmygarden, where they flourished until winter,atwhich time theyperishedandrotted.ThePotatoroots areamongthe Spaniards, Italians, Indians,andmanyothernations, ordinarieandcommon meat; which nodoubtareofmightyandnourishing parts,anddoestrengthenandcomfortnature;whosenutrimentis as it were a mean between fleshandfruit,butsomewhat windie; yet being rosted intheembers they losemuchoftheir windinesse, especially being eaten sopped in wine.Ofthese roots may be made conserves no lesse tooth some, wholesome,anddainty, thanofthefleshofQuinces;andlikewise those comfortableanddelicate meats called in shops, Morselli, Placentul.:e, anddiversothersuchlike.Theseroots may serve as agroundorfoundation whereonthecunningConfectionerorSugar-Baker may workeandframe many comfortable delicat Conservesandrestorative sweet-meats.Theyare used to be eaten rosted intheashes. Some when they be so rosted infuseandsopthemin wine:and 267

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Autumnotherstogive.themthe greater grace in eating, do boilethemwith prunesandso eatthem:likewise others dressethem(being first rosted) with oile, vineger,andsalt, every man according to his owne tasteandliking.Notwithstandinghowsoever they be dressed, they com fort, nourish,andstrengthenthebody.POTATO'SOFVIRGINIAVirginianPotatohathmany hollow flexible branches trailinguponthe ground, three square, uneven, knotted ..f7)t,1L.. Virginian Potatoesorkneed insundryplacesatcertaine distances: from the which knots commeth forth one great leafe madeofdivers leaves, some smaller,andothers greater, settogetherupona fat middle ribbycouples,ofa swart268

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Vine greene colourtendingto rednesse;thewhole leafe resembling thoseoftheWinter-Cresses,butmuchlarger;in tasteatthefirst like grasse,butafterward sharpandnippingthetongue.Fromthebosomeofwhich leaves come forth longroundslender footstalkes, whereongrowvery fairandpleasant floures.Itgroweth naturally in America, whereitwas first discovered, asreportethClusius,since which time I have received rootshereoffrom Virginia, otherwise called Norembega, whichgrow&prosper inmygarden as in their owne native country.TheIndians call this plantPappus,meaning the roots;bywhich name alsothecommon Potatoes are called in those Indian countries.Weehaveit'sproper name mentioned inthetitle.Thevertues be referred tothecommon Potato's, being likewise a food, as also ameatfor pleasure, equall in goodnesseandwholesomnesse tothesame) being either rosted intheembers)orboiledandeaten with oile, vinegerandpepper, or dressed someotherwaybythehandofa skilfull Cooke.THEMANUREDVINEThetrunkeorbodyoftheVine isgreatandthicke) very hard, covered with many barks, which are fullofcliffesorchinks; from whichgrowforth branches asitwere armes) manywayesspreading;outofwhich come forthjointedshootsorsprings;andfromthebosomofthose joints, leavesandclasping tendrels,andlikewise bunchesorclusters fullofgrapes:theleaves be broad, something round, five cornered,andsomewhat indentedabouttheedges: amongst which come forth many clasping ten drels,thattake holdofsuch propsorstaies asstandnextuntoit.Thegrapes differbothin colourandgreatnesse,andalso in manyotherthings, which to distinguish269

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Autumn severally were impossible, considering the infinite sortsorkinds,andalso those which are transplanted from one regionorclymat to another, do likewise alterbothfromtheformeandtaste theyhadbefore: whereforeitshall be sufficient to set forththefigureofthemanuredgrape,andspeak somwhatoftherest.Therebe some Vinesthatbringforth grapesofa whitishorreddish yellow colour; othersofa deep red,bothin the outward skin, juice,andpulpe within.Therebe others whose grapes areofa blew colour,orsomething red, yet is the juice like thoseofthe former.Thesegrapes doe yeeld forth a white wine before they areputintothepresse,anda reddishorpaller wine when they are trodden withthehusks,&so left to macerateorferment, with whichifthey remain too long, they yeeld forth a wineofahighercolour.Therebe others which make a blackandobscureredwine, whereof somebringbigger clusters,andconsistofgreater grapes, othersoflesser; somegrowmore clus tered or closer together, others looser; some havebutone stone, othersmore;some make a more austere orharshwine, others a more sweet:ofsometheold wineisbest,ofdivers the first yeres wine is most excellent: somebringforth fruit foure square,ofwhich kindes we havegreatplenty.Theplantthatbeareth those small Raisins which are commonly called CoransorCurrans, or rather Raisins of Corinth, isnotthatplant whichamongthevulgar people is taken for Currans,itbeing ashruborbushthatbrings forth small clustersorberries, differing asmuchasmay be from Corans, having no affinitie withtheVineorany kinde thereof.TheVinethatbeareth small Raisinshatha bodyorstock asotherVines have, branchesandtendrels likewise.Theleaves are largerthananyofthe others, snipt abouttheedges liketheteethofa saw:amongwhich come forth clustersofgrapes in forme like'27

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Pine theother,butsmaller,ofa blewish colour; which being ripe are gatheredandlaiduponhurdles, carpets, mats,andsuch like, intheSun todry:thenthey are caried to some houseandlaiduponheaps, as wee lay applesandcorne in a garner,untill the merchantsbuythem:then do theyputthem into large butsorotherwoodden vessels,andtreadthemdowne with their bare feet, which they call Stiv ing,andso they arebroughtinto these parts forouruse. A wise husbandman will commit to a fatandfruitfull soile a leane Vine,ofhis own naturenottoo fruitfull: to a leangrounda fruitfull Vine: to a closeandcompact earth a spreading vine,andthatis fullofmatterto make branches of: to a looseandfruitful soile a Vineoffew branches. Grapes havetheprehemin enceamongtheAutumnefruits,andnourish morethanthey all,butyetnotsomuchas figges;andthey have inThd .themlittle illJ"uice, especiallyemanureVmehbh"w en they ee t orownpe.Grapesmaybekeptthewhole yeare, being ordered after the samemannerthatJoachimus Camerariusre porteth. You shall take, saith hee,themealeofmustardseed,andstrew inthebottomeofanyearthenpotwell leaded; whereupon you shall laythefairest bunchesofthe ripest grapes,thewhich you shall cover withmoreofthe foresaid meale,andlayuponitanothersortofGrapes, so doing untillthepotbe full:thenshall you fill27I

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Autumnupthepotto the brimme with a kindofsweet wine calledMust.Thepot being very close covered shall be set into some cellar orothercold place:thegrapes you may take forthatyourpleasure, washing them with faire water fromthepouder.TospeakeofwinethejuiceofGrapes, which being newly pressed forth is calledMustumornew wine; afterthedregsanddrosse are setled,anditappearethpureandcleer,itis called in English,Wine,andthatnotunproperly.Forcertainotherjuices, asofApples, Pomegranats, Peares, Medlars, Services,orsuch other wise made (for examples sake)ofBarleyandGraine, benotatall simply called wine,butwiththenameofthethingaddedwhereof they do consist.Hereuponis the wine which is pressed forthofthePomegranateberries namedRhoites,orwineofPomegranats;outofQuinces,Cydonites,orwineofQuinces:outofPeares,ApyitesorPerry;andthatwhich is compoundedofBarley is called Z}thum, orBarley wine: inEnglish,AleorBeere.Andothercertain wines have borrowed syrnamesoftheplantsthathave bin infusedorsteeped inthem;and yet all winesofthe Vine, asWormwoodwine,Myrtle andHyssopwine, which are all called artificiall wmes. Thatis properlyandsimply called wine whichispressedoutofthegrapesofthevine,andis without anymannerofmixture.ThekindesofWinesarenotofone nature, norofone facultieorpower,butofmany, differing one fromanother;for there is one differencethereofin taste, another in colour,thethirdis referred totheconsistenceorsubstanceoftheWine;thefourth consisteth in the vertueandstrengththereof.Galenaddeththatwhichisfound inthesmell, which belongs tothevertue andstrengthoftheWine.Itis good for such asarein a consumption,byreason272

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Vineofsome disease,andthathave need to have their bodies nourishedandrefreshed (alwaies provided they have no fever,)asGalensaith in his seventh bookeoftheMethodofcuring.Itrestorethstrengthmostofallotherthings,andthatspeedily:Itmaketh a man merryandjoyfull:Itputtethaway feare, care, troublesofminde,andsorrow:andbringeth sleepe gently.Andthese things proceedofthe moderate useofwine: for immoderatedrinkingofwine doth altogetherbringthe contrarie.Theythataredrunkeare distraughted in minde, become foolish,andoppressed with a drowsie sleepinesse,andbe afterward taken with the Apoplexy,thegout,oraltogether withothermost grievous dis eases.Andseeingthatevery excesse is to be shunned,itis expedient mostofall toshunthis,bywhich not onlythebody,butalsothemindereceivethhurt.Whereforewe thinke,thatwine isnotfit for menthatbe alreadyoffull age, unlesseitbe moderately taken, because it carrieththemheadlong into furyandlust,andtroubleth and dulleththereasonablepartoftheminde.Thereis drawneoutofWinea liquor, which inLatineiscommonly calledAqua vitte, orwateroflife,andalso Aqua ardens,orburningwater, which as distilled waters are drawneoutofherbesandotherthings, is afterthesamemannerdistilledoutofstrongwine,thatis to say, by certaine instrume:nts made for this purpose, which are commonly called Limbeckes.Thiswater is good for all thosethatare made cold eitherbya long disease,orthroughage, as for oldandimpotentmen:for it cherishethandincreaseth naturall heate;upholdethstrength, repairethandaugmenteththe same:itprolongeth life, quickeneth allthesenses,anddothnotonly preservethememory,butalso re coverethitwhenitis lost:itsharpeneth the sight. 273

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Winter Thebriefesummeof that hathbeenesaid oftheJ7ine.Almighty God for the comfortofmankinde ordainedWine;butdecreed withall,Thatit should be moderately taken, forsoitiswholsomeandcomfortable:butwhen measureisturnedinto excesse,itbecommeth unwhole some,anda poyson most venomous. Besides, how little credenceisto be given to drunkardsitis evident; forthoughthey be mighty men, yetitmaketh them monsters,andworse than brute beasts. Finally in a word to con clude; this excessive drinkingofWinedishonoreth Noblemen, beggereth the poore,andmore have beene destroied by surfeiting therewith, than by the sword.TRAVELLERS-JOYTheplant whichLobelsetteth forthunderthetitleofJ7iorna, Dodontus makesJ7itisalba;butnotproperly; whose long wooddyandviny branches extend themselves very far, and into infinite numbers, decking with his clasping tendrelsandwhite starre-like floures (being very sweet) all the bushes, hedges,andshrubsthatare neereuntoit.Itsends forth many branched stalkes, thicke, tough, fullofshootsandclasping tendrels,wherewithitfoldethitselfeuponthe hedges, and taketh hold and climethuponeverythingthatstandeth neereuntoit.Theleaves are fastned for the mostpartby fivesuponone riborstem, two on either side,andone inthemidst or point standing alone; which leaves are broad like thoseofIvy,butnot corneredatall: among which come forth clustersofwhite floures,andafter them great tuftsofflat seeds, each seed having a fine white plume like a feather fastned to it, which maketh in theWintera goodly shew, covering the hedges white all over with his feather-like tops.Theroot is long, tough, and thicke, with many strings fastned thereto.

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CedarTheTravellers-Joy is found inthebordersoffields among thornesandbriers, almost in every hedge as yougofrom Gravesend toCanturburyinKent;in many placesofEssex,andin mostofthese Southerly parts about London,butnot intheNorthofEnglandthatI can heare of.Thefloures come forth inJuly:the beautiethereofap peares in NovemberandDecember.Thisplant is commonly called Viorna, quasi vias ornans,ofdeckingandadorningwaiesandhedges, where people travel;andthereupon I have named it the Travel lers-Joy.Theseplants have no use in physicke as yet found out,butare esteemed onely for pleasure, by reasonofthegoodly shadow which they make with their thicke bushingandclyming, as also for the beautyofthe floures,andthepleasant sentorsavourofthesame.TheSpanish Travellers-JoyCEDARTREEThegreatcedar is a very big &hightree,noton ely exceeding allotherresinous treesandthose which bear fruit likeuntoit,butin his talnesseandlargenesse farresurmountingallothertrees:thebodyortrunkthereofis commonlyofamightybignesse, insomuch as fourmenarenotable to fathom it, asTheophrastuswriteth.The275

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Winterbarkofthe lowerpartwhich proceedethoutoftheearth, to the first young branches or shoots, isroughandharsh;therest which is among the boughes is smoothandglib;theboughes grow forth almostfrom the bottom,andnotfarre from the ground, even tothevery top, waxing by degrees lesserandshorter stil as they grow higher, the tree bearing the formeandshapeofaPyramideorsharpe pointed steeple: these com'0 passethebodyroundabout '.:;:0,. inmanerofa circle,and are so orderly placed by degrees,thatamanmay clymbeupbythemto the very top asbya ladder: the leaves be smallandroundlike thoseofthePinetree,butshorter,andnotso sharp pointed: allthecones or clogs are far shorterandthicker than thoseoftheFirtree, com pactofsoft, nothardscales, which hangnotdownewards,butstanduprightupontheboughes, whereunto also they aresostrongly fastned, as they can hardly beplucktoff withoutThegreat Cedar of Libanusbreaking somepartofthe branches asBelloniuswriteth.Thetimberis extreame hard,androttethnot, nor waxeth old; there is no wormes nor rottennesse canhurtor takethehardmatterorheartofthis wood, which is very odor.iferousand red.SolomonKingoftheJewes dId therefore GodsTemplein Jerusalem Cedar wood.The werewontto make theirDIVelSorImagesofthISkmdeofwood,thattheymightlastthelonger.276

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CypresseTheCedar treesgrowuponthesnowy mountaines, as in SyriauponMountLibanus,onwhichthereremaine some even to this day, saithBe/lanius,plantedas isthoughtbySolomonhimselfe: they are likewise foundonthemountainsTaurusandAmanus,in coldandstony places.ThemerchantsoftheFactorieofTripolistold me,ThattheCedartreegrowethuponthedecliningofthemountLibanus,neere tothehermitagebythecityTripolisin Syria:TheinhabitantsofSyriauseit tomakeboats of, forwantofthePinetree.TheCedar tree remaines alwaies green, asothertrees which beare suchmaneroffruit:thetimberoftheCedartree,andtheimagesandotherworks made thereof, seem to sweatandsend forth moisture in moistandrainy weather, as do likewise allthathave an oily juice, asTheophrastuswitnesseth.Thereissuethoutofthis tree a rosin like tothatwhich issuethoutoftheFirtree, very sweet in smell,ofa clammyorcleaving substance,thewhichifyouchew in yourteethitwill hardly begottenforth again,itcleaveth so fast:atthefirst it is liquidandwhite,butbeingdriedintheSunneit waxethhard:ifitbe boiled inthefire an excellentpitchismadethereofcalled Cedar pitch.TheEgyptianswerewontto coffinandembalmetheirDeadinCedarandwithCedar pitch,althoughtheyusedothermeans, asHerodotusrecordeth.CYPRESSETREEThetameormanuredCypressetreehathalongthickeandstraightbody;whereuponmanyslender branches do grow,whichdonotspredabroadlikethebranchesofothertrees,butgrowupalongstthebody, yetnottouchingthetop:theygrowafterthefashionofa steeple, broad below,andnarrowtowardthetop:thesubstanceofthewood is hard, sound, well compact, sweetofsmell,and277

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Wintersomewhat yellow, almost liketheyellow Saunders,butnotaltogether so yellow, neitherdothit rot nor wax old, nor cleavethorchoppethitselfe.Theleaves are long,roundlike thoseofTamariske,butfullerofsubstance.Thefruitornuts do hang upon the boughes, being inmannerlike to thoseoftheLarchtree,butyet thickerandmore closely compact: which being ripe doofthem selvespartin sunder,andthen falleth the seed, which is shakenoutwith the winde: the same is small, flat, very thin,ofa swart ill favoured colour, whichispleasant toAntsor Pismires,andserveth them for food.Thetameandmanured Cypresse groweth in hot coun tries, a,s in Candy, Lycia, Rhodes, and also in the territoryofCyrene: itisreported to be likewise found on the hils belonging tomountIda, and on the hills calledLeuci,thatis to say, white, the tops whereof be alwaies covered with snow.Itgroweth likewise in divers placesofEnglandwhereithathbeen planted, as at Sion a place neereLondon, sometimes a houseofNunnes:itgroweth alsoatGreenewich,andatother places,andlikewiseatHampsted in the gardenofMr.Wade,oneofthe Clerkesofher Majesties privie Councell.Theophrastusattributethgreat honor to this tree, shewingthatthe rootsofoldTemplesbecame famous by reasonofthatwood,andthatthetimberthereof,ofwhichtherafters are made is everlasting,anditisnothurtthere by rotting, cobweb, nor anyotherinfirmitie or corruption.Itis reportedthatthesmokeoftheleavesdothdrive away gnats,andthatthe clogs doe so likewise.Theshavingsofthewood laid among garments preserve them from the moths:therosin killethMoths,little wormes,andmagots.YEWTREETheYewTree,asGalenreporteth,ISofa venomous 278

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Hollyquality,andagainst mans nature.Dioscorideswriteth,andgenerally allthatheretofore have dealt in the facultieofHerbes,thatthe Yew tree is very venomous tobetaken inwardly, andthatifany doe sleepeunderthe shadow thereofitcauseth sicknesseandoftentimes death. Moreover, they saythatthe fruit thereof being eaten is not on ely dangerous and deadly unto man,butifbirds doe eat thereofitcauseth them to cast their feathers, and many times to die. All which I dare boldly affirmeisaltogetheruntrue:for when I was yongandwent to schoole, diversofmyschoole-fellowes and likewisemyselfe did eatourfilsofthe berriesofthis tree,andhavenotonely sleptunderthe shadow thereof,butamong the branches also, without anyhurtatall,andthatnot one time,butmany times.Theophrastussaith,Thatlabouring beasts die,ifthey doe eateofthe leaves;butsuch cattell as chew their cud receive nohurtatall thereby.HOLME,HOLLY,ORHULVERTREETheHollyisa shrubbie plant, notwithstandingitoften times growes to a treeofa reasonable bignesse:theboughes whereof are toughandflexible, covered with a smooth and green barke.Thesubstanceofthe woodishardandsound,andblackishoryellowish within, whichdothalso sinke in the water, asdoththe Indian wood whichiscalledGuaiacum:the leaves areofa beautifull green colour, smoothandglib, like almost the bay leaves,butlesser,andcornered in the edges with sharp prickles, which notwithstanding they wantorhave few when the treeisold: the floures be white,andsweetofsmell:theberries are round,ofthe bignesseofa little Pease,ornotmuch greater,ofcolour red,oftast unpleasant, with a white stone in the midst, which do not easily fall away,buthangon the boughes a long time: the rootiswooddy.279

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WinterHollytreeThereismadeofthesmooth barkeofthis treeorshrub,Birdlime, which the birders and country men do use to take birds with: they pul off the barke,andmake a ditch in theground,specially in moist, boggy,orsoggy earth, wherinto theyput If!! bark, coveringtheditch wIth boughesoftrees, let-tingitremaine there tilitbe andp.utrified, which ,??'Ji WIllbe done In thespaceoftwelve daiesorthereabout: which done, they take it forth,andbeat in mortersuntill it be come tothethicknesseandclamminesseofLime:lastly,thatthey may clearitfrom piecesofbarkeandother filthinesse, they do wash it very often: after which they addeuntoita little oyleofnuts,andafterthatdoputitupin earthen vessels.TheHollytree groweth plentifully in all countries.Itgrowethgreenbothwinterandsummer;theberries are they dohanguponthetree a ripe in September,andlongtime after.Thistree orshrubis called inLatineAgrifolium:in French,HousandHousson:in English, Holly,Hulver,andHolme.TheBirdlime which is madeofthebarke hereof is no less hurtfull thanthatofMisseltoe, foritis marvellous clammy, itgluethupalltheintrails,andbythis meanes it bringeth destruction to man,notbyany quality,butby hisgluingsubstance.280

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Missel/oeIvyI vie climbeth on trees, old buildings,andwalls: the stalkes thereof are wooddy,andnowandthen so great asitseemes to become atree;from whichitsendeth a multitudeoflittle boughesorbranches every way, whereby asitwere with armesitcreepethandwandereth farabout:it alsobringethforth continually fine little roots,bywhich it fastnethitselfeandcleaveth wonderfullhardupontrees,anduponthesmoothest stone walls:theleaves are smooth, shining especially ontheupperside, cornered with sharpe pointed corners. Thefloures are very smallandmossie; after which succeed bundlesofblack ber ries,everyonehaving a small sharpe pointall.Clymbingorberried IvieIvie flourisheth inAutumne:theberries are ripe aftertheWinterSolstice.Theleaves laid in steepe in water for a dayanda nights space, helpe soreandsmarting waterish eies,ifthey be bathedandwashed withthewater wherein they have beene infused.MISSELTOEViscumorMisseltoehathmany slender branches spread overthwart one another,andwrappedorinterlaced one within another,thebarkewherofisofalightgreenor 281

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Winter Popinjay colour:theleavesofthis branching excrescence beofa brown green colour: the floures be smallandyellow: which beeing past, there appeare small clustersofwhite translucent berries, which are so clearethata man may see thorow them,andareofa clammyorviscous moisture, whereof the best Bird-lime is made, far exceedingthatwhich is madeoftheHolmorHollybark:and" within thisberryis a small blacke kernelorseed: this excrescence hath not any root, neither doth increase him selfeofhis seed,assome have supposed;butitrather commethofa certaine moistureandsubstance gathered togetherupon the boughsandjointsofthe trees,throughthe barke whereof this vaporous moisture proceeding, brings forththeMisseltoe.Manyhave diversly spoken hereof. SomeoftheLearnedhave set down,thatit comesofthedungofthebird called aThrush,who having fedofthe seeds thereof,hathvoided .andleft hisdungupontheMIsseltoetree, whereof was ingendered this bery, a most fitmatterto make limeofto intrap and catch birds withal!. Misseltoe growethuponOkesanddiversothertrees almost every where. Misseltoe is alwaies greene as well in winter assummer:theberries are ripe inAutumne,they remain all winter thorow,andare a food for divers birds, as Thrushes, Black-birds,&Ring-doves.282

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IndianFig treeBLACKEHELLEBOREThisplant hath thickeandfat leavesofa deep green colour,theupperpartwhereof is somewhat bluntly nicked or toothed, havingsundrydivisionsorcuts, in some leaves many, in others fewer.Itbeareth Rose fashioned flouresuponslender stems, growing immedi atlyoutofthegroundan handfull high, sometimes very white,andoftentimes mixed with a little shewofpurple:which being vaded, there succeed small husks fullofblacke seeds. A purgationofHelleboris good formadandfurious men, for melancholy, dullandheavie persons,andbriefly for all thosethatare troubled with blacke choler,andmolested with melancholy.Itis agreed among the later writers,thatthese plants areVeratra nigra:in English, blackeHellebores:ofdivers,Melampodium,because it was first foundbyMelampos,who was firstthoughttopurgetherewith Pr,:etus hismaddaughters,andto restore them to health.Dioscorideswriteth,thatthis man was a shepheard: others, a Soothsayer.InhighDutchitiscalled Christs herbe,andthatbecauseitfloureth about thebirthofourLordJesus Christ.THEARCHEDINDIANFIGTREEThisrareandadmirable tree is very great, straight,andcovered with a yellow barketendingto tawny:theboughesandbranches are many, very long, tough,andflexible, growing very long in short space, as doe the twigsofOziars,andthose so longandweake,thattheends thereofhangdowneandtouch the ground, where they take rootandgrow in such sort,thatthose twigs become great trees:andthese being growneupuntothe like greatnesse, doe cast their branchesortwiggy tendrels283

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Winteruntotheearth, wheretheylikewise take holdandroot;bymeaneswhereofitcommethto passe,thatofone tree ismadeagreatwoodordesartoftrees,whichtheIndiansdoe use for coverture againsttheextreme heatoftheSun,wherewith they are grievously vexed: some likewiseusethemfor pleasure,cuttingdownebya direct line alongwalke,orasitwere a vault,throughthethickestpart,from which also theycutcertaine loope-holesorwin dawes in some places, totheendto receivetherebythefresh coole airethatentreththereat, as also for light,thattheymaysee their cattellthatfeed thereby, to avoid anydangerthatmighthappenuntothemeitherbytheenemyorwilde beasts: from which vaultorclose walkedothreboundsuch an admirable ecchooranswering voice,ifoneofthemspeakeuntoanotheraloud,thatitdothresoundoranswer againe foureorfive times, according totheheightofthevoice, to whichitdothanswer,andthatso plain ely,thatitcannotbeknownfromthevoiceitselfe:thefirstormotherofthis woodordesartoftrees ishardto bee knowne fromthechildren,butbythegreat. nesseofthebody, which threemencan scarsely fathomabout:uponthebrancheswhereofgrowleaveshardand wrinkled, in shape like those -oftheQuincetree, greene above,andofa whitish hoary__ '"'"" colourunderneath,where.upontheElephantsdelightThearchedIndianFig treeto feed:amongwhich leaves 28 4

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Barnacle Treecome forththefruit,ofthebignesseofamansthumbe,in shape like a smallFig,butofasanguineorbloudy colour,andofa sweet tast,butnotso pleasant astheFigsofSpaine;notwithstandingthey are good to be eaten,andwithall very wholesome.Thiswondroustreegrowethin divers placesoftheEast-Indies,especially neereuntoGoa,andalsoinMalaca:itis astrangerinmostpartsoftheWorld.Itkeepethhis leavesgreeneWinterandSummer.Thistree is calledofthosethathave travelled,Ficus Indica;theIndianFig;andArbor Goa,oftheplacewhereitgrowethingreatestplenty:wemaycallitinEnglish,thearchedFigtree.THEGOOSETREE,BARNACLETREE,ORTHETREEBEARINGGEESEHavingtravelled fromtheGrassesgrowinginthebottomeofthefenny waters,theWoods,andmountaines, evenuntoLibanusit selfe, wee are arrivedattheendofourHistory;thinkingitnotimpertinenttotheconclusionofthesame, toendwith oneofthemarvelsofthisland(wemaysayoftheWorld).Thehistorywhereofto setforthaccording totheworthinesseandraritie thereof,wouldnotonlyrequirea largeandpeculiar volume,butalso adeepersearchintothebowelsofNature,thanmyintendedpurposewill suffermeto wade into,mysufficiencie also considered; leavingtheHistorythereofroughhewen,untosome excellent man, learned inthesecretsofnature,tobebothfinedandrefined: inthemeane spacetakeitasitfalleth out,thenakedandbaretruth,thoughunpolished.TherearefoundintheNorthpartsofScotlandandtheIslands adjacent, calledOrchades,certaine trees whereon dogrowcertaine shellsofa white colourtendingto russet, wherein are contained little living creatures: which shells in timeofmaturitydoe open,andoutofthemgrowthose285

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Winterlittle living things, which falling intothewater do become fowles, which we call Barnacles; in theNorthofEngland,brantGeese;andin Lancashire, tree Geese:butthe otherthatdo falluponthe land perishandcome to nothing.Thusmuchby the writingsofothers,andalso from the mouthesofpeopleofthose parts, which may very well accord withtruth.Butwhatoureies have seene,andhands have touched we shall declare.Thereis a small Island in Lancashire calledthePileofFoulders, wherein are found the broken piecesofoldandbruised ships, some whereof have beene cast thitherbyshipwracke,andalso thetrunksandbodies with the branchesofoldandrotten trees, castupthere likewise; whereon is found a certainespumeor froththatin time breedethuntocertaine shells, in shape like thoseoftheMuskle,butsharper pointed,andofa whitishcolour; wherein is contained athingin forme like a laceofsilke finely woven as it were together,ofa whitish colour, oneendwhereof is fastned unto the insideoftheshell, even asthefishofOistersandM uskles are:theotherendismade fastuntothebellyofarudemasseorlumpe, which in time commeth to the shapeandformeofaBird:when itisperfectly formedtheshell gapeth open,andthefirstthingthatappeareth istheforesaid laceorstring;next come the legsofthe birdhangingout,andasitgroweth greater it openeth the shellbydegrees, tilatlengthitis all come forth,andhangethon ely bythebill: inshortspace afteritcommeth to full maturitie,andfalleth intothesea, whereitgathereth feathers,andgroweth to a fowle bigger than a Mallard,andlesser than a Goose, having blacke legsandbillorbeake,andfeathers blacke and white, spotted in suchmanneras isourMagpie,called in some places a Pie-Annet, whichthepeopleofLanca shire call by no other name than a tree Goose: which place aforesaid,andall those parts adjoyning do so muchaboundtherewith)thatoneofthe best isboughtfor three286

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BarnacleTreepence.Forthetruthhereof,ifany doubt, may it please them to repaire unto me, and I shall satisfie them bythetestimonieofgood witnesses. Moreover, it should seemethatthereisanother sort hereof; theHistoryofwhich is true, andofmine owne knowledge: for travelling upon the shoreofour English coast betweene Dover and Rumney, I found thetrunkeofan old rotten tree, which (with some helpe that I procured by Fishermens wivesthatwere there attendingThebreedofBarnaclestheir husbands returne from the sea) we drewoutofthe water upon dry land: upon this rotten tree I found growingmany thousandsoflong crimson bladders, in shape likeuntopuddings newly filled, before they be sodden, which were very cleere and shining; at the netherendwhereof did grow a shell fish, fashioned somewhat like a small Muskle,butmuch whiter, resembling a shell fish that groweth upon the rockes about Garnsey and Garsey, called aLympit:manyofthese shells Ibroughtwith me to London, which after I had opened I found in them living things without forme or shape; in others which287

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Winterwere neerer come to ripenesse I found living thingsthatwere very naked, in shape like a Bird: in others, the Birds covered with soft downe, the shell halfe open,andtheBird ready to fall out, which nodoubtwere the Fowles called Barnacles. I dare not absolutely avouch every circumstanceofthe first partofthis history, con cerning the treethatbeareth those buds aforesaid,butwill leaveitto a further consideration; howbeit, that which I have seene with mine eies,andhandledwith mine hands, I dare confidently avouch,andboldlyputdowne for verity.Nowifany will objectthatthis tree which I sawmightbe oneofthose before mentioned, which eitherbythe wavesofthe seaorsome violent wind had beene overturned as many other trees are; orthatany trees falling into those seas about the Orchades, willofthemselves beare the like Fowles, by reasonofthose seasandwaters, these being so probable conjectures,andlikely to be true, I maynotwithout prejudice gaine say,orindeavour to confute.Andthus havingthroughGods assistance discoursed somewhat at largeofGrasses,Herbes,Shrubs, Trees,andMosses,andcertaine Excrescencesoftheearth, withotherthings moe, incident tothehistorie thereof, we concludeandendourpresent Volume, with this wonderofEngland.Forthewhich GodsNamebe ever honoredandpraised.FINIS288

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THENOTESANDTABLES

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NOTESBotanical history compliments Gerard by giving the year1597when his Herbalwaspublished--or thereaboutsasthe dateofthe introductionofmany plants to Britain.Thisdatewasconvenient when exact informationwaslacking and a plant had been described by Gerard. Examples are MargeromeofCandy, Sugar Cane, an Iris, someofthe Lilies, and Crown Imperial. Lettuce and Rose mary also were introduced in Gerard's time.PAGE + TheSpring Saffrons are the familiar Crocus vernusandC.luteus. + TheNarcissi described areNarcissus poeticus.ThefigureisofN.Jonquilla.9Thefirst Anemone describedis A. coronaria,ofwhich the others are varieties.20Thetwin-like CowslipisPrimula veris.Double Paigle and the Primrose with the greenish flowers are varietiesofP.vulgaris. 23 Anemone Pulsatillaisa nativeofseveral partsofEngland; the white varietyisrare. 2+ TheSweet Johns and Sweet Williams are identified withDianthus Carthusianorum.ThePrideofAustriaisD. superbus.26Theflowers which Gerard judgedastoo sweet have been taken for White Lilac, but the description favoursPhiladelphus coronarius(commonly called Syringa) whichisthe plant illus trated."BlewPipe"isthe old nameofSyringa vulgaris,the common Lilac. +2 TheDocks first described areRumexHydropapathumandR.obtusifolius.Bloudwort suggestsR.sanguineus.R. Patientia came from Italy in Gerard's time. 53 Lilyofthe Valley still grows at Hampstead (inKenWood).291

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Notes 54 English JacinthisGerard's name forScilla nutans.False bum bast Jacinth appears tobea speciesofHypoxis,and FloureofTygris the splendidTigridis Pavonia.57-60 White Lily and LilyofConstantinople are bothLilium candidum.Mountaine Lillies areL.Martagon.Persian LillyisFritillaria persica,andCrowne Imperiall(page 38)isF. Imperialis.Day LillieisHemerocallis fulva. Fritillaria Meleagriswas not recognisedasan English wild flower until the middleofthe nineteenth century. 64 Gerard cultivated a dozen sortsofIris.Thefigureisof1.susiana,introducedtoBritain from the Levant 1596. Floure de-IuceofDalmatiais1.pallida.Therootsof1.jlorentinasupply the orris rootofthe perfumers. 66 Gerard cultivated and described the Male, masculaand the Female,P.officinalis.Stronger and weaker varietiesofplants were often distinguishedasmale and female. 68 French Corne-Bagge(Gladioluscommunis)isa plantofcentral and southern Europe.InBritain itisfound wild in theNewForest and the ofWight. 7IInthe expression "'maketh a may gracious" the word"may"could mean either man or maid. 7IThefirstofthese Bell-flowersisCampanula persicifolia,and the secondC.pyramidalis.76 Herb Two-pence(Lysimachia Nummularia)still has the popular name Money-wort,aswellasCreeping Jenny. 77 White Helleboris reratrum alba,a sixteenth century introduc tion to England. 78 AlthoughfiveBritish speciesofPoly gala(or three with two varietiesofoneofthem) are now generally recognised, at least threeofthe plants described areP. vulgaris.Theillustration showsIllecebrum verticil/atum.82Rough Bind-weed(Smilax aspera)isthe Smilaxofsouthern Europe.Thesmooth varietyis,asGerard says, not properly Smilax butConvolvulus sepium,and ScammonieisC.scammonia,imported to Britain from the Levant.Smilax Sarsaparillawas brought to Europe in the middleofthe sixteenth centuryasa medicineofvirtue. 87TheSwallow-wort describedisrincetoxicum officinale.ThekindofAsclepias still bears the nameoflEsculapius: A. syriaca292

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Notesisthe fragrant plantofCanadian woods, introduced to Britain in the seventeenth century.90TheLimes described areTilia europa:a, supposed to be a hybrid,ofgarden origin. 94Itisremarkable that Gerard described no more than a dozen Roses. HisWhiteRoseisRosa arvensis,the Red,R.Gallica,the Damaske,R.provincialis.TheGreatHolland RoseisR.centifolia,ofwhich the Province Rose may have been a variety.TheMuske Roses (page99)areR.moschata,R.Lutea(illustrated) andR.cinnamonea. 104TheCampions described are both the exotic species,Lychnis coronana.108Among the Foxgloves we recogniseDigitalis purpureaand its white variety.Itisremarkable that Gerard should accord the plants no place in medicine, considering thatDigitalisranks to dayasoneofthe most valuableofBritish "official herbs",ofwhich about two dozen find a place in theBritish Pharmaco pceia. 1,I 14ThoraValdensiumisRanunculus Thora.Yellow W olfes-baneisAconitum Lycoctonum,and AnthoraisAconitum Anthora.IISTheSeaLavenders described areStatice Limonium,andS. binervosa,long regardedasa variety,buta distinct species in accordance with Gerard's decision.I16 Aster Tripoliumisallied to the Michaelmas Daisy brought to England fromNorthAmerica by the elderJohnTradescant, gardener to Charles1.118Thetwo spurges described areEuphorbia ParaliasandE.Helioscopia.ThefigureisofE. amygdaloides.120Gerard grouped various plantsasPennywort,ofwhich thereisone British species,Cotyledon Umbilicus.Thesecond kindisSedum roseum,and the thirdHydrocotyle vulgaris. 124HousleekeisS empervivum tectorum.126Ladies ShooisCypripedium Calceolus.136Blacke W ortleisVaccinium Myrtillus(Bilberry, Blaeberry,orWhortleberry) and redWhortle V Vitis-ida:a (Cowberry,orRed Whortleberry).138Thered, white and green Strawberries areFragaria virginiana,introduced fromNorthAmerica.293

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Notes 14-1 Thefirst Reedis Arundo Phragmites,and the great sortis A. Donax,commonasa screen in Italian gardens. 14-7 Some thirty Carnations, GilloRoures, Pinkes, Sweet-Johns, Sweet-Williams, and Wilde Williams are described in the Herbal.The"GilloRoure with yellowRours"isa varietyofDianthus caryophyl/us,ancestorofthe garden Carnation. 153 Mouse-eare Scorpion Grasseisan old name for the F orget-me not.Thefirst describedisScorpiurus sulcatus.155 English CudweedisGnaphalium sylvaticum,oneofthe four speciesofthe British genusofEverlasting Flowers."Livefor-ever"isG. margariticeum."Small" and"Wicked"Cud weed are rightly named in the HerbalFilago,a genusofa few species formerly included with the other. 157TheFeverfews areChrysanthemum Parthenium,the com mon British wild Rower (perhaps not indigenous). 158Thefemale Mullein may have been eitherf/erhascum Blattariaor f/. Lychnitis.159ThePurple Goat's-beardisSalsify(Tragopogon porrifolius)andisoccasionally found established in southern England. 161 Oculus Christiisthe British wild Rower, Clary(Salvia f/erhenaca);Purple ClarieisS. Horminum.166 Dyer's Bugloss (Anchusa tinctoria)isa nativeofItaly.TheEchiummentionedisViper's Bugloss(E. vulgare).167TarragonandDraco herhaare old names forArtemisia Dracunculus.168 Nasturtium (TroptZolum) iswrongly namedasa Cress; itisa nativeofSouth America. 173ThreeTeasels grow in Britain,ofwhichDipsacus ful/onumisthe famed Fuller's Teasel, possibly a cultivated variety.Itisnow known that the water-supply in Teasel cupsisdrawn from the soil. 174Gerard cultivated and described several Rues not represented in Britain,asGarden Rue(Rutagraveolens)and wild Rue(R.montana.)178 Skirrets, theWaterParsnip(Sium Sisarum)was brought to England from China; though rare,itmay linger in cottage gardens. 191Thorn-Apple(Datura Stramonium)isan instanceofa South American plant which in a short time made itself more orlessat 294

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Noteshome in southern England, the seeds having been introduced from Constantinople (or, according to some, from ItalyorSpain) and dispersed through the land by Gerard.InVirginia itisnamed Fire-weed, from springingupafter fires.Theplant first describedisDaturaMete/;these names are from the Arabie, the specific one expressing the narcotic effectofthe plant.198, 199, 200Common Henbane(Hyoscyamus niger)isthe com mon British weed, alsoofEurope and Western Asia. Yellow HenbaneisNicotiana rustica.Tobacco plants, said to have been first brought from America in1570,were namedNico tianain honourofJohnNicot,FrenchAmbassador in Portu gal, who procured the seeds.208Floure-gentle excited delight when introduced to Britain from the East Indies,as"very brave to look upon".Theplant first describedisidentified withCelosia cristata,andtheFloramorisAmaranthus tricolor.216GreatBlew-BottleisCentaurea montana,introduced to Britain from central and southern Europe. Gerard also cultivated C.Cyanus.222TheWoundwortisStachys palustris,sonamed by Gerard's first editor, Johnson.225Early herbalists termed the Scarlet Pimpernel(Anagal/is arvensis)the Male, and the blue variety (A.ccerulea) the Female.Theplant figured inAnagallis monel/i. 228Bastard MargeromeofCandy(Origanum creticum)was intro duced to Britain from Southern Europe about1597.231f7erbenaofficinalisisthe one British representativeofthe genus,sothat itisdoubtfulifGerard found Creeping Vervaine grow ing wild. 243Thegreat MapleisAcerpseudo-platanus,naturalised in Britain.255ThenamesWhiteSatin,Lunaria,and Pricksong-wort are allusions to the seed-vessels."Pricks"were notes inwrittenmusic, and a sheetofmusic in Gerard's day was a pricksong.258TheMeadow Saffrons described are allColchicum autumnalis. Hermodactyluswas a name given to an Iris.265ZeaMayswas introduced to Britain fromNorthAmerica,1562.

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Notes267-8 Gerard published the first pictureofthe so-called Virginian Potato (not a nativeofVirginia) supposed to have been brought to Britain from that country by colonists sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh.Thename distinguished this from "Battatas", or Sweet Potatoes,usedin Englandasa delicacy before the intro ductionofthe other, and confusingly called by Gerard the Common Potato.InGerard's portrait in the Herbal heisholding a branchofthe Potato. 274Thename "Traveller'sJoy"wasoneofGerard's happiest inventions.Thoughhe objected to the name Pitis albait remains thatofthe one British species. Piorna isaNorthAmerican species. 281 Mistletoe, contrary to Gerard's (andhisartist's) opinion, grows very rarely on Oaks. Itissurprising that after mention ing theseedhe should have denied that it increases by seed. 285Themythofthe BarnacleTreegoesback to remoteages.In1677 a paperwasread on the subject before the Royal Society; Gerardwasin good company (including thatofthe herbalist WilliamTurner)in giving credence to the legend.

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TABLEOFSUNDRYVERTUESTobetaken in a pipe against ACH'ES in any partofthe bodie,203AgoodAMOROUSmedicine to make one in love, 8TheANTIDOTEagainst Aconite or Wolfes bane, 114FortheBALDhead,InAnoilegoodtobeanointed afterBATHS, 14-5 Forbroken BONES,90Anunguent against allBOTCHES,200Tomake theBREATHvery sweet,135Tobeput intoBROTHS,128, 212Totake away the blacknesse or blewnesseofanyBRUISE,66,89Totake awayCORNES,51, 125A decoction for theCOUGH,37Forthose that have noDELIGHT,172Tokeep littleDOGSfrom growing great,ISTokeepe a man from beingDRUNKE, 24-1 Very much commended for theEIES,227Thebest in the world for EYES, 16Tomake agoodcolour in theFACE,81Tocure copperFACES,180-1Forsuchasare tooFATand would fainebeleaner, 254A decoction that consumeth proud and superfluousFLESH, 24-5 A distillation againstGIDDINESSE&c, 14-7 A liquor that appeaseth the paineoftheGOUT, 54 Tomake theHAIRblacke, 24-5 A juyce that causethHAIREto fall,120Tokeepe backe the growthofHAIRES,55Toheal chaps and chinksoftheHANDS&c,217An oile to make smooth theHANDS, 24I,251Ofgreat force against the swimming in theHEAD,230-1A conserve that strengthneth theHEART,98A conserve that wonderfully above measure doth comfort theHEART, 14-9

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VertuesForto deckeupHOUSES, 93, 150 F or the sicke yongINFANT,185TocureallINFLAMMATIONSwhatsoever, 192-3 SirThomas Fitzherbert'scure for blackeJAUNDICE, 47 Anoilegoodfor the stiffenesseoftheJOYNTS, 264 A most excellentLOTION,261A purgationgoodforMADand furious men, 283Forthe faire andwe!colouredMAID,218Thisisthe way to makeMARMALAD,265 F or suchascannot brooke theirMEATE,230ForsuchasbeMELANCHOLIKE,sad,pensive, and without speech, 158ForMELANCHOLY,dull and heavie persons, 283Tomake the heartMERRY,81,135,150,165, 166Forthy wounded pooreNEIGHBOR,206Tocureredand shining fierie NOSES, 180-1ForOLDpeople that are dull and without courage, 130 Good tobegiven toOLDandagedpeople, 172 Whennoother mitigaterofPAINEdoth any thing prevaile, 106Tocoole the heateofthe aireforthe sickePATIENTS,5IAgainst thePESTILENCE,257-8 A dyet to curethePHRENSIE,21A singular remedy against thePLAGUE,161Tomake the most singularPOPULEONthat everwasusedin Surgerie, 125 A miraculous cure forRUPTURESor burstings, 73 A water that quickeneth all the SENSES, 273Forsuchasare given to overmuchSIGHING,229 An oyle to strengthen theSINEWES&c,66TorestoreSPEECH, 54, 135 A drinkegoodagainst theSTINGINGSofScorpions &c, 104, 176Totake away the paineofa grievousSTITCH, 163-4, 170, 218 A Cotiniat to strengthen theSTOMACK,265 Marvellous wholesome for theSTOMACKE,233 A sauce for feebleSTOMACKES, 42 Totake awaySUN-BURNING,freckles &c, 245 KingHenry8's remedy againstSURFETS, 47 A syrrupgoodagainstSWOUNING,166 A fruit for banquetingdishes,asTARTSand such like, 102298

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Vertues Against the painoftheTEETH,75,198, 202, 226A lotion that fastneth theTEETH,261Forthem that have the turning calledVERTIGO,158Tomake yongWENCHESlook faire and cherry-like, 4-3-4 A pretious remedie fordeepWOUNDS, 123-4Johnof Ardern's composition fordeeppunctures orWOUNDS,167A Balme to curedeepWOUNDS,205A pultesse for greeneWOUNDS,223ThemostfineYELLOWcolour that maybedivised,101

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ALPHABETICALTABLEOFPLANTSAconite,109Alkanet,166Allheal,222Almond, 24-0 Anchusa,166Anemone,9,23Angelica,161Antirrhinum, 70 Apple,93Mad,188ofLove,189Thorn,191Archangel,80Artichoke,235Arum,12Asparagus, 34 Auricula,22Balm, 164 Barnacle tree,285Bear's-ear,22Beech, 24-9 Beet,238Bells, Canterbury,127Peach and Steeple, 7IBindweed,82Birch,92Bittersweet,193Blackberry,259Bloodwort, 4-2 Bluebell, 54Bluebottle,216Borage,165Bramble,259Broom, 4-6 Bryony, Black,81Bugloss,166Bur-reed, 14-3 Buttercup, 74Caltrops, Water,170Campanula,7ICampion, 104Canary Seed,2I8Canterbury Bells,127Carnation, 14-7 Catmint,232Cedar,275Celandine, Great,39Cherry,30Chervil,I29Chestnut,252Christmas Rose,283Cistus,221Clary,161Clematis, 274Clover,75Clown's Woundwort,222Colt's-foot,36Columbine,69Convolvulus,82Corn,216-flag,68-flower,2I63

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Index Corn, rose,I06Turkey, 265 Cotton Thistle, 234 -weed, 155 Cowslip,20Mountain, 22 Crane's-bill,72Cress, Indian, 168 Water, 45 Crocus, 4 Crowfoot, 74 Water,IICrown Imperial, 38 Cuckoo-flower, 45 -pint,12Cuckoo's meat, 41 Cucumber, 18o Cudweed,ISSCumin, 169 Cyclamen, 6 Cypress,277Daffodil, 4 Daisy, 14 Damson,28Dandelion,17Deadnettle,80Delphinium,102Devil's-bit,226 Dock, 42 Duck's-meat, 44 Dwale, 155 Elder, 253 Elecampane,131Eryngo,171Eyebright,227Featherfew, 157 Feigned Plants, 55 Fennel, 179 Fern,ISO,151, 153 Fig, Indian, 283 Flag, 64 Flax, 107 Floure-de-Iuce, 64 Floure-gentle,208Forget-me-not, 153 Foxglove,108 Fritillary, (io Frogbit,13Furze, 48 Gillyflower,10,25, 147 Ginger, 197 Ginny-hen Flower,60Gladiolus, 68 Glasswort,122Goat's-beard, 159 Goldenrod,210Gooseberry, 137 Goose tree, 285 Gorse, 48 Go-to-bed-at-noon, 159 Gourd, 184 Grape Hyacinth, 8 Grass, Meadow, 139 Quaking, 218 Scorpion, 153 Ground Ivy,ISGroundsel, 16 Guelder-rose, 255 Harebell, 54 Hawthorn, 52 Hazel, 248 Heartsease,37Heath, or Heather,220302

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He/ianthemum, 22 IHellebore,77,283 Henbane, 198,199, 200 Herb Grace, 174 Impious, 155 Twopence, 76 Holly, 279Sea,171Hollyhock, 206 Honesty, 255 Honeysuckle, 86 Hop, 239 Horsetail,35Houseleek, 124 Hyacinth, 54 Indian Cress, 168 Fig, 283 Iris, 64 Ivy,281Ground,15Jacinth, 54 Jasmine, 145 Jonquil,sLady's-cushion, 73 -slipper, 126 -smock, 45 Larch,51Larkspur, 102 Lavender,Sea,I15-spike, 145 Lettuce,18Lilac, 26 Lily, 57,58, 59, 60 Lilyofthe Valley, 53 Lime, 90 Love-in-a-Mist, 207 Index Mad Apple, 188 Maize, 265 Mallow, 206 Mandrake, 194 Maple, 243 Marigold,21I,213, 214 Marjoram, 228 MarvelofPeru, 185 Meadow Grass, 139 Saffron, 258 Trefoil,75Meadowsweet, 149 Melon, 183 Milkwort,78Mint, 232 Mistletoe,28IMithridate Wolfsbane, 114 Moneywort, 76 Monkshood,IIIMoonwort, 153 Mountain Cowslip, 22 Mulberry,261Mullein,158Muscari,8 Mushroom, 245 Narcissus, 4 Nasturtium, 45, 168 Navelwort, 120 Neesing-root, or Neesewort,77Nep, 233Nigel/a,207Nightshade,Sleepy,155 Woody, 193 Oak, 244 Oats, 217 Olive, 262 Onion, 1763

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Index Orchis, 132 Osmund the water-man, 150Oxlip,20 66 Pansy,37Paper-reed, 142 Parsnep, 179 Pasque Flower,23Patience, 42 Peach,241Peach-bell, 7IPear, 32 Pennyroyal, 230 Pennywort, 120 Petty Panick, 218 Pimpernel, 225 Pipe Privet, 26 Plantain,I17Plum,28Poppy, 104, 106 Potato, 267, 268 Primrose, 20 Privet, 26 Quaking Grass, 218Queenofthe Meadows, 149 Quince, 264 Raspberry, 260 Reed, 141-143 Rhubarb,42Rose, 94,99,101 Christmas, 283 Guelder, 255 Rosemary, 134 Rue, 174 Saffron, 4, 256, 258Sage,163St.John's-wort, 123 Saligot, Water, 170 Saltwort, Glass, 122 Samphire,121Sarsaparilla, 82 Satin Flower, 255 Scabious, Devil's bit, 226 Scammony, 82 Scorpion-grass, 153SeaHolly,171Lavender, 115 Spurge, 118 Starwort,I16Sengreen,I24 Serapia'sTurbith,I16 Setwall, 128 Shamrock,75Sheeps-bane, 120 Skirrets, 178SleepyNightshade, 155 Sloe, 28Smilax,82 Snapdragon, 70 Snowdrop,ISolomon's-seal,88Sowbread, 6 Spleenwort,151Spurge, 118 Starwort,Sea,I16 Steeple-bells, 7IStock, 25 Strawberry, 138 Sugar Cane, 236 Sunflower, 2I 4 Swallow-wort, 39,87Sweet-John, 24 -William, 24 Syringa, 263

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Tarragon,167Teasel,173Thistle, Cotton, 234 Thorn-apple,191Thrift,73Thyme,130Toadstool, 24-5 Tobacco,199,200Tomato,189Traveller's-joy, 274 Trefoil, Meadow,75Tripolium,116Tulip,62Turbith, Serapia's,116TurkeyCorn,265Tygris, Floure of,55Valerian,128Verbena,231Vervain,231Vine,269Violet,2IndexWallflower,10Wall Pennywort,120Walnut,250Water Caltrops,170Cress, 4-5 Crowfoot,11Dock, 4-2 Fern,150Flag, 64Mint,232Pennywort,120Saligot,170Wheat,216Whortleberry (Worts)136Willow, 4-9 Wind-flower, 9 Wolfsbane,109, 114 Woodbine,86Wood-sorrel, 41Woundwort, Clown's,222Yew,278

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSTHEMUSICOFTHESPHERES:THEMATERIALUNIVERSE-FROMATOMTOQUASAR,SIMPLYEXPLAINED,GuyMUTchieVastcompendiumoffact,modernconceptandtheory,observedandcalculateddata,historicalbackgroundguidesintelligentlaymanthroughthematerialuniverse.Brilliantexpositionofearth'sconstruction,explanationsformoon'scraters,atmosphericcomponentsofVenusandMars(withdatafromrecentf1y-by's),sunspots,sequencesofstarbirthanddeath,neighboringgalaxies,contributionsofGalileo,TychoBrahe,Kepler,etc.;and(Vol.2)constructionoftheatom(describingnewlydiscoveredsigmaandxisubatomicparticles),theoriesofsound,colorandlight,spaceandtime,includingrelativitytheory,quantumtheory,wavetheory,probabilitytheory,work"ofNewton,Maxwell,Faraday,Einstein,de etc."Bestpresentationyetoffered totheintelligentgeneralreader,"SatuTdayReview.Revised(1967)'Index.319 iIIus t1"ations bytheauthor.Totalofxx+644PP 5% x 8Y2. TI809,TI810Twovolumeset,paperbound $4.00 FOURLECTURESONRELATIVITYANDSPACE, Chm"lesPmteus SteinmetzLectureseries,givenbygreatmathematicianandelectricalengineer,generallyconsideredoneofthebestpopular-levelexpositionsofspecialandgeneralrelativitytheoriesandrelatedquestions.Steinmetztranslatescomplexmathematicalreasoningintolanguageaccessible tolaymenthroughanalogy,exampleandcomparison.Amongtopicscoveredarerelativityofmotion,location,time;of mass;acceleration;4-dimensionaltime-space;geometryofthegravitationalfield;curvatureandbendingofspace;non-Euclideangeometry.Index.40illustrations.x+142PP. 5% x 8V2. 51771Paperbound $1.35 HowTOKNOWTHEVVILDFLOWERS,MTS.William Stan DanaClassicnaturebookthathasintroducedthousandstowondersofAmericanwild flowers. Color-seasonprincipleoforganizationiseasy to use,evenbythosewithnobotanicaltraining,andthegenial,refreshingdiscussionsofhistory, folklore, usesofover1,000nativeandescape flowers, foliageplantsareinformativeas well asfuntoread.Over170 fUll-pageplates,collectedfromseveraleditions,maybecoloredintomakepermanentrecordsoffinds.Revisedtoconformwith1950edition"ofGray'sManualofBotany.xlii+438PP. 5% x 8V2. T332Paperbound $2.25 MANUALOFTHETREESOFNORTHAMERICA,ChaTles Sprague SaTgentStillunsurpassedasmostcomprehensive,reliablestudyofNorthAmericantreecharacteristics,preciselocationsanddistribution.BydeanofAmericandendrologists.Everytreenativeto U.S.,Canada,Alaska;185genera,7'7species, describedindetail-leaves,flowers,fruit,winterbuds,bark,wood,growthhabits, etc.plusdiscussionofvarietiesandlocalvariants,immaturityvariations.Over 100 keys,includingunusualII-pageanalyticalkey togenera,aidinidentification. 783clearillustrationsofflowers,fruit,leaves.Anunmatchedpermanent referenl!e workforallnaturelovers.Secondenlarged(1926)edition.Synopsisoffamilies.Analyticalkey togenera.Glossaryoftechnicalterms. Index. 783illustrations,Imap.Totalof982pp. 5% x 8.T277,T278Twovolumeset,paperbound $6.00

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSIT'SFUNTOMAKETHINGSFROMSCRAPMATERIALS,EvelynGlantz HershaUWhat use are emptyspools.tincans,bottletops? '''That canbemadefrom rubberbands, clothespins,paperclips,andbuttons?Thisbookprovidessimply worded instructionsandlargediagramsshowingyouhowto makecookieclltters,toytrucks,paperturkeys,Halloweenmasks,telephonesets,"I'rons.linoleumblock-andspatterprintsin all 399projects!Manyareeasy clioligh foryoungchildrento figureoutfor themselves;somechallengingclioughtoentertainadults;allareremarkablyingeniousways tomakethingsfrommaterialsthatcostpenniesorless!Formerly"ScrapFunforEveryone."Index. 214 illustrations.373PP. 5% x 8y:!. Tl251Paperbound $l.7GSYMBOLIC LOGICand'THEGAMEOFLOGIC,Lewis CaTTail "SymbolicLogic"isnotconcernedwithmodernsymboliclogic,butisinstead a collectionofover380problemsposedwithcharmandimagination,usingthesyllogismandafascinatingdiagrammaticmethodofdrawingconclusions.In"The Game ofLogic"Carroll'swhimsicalimaginationdevises a logical game played with2diagramsandcounters(inclUded)tomanipulatehundredsoftricky syllogisms.Thefinalsection,"HitorMiss" is alagniappeof101additionalpuzzlesinthedelightfulCarrollmanner.Untilthisreprintedition,hothofthesebookswereraritiescostingupto $15 each.SymbolicLogic:Index.xxxi+199PP.TheGameofLogic: 96PP. 2 vols.boundasone. 5% x8. '1'-192 Paperbound $2.0UMATHEMATICAL PUZZLESOFSAMLOYD, PART Iselected and editedbyM. GaTdneT Choicepuzzles bythegreatestAmericanpuzzlecreatorandinnovator.Selectedfromhisfamouscollection,"CyclopediaofPuzzles,"theyretaintheuniquestyleandhistoricalflavoroftheoriginals.Thereareposersbasedonarithmetic,algebra,probability,gametheory,routetracing,topology,counterandsliding block,operationsresearch,geometricaldissection.Includesthefamous"14-15" puzzlewhich was anationalcraze,andhis"HorseofaDifferentColor"which soldmillionsofcopies.117ofhismostingeniouspuzzlesinall. 120 linedrawingsanddiagrams.Solutions.Selectedreferences.xx+167Pp. 5% x8. T4lJH Paperbound $1.25 STRINGFIGURESANDHowTOMAKETHEM, Ca7'Oline FUTness Jayne107stringfiguresplusvariationsselectedfromthebestprimitiveandmodernexamplesdeveloped by Navajo,Apache,pygmiesofAfrica,Eskimo,inEurope,Australia,China,etc.Themostreadilyunderstandable,easy-to-follow book inEnglishonperenniallypopularrecreation.Crystal-clearexposition;step-bystepdiagrams.Everyonefromkindergartenchildrentoadultslookingforunusualdiversionwillbeendlesslyamused.Index.Bibliography.Introduction by A. C.Haddon.17full-pageplates,960illustrations.xxiii+401pp. 5% x 8V2. T152Paperbound $2.25 PAPERFOLDINGFORBEGINNERS,W.D. Mun-ay andF.J.RigneyAdelightfulintroductiontothevariedandentertainingJapaneseartoforigami(paperfolding),withafull,crystal-cleartextthatanticipatesevery difficulty;over275clearlylabeleddiagramsofallimportantstagesincreation. Yougetresultsateachstage,sincecomplexfiguresarelogically developedfromsimplerones.'13differentpiecesareexplained:sailboats,frogs, roosters, etc. 6photographicplates.279diagrams.95Pp. 5% x 8%. Ti13Paperbound $1.00

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSPRINCIPLESOFARTHISTORY,H.Wolff/inAnalyzingsuchtermsas"haroque,""classic,""neoclassic,""primitive,""picLUresque," and16_l differentworksbyartistslike13otticelli,van Ckve,DOrer, Hobbema,Holbein,Hals,Rembrandt,Titian,Brueghel, Vermeer,and manyothers,theauthorestahlishestheclassifications of arthistory and sLyleona firm,concretebasis.Thisclassic of artcriticismshowswhat really occurredbetweenthe qth-century primitives and thesophistication ofthe 18thcenturyinterms of basicattitudesandphilosophies. "Aremarkabk lessonintheart of seeing,"Sat.Rev.of Lit.erattlre. Translated from the7thGermanedition.150illustrations. 25-!PP.6Vs x 90.T276 Paperbound PRIMITIVEART, Fmnz BoasThisauthoritative and exhaustivework by agreatAmericananthropologistcoverstheentiregamut of primitiveart.Pottery,leatherwork,metalwork,stonework,wood,hasketry,aretreatedindetail.Theories of primitiveart,historicaldepthinarthistory,technicalvirtuosity,unconsciouslevels of patterning,symbolism,styles,literature,music,dance,etc.Amust hookfor theinterestedlayman,theanthropologist,artist, handicrafter (hundreds of unusualmotifs), and thehistorian.Over900illustrations(50ceramicvessels,12totempoles,etc.). 376PP. 5Ys x 8.T25Paperbound $2.,,0 THE AND CABINETMAKER'SDIRECTOR,Thol1lasChijJpendale.-\reprint of the1762catalogueoffurnituredesignstbatwentontoinnuencegenerationsofEnglish and Colonial and EarlyRepUblic..\mericanfurnitnremakers.The200plates,mostofthemfull-pagesized, sholl' Chippendale's designsforFrench(LouisXV),Gothic,andChinese-mannerchairs.sofas.canopy and dome heds, cornices,cham her organs,cahinets,shavingtahles,commodes,picture frames,frets, candlestands,chimneypieces, decoratiollS, etc.Thedrawingsareallelegant and highlydetailed;manyincludeconstructiondiagramsandelevations.Asupplementof 2'l photographsshowssurvivingpiecesoforiginalandChippendale-stylepiecesoffurniture.BriefhiographyofChippendale hy N.I.13ienenstock,editor of Furniture World.Reproduced fromthe1762edition.200plates,plus19photographicplates.vi+2.19PP. 9Vs x 120. TI601Paperhound ANTIQUEFURNITURE: ABOOK FOR Edgar G. Miller, Jr.Standardintroduction and practicalguideLoidentificationofvaluable American antiquefurniture.2115illustrations,mostlyphotographstaken by theauthorin 148 privatehomes,arearrangedinchronologicalorderinextensivechaptersonchairs,sofas,chests, desks, bedsteads,mirrors,tahles,clocks, and otherarticles.Focusisonfurnitureaccessibletothecollector,includingsimplerpieces and alargerthanusualcoverageofEmpirestyle.Introductorychaptersidentifystructuralelements,characteristicsofvariousstyles,howto avoid fakes,etc. ""Ve arefrequently asked tonamesomebookonAmericanfurniturethatwillmeettherequirementsofthenovicecollector,thebeginningdealer, and ...thegeneralpublic... '''''e believeMr.Miller'stwovolumesmorecompletelysatisfythisspecificationthananyotherwork,"Antiques.Appendix.Index.Totalofvi+1106pp. 7Vi! x lOY,.'1'1:;99.'I'1(iOO TwovolunH.: set.paperhonnd :;)7.50

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSTHE BAD CHILD'SBOOKOFBEASTS, MORE BEASTSFOR '-\TORSE CHILDREN,andA 1'vfORAL ALPHABET,H.BellocHardlyandanthologyofhumorousversehasappearedinthelast50 yearswithoutatleastacoupleofthesefamousnonsenseverses.Butonemustseetheentirevolumes withallthedelightfuloriginalillustrationsbySirBasilBlackwood-toappreciatefully Belloc'scharmingandwittyversesthatplay sosubacidlyontheplatitudesoflifeandmoralsthatbesethisday andours. A greathumorclassic.Threebooksinone.TotalofI57PP. 5% x8. "1"749 Paperbound $1.00 THEDEVIL'S DICTIONARY, Ambrose BierceSardonicandirreverentbarbspuncturingthepompositiesandabsurditiesofAmericanpolitics,business;religion,literature,andarts,bythecountry'sgreatestsatiristintheclassictradition.EpigrammaticasShaw,piercingasSwift,Americanas Mark Twain,WillRogers,andFredAllen,Biercewill alwaysremainthefavoriteofasmallcoterieofenthusiasts,andofwritersandspeakerswhomhesupplieswith"someofthemostgorgeouswitticismsoftheEnglishlanguage"(H.L.Mencken).Over1000entriesinalphabeticalorder.144Pp. 5% x8.T487Paperbound $1.00 THE NONSENSEOFEDWARD LEAR. Thisistheonlycompleteeditionofthismasterofgentlemadnessavailableatapopularprice. A Book ofNonsense,NunsenseSongs, More Nonsense Songs andSt01"ies intheirentiretywithalltheoldfavoritesthathavedelightedchildrenandadultsfor years.TheDongWithALuminousNose,TheJumblies,TheOwlandthePussycat,andhundredsofotherbitsofwonderfulnonsense: 2'4 limericks, 3 setsofNonsenseBotany,5NonsenseAlphabets,546drawingsbyLearhimself,andmuchmore.320PP' 5% x8.Tl67Paperbound $1.75 THE ANDHUMOROF OSCAR'-\TILDE,ed. byAlvin Redman athismostbrilliant,in 1000epigramsexposingweaknesses and hypocrisiesof"civilized"society.Dividedinto49categories-sin,wealth,women,America,etc.-toaidwriters,speakers.Includesexcerptsfromhistrials,books, plays, criticism.Formerly"TheEpigramsofOscarWilde."IntroductionbyVyvyanHolland,vVilde'sonlylivingson.Introductoryessay byeditor.260pp. 5% x8.T602Paperbound $1.50 A CHILD'S PRnlER OFNATURALHISTORY, OliverHerford Scarcelyananthologyofwhimsyandhumorhasappearedinthelast50 yearswithoutacontributionfromOliverHerford.Yettheworksfromwhichtheseexamplesaredrawnhavebeenalmostimpossibletoobtain!Hereatlast areHerford'simprobabledefinitionsofamenagerieoffamiliarandweire!.animals,eachverseillustratedbytheauthor's own drawings.2'1drawingsin2 colors; 24additionaldrawings.vii+95PP. 6\12 x6.Tl647Paperbound $1.00 THEBROWNIES: THEIR BOOK, Palmer CoxThebookthatmadetheBrowniesahouseholdword.Generationsofreadershaveenjoyedtbeantics,predicamentsandadventuresofthesejovialsprites,whoemergefromtheforestatnighttoplayortocometotheaidofa deservinghuman.Delightfulillustrationsbytheauthordecoratenearlyeverypage. 2-l shortverse taleswith266illustrations.155Pp. 6'0l x 9\1:\. T1265Paperbound $1.50

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSTHEPRINCIPLESOFPSYCHOLOGY,WilliamJamesThefulllong-course,unabridged,ofoneofthegreatclassicsof ''''estern literatureandscience.Wonderfullyluciddescriptionsofhumanmentalactivity,thestreamofthought,consciousness,timeperception,memory,imagination,emotions,reason,abnormalphenomena,andsimilartopics.Originalcontributionsareintegratedwiththeworkofsuchmenas Berkeley,Binet,Mills,Darwin,Hume,Kant,Royce,Schopenhauer,Spinoza,Locke,Descartes,Galton, ""undt, Lotze,Herbart,Fechner,andscoresofothers.Allcontrastinginterpretationsofmentalphenomenaareexaminedindetail-introspectiveanalysis,philosophicalinterpretation,andexperimentalresearch."Aclassic," ]oumal ofConsultingPsychology."Themainlinesareasvalidasever,"PsychoanalyticalQuarterly."Standardreading...a classicofinterpretation,"PsychiatricQumte1ly.94illustrations. 1408PP'5% x8.T381,T382 Two volumeset,paperbound $6.00 VISUALILLUSIONS:THEIRCAUSES,CHARACTERISTICS A!'
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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSFAIRYTALE COLLECTIONS,edited by AndrewLangAndrewLang'sfairytalecollectionsmakeuptherichestshelf-fulloftraditionalchildren'sstoriesanywhereavailahle.Langsupervisee!thetranslationofstoriesfromallovertheworld-familiarEuropeantalescollectedbyGrimm,animalstoriesfromNegroAfrica,mythsofprimitiveAustralia,storiesfromRussia,Hungary,Iceland,Japan,andmanyothercountries.Lang'sselectionoftranslationsareunusuallyhigh;manyauthoritiesconsiderthatthemostfamiliartales findtheirbestversionsinthesevolumes.AllcollectionsarerichlydecoratedandillustratedbyH.J.Fordandotherartists.THEBLUEFAIRYBOOK. 37 stories.138illustrations.ix+390PP. 5% x SY2. '1'1437Paperbound $1.95 THEGREENFAIRY BOOK. 42 stories.100illustrations.xiii+3 66pp. 5% x SY2. TI439Paperbound $' THEBROWNFAIRYBOOK.32stories.50illustrations,8incolor.xii+350PP' 5% x SY2. Tl438Paperbound $1.95 THEBESTTALESOFHOFFMANN,edited by E.F.Bleile,.10 stories by E.T.A.Hoffmann,oneofthegreatestofallwritersoffantasy.Thetalesinclude"TheGoldenFlowerPot,""Automata,""A Nell' Year'sEveAdventure,""NutcrackerandtheKingofMice,""Sand-Man,"andothers.Vigorouscharacterizationsofhighlyeccentricpersonalities,remarkablyimaginativesituations,andintenselyfastpacinghasmadethesetalespopularallovertheworldfor150years.Editor'sintroduction.7drawingsbyHoffmann.xxxiii+'P9PP. 5% x 8Y2. TI793Paperbound $2.25 GHOSTANDHORRORSTORIESOFAMBROSEBIERCE,editedbyE.F.BleilerMorbid,eerie,horrifyingtalesofpossessedpoets,shabbyaristocrats,revived corpses,andhauntedmalefactors.WidelyacknowledgedasthebestoftheirkindbetweenPoeandthemoderns,reflectingtheirauthor'sinnertormentandbitterviewoflife.Includes"DamnedThing,""TheMiddleToeoftheRightFoot,""TheEyesofthePanther,""VisionsoftheNight,""Moxon'sMaster,"andoveradozenothers.Editor'sintroduction.xxii+199Pp 5% x 8Y2. T767Paperbound $1.50 THREE GOTHIC NOVELS,editedbyE.F.Bleile,.Originatorsofthestillpopular novelform,influentialinusheringinearly19th-centuryRomanticism.HoraceWalpole'sCastleat Otranto, WilliamBeckford'sVat/lek,JohnPolidori'sThe Vam-!Jy"e, anda Fragm.ent byLordByronareenjoyableasexcitingreadingorasdocumentsinthehistoryofEnglishliterature.Editor'sintroduction.xi+291pp. 5% x 8Y2. TI232Paperbound $2.00 BEST GHOSTSTORIESOFLEFANU,edited by E.F.Bleile,.ThoughadmiredbysuchcriticsasV.S.Pritchett,CharlesDickensandHenryJames,ghoststories bytheIrishnovelistJosephSheridanLeFanuhaveneverbecomeaswidelyknownashisdetectivefiction.Abouthalfofthe16storiesinthiscollectionhaveneverbeforebeenavailableinAmerica.Collectionincludes"Carmilla"(perhapsthebestvampirestoryeverwritten),"TheHauntedBaronet,""TheFortunesofSirRobertArdagh,"andtheclassic"GreenTea."Editor'sintroduction.7contemporaryillustrations.PortraitofLeFanu.xii+467PP. 5% x 8.T415Paperbound $2.50

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSEASY-TO-DOENTERTAINMENTSANDDIVERSIONSWITHCOINS,CARDS,STRING,PAPERANDMATCHES,R.M. AlJraharn Over300 tricks,gamesandpuzzles willprovideyoungreaderswithabsorbingfun.Sectionsoncardgames;paper-folding;trickswithcoins,matchesandpieces of string;gamesfortheagile;toy-makingfromcommonhouseholdobjects;mathematicalrecreations;and50miscellaneouspastimes.Anyoneincharge ofof youngsters,includinghard-pressedparents,andinneed of suggestions OI)' howtokeepchildrensensiblyamusedandquietlycontentwill findthisIlookindispensable.Clear,simpletext,copiousnumber of delightfulline drawli'lgs andillustrativediagrams.Originallytitled"WinterNights'Entertainments."IntroductionbyLordBadenPowell.329illustrations.V+ dl6pp.5% x 8l/:2. T92lPaperbound ANINTRODUCTIONTOCHESSMOVESANDTACTICSSIMPLYEXPLAINED,Leonard 13m'den Beginner'sintroductiontotheroyalgame.Names,possiblemoves of thepieces,definitions of essentialterms,howgamesarewon,etc.explainedin30-oddpages.Withthisbackgroundyou'llbeabletositrightdownandplay.Balance of bookteachesstrategy-openings,middlegame,typicalendgameplay,andsuggestionsforimprovingyourgame.Asamplegameis fullyanalyzed.Truemiddle-levelintroduction,teachingyoualltheessentialswithoutoversimplifyingorlosingyouina maze of detail.58 figures.I02pp. 5% x 8l/:2. Tl210Paperbound$1.25LASKER'SMANUALOFCHESS, Dr. Emanuel Lasker Probablythegreatestchessplayer of moderntimes,Dr.EmanuelLaskerheldtheworldchampionship 28 years,independent of passingschoolsorfashions.Thisunmatchedstudy of thegame,chieflyforintermediatetoskilledplayers,analyzes basicmethods,combinations,positionplay,theaesthetics of chess, dozens of differentopenings,etc.,withconstantreferencetogreatmoderngames.Containsabrilliantexposition of Steinitz'simportanttheories.Introduction by FredReinfeld.Tables of Lasker'stournamentrecord.3 indices. 308diagrams.1photograph.xxx+349Pp. 5% x 8. T640Paperbound $2.50 COMBINATIONS:THEHEARTOFCHESS,Irving Chernev Step-by-stepfromsimplecombinationstocomplex,thisbook,by a wellknownchesswriter,shows youtheintricacies of pins,counter-pins,knightforks,andsmotheredmates.Otherchaptersshowalternatelines of playto thosetakeninactualchampionshipgames;boomerangcombinations;classicexamples of brilliantcombinationplay by Nimzovich,Rubinstein,Tarrasch,Botvinnik,AlekhineandCapablanca.Index.356diagrams.ix+245PP. 5% x 8l/:2. T1744Paperbound$2.00HowTOSOLVECHESSPROBLEMS,K.S.HowardFull of practicalsuggestionsforthefanorthebeginner-whoknowsonlythemoves of thechessmen.Containspreliminarysectionand58 two-move, 46three-move,and8four-moveproblemscomposedby27outstandingAmericanproblemcreatorsinthelast 30 years.Explanation of alltermsandexhaustiveindex."Justwhatiswantedforthestudent,"BrianHarley.112problems,solutions.vi+I7IPP. 5% x 8.T748Paperbound $1.35

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSSOClALTHOUGHTFROMLORETOSClENCE,H.E. Barnes andH. BecherAn immensesurveyofsociologicalthoughtandwaysofviewing,studying,planning,andreformingsociety fromearliesttimestothepresent.Includesthoughtonsocietyofpreliteratepeoples,ancientnon-"Vesterncultures,andeverygreatmovementinEurope,America,andmodernJapan.Analyzeshundredsofgreatthinkers:Plato,Augustine,Bodin,Vico,Montesquieu,Herder,Comte,Marx,etc.Weighsthecontributionsofutopians,sophists,fascistsandcommunists;economists,jurists,'philosophers,ecclesiastics,andeveryIgthand20thcenturyschoolofscientific sociology,anthropology,andsocial psychologythroughouttheworld.Combinestopical,chronological,andregionalapproaches,treatingtheevolutionofsocialthoughtas a processratherthanas a seriesofmeretopics."Impressiveaccuracy,competence,anddiscrimination...easilythebestsinglesurvey,"Nation.Thoroughlyrevised,withnell'materialupto Ig60. 2 indexes.Over2200bibliographicalnotes.Threevolumeset.Totalof1586pp. 5% x8.1'901. 1'903Threevolumeset,paperbound $g.ooA HISTORYOFHISTORICAL"VRlTING,HarryElmer Barnes Virtuallytheonlyadequatesurveyofthewholecourseofhistoricalwritinginasinglevolume.SurveysdevelopmentsfromthebeginningsofhistoriographyintheancientNearEastandtheClassical upthroughtheCold '>Var. Coversmajorhistoriansindetail,showsinterrelationshipwithtlulturalbackground,makesclearindividualcontributions,evaluatesandestimatesimportance;alsoenormouslyrichuponminorauthorsandthinkerswhoareusuallypassed over.Packedwithscholarshipandlearning,clear,easilywritten.Indispensableto everystudentofhistory.RevisedandenlargeduptoIg61.Indexandbibliography.xv+442PP. 5%x8Y2. 1'104Paperbound $2.50 JOHANNSEllASTIANBACH,Philip1) S1)ittaThecompleteandunabridgedtextofthedefinitivestudyofBach.'Writtensome70 years ago,itis stillunsurpassed[oritscoverageofnearlyallaspectsofBach'slifeandwork.Therecouldhardlybea finernon-technicalintroduction toBach'smusicthanthedetailed,lucidanalyseswhichSpittaprovidesforhundredsofindividualpieces.26solidpagesaredevotedtotheBminormass, forexample,and30pagestothegloriousSt. i'v[atthew Passion.Thismonumentalset alsoincludesamajoranalysisofthemusicofthe18thcentury:Buxtehude,Pachelbel,etc."Unchallengedasthelastwordononeofthesupremegeniusesofmusic,"JohnBarkham, Saturday Review S1'ndicate. Totalof18lgpp.Heavyclothbinding. 5%x 8. Twovolumeset,clothbound $llj.OO BEETHOVENANDHISNINESYMPHONIES,GeorgeGroveInthismodernmiddle-levelclassicofmusicologyGrovenotonlyanalyzes allnineofBeethoven'ssymphoniesverythoroughlyintermsoftheirmusicalstructure, bl'l-( also discussesthecircumstancesunderwhichtheywerewritten,Beethoven'sstylisticdevelopment,andmuchotherbackgroundmaterial.Thisisanextremelyrich book, yet very easilyfollowed;itishighlyrecommendedtoanyoneseriouslyinterestedinmusic.Over250musicalpassages.Index.viii+407Pp. 5% x 8. 1'334Paperbound $2.25

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSTHREESCIENCEFICTIONNOVELS,JohnTaineAcknowledgedbymanyasIhebestSFwriterofthe1920'S, Taipe (underthenameEricTempleBell) was also aProfessorofMathematicsofconsiderablerenown.ReprintedhereareTheTime SI1'ealll, generallyconsideredTaine'sbest,TheGreatest Gallle, abiological-fictionnovel,andThePurpleSajJjJhire,involvingasupercivilizationofthepast.Taine'sstoriestiefantasticnarrativestoframeworksoforiginalandlogical scientificconcepts.Speculationisoftenprofoundonsuchquestionsasthenatureoftime,conceptofentropy,cyclicaluniverses,etc. 4contemporaryillustrations.v+532PP. 5% x 8%.TIIRO Paperbound $2.00 SEVENSCIENCEFICTIONNOVELS,H.G.WellsFullunabridgedtextsof7 science-fiction novelsofthemaster.Rangingfrombiology, physics,chemistry,astronomy,to sociologyandotherstudies, Mr. vVellsextrapolateswholeworldsofstrangeandintriguingcharacter."Onewillhavetogofartomatchthisforentertainment,excitement,andsheerpleasure._."NewYorkTimes.Contents:TheTimeMachine,TheIslandofDr.Moreau,TheFirst Men intheMoon,TheInvisibleMan,The"Val'oftheWorlds,TheFoodoftheGods,InTheDaysoftheComet.1015Pp. 5% x8.T264Clothbound 28 SCIENCEFICTIONSTORIESOFH.G. ''''ELLS.Two full,unahridgednovels, MenLike GodsandStarliegottell,plus 26 shortstoriesbythemasterscience-fictionwriterofall time!Storiesofspa'ce,time,invention,exploration,futuristicadventure.Partialcontents:TheCOUll/I)'oftheBlind,In/.heAbyss,TheCrystal Egg,The Man Who Cou.ld H/0rk Miracles, AStoryofDays to COllie,TheEIII/JireoftheAnts,The lVIagic Sho/J,TheValleyofthe Spiders, AStoryoftheStoneAge,UndertheKnife,SeaRaiders,etc. Anindispensablecollectionforthelibraryofanyoneinterestedin science fictionadventure.928pp. 5% x8.T265Clothbound $5.00 THREE ]'v{ARTIAN NOVELS,EdgarRiceBurroughsComplete,unabridgedreprinting,inonevolume,ofThuvia,MaidofMars;ChessmenofMars;TheMasterMindofMars.Hoursofscience-fictionadventureby amodernmasterstoryteller.Resetinlargecleartypefor easyreading.16illustrationsbyJ.Allen St.John.vi+490Pp. 5% x 8Vz.T39 Paperbound $2.50 ANINTELLECTUALAND CULTURAL HISTORYOF THE "VESTERNVVORLD,HarryElmerBarnesMonumental3-volumesurveyofintellectualdevelopmentofEuropefromprimitiveculturestothepresentday.Everysignificantproductofhumanintellecttracedthroughhistory:art,literature,mathematics,physicalsciences,medicine,music,technology,social sciences,religions,jurisprudence,education,etc.PresentationislucidandspeciFIC,analyzingindetailspecific discoveries,theories,literaryworks,andsoon.Revised(1965) by recognizedscholarsin specialized fieldsunderthedirectionofProf.Barnes.Revisedbibliography.Indexes. 24 illustrations.Totalofxxix+1318PP.T1275,TI276, T12'F Threevolumeset,paperhound$7.50

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSHEARMETALKIN'TOYA,editedbyNatShapiroandNatHentoffIntheirown words,LouisArmstrong,KingOliver,FletcherHenderson,BunkJohnson, Bix Beiderhecke,BillyHoliday,Fats'Waller,JellyRollMorton,DukeEllington,andmanyotherscommentontheoriginsofjazz inNewOrleansanditsgrowthinChicago'sSouthSide, Kansas City'sjamsessions,DepressionHarlem,andthemodernismofthe \Nest Coastschools,Takenfromtapedconversations,letters,magazinearticles,otherfirst-handsources,Editors'introduction. xvi +4,29PP' 5%x8V2. 1'1726Paperbound $2.00 THEJOURNALOF HEi\RY D.THOREAU A 25-yearrecordbythegreatAmericanobserverand Cl'ltlC, ascompletearecordofagreatman'sinne'r life as isanywhereavailable.Thoreau'sJournalsservedhimasrawmaterialforhisformalpieces, as aplacewherehecoulddevelophisideas, asanoutletforhisinterestsin wildlifeandplants,inwritingasanart,in classicsofliterature,\'Valt\Nhitmanandothercontemporaries,inpolitics,slavery,individual'srelationtotheState,etc.TheJournalspresentaportraitofaremarkableman,andareanohservantsocialhistory.Unabridgedrepublicationof1906edition,BradfordTorreyandFrancisH.Allen,editors.Illustrations.Totalof1888pp. 8% x 120.T3l2.1'3l3 1'11'0volumeset.clothhound$25.00A SHAKESPEARIAN E.A.AbbottBasicreferencetoShakespeareandhiscontemporaries,explainingthroughthousandsofquotationsfromShakespeare,Jonson,BeaumontandFletcher,North'sPlu/.archandothersourcesthegrammaticalusagedifferingfromthemodern.Firstpublishedin1870andwritten by ascholarwhospentmuchofhislifeisolatingprinciplesofElizabethanlanguage,thebook isunlikelyevertobesuperseded.Indexes.xxiv+51Ipp. 5% x 8V2.TI5R2 Paperbound $2.75 FOLK-LOREOF SHAKESPEARE, T.F.ThisteltollDyerClassicstudy,drawingfromShakespearealargehodyofreferencestosupernaturalbeliefs,terminologyoffalconryandhunting,gamesandsports,goodluckcbarms,marriagecustoms,folkmedicines,superstitionsaboutplants,animals,birds,argotoftheunderworld,sexualslangofLondon,proverhs,drinkingcustoms,weatherlore,andmuchelse.Fromfullcompilationcomes amirrorofthe17th-centurypopularmind.Index.ix+526pp. 5% x 8V2. 1'1611Paperbound $2.75 THE NEWVARIORUMSHAKESPEARE, editedbyH.H. FU1'l1eSS Byfartberichesteditionsoftheplayseverproducedinanycountryorlanguage.Eachvolumecontainscompletetext(usuallyFirstFolio)oftheplay,allvariantsinQuartoandotherFoliotexts,editorialchangesby everymajoreditortoFurness'sowntime(19),footnotestoohscurereferencesorlanguage,extensivequotesfromliteratureofShakespeariancriticism,essaysonplotsources(oftenreprintingsourcesinfull),andmuchmore. HA1>ILET, editedbyH.H.Fu,1'I1eSSTotalofxxvi+905Pp 5% x 8V2. 1'1004, TlOOr;Two volumeset,paperbound $5.25 TWELFTHNIGHT,editedbyH.H. Fu,rm:ss Index.xxii+134Pp. 5% x 8V2. 1'1189Paperbound $2.75

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSLA BV PUCCINI, tmnslated and intl'oduced byEllenfl..BleilerCompletehandbookfortheoperagoer,witheverythingneededfor fullenjoymentexceptthemusicalscore itself.CompleteItalianlihretto,withnew,modernEnglishline-by-linetranslation-theonlylibrettoprintingallrepeats;biographyofPuccini;thelibrettists;hackgroundtotheopera,Murger'sLaBoheme,etc.;circumstancesofcompositionandperformances;plotsummary;andpictorialsectionof73illustrationsshowingPuccini,famoussingersandperformances,etc.Largecleartypeforeasyreading. 124PP5% x 8y:!. T404Paperbound $1.25 ANTONIOSTRADIVARI:HIS LIFE AND WORK(1644-1737),W. Henry Hill, Alt!wr F.Hill,andAlfredE.HillStilltheonlybookthatreallydelvesintolifeandartoftheincomparableItaliancrafrsman,makerofthefinestmusicalinstrumentsintheworldtoday.Theauthors,expertviolin-makersthemselves, discussStradivari'sancestry,hisconstructionandfinishingtechniques,distinguishedcharacteristicsofmanyofhisinstrumentsandtheirlocations.Included,too, isstoryofintroductionofhisinstrumentsintoFrance,England,firstrevelationoftheirsuprememerit,andinformationonhislabels,numberofinstrumentsmade,prices,mysteryofingredientsofhisvarnish,toneofpre-168_1Stradivariviolinandchangesbetween1684and16go. Anextremelyinteresting,informativeaccountforallmusiclovers,fromcraftsmantoconcert-goer.Republicationoforiginal(lg02)edition.Newintroductionby Sydney Beck,HeadofRareBookandManuscriptCollections,MusicDivision,NewYorkPublicLibrary.AnalyticalindexbyRembertWurlitzer.Appendixes.68illustrations.30full-pageplates. 4 in color. xxvi+315Pp. 5%x.8y-2. T425Paperbound $2.25 MUSICALAUTOGRAPHSFROMMONTEVERDITOHINI)EMITH,Em.anuelWinternitzForbeauty,forintrinsicinterest,forperspectiveonthecomposer'spersonality,forsubtletiesofphrasing,shading,emphasisindicatedintheautographbutsuppressedintheprintedscore,themss.ofmusicalcompositionarefascinatingdocumentswhichrepayclosestudyinmanydifferentways.This2volumeworkreprintsfacsimilesofmss. byvirtually E.very majorcomposer,andmanyminorfigures-lg6examplesin all. A .fulltextpointsoutwhatcanbelearnedfrommss., analyzes eachsample.Index.Bibliography..18figures. 19(i plates.Totalof170PP'oftext. 7YsxIO:Y;. '1'1312.T1313Twovolumeset,paperbound $5.00 J.S.BACH, AlbertSchweitzerOneofthefewgreatfull-lengthstudiesofBach'slifeandwork,andthestudyuponwhichSchweitzer'srenownas amusicologistrests.Onfirstappearance(lgll),revolutionizedBachperformance.TheonlywriteronBachtobemusicologist,performingmusician,andstudentofhistory,theologyandphilosophy,SchweitzercontributesparticularlyfullsectionsonhistoryofGermanProtestantchurchmusic,theoriesonmotivicpictorialrepresentationsin vocalmusic,andpracticalsuggestionsforperformance.TranslatedbyErnestNewman.Indexes.5illustrations.650musicalexamples.Totalofxix+g28pp. 5% x8 y-2.T 1631. TI 632 Two volumeset,paperbound .5

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSTI-IEMETHODSorETHICS, Hem) SidgwickPropoundingnoorganizedsystemofitsown,studysubjectseverymajormethodologicalapproachtoethicstorigorous,objectiveanalysis.Studydis cussesandrelatesethicalthoughtofPlato,ArislOtle,Bentham,Clarke,Butler,Hobbes,Hume,Mill,Spencer,Kant,anddozensofothers.Sidgwickretainsconclusionsfrom each systemwhichfollowfromethicalpremises,rejectingthefaulty.Considered by manyinthefield tobeamongthemostimportanttreatisesonethicalphilosophy.Appendix.Index.xlvii+ 528pp.5% x 8\h. TI608Paperbound $2.50 TEUTONICMYTHOLOGY,Jakob GTimm Amilestonein culture;theworkwhichestablishedonamodernbasisthestudyofhistory'ofreligionsandcomparativereligions.4-volumework assemblesandinterpretseverythingavailableonreligiousandfolk loristic beliefsofGermanicpeople(includingScandinavians,Anglo-Saxons, etc.).AssemblingmaterialfromsuchsourcesasTacitus,survivingOldNorseandIcelandictexts,archeologicalremains,folktales,survivingsuperstitions,comparativetraditions,linguisticanalysis, etc.Grimmexplorespagandeities,heroes,folkloreofnature,religiouspractices,andeveryotherareaofpaganGermanbelief.Tothisday,theunrivaled,definitive,exhaustivestudy.Trans hued byJ.S.Stallybrassfrom4th(I tl83) Germanedition.Indexes.Totalof lxxvii +J887PP. 5%x8\h. T1602.T1603.T1604. TI(;{)'i Fourvulumeset,paperbuund$11.00THEICHING, translated by James LeggeCalled"TheBookofChanges"inEnglish,thisisoneoftheFiveClassicseditedbyConfucius,basicandcentraltoChinesethought.Explainsperhapsthemostcomplexsystemofdivinationknown,foundedonthetheorythatallthingshappeningatanyonetimehavecharacteristicfeatureswhichcanbeisolatedandrelated.SignificantinOrientalstudies,inhistoryofreligionsandphilosophy,andalso toJungianpsychoanalysisandotherareasofmodernEuropeanthought.Index.Appendixes.6plates.xxi+448PP. 5% x 8\h. '1'1062Paperbound $2.75 HISTORYOFANCIENTPHILOSOPHY,W.Winde/bandOneoftheclearest,mostaccuratecomprehensivesurveysofGreekandRomanphilosophy.Discussesancientphilosophyingeneral,intellectuallifeinGreeceinthe7thand6thcenturiesB.C.,Thales,Anaximander,Anaximenes,Heraclitus,theEleatics,Empedocles,Anaxagoras,Leucippus,thePythagoreans,theSophists,Socrates,Democritus(20 pages),Plato(50 pages),Aristotle(70 pages),thePeripatetics,Stoics,Epicureans,Sceptics,Neo-platonists,ChristianApologists, etc. 2nd GermaneditiontranslatedbyH.E.Cushman.xv+393PP. 5% x8. '1'357 Paperbound $2.25THEPALACE OF PLEASURE,l1!illiam PainterElizahethanversionsofItalianandFrenchnovelsfromThe Decwl/eTon, Cinthio,Straparola,QueenMargaretofNavarre,andothercontinentalsources -thevery workthatprovidedShakespeareanddozensofhiscontemporarieswithmanyoftheirplotsandsuh-plotsand,therefore,justlyconsideredoneofthemostinfluentialhooks in allEnglishliterature.Itis also a hookthatanyreaderwillstillenjoy.Totalofcviii+J ,224PP' TI691,'1'1692,TI693Threevolumeset,paperbound$6

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CATALOGUEOFDOVERBOOKSTHE ''''ONDERFUL''''IZARD OFOZ,L.F. Bawn Alltheoriginal ''''. W.Denslowillustrationsin fullcolor-asmuchapartof"TheWizard"asTenniel'sdrawingsareof"AliceinvVonderland.""TheWizard"is stillAmerica'shest-loved fairy tale, inwhich,astheauthorexpressesit,"Thewondermentandjoyareretainedandtheheartachesandnightmaresleftout."Nowtoday'syoungreaderscanenjoyeverywordandwonderfulpictureoftheoriginalhook.NewintroductionbyMartinGardner.ABaumbibliography.23full-pagecolorplates.viii+268pp. 5%x 8. Tu9l Paperbound $1.75 THEMARVELOUSLANDOFOz,L.F. Baum Thisistheequallyenchantingsequeltothe"Wizard,"continuingtheadventuresoftheScarecrowandtheTinvVoodman.Theherothistimeis alittlehoynamedTip,andallthedelightfulOzmagicis stillpresent.ThisistheOzbookwiththeAnimatedSaw-Horse,theWoggle-Bug,andJackPumpkinhead.AlltheoriginalJohnR.Neillillustrations,loinfullcolor. 287PP. 5% x8. T692 Paperbound jil.75 ALICE'SADVENTURESUNDERGROUND,Lewis Carroll TheoriginalA lice in Wonderlalld, hand-letteredandillustratedbyCarrollhimself,andoriginallypresentedas aChristmasgiftto achild-friend.Adultsas well aschildrenwillenjoythischarmingvolume,reproducedfaithfullyinthisDoveredition.Whilethestoryisessentiallythesame,thereareslightchanges,andCarroll'sspritelydrawingspresentanintriguingalternativetothefamousTennielillustrations.OneofthemostpopularbooksinDover'scatalogue.IntroductionbyMartinGardner.38illustrations.128pp. 5% x 8Y2. TI482Paperbound $1.00 THENURSERY"ALICF.,"Lewis CalToll WhilemostofusconsiderAliceinWonderlandastoryforchildrenofallages,Carrollhimselffeltitwasheyondyoungerchildren.Hethereforeprovidedthissimplifiedversion,illustratedwiththefamousTennieldrawingsenlargedandcoloredindelicatetints,forchildrenaged"fromNoughttoFive."Dover'seditionofthisnowrareclassic is afaithfulcopyofthe188gprinting,including20illustrationshyTenniel,andfrontandbackcoversreproducedinfull color.IntroductionbyMartinGardner. xxiii +67Pp. 6Vs x gI;:l. Tl610Paperbound THESTORYOFKIN(;ARTHURANDHISKNIGHTS, Howanl Pyle r\ fast-paced,excitingretellingofthehestknownArthurianlegendsforyoungreadershyoneofAmerica'sheststorytellersandillustrators.TheswordExcalibur,wooingofGuinevere,Merlinandhisdownfall,adventuresofSir"elliasandGawaine,andothers.Thepenandinkillustrationsarevividlyimaginedandwonderfullydrawn.41illustrations.xviii+313PP. 6Vsx gI;:l. T144!i Paperbound jiL75 Pricessubjecttochangewithoutnotice.AvailableatyourbookdealerorwriteforfreecataloguetoDept.Adsci,DoverPUhlications,Inc.,180VarickSt., N.Y., N.Y. 10014.Doverpuhlishesmorethan150hookseachyearonscience,elementaryandadvancedmathematics,biology,music,art,literaryhistory,social sciencesandotherareas.

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I/)fP? SF2O.02 G9.2<,l),