The herball, or, General historie of plantes

Leaves from Gerard's Herball ( Related URL )

Material Information

The herball, or, General historie of plantes
Uniform Title:
Portion of title:
General historie of plantes
Physical Description:
40, 1630 i.e. 1634, 50 p. (the first and last leaves are blank) : ill. ; 35 cm. (fol.)
Gerard, John, 1545-1612
Johnson, Thomas, d. 1644
Davyes, Robert
Islip, Adam, d. 1639 ( printer )
Norton, Joyce ( printer )
Whitaker, Richard, d. 1648 ( bookseller )
English Printing Collection (Library of Congress)
Printed by Adam Islip, Joice Norton and Richard Whitakers
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:
Very much enlarged and amended -- by Thomas Johnson ...


Subjects / Keywords:
Botany -- Pre-Linnean works   ( lcsh )
Botany, Medical -- Early works to 1800   ( lcsh )
Herbs -- Early works to 1800   ( lcsh )
Botany -- Atlases   ( mesh )
Botany -- Herbals   ( mesh )
Plants -- Atlases   ( mesh )
Plants -- Herbals   ( mesh )
Engravings -- England -- London -- 1636   ( gmgpc )
Woodcuts -- England -- London -- 1636   ( gmgpc )
Pagination errors (Printing) -- England -- London -- 1636   ( rbpri )
Herbals -- England -- London -- 1636   ( rbgenr )
Cator -- Armorial bookplates (Provenance)   ( rbprov )
Herbals   ( mesh )
Engravings   ( gmgpc )
Woodcuts   ( gmgpc )
Pagination errors (Printing)   ( rbpri )
Herbals   ( rbgenr )
Armorial bookplates (Provenance)   ( rbprov )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London


Statement of Responsibility:
gathered by John Gerarde.
Includes index.
STC (2nd ed.)
General Note:
Engraved, illustrated t.p.
General Note:
"A catalogue of the British i.e. Welsh names of plants, sent me by Master Robert Dauyes of Guissaney in Flintshire": p. 31-32 at end.
General Note:
Signatures: par.⁸ 2par.-3par.⁶ A-B⁸ C-6V⁶ 6X⁴ 6Y-7B⁶.
General Note:
Includes index.
General Note:
LC copy imperfect: wanting first and last blank leaves, as identified in RLIN.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 02131681
lccn - 06003877
sobekcm - AA00006094_00001
lcc - QK41 .G3 1636
nlm - WZ 250 G3565h 1636
System ID:

Full Text




5" s o
Q 3^(oh;
'"?) a re "Book,

stone, gvardianis,
ph arm a CEVTi lond. sociis
HI STORIAM, LAbores, stvdiorvm botanicorvm
spec im e Nj amoris symbolvm
ex a nimo
111 D. D. : -iyS^^ '
t at is stvdiosissimvs
Tjom. Iohnson.


Burghlcyj Mafter of the Court of Wards and Liueries, Chancellor of the Vniuerfitie of Catnb'ridge.-Knight of the rhoft rioble Order of the Garter, one of the Lords of her Majefties raoft honorable Pritiy Coun~ cell,and Lord high Treafurerof England.
Mong the manifold creatures of God (right Honorable, and my fingular good Lord) that hauc all in alt ages diuerfly entertained many excellent witSj and drawn them to the contemplation of the diuine wif-dome,none haue pr ouoked mens ftudies more,or fa* tisfied their denies fo much as plants haue done,and that vpon juft and worthy caufes: for if delight may prouoke mens labor, what greater delight is there than to behold the earth apparelled with plants, as with a robe of embroidered worke, fet with Orient pearles and gar nifhed with great diuerfitie of rare and coftly jewels?If this va-rietie and perfe&ion of colours may affe<5t the eie,it is fuchinjb.erbsand flotires, that no ApeHeSy no Zeuxis euer,could by any art exprefTe the like: if odours or if rafte may worke fatisfadtionjthey are both fo foueraigne in plants,and fo comfortable that no confection of the Apothecaries can equal 1 their excellent vertuc. But thefe delights arem the outward fenfes:the principal delight is in the mind* Angularly enriched with the knowledge of thefe yifible things/ettingforrhto vs the inuiflble wifdome and admirable workmanfhip of Almighty God.The de* light is gceat,but the vfe greater,and ioyned often with neceflitie.In the firft ages of the world they jwere the ordinary meate of men,and haue CQiptinued^euer fince of neceflary vfe both forroeates to maintaine life,.and for medicine to re-couer health. The hidden vertue.qf them is fuch, that (as Pliny notcth) the fcery pnn. bruitbeafts haue found it out:and (which is another vie that he obftrues)from; iVli> thence the Dyars tooke the beginningof their Art. ,,
Furtherrnore,the neceffary vfe of tbofelruits of thejearth doth plainly ajpeare by the great charge and care of almoftal f men in planting & maintainingofgar-dens, not as ornaments onely,butas a neceil'arie proMifion alfo to their houfes. And here befide the fruit,to fpeake againe in a word of delight,gardens,cipecia-ly fuch as your Honor hath,furnifhed with many rare Simples, do Angularly delight, when in them a man 4c^i^holdtn^,uriflim|fhew of Summer beauties in themidft of Winters force, and a goodly fpring of flours^when abroad a leafe is not to be feene. Befides thefe.and other caufes, there are many examples of thofe that haue honoured this fcience: for to paffe by a multitude of the Philofo-phers3it may pleafe your Honor to call to remembrance that which you know of fomenoble Princes, thathaueioyned this ftudy with their moft important rnat-
H" 4 er$

ters of ftate: Mithridaus the great was famous for his knowledge hercin,as Plu-PWdeDifcr. fc^noteth. ErfA?alfoKmgof Arabia^he happy garden of theWorld forprin-jfiiS?* cipatl Simples,wrotof this arguments Pliny (heweth. Dw^likewife,might haue had his praife,had he not drowned all his honour in the bloud of his perfection. To conclude this point, the example of Solomon is before the reft, and greater,whofc wifdome and knowledge was fuch, that heewas able to fee out the nature of all plants from the higheft Cedar to the loweft MofTe. But my very good Lord,that which fometime was the ftudy of great Phylofophers and migh-tie Princes5is nownegle&ed,except it be of fomefew,whofe fpiritand wifdome hath carried them among other parts of wifdome and counfcll,to a care and ftu-die of fpeciall herbes,both for the furniftiing of their gardens,and furtherance of their knowledge:among whom I may iuftly afflrmeand publifla your Honor to be one,being ray felfe one of your feruants,and a long time witneffe thereof: for vnder your Lordftiip I haue ferued,and that way emploied my principall ftudy and almoft all my time,now by thefpace of twenty yeares^ To the large and ofthis noble Ifland I haue added from iorreine places all the va-rietie of herbes and fioures that I might any way obtaine, I haue laboured with the foile to make it fit for plants, and with the plants, that they might delight in the foile, that fo they might liue and profper vnder our clymat, as in their natiue and proper countrey: what my fuccefie hathbeene,and what my furniture is, I leaue to the report of they that haue feene your Lordfhips gardens, and the lie tleplotof myne oWne efpeciall care and husbandry. But beeaufe gardens are priuat,and many times finding an ignorant or a negligent fucceilbr,c0me foone to ruine,there be that hauefollicited me,flrft by my pen, and after by thePrefle to make my labors eommon,and to free them from the danger wherunto a garden is fobjecT:: wherein when I was ouercome,and had brought this Hiftory or report of the nature of P lants to a juft volume, and had made it (as the Reader may by comparifon fec)richer than former Herbals,I found it n& queftion vnto whom I might dedicate my laborsjfor confidering your goodLord(riip,I found noneof whofe fauour and goodnes I might foonerprefume/eeing I haue found youeuer my very good Lord and Mafter. Againe,confidering my duty and your Honors merits, to whom may I better recommend my Labors,than to him vntd whom I owe my felfe, and all that I am able in your feruice or deuotion to performs ^Therefore vnder hope of your Honorable and accuftomed fauor Ipre-fentthis Herball to your Lordftiips protection ;and not as an exejuifite Worke (for I know my meannefTe)but as the greateft gift and chiefeft argument of duty that my labour and feruice can afIoord:wherof if there be no other fruit,yet this is of fome vfe, that I haue miniftred Matter for Men of riper wits and deeper judgements to poli(hsand to addetomy large additions where any thing is de-> fete, that in time theWorkemay be perfecT:. Thus I humbly take my leaue, befeeching God to grant you yet man j inks to Hue to his glory,to the fupport of thisState vnder her Majeftie our dread Soueraigne,and that with greatincreafe othonor in this world,and all fulneffeof glory indie world to come
and obedient Servant,

Iohanni Gerardo Chirurgoperitifiimo & ret Her&aru MentiJJimo S;P.D.
y M fingrilarummedlcina? partis gentia libera hbmine digna cenfenda eft j turri earum nulla vel antiquitate,vel dignitate3vel vtilitate,veldeniqueiu-cunditate cum ftirpiura cognitione iurecompararl debet. Antiquiflimam eam efTe ex eo liquet, qudd quum cetera* medicina partes (ficut reliquae etiam artes) ab ipfis homi-nibus(prouteos dura preffit neceflitas)primum excogitara* & inuentae fuerunt: fola herbarum arborumque cognitio ante hominem formatum condita/eidemque mdx creato ab ipfo mundi archite&o donata videri poteft.. Cuius tanta apud antiqua fecula exiftimatio ac dignitas erat}vt & ipfi-us inuentionerri fapientiflimo DeOrum Apollinf veteres tribuerint,& reges celeberrimi in ftirpiurh viribus ihdaigandis fludium laboremque fuum confumere, fummae fibi apud pofteros laudi honorique futurura cerifuerint. Iarft verd plantarum vtilitas,atq; etiam neceffitas3adeo late pater,, vt eiiis imniehfitatem tiulllus vel acutiifimi horninis animus capefe,nedum meuscalarriUs exprimere qUeat.Sirpium enini complurimae nobis in cibos,alimetitumque ceduntrihnumera adilerfus morbus remedia iuppeditant: ex alijs domos, naues, inftrumerita cam bellica quam ruftica fabricamus: aliquot etiam earurri veftes noftris corporibus fubminiftrant. In qUibus fingulis recen-fendis diutius perfiftere, hominis efTet interiiperanterabutentis &otio& Uteris. Quan-tasautem &quamvariasvoluptates ex ftirpiUrafiuearaosnitate oculis capiamns, fiue fragrantia naribus hauriamus, fine fumma in earurri conditorem irapietate inficiari non pofluraus. Adeovt abfque ftirpiura ope & fubfidio yita nobis ne vitalis quidem haberi, debeat.
Quum igitur res plantaria reliquis omnibus medicina? partibus antiquitate antecedat; dignitate,nulli cedatjvtilitate infuper obleclarionequeca;teraslbngefuperet,quis futu-rus eft, adeo, aut infcnfatus vt non exploratrim habeat, aut ingratus, vt non ingenue ag-nofcat, quanta vniuerfis Anglis commod'a,quantafque voluptates tuUs mi Gerarde in ftir-pium inueftigatidne & cultu labor indefeffus,ftudium inexhaufturo,immenfiquefump-tus hoc de ftirpibus edito librb allatUri funt. MacHe rtaque ifta tua yirtutc, Iftoquede re-pub lica bene merendi ftudio, & quod infigni tua cum laude ingrefliis es vertutis gloriaf-quecurriculum,eidem infifte animose Scgnauite^neqi a re plantaria promouenda prius defifte^quameamatead vmbilicum jam ferme producTiam ipfe plene abfoluas atque perficias. Sic enim & tibi adhuc fuperftiti gloriam pariesimmortalem, & poftobitum tamtam tui nominis celebritatera relinques, vt tuarum laudurn opus pofteros noftros nulla vnquam captura fit oblivio. Bene vale. Ex Aula Reginea Weftra, ipfis Cal. De-cemb. w
*in- v. atiD icv; qz& huacpp.m.wcohit-a-- -Jib'^A zn-i*?*}lonic*isv*7hA<'3i?xi~ 1 aO.;

IOHANNI GERARDO felicitatem.
Vum Londinumappuli7i/iugauipsfum Gerarde amicifimejum typogra-pho formis excudenda Plantarum coliecJanea tua commiffa vidi, de qmbus 9 fimmasjialla dteperituras laudes 4nglia tibi Rei-herbaria familiamvnL Authoris ne- W |^J1=|'CI uerfam, medicatricis artupartem, anttquipmum, iucundtpmum & vtilif Remain ftir- m}^^^lM fimumftudium/etcgerecupido.dckt. Prifcorum enimTheophrafti.Dio-pmm fiucMa- ^^^^S/y& fcoridis, Plinijj & Ciknifcriptaypapm toto pcrvulgata, tanquam onfC* 2P3t^i>5*' forties \ Ntotericorum autem,feu nWw,Brunfelfij, Fuchfij, Tragi5 Ru-Scndatnr.ciiiiMatthiolijDodonaeijTurrierlClufij,Dalefchampij, CammrijJabern*montani, Venxfioftratnque novam methodam & ordinem^ a Gramine & notioribus adTritice&igeneraiim ejr (heciatimfnaterno idiomate, Anglicagenti tua Cultipma^Reipublica voluptabili commode, re-cluais^quo )pfajlimulatayherbarumdelitias &hortorum fttampmum&amcenipmum cultum amplehetttr, maximorum Imperatorum, Regum & Her earn tarn prifcorum quam nupererum ex-emplo. Necfatis hoc tibi frit -fed mulibmagis infuperpraftitijtt^nod copiam multarum elegan-tipmarnm plant arum in ^Anglia (ponte nafcentium abalijs haclenus pratermiffarum,hifioriam defcripfiflijwagna hoc ftudio captorum vtilitate ejr obleciamentoSingula! enim regiones peculia- res quafdam plant as, quas in alias non facile reperias,gignere cert km. He que magni tibifuit bac infpcclione ejr e viuis TfjturatypU noffe^quippequi diu herbas indigenasjnquilinas & peregrinas cttmnupenimefolo erumpentes ejr pululahtes^tum adultas^eminequepragnantes, hortulo tuofub-urbano aluijli & fouiftuExaclnm enim cogtmfcendarum exfigura aut faciefupcrficiaria herbarum fludium generatim conftfiit (Diofcorjdett^ in frequently apdua, temporis omnisjnfpettio-ne. Sedalta efi interioris & fubfiantialts forma plant arum\ qua oculis cerninwpotefl filers cogni-tio j quam etiamy quantum potes percunc^ando^feniorum Gracorum medicorum more, aperire cona-TU\ Solebant autem antiqttifuorum (Medicaminum experimenta^in Reipublica vtilitatem^fcrip-itstabellis dare,quibus apud-Ephefeos templifyluatica Dianaparietes vefiiebantur\Compirtum etiam efi Hippocratem difcendi cupidumrfermultis regionibusperagratis^ idem prafiitijfei ejr inme-thodum commtmorabilioreni refiituiffe&illufirajfe. CMelitts enim ejl Reipublica quam nofiris cemmodis profiteere. Non efiig itur quodbuius inuidiofa procacis at at is conviciatores maltdici Zoi-lifcripta tuaobireftem: de'difii enim gratis quod potuifii,Xatera dpttioribus indices relinquens exortivit ejr exoticis incompartarumptne adhucvirium mmgoni%atu & lentcinijs allefiis Flor.i-ftarum fleribiu a Flora Bea meretriti nobili di&is^ valeiudmi & vtilitati potitts confulensi quant volitptatijvalerejufiis. Utohnulli jiqiidem esc alijs Ubrii herbarum tranfcriptoresrapfe.di, igmtisfi-biyivuplantU admedendummaxime ecejfarjjsyafignant incertis, dubijs &(uppofitijs fiirpibm aut pmplicibuifacultates legitimi fimplicis medicament^ maxima err ore & fumma periclitatihe (ynumenimfepe fimplex cbmpofitionem inepiam reJdit,peruertit aut deprauat) quihut nectuio nectemere credendum ^multoque etiam minus mult isherbarum experimentisfallacibus^quibtu eti-. amneque nifi notifiimis morbis jimplicibus, compofitis & implicate, eorundemque feuipmis (ymp-popuiSum twatibMjvtendumw inoprtunw eartim vfm fepius uenenum quam remedium fit. Summo enim medicaftroru tgrotantium difpendio & exerciutipmtrum Medicorum tadio ptriclitatoresprocaces^eontemptis fw&itue"^ mSUiis^tfsinjlitutionibfu,Hippoctatis^- Ga\eT\ipraceptu,per falutisdifcrimina&ho-E aepu- minumfiragesmedentnmtentamenta agunt. Omitto1breuitatUergo,vulgiopifcesitextoresfeti^ limuierrorcj. hrios, fordidipmos fabros,interpolatores, circulatores forenfesejrveteratoresfcutica dignos qui profeionibus& mechanicis artibus fuU fafliditisjceleraio infant xlucro,fe tMtdkos Theophra-initio ptoicgi tef>^q*emvixvnquamfummis labrisdegujlarum,prof'tentur. Noninuenijl} Syluius/fo Pharmacpra. iufmodi homines inuehi^dum ^Quam quifque nouit artem3hanc exerccat vnam atque ex-param*. colac,& totusinea verfetur;&c. St fab Deus vt quifque quam exercet Artem,petnofcat5& Medicus nihil eorum qua: ad morbos cite & tuto cu randos vtilia vel neceflaria effe confueuerunt,ignoret.Prauialet Medicus vbi Pharmaco" pcei fides fufpeda eft,qui ipfe fimplicia & compofita pernofcit,im6 quam infamia? no-tam imprudens mum, dum ignarus horum fimplicium medicamentorum, tanquam afi nus quidamad omnia Pharmacopcei rogata, auribus motis5velut annuit: quid quod ill, fepe etiam yolens Pharmacopaeusilludit. Abfurdiffimus eft ac fje'pe ridiculus qui me dianam facit,harum rerum ignarus & Pharmacopoeo ignoranti* fufpedum merito fe reddit, Plura fivts require apud Syluiunij ibidem loci,

(.Medico quami plurimaperfcrutanda, vtfatkfupetquead ariem medkatrkem perdijfcendam, annos paucps haudquaquamfufficere^tefiantur ipfius experientipmi ejr diuini finis verba, vbi in-quit-} Ego enim ad finem medicine non perveni9etiamfi jam fetieziim.Etfiatmptirim- Epift.adDe-tia Aphorijmorumvitambrevemejrartemlongampronunciavit. Ghtpmodoergotutoihedebun- mocritun, tur multi larvati Medici aut Medicafiritam repente ereafi,nulla Medkin.aparteyM^dicamente-rumve facidtatibm perfpeffis ? Hujufmodi adu{atoresiajfeMatores}dub}tap.oresfixatp.fa tatores.ejr Gnathonicos parajtfiratos hifirionibus qui inffagoedijs intr'oducuntur(irtiilinios fecit Hippocrates. QuemadmodUm enim illi (inquit) figuram quidem& habitual ac perfo-nameorumquosreferunthabent,illiipfiautemverenonfuni: Sic&medicifamaquidem & nomine multi, re autem & opereyalde pauei. jtaque bum pauto anteMedicinam ^"J^** omnium artiumpr&claripmameffiedixerit^ eorum qui earn qUamefle,
exercent3&ob vulgi ruditatcm3qui tales pro Medicis judicat &habetJam edres devc-nifle.vt omnium atrium longe vililfimacenfeatur. At ver^oc peccatum dbhancpo-tiflimum caufamcommittividetur; fplinamque Medicine? nulla poena in rebus-pub-\icis ftatuta eft3prxterquam ighominice. Ne animamfjr famam Uderit^autilli infignis ig-nominia inureretur 6b huiufmodi ardua ejr hoxia difirimina 3 bonus ilte .& fyncerus Dodon&vs (quamvis mult as her bos ex alifs ejr Fuchfio trdnferip'fir it t ckjus methodo vfus efi^quemq^ incho-averat'jvtipfemetmihiretulitfjemaculaGermanicainferipri,linguayertire)vitlgatipmist no* tipmis ijfque panels ex tot herbarum millibus\ quinquagenisautfiptuagenis her bis quibus vtebd-turpetius contentusfuit 3 quam innumeris fibi ignotisperklitari: melius enim omnino medka* mento carereiabfiinere$' nature committere,quamabuti.VtinamhujusnofirAMatisquamplu^ res aufo potiti^medkinam faclit antes, eofiudio, candor e & voto mederent ur lilts id for (itan ne-quaquam evenerit^quod Philofophis( HippocratedefundJp )4ifiipulis fuis inexpert is ejrparumad-hue exercitaiismedendojd efi necando^vtmemorimtraditum efi)coniingit: quamobrem ars medico. Ath&nis, Roma ejr per vniverfiam Grdcia?H centum &fejtaagintadnnisJini^^ exul fait.Meritoigiturcaute& tuie agendum: Gptdiis ejr DtagrfdiaiiSsColocynthid EfuldjLafhyride^MercuriOjStibio^ ftmilibus molefiipmisjwplicibuscum cautioneytendum: optimis ducibus ejrexperientipmisfenioribus fiiceptwibus adh*w
dipme ejr tutipme rara ejr praclarajb barbariifere extincJajatrum&auorum remedi^ max?-. wo ejr prifiind art is ornament o ejr proximi vtilitaterenovmtur^. in vfum revocanturi* negle-elisoretis^ejr exclufis Empiricis verbofis, itfvidioftSjfuJpenfiSyambagiofis ejr exiiiofis'dpiniom-bus^quibus mundusimmundus regitur ejr labitursquitdmdecepivelk^decipidtur: in tdjus fal-lacias per appofitifinxit ejr ceciriit olim hos verfictilos erudiitpmus colltga >. Iacobus Paradi-fius nobilis Gandavenfis alludens ad Homen tanti verfutifimi fyefoUNofiradami Salonenjis Gallon province >rt4
Nofira- damuSyCum verba danmi^qtuafauere nofirum 3: Et cum verbadam'usinilnipmfinadammi
Vale.. 1 tff;
L ::icm ciierr^^ ?.

In GERARDI Botanologian
Vltimus ecce Gerardus: at edit an oftimus herbas ? (guidni ? non notasfeddedit ille novas. Wgone invideastvideas cum nomen ejr omen t*ixJ). mirumefiarduaqaantagerit.
Sic liber efi fromus^condus yt hortnserat, Et w Ccelumque folumquefubegit,
u Ssartn'"* 4 A"1 & >*'f
ANTON. HVNTONVS Medicinse Candida tus.
Ad Ibhannem Gerardum Chirurgum Herba-riumqueferitifiimum.
NV Ha oculos hominum fp'ecies magis allicit ilia, Quam praftante manuduKit generoiuj Apellcs. Nulla aures animofque raagis facuridia,quam qux Se fufam loquitur Ciceronis ab ore defcrti: Hasc eadecn hune librumcommendatcaufa, Gerarde, Cui pro laude facts tali natum crfe parente, Artifices cui inter dextras pro numine,nomen Nobilius reliquis heibx, plantarquemagiftris. flli cccnim Europx fuccos, Afixque liquorcs v Quxqucarentefolofitiensparit Africa, tra&ant: v Tu yetcrum inventis nova cohluis omnia, fi qua Indus vterque dedit noftram fotura falmcm, Sivc. aliunde vehit hoftras rnercator ad oras, Hocipfo vtilius. Quia quae fiint credit* (criptis^ Ilia manu expertus medico, & bene dives ab hort Esplorato diu mukumque em ittis in auras, ...;,. Que curent hominum languentia corpora,multi Prsftantefque viri dbcupwjSdeli^rartero... ,.v." ;Sedfi,fufl;uleris;plantasquemverb^^uyabtuiV. .: SicanimQ,fic fronteminax. In prxlia,mile? f*rofilit, at ftriftb cedit viildria &rrd Quae tibi pro tanto cedit vi&oria fcrro^ Praemia perfolvet,Myrfci ladjrique coronas ? Iftam novit edaxmercedem abblere vetuftas,' At tibi pro ftudio impenfifque laboribus iftis, Queis hominum curas fertam te&amque falutcm, Ifle opifex rerum,cuftofque authorque falutis /Sterna ftatuit frontcm redimire corona.
G.tamam Medicus."
ItthiftoriamplaHttrumilo.Gef&tdiciviseJr Chirurgi L DEfme quae vaftis pomaria montibus Atlas Clauferat (Hefperijmunerararafqli) Auratis folijs auratos define rarrios
Mirari & ramis pendula poma fuis. Singula cum Domino periere,& Gorgonc vifo
In montis riguit vefcera verfus Atlas. Alcinoi perijt qui, cedat penfilis hortus,
Quem celebrat prifci tcmporis aura fiigax: Vna Gerardini fpecics durabilis horti
^Eteino famae marmore fculpta manet. Hicquicquid Zephyrus produxir,quicquid ckEurus, Antiquus quicquid & novus orbishabet,

Intuiit in patn^mi naturamque exprimit arte.
Sic nullo cedit terra Britannafbkn Qiiod magis eft Graium&Latium concludit irivno
Maigine,& Anglorum jam facit ore loqui: t
SiCjqritjeternum hinc vtvivas,horte<2WJ,' v Cukcris ftudio nobilitate ttii.
inVUKtarumhifioridmy a[olertiffimovirojktiq^ Wrbarifyiritijfim$ D. Iohanne G*f ardo^ Anglice editamEfigrdmmdi
(sregtarn certe laudem,dccusimmottalerefertis
_Tu?(ocijqk,tui,maghum & memorabile nomen (liluftris D E V O R A X) raptoribus orbis I B E RIS > Deviftis clalTc Anglorum \ tuque (Dicafta MaXime E G i R T O N E) veterdm fuperans Rhadama&Kurri| HER0 V M merito ^sttfrcenfendusinalbo. Neelausveftra flakier (facraspietatis alumni) Qujmenteshominumdivinapafcitisefca. \' Omatis Patriam cundti,nomenq; Britannum Augetis,vobifq; viam munitisad aftra. Qnjn agite, in partem faltem permittite honoris Phoebei venianc Vates,qui pellere gnari Agmina morborum,humanae infidiantia vitse. HujuS&ingentes^ferenafrontelaborcs ANGLO-DIGSG O RID IS, Pmte} veftraeqiftlutl > -,Expipittexhauftos:paulumhucdivortite in HORTOS^ Tho. Nemotmi, Ceftrc(hyrius,D. Io. Gerardt, Arnico non vulgaris S
POft tot ab ingeriuis conferipta volumini rnyftis^ Herbarum vires qui referare docent? Tu tandem prodisSpartamq-, hanc gnaviterornas^
Dum reliquis palmam przeripuille ftudesi JNee facis hoc,rutilo vt pollis ditarier aiiro,
Nec tibi vt accrefcat grandis acervus opum j Sed prodcile volens,vcftitos gramine colles
Pcrluftras,& agros,frondiferumq;nemuSi Indeq; Paeonias (apis initar) colligis herbas, Inq; tuumftirpescongerisalueolum. v MilletibifpecicsplantarUmjmillcq-, hots $
Hor cuius mdieio eft,quem colis ipfe domi i Pampineaevites,redolens cedrus^innuba laUruSj
Nota tibi,nota eft pinguis oliva tibi. Balfama}narciirus}rhododa^tme^ardus,arnomtim^
Sal via,dift amnusjgalbana nota tibi, Qyjd multis I radix,ftirps$flos,cum eortice ramus3
Spicaq; cum illiquis eft bene nota tibio Gratulor ergo tibi,cunft ifq; ( Gerdrd*jBritanniSj
Namptwicoqj tuo gratulbr atqjmeo. Nam Geftrefliyrij teac me genuere parcntes,
Tu meliore tamen fydere natus eras: Maaeanimo,pergarq;precor,caGptumq;iaboreni
Vrgc etiam vlterjuSi Vivitur ingenio. Auruin habeant ali j, gemmas^nkidofq; pyropoSj' Plantas'tu & floresfcribe Gerarde* Vale.
Vtre & ex animo mm,Tho. Newton, tlfordenp

To the well affedled Reader and Perufer ofyhis Booke, St. Hredwll Phyfirian, greeting.
f^X^Ks^ **M the Campe of glory and honour for all meit, faith the younger Pliny, not fn pVn," 4^^^^ m'h wen f ?reat binh and/Jignitie 3 or men of of fee endued withpublique
' charge and titles, arefeeve therein, and haue the garland ofpraife and prefer, ment matting to crorvne their met its,but euen the common S ouldier likewife : foashe tvhofc Name and note was erjlpbfeure, maybyegregious alls of valour obtains aplace among ft the Noble.The fchoole of Science keepethfembla-bleproportion: w hofe amplitude^ not alwaies,noronelyy men of great titles and degrees labor to illufirate -Jo whofoeuer doth, may confidently account of at the leafi,his name to be im wort all. What is he then that will deny his voice of gratious commen-' dationto the K^futhorsofthis Booh i To euery one,no doubt/here is due a condigne meafure. The yutneiii. firfi Gatherers out of the Antients,and x^Augmenters by their orvne paines, haue already fired the Dodonius. ^J0f^r pftfaif 70O(i nmei thorow all the lands of learned habitations. Doctor Vrk&Jbr his tran-XW fationoffomuchas Dodonseusi bath thereby left aTombe for his honourable fepulture. Mafier Xabcrnam. "Gerard camming lafi, but not the le,aft, hath many waies accommodated the whole Worke vnto our Englifi) Nation: For this Hiftory of Plants3asit is richly replenijhedby thofefue mens Labors laid together,fo yet couldit fullfit haue wanted thai'new accepon hehath made vnto it. (Many things hath he noun find in his'Garden, andobferued in our Englifh fields, that neuer came into their pens to write of. Ksigainefhegreatefi number of thefe plants,hauing neuer been written of in our Englifh tongue,would haue wantednamesfpr the vulgar fort to call them by : inrvhich defect heehath been curioufiy carefull,touching old and new names to make fupply. And left the Reader Jhould too often languifbwith frwftrate^defire tofinde fome plant he readefh,of rare veriue, hefpareth not to tell (if himfelfp haue fern ilin'JEngland) iWwhat woed,pafiure, or ditch thefame may befeeneandga-tbered. Which whin I thinhe of and therewithall remember with what chearefull alacritie and re-foUite attendance he hath manyyeares tilledthU ground,andnow brought forth the fruit of it, whether Iftiould more commend his diligence to attaint this skill, or his large benevolence in befi owing it on his Countrey, I Cannot eaftly dittrmine. This Booke-birtb thus brought forth by Gerard, as it is in forme and difiofitionfaire andcomely, (euery Species being refrredto his likeliejl Genus, of whofefiockeitcame) fo is it accomplifiiedwith furpafimgvarietie, vnto fuch Jpreading growth and firength of euery limme, asthaiitmay feemefme heroic allImpe of'itlttftrious Race, able to draw the eyes and expectation of euery man vnto it. Somewhat rare it will be heerefor a Ulfan to moue a quefiien of this nature,and depart agaifie without fome goodfatitfaction. Manifold will bee the vfe hth to the Phjfitian and others; for euery man delighteth in knowledge naturally which tacrt.l.j.M.1 (m Ariftotle jW) is inprofperitie an ornament,in aduerfttte a refuge. But this beoke aboue many others willfute with themofijbecaufe it both plentifully adminifireth knowledge (which is the food of the minde) and doth it alfo with a familiar andpleafing taficto euery capacttie.Now as this com. moditie is cpmmunicatedto attend many Jhall receiue much fuit thereof'fo I wifh fome may haue jurcn.75.*. the minde to returne a benefitagaine ithat it might not be true in all, thatlwmzlfaitb,Scixe vo-luncomnes,mercedem iblvere nemo, (idefi) All defire to know, none to yeeld reward. Let men thinke, That the perfection of this knowledge is the high advancement of the health of man: That perfection is not to be attained but by firang endeauour i neither can ftron? endeanour be accompli ficd without free maintenance. This hath nothee, who is forced to labour for his dayly bread but if he,who from thefhort homes of his daily and necefarie trauell, fiealine as it were fome for the publique behoofe,andfetting at length thefe pieces together, can bring firth fo comely a gArment4Athis,meetncouerorputawaythe
ifpubkque maintenance did free him from that priuate care, andvnite his thoughts to be wholly intent to the gtner all good. 0 Reader, if fuch men as thisfiicke to rob themfelues of fuch wealth as thou haft jo enrich thee with thatfuftenance thou wanteft,detract not to fbareout of thine abundt to mem and encourage theirpaincsfh>atfofiuxable riches andpermanent(ciences may the one
dnd permanent fciences may the one became ij come a prop to. theother.Alt houghfratfe andrewardjoynedas companion/to fruit full endeavors are m part defired ofaHmen that vndertdkehfcsUhauJnr flkttft. Lsml ^AT^^T^^-
SimpI.Comm. in Epit.
; theyaddefinues(asitwere)vnto Rcafon,and able her more and mire to refine her felfe utdothev not embrace that honour in reflect of it felfe, nor in refpeit ofthofe that cUferred it vp'pn them but

as haui fig thereby an argument in themfelues, that there is fomething in them worthy estimation amprtg men: which then doubletb their dilligence to deferueit more abundantly. admirable and for the imitation of Princes, was that act of Alexander, who felting Ariftotle to compile com- Flin.lib..' mentariesofthebrutt creatures, allowed him for the better performance thereof ccrtaine thou- ca?'16' fandS'fifmenyinall ^Aft a and Greece,mofi skilfull obferuers of fuch things, togtue him information touching allhafi,sfrfiies-,foulesferpfnts^and flies. What came of it f booke written, wherein all learned men in adages fince do exercife themfelues principally, for the knowledge oft he crea-' tures. Great is the number of thofe that of their owne priuate haue laboured in the fame matter, from his age downe to our pre fen t time,which all do not in cornerifin fat is fie vs.Whereas if in thofe enfiting ages there bad rifen ftjll new Alexanders, there (certainely) would not haue wanted Ariftotles to'haue made the euidence ofthofe things an hundred fold more cleeredvnto vs^than ndwth'ey be. wherebyyoumay percciuethevnequalleffects that follow thofe vnfutable caufes of publieke and priuate maintenances Vnto labours and ft udics. Now that Imight not difpaireinthis my exhortatten,! fee examples of this munificence in our age to giue me comfort .'Ferdinand^ Gryuusjn Emperor and Cofmus Mediees Prince ofTufcaneare herein regifiredfor furthering thisfci$nce orar.deperc-of Plants,i following of it themfelues and becomming skdfitfl therein .which coitrje of theirs could mc-, not beholden without the fupporting and advancing of fuch, as were fiudious to excell in this kinde. Bellonius likewife (whom for honours caufeiname) aman of high attempts in natnrall fcience, greatly extollethhis Kingsliberalitie, which endued him with fee leafure to fellow the ftudie pf^'&'"?-Plants,fecondcd alfo herein by Montmorencie^ Confiable, the Cardinals CaftiKon andLof- cul,Prob raine, with Qliuerius the cbancelio r-J>y rvhofe meanes he was enabled to per forme thofe his notable peregrinations in Italy,\*Africa,and Afia, I the fweet fruit whereof,as we hauereeeiuedfeme tajleby his obferuationsyforpejhouldplent.eoufly haue lied with them, if violent death by mofi accurfed robbers bad not cut him off. And as lfinde thefe examples of comfort inforraine nations,fo we areI confefife) much to be thankefull to God, for the experience we haue of the like things at borne. 1 (neuertbelefife) vnto that Phyficke lecture lately fo wellerecied\meh who haue this Worlds'gopc fhaShaue hearts alfo of that fiirit, toadde fome ingeuioM^ouref i Lege
themthat impudently condemne that they know not,it uofall otherimcft.bafily ^ fu^ryicfea. X^hncip all remedy to remouefuch contumelious dijgracefrom thefe two furevifc ^insifoke ft'ocke and linage, is this that I haue now infinudted, euen by erecting the laboratory of minsfcJirim-GfytmiJi, by the fweet gardeVcffloMJbfrg'ftniples. The Phyfieke Redder byWeJr ^^fhalln^pnelycome furnijhedwith authorities Of the ^ntients,a*dfenfiblesprob4iUtft$ for that he teacheth,but with read demonfir ations alfo in many things, which the reafonefman ^r'fy^Jjsifi. f the furnace would neuer haue reached vnto. I haue vttercdmykearts de(ire% *9 f^ropiW^firfi the perfection of my prrfefion,and next by necejfary conference, the
^hektihiiwues ofmen7\ IfGodopen mens hearts to prouide for the former, it cannot be oduw but the happyfruitsfhallbe feenein theWer. Let the ingenious
learned iudge whether I haste reafin on my fide it he partial! addicted feci Ifhun, as men ....., .M\Aothat neuer meanegoodto
.-v>pH^[!3io"i6:i.ii.'.:a at \ 5Dp5p)no*j ^noy :; : : tql. = ff)0<|
- George

(George Baker,, w ofher^ajefiies chiefe CMru^onsm ordmarie.and ^M.of the Chirurgkns oftheCitie ofLondon Jo the'"Reader,
Riftotfaa Prince amonft the PhiIoforihers3writing infois Mer taphyficks of t^e nature of roankind/aith,that naturals ly inclined and defirous of fcience. tte which (entcnce dpth teach vs,that all creatures (being vertuoufly giuenjdoe ftriae tq attain to perfedionianddrawneere in what they canter0c r Creator; and this knowledge is one of the principal! parts tohich doth eoncerne the perfection orvnderttanding: for of the (arne doth Follow, that all fuch are general ly inclined to know the meanes by the which chCy may conferue their life>ealth,and reputation. And although it beneceiTaryfor ijnantg learn and know all fcience5,yet neuertheleffe the knowledge of naturall fhilofcqphic ought to be preferred^ as beingthe moft necenary j and moreouer^ \idoth bring with itaiingular pfeafure and cpntentrnept. T^iefjrft jnuentpt of jfirs knowledge miChiron the Gentaure,of great renowne/onne toSatwneqnd PiW^^'^e^feJ1^ $ wa? inuented of ApoUo&pfacts of fi^/^his^fon^^
jBottall).and tharitwaiimpofEble for man tofinde oijt the nature of P lants,if the greatworker^hich Is'0o&,l\ad notfirft inftru^dand taught him. pr, as Pliny faithjijfany tfeiik that tb^t|$jpgs.^aue' bin raanjbe is vngrate^ for theswoikcsofGpd,T/]&^ learneof among the.GreefS"that
tyhichdtd^ the f^me|^
hauihgf^ Arab;a3^tlijppiia, and ^y^HMiai^^thVt
^cj3,8epR fpirits haue taken gr^pleafufceto
long! An^if I may fpeake wi ^ painesifotsri^
skill haatffem extraordinary. "For he Was neueic^riS^JQ^ith thfefecrjovylo5F
couldattajnevnto,i) haue themijxought^ufehach'procured by hisex-cellent knowledge to haue'themgrowitilf^k^rrjlnjwhich as the time of the yeare doth ferue may be feenerfor there flialiydufee all manner of ftrange trees, herbes,roots,plants,floures.and other fucfirare things,that it would make a man wonder, how one of his degree, not hauing the purfe of a number, could euer accomp lifh the fame: I proteft vpon my confeience,! do not thinke for the know-Jedgeoff lants,that he is inferiour to any: for I did once fee him tried with one dfthebeftftrangers that euer came into England, and was accounted in Paris the onety man, being recommended vnto me by that famous man Mafter Amb.

p.trtus} and he being here was defirous to goe abroad with fbrrie of our Herba-rifts.for the which 1 was the rrieane to bring them together, and one whole day we fperic Herein, fearching the rareft Simples: but when it came to the triall,my Frenchman did not know one to his foure. What doth this man deferue that hath taken fo much paines for his countrey; in fetting dut a Booke, that to this day, neuer any in what language foeuer did the like fFirft, for correcting their faults in fo many hundred places, being falfly named, raiftaken the one for the other and then the pi&ures of a great number of p lants now newly cut.If this; man had taken this paines in Italy arid Germany where Mdttbfcl/ts did write, he ftiould haue fped as well as he did: For(faith hejl had fo great a defire euer to fi-nifb my Book* that I neuer regarded any thing in refped of the publicjue good, not fo much as to think how I (hould finifh fo great a charge, which I Had neuer carried out,but that by Gods ftirring vp of the renowned Emperour Verdimndo of famous memorie, and the excellent Princes had not helped rnee with great fums of money ,fo that the common wealth may fay, That this blefling doth rather proceed of them than from me. There haue beene alfo other Princes of Al-main,which haue been liberal in the preferring of this Book,and the mod excellent Elector of the Empire the Duke of Saxony,which fent me by his Poft much naony toward ray charges: the iiberalitie of the which, & their magnificence to-* ward me I cannot commend fufficiently. They which followed in their Iiberalitie were the excellent Fredericks Count Palatine of the Rhine, and the excellent loachiih Marques of Brandeburg, which much fupplied my wants: and the like did the reuerend Cardinall and Prince of Trent, and the Excellent Archbifhop of Saltzperg,the Excellent Dukes of Bauareand Cleues,theduke of Megapolen* cis, Prince of Vandalis, the State Republicjue of Noremberg, the Iiberalitie ojf. whom ought to be celebrated for euer: aria it doth much reioyce me that I had the help arid reward of Emperors,Kings,Ele&6rs of the Roman Empire, Archdukes, Cardirialls,Bi(hops, Dukes and Princes, for it giveth more credit to out Labors that any thing that can be (aid. Thus far Matthioh/s his owne writing of the Iiberalitie of P rinces towards him. What age do we liue in herethat wil fuf-fer all vertue to go vnrewardedpMafter^^^hath taken more pains than euer Matthiolus did in his Commentaries, and hath corrected a number of faults that ^ he pafTed ouer; and I dare aftirme (in rcuerence be it fpoken to that Excellent man) that Mafter Qerrard doth know a great number of Simples that were not knowne in his time: and yet I doubt whether he (hail tafte of the Iiberalitie of either Prince, Duke, Ear le, Bifhop, or publique Eftate Let a man excell neuer fo muchin any excellent knowledge, neuertheles many times he is not Co much, regarded as a Iefter,a Boafter,a Quackfaluer or Mountebanfce: for fuch kinde men can flatter, diffemble, make of trifles great matters, in p railing of this rate fecret,or that excellent fpif it,or this Eiixer or Quintefferice X which when it (hall come to the trial I, nothing M be found but boafting words. I
At t>,
rj>^v< >,>.' -V.'.v 'x'' nstbboi^ .Hffrai^fnD^ ,'I[lia\fh^ m^p ,*j .... ?
:. tkwwV*. '&\&m$ \&i%W& m ('^jj \^ ^i^U^-;^.^'^;.-' t

To the courteous and well willing "Readers.
Lthottgh my paines hau not beene fient (courteous Reader) in thegracieusdifcouerie off olden Mines, nor in the tracing afterftluer veines, whereby my natiue country might be inrichedwithfuch merchandise as it hath mcftin requefi and admirati-on yet hath my labour (Itrujt) been otherwife profitably imploiedjn defcrying of fuch a harmelejfe treafureofher be screes, andplants, as the earth frankely without violence offer eth vnto Our mofi necejfary vfes. Harmelejfe J call them,beeaufe they were fuch delights as man in theperfectefifiate of his innocencte did e/fi inioy .-andtreafure I may wcllterrne them feeing both Kings and Princes haue efieemed them as Jewels ;fitb wife men haue made their whole life as a pilgrimage to attaineto the knowledge of them: by the which they haue gained the hearts of alcanaopenedthe mouthes of many,in commendation of thofe rare vertues which are containedin thefe terrefiriall creatures. 1 confeffe blind'Pluto is now adaies more fought after than quicke fighted Phoebtis: audyet this dufiy mettaU,or excrement of the earth (which was 'firfi deepely buried leaft it fiiould be an eie-fore togrieue the corrupt heart of man) by forcible entry made into the bowels of the earth, is rather fnatchedat ofman to his owne defiruction, than directly fentof God to the comfort of this life, x^indyet behold in the comparing of'this worily droffe,what care.whatcoft^ what aduentures, what myfticallproofes, and chymicall trials arefet abroach when as notwithstanding the chiefefi end is but vncertaine wealth. Contrariwife,in the expert knowledge ofherbesytvhat pleafure" fiill renewed with variety ? what (mallexpence ? what fecurity ? and yet what an apt and ordinary meanes to conduit man to that mofi de fired benefit t of health! which as I deubutlywifh vnto my natiue countrey,and to the carfull nurfing mother of the fame fo hatting bent my labours to the benefit of fuch as are fiudioufiy prattifed in the confer uation thereof, I thought it'athiefe pint of my dutie,thus out of my poor e fiore to offer vpthefe my farfetched expe-riments together with mine owne countries vnknowne treafure,combined in this compendious Her-ball (not vnprofitable though vnpolifbed)vntoyour wife conftructions and courteous confiderations\ The drift whereof \is a ready introduction to that excellent art of Simpling, which is neitherfi bafe nor contemptible as perhaps the Englifii name may feeme to intimate: but fuch it it,as altogether hath beene aftudy for the wiftft, an exercifefor the noblefi,apafiime for thebefi. From whence thtre (pringfioures not onelytoadtrne the garlands of the MufeS,to decke the bofomes of the beautifullypaint the gardemofthe curious,to garnifpthe glorious crownes of Kings but alfo fuch fruit oslearnedDiokQudeslongirauededfor-andprmcely tA'uhxidattsreferuedasprecteue in his owne clofct Mithf idates J meane, better knowneby his foueraigne iMithridate,than by hisfome-time (peaking two and twenty languages. But what this famous Prince did by tradition, Euax king of the ^Arabians did deliuer in a difcourfe written of thevertues of herbcs3and dedicated it vuto the Emperor Nero. Euery greene Herbarifi can make mention of the her be Ly fimachia, whofe vertues mere foundmtby King Lyfimachus, and'his vertues no leffe eternifedin the felfe fame plant, tbanthenameofi{Phydias,queintly beaten into the frields ofVa\\a^or the frfi letters of K-jax or Hyacinthus (whether you pleofe) regiftred in that beloued flour e of Apollo. y^isfor Ar-tcmifa,firfi called itifcftf, whether the title thereofffrang firm a'w, Diana her felfe,or from the renowned Jgacene of CariayWhich difclofed the vfe thereof vnto pofierity, it (mviuethas a monument to reuiuethe memories of them botbferMer. WhatfhouldweJpeake o/Gentiana bearing fiiS the cognifance of Gentiuster of diuers other herbes taking the.r denominations of their princely inuertors ? What fhouldlfay of thofe royall perfonages, Inba, Attains, Climenus, A-chilles, Cyrus, Mafymfla, Semyrafnis, Dioclefian ? but enely thm,tofbeake their Princeh hues to Herbarifme,andtheir euerlafiing honors( which neither oldPlinius deader yom Lipfi-iis Itutng will permit to diet? ) Crefcentherba?,crefcetisaraores: crefeentherbi crefcetis horiores. But had this rvonted facility wanted theauthorifementof fuch a royall company King-Solomon, excellingall the reft for wifdome,ofgreater roy'alty than they all (though the LiUies of *ffieldoutbrauedhim)heonely(l^
dattonjn that bislofty wife dome thought nofcorne tofioupe vnlfO the lowly plants, / lift notfeek the

To the Reader.
common colours of antiquitie,whennotwithftandingthe worldcan brag ofno more ant tent UWonu-ment than Paradife and the garden of Eden and the. Fruits of the earth may contendfor JeniorityA
' feeing their (JMother w^ts the firft'Creature that concerned, and they themfelues the firfi fruit fbe brought forth. Talke iff'perfect happineffe or pleafure,and-whatplace was fofit for that as the gar-denplael wherein Adam Was fet to be the Herbarifi ? Whither, did the Poets hunt for their (inter e. delights,but 'into the gardens of, Alcinous^/ Adonis,andtheOrchards of the Hejperides?Where did they dreame that heduen fhouldbe,but in thepleafantgarden of'Elyfium ? Whither doe all men walkefor their honefi recreation, but thither where the earth hath mofi beneficially painted herface ivithflour ifiing colours ? And what feafon of the ye are more longed for than the Spring, whofe gentle breath inticeth forth the kindly fweets, and makes them yeeldtheir fragrant fmells ? Who would therefore looke danger on (ly vpat Planets,that might fafely looke downe at Plants ? And if true bee theproaerb, Quoe fupra nos,nihil ad nos Ifuppofe this new faying cannot befalfe Quae infra.
jios,ea maxime ad nos. Eafie therefore is this treafure to begained,andy etpretious. ihefcien.ce is nobly fupportedbywife and kingly Fauorits: the fubiect thereoffonecejfarie anddelect able,Wat nothing can be confected,either delicate for the tafie,daintyfor fmelljleafant for fight,wbolfeme for bodyfonferuatiue or refioratiuefor health,but it borrow eth the relltfhofan herb,thefauor ofafloury the colour of a leafe,t he juice of a plant,or the decoction of a root. And fuch is the treafure that this myTreatife isfurniffiedwiihaU wherein though myne art be not able to counteruaile Nature in her liuely portraitures, yet hatie I counterfeitedlikeneffe for life,jhapes andfti adowes for fubfiance, being ready with the bid Painter to explaine the imperfections of my pen fill with my fen, chufingra-ther to (core vpon my pictures fuch rjide psarks as may defcribe my meaning,than to let the beholder togueffe at random andmiffe. I haue here therefore fet downe not only the names \f fundry Plants^ but alfo their natures, their proportions andpropertics, their affects and.effects% their increafe and decreafefheirflourifhing and fading, their diftinct varieties andfeuerall qualities, as well of thofe whichourowne country ye'eldeth^ of others which I haue fetchedfurther,or drawn put by perufmg. diners Herbals fet fort bin other languages .-whereinHone ofmy countrymen haue to my knowledge taken any paines\ftnce that excellent WtorkeofMafier Doctor Turner, uifier which time M after
* Lytea'werjhipful!Gentleman tranflated Dodonanfs out of French into Englifia ; and(ince that^ %octotYi)e&.oneof our London Colledgehdih (as I heard) trdnfiated iheiafi edition ofDodo-H3em,andmeant topublijh the fame; but being presented by deathJiti translation likewife perijhed* Lafily myfelfe,one of the leafi among many,hauejkefunied tofetforth vnto the view of the World% the fir fi ffuits of thefe myne owne Labours, which if thef befuih as may content the Reader9 /fhaU thinke my felfe well rewarded otherwife there is no man to tie blamed but myfelfex being a \Yorke l confeffe for greater Clerks to vndert'akeiyeimay my blunt attempt feme as awhetftdneiofet an edge vponfirarpetwits\bywhom Iwijh this my courfe tDifiourfemight be both fineddndrefined.Faults Isonfeffehdue efcaped fome by the Printers ouer'fight,feme through defects in my felfe tdperform to great a work,and fome by means of the greatneffe of the Labour, and that 1 was confrratned to fcke after, my liuingjfeing void of fiends to beare fome part of the burthen. The rather therefore accept this at my hands (luting Country-men) as a token of mygoodwi$,and I truft that the beft and well minded tfMnot rafhly condemneme, althoughfemething haue puffed worthy reprehenfion. ^Mw^fim^mr or Envious tpaffe not for them,but return vpon themfelues anything they' fitaH without taufe either murmure in corners, or {angle infetrct. Farewell.
iio3,-8'y'.-j'T.- "n-t< .za:.':;-y. I r:iji^h:.xV*te -y "
'hi cins'sxs'/'--' \. i.v. ^,- From my Houfe in Holborn,within the Suburb^ OfLondoD,this firft of December,!
'io^v^boc!3jf^rJif.n^Ij -r:-'> : } ''i a:'v '
Ttjfinctre and\nf signed Friend
, I oh N E R ARiK
fir ; .3$
'.eld'c'A: r on.oi:;..
rr '

Lugifiattu 1613.
Zxcnf..xb Henr. $ttph.
Qemteom Re ader,
Here are many things which I thinke needfull to impart vnto thee, both concerning the knowledge of Plants in generally alfo for the betterex-plaining of fome things pertinent to this prefent Hiftorie,wh.ichI haue here fet forth much amended and inlarged. For the general differences, affeftions,&c of Plants,I hold it not now fo fitting nor neceflary forme to infill: vpon tbem^neither do I intend in any large difcourfe to fet forth their many and great vfes and vertues: giue me leaue onely to tell you, That God of hit infinite goodneffe and bounty hath by the medium of Plants, beftowed almoft allfood, cIothing,and medicine vpon man. And to this off-fpring we alfo owe (for the mofopart) our houfes-fhipping,and infinite other things,though fome of them iVtf^-like haue run through diuers fhapes,as this paper whereon I write, that firft from feed became Flaxe ; then after much vexation thread, then cloath, where it was cut and mangled to feme the fafbions of the time,but afterward reiefted and caft afide;yet vnwilling fb to forfake the feruice of man for which God had created it, againjt comes, (as I may terrae it) to the hammer?from whence it takes a more noble form and aptitude to be imployed tb (acred, ciuiIl,forrein,and domefticke vies. I will not fpeake of the many and various obie&s of delight that thefe preient to the fprjces, nor of fundry other things which 1 could plenti* fully in this kinde deliu'er j but, ifatjier acc^amt you from what Fouotaines this Knowledge may be drawne, by fhewingwhat Authours hauedeliuered tovs r^heHiflorie of Plants ,atid after what manner they haue done it, And this will be a meanes that many controuerfies may be the more eafily vnderftood by the lefle learned and juditiQu* Header. -j 1 la > .. v\ -v-'r'-*
He whofe name we firft find vpon record (though doubtlefle fdmehad treated thereof before)that largely writ of PIanrs,was the.wifeft of men,euenKing^/^,whdcertaiq-ly would not haue medled with this. fubiec*t,if he in his wifedome had not known it worthy himfelfe,and exceeding fitting: Firft, for the honour of his Creator* whofe gifts and bieflings thefe are: Secondly,for the good of his Sub je&s,whereof without doubthe in this Work had a fpeciall regard,for the curing of their difeafes and infirmities.,But this kingly Worke being loft,I will not infift vpon it, outcome to fuch as are yet extant, of which(following the courfeof antiquity) thaioiTheophrafitu firft takes place.
Now Theophraftm fucceeded Ariftotle in the gouemment tif the Schbole at Athens, a-bout the 114 Olymp.which was fome 32 2 yeares before Chrift, He among many other things writ a.Hiftorie of Plants in renbookes,and of the caufes ofthem,eightbookes.of the former ten there are nine come to our hands reafonable perfe&jbut there now remain but fix of the eight of the caufes of Plants. Some looking vpon the Catalogue of the bookes omeephraftus his writing, fet forth in his life,written by Diogenes Laertius, may wonder that they finde no mention of thefe bookes of Plants, amongft thefe he reckons vp and indeed i tog^cit fomewhat ftrange;ahd fo much the more, becaufc this his life isfet forthby DWto^before his edition* of Theopbraftm^ and there alfo no rfien* tion neither in the Greeke nor Latine of thofe Workes. Confidering thisj thinking to haue faid fomething thereof, I found the doubt was long fince cleared by the learned Cf^nnh^ where;^. 33i,fonv ,^,and hee
mfliesy^utore*^ Thus being certaine of the Authour, letmee
fay fomwhat of the Worke, which though by the iniury of time it hathfuffered much, yet is it one of the chiefe pieces of Antiqmtie, from whence the know ledge of plants is

to be dwwn.Theophraftus as he followed Ariftotle in the SchooIe,ipaho in his mariner of writing; for according as Ariftotle hath.deliuered his Hiftoria \^inkalium, fo hath he fee forth this of Plants, not by writing of each ffecies in particular, but of their diffeyeneesanJTbiopb.Hifi. nature''bytheir pwisaffections,generations,and life. Which how hard*thing it was he tells 'tlJ**P** you in his fecorid c'hapter,ana renders you this tca{bn,Becaufethere is nothing common to all ^c*^^-Plants]as the mouth and belly is to other lining creatures^c^ow by this manner of writing ^S"f". you may learne the generall differences and affe6tiqns of Plants,bat cannot come to the *'i8tc' particular knowledge of any,vvithout much labor; for you muft go to many places to ga- -ther ^p the deicriptionof one plant .-neither doth he (nor is it neceffarie for any writing in this' Qianner^mal^ementionof any great number>arid of many itmay he but once.His Works being in Greeke were Mandated into Latine by Theodore Ga%a, who did them but Gracafidefox he omitted fome things,otherwhiles readied them coritrarie ro the minde of the Author ; but aboue all, he took tohimfelfe too much libertieingiuingofnames, in imitation or the Greeke,or of his own muentioOjWhen it had been better by much for his Reader to haue had them in the Greeke j as when ,hec renders '*>*tM,<<>dgitatorium 'w^y,, Solaris,^ c. The learned Iulius Scaliger hath fet forth Animadverfiones vpon thefe BookSjWherein he hath both much explained the minde of Theephraftus, and fhewed the errors otGafy. Some fince his time haue promifed to do fomething to this Authour,as Daniel Hewjius and Spigelius^bm twenty yeares are paft fince, and I haue not yet heard of anything done in this kinde by either of them. Thus much for T heophraftus.
Let me not paffe ouer Ariftotle in filence, though his bookes writ of this fubiedt were Atlfime. but two,and thefe according to the conjecture of Iulius Scaliger ( who hath made a large and curious examination of them,haue either perifhecl, or come to vs not asthey were o. rig! nally written by Ariftotle, but as they haue fome later man put into Greeke. Amongft other things Scaliger hath 'thefe concerning thofe two bookes Reore textrina Theophrafti detract afla quadam^fq^ clavos ^dditjs-fanfetfineque aureos,neque purpureas. ^uod ftprotinus autorjem tibi dari vis ad Ar-abum diligentiam propius accedit. And afterwards thus ijAttribuere viri docti, alius alij^at quidem qui alteram viderem nihil Planudem autorem facienti jkalimaffentiri 5 extant cmm'illius alijstnlibris Jimilis veftiqiafemilatinietatis, ejrc Thus much for^>7j?.whomas you fee I haue placed after his Scho!ler,becaufe there is fuch doubt of thefe bookes caried about in his name,and for that Scaliger,^ you lee,thinks them rather taken out of TheophraftitsjLh&n written by his Mafterw
The next that orderly followes is Pedacius Diofcorides Anazarbeus, who liued ( a'ceor- mofwidev ding to Suidas) in the time of cleopat r4,which was fome few yeares before the birth of our Sauior.Now Suid'at hath confounded Diofcorides Anazarbeus with Diofcorides fhacajJSui by fome places in Galen you may fee they weredifferent men: for our Anazarbean Diofco- ^'a5i/j^ rides was of the Emperick Se ^ f 3> rabidity

To the Trader.
rabido dm-now qua morfus mfveanimaliumvenemm relinquentmmfequuntur. A third, D e eorJcurltiomhtec eight books within thefe two laft centuries of years haue bin translated out of Greeke into Latine,and commented vpon by diuers, as Bemolaus Barbarm,
I (hall fay fomewhathereafter.There is alfo another Worke which goes vnder his name, and may well be hisi It is & Wsw, five defacile parabilibusjtiuided into two books, translated and confirmed with the content of other Greeke Phy fitions, by the great labor of John CMoibane a Phy fition of Aufpurge, who liued not to finifh it,but left it to be perfe-aed and fet forthbyConradeGefner.
The next that takes place is the laborious Caiu* Pliniusfecundus jnno liued in the time ofrefiaftanjndms fuffocated by the fulphurious vapours that came from mount Vefu-vius,fallingatthattiroeonfire;hejthroughouermuchcuri6{itieto fee and findeout the caufe thereof,approching too nigh,and this was Anno Bom. 19. He read and writ exceeding much, though by the injury of time we haue no more of his than 3 7 books, D e hifio-ria itfW/jwhich alfo haue receiued fuch wounds,as haue tried tb(cbeft skill of our Cri-ticks,and yet in my opinion in fome places require Medicos manul. From the twelfth, to the end of the twenty feuenth of thefe books he treats of plants,more from what he fotkd written in other Authors, than from any certain knowledge of his owne, in many places following the method and.giuing the words 6fTheophrafius,and in other places thofe of rD iofcorides jhoagh he neuer make mention of the later of them: he alfo mentions and no queftionfollowed many other Authors,whofe writings are long fince perifhed. Sometimes he is pretty large,and otherwhiles fo briefe, that fcarce any thing can from thence be gathered. From the feuenteentfovnto the twenty feuenth he varioufly handles them; what method you may quickly fee by his Elenchu* contained in his firft booke,bm in the twenty feuenth he handles thofe whereof he had'made no,or not fufficientmention.aftet an alphabetical! order, beginning with *&thioptifJfgeratnm,Aloe%&c. fo going on to the reft. g i *
I muft not paffe ouer in filence;, neither need Ilong intiftvpon Galen, Paulus vgineta, and Aetiux,for they haue only alphabetically named Plants and other fimple medicines, briefly mentioning their temperature and faculties,witbout defcriptions (fome very few, and thoCe briefe ones excepced)and other things pertinent to their hiftorie.
The next that prefent themfelues are two counterfeits,whoabufe the world vnder fei-Ded titles ^and their names haue much more antiquitie than the works themfelues. The firft goes vnder the title of%&milis Macer a famous Poet,of whom Ovid makes mention in thefe verfes i
Galen. Paulus* /taint,--
.^diKSfn^-i.BOi Iviwfida
Sape fuas volucres legit'mihigrandior avoi gttaq-, nocetSerpensflttajttvat herba Macer.
Pliny alfo makes mention of this Macer. He in his Poems imitated meander but this Woike that now is caried about vnder his name,is written in a rude and fomwhat barbarous verfe,far different from the ftile of thofe times wherein UWaeer liued, and no way in the fubie The other alfo is an vnknowne Author, to whom the Printers haue gitien the title of Jpulem Madaurenfis, and fome haue beene foabfurdly bold of late, as to put it vnto the Works; of Apuleiut yet the vncurious ftile and method of the whole Worke will con-uince them of error,if there were no other argument.I haue feen fome foure Manufcripts of this Author,and heard of a fifth,and all of them feem tobe of good antiquitie the Figures of them all for the moft part haue fome refemblance each of other. The firft of there I law fome nine yeares agoe,with that worthy Iouer and ftorer of Antiquitie Sr Robert cottony was in afaire Saxon hand,and as I remember in the Saxon conzueJbut what mleucamedlat thattimewasnot curious to obferue. I faw alfo another after that,
I beingmformedby myiiend WGoodyer (as you may findein the chapter of Sax f age ofthe Antients)thathis Manufcripr,which was very antient,acknowIedPged noTuch 11-thor as Apuki^l begun a little to examine fome other I procured a very faire one of my much honored friend S< Theod. Mayern: In the very beeS0?this is
ingofatablewhichisoftheVertues, are thefe ^5ft^^^^^

quas Apolienfts Plate deferipfit,ejr c. and thus alfo he is named in the title of the Epiftle or Proem but the end of the work is Explicit liber Platonisdeherbismafcu!inis,ejrc.YJith this in all things agrees that or Mr Goodyerps he hath affirmed to me. Befides thefe, I found one with Mr Iohn Tradefcant,which was written in a more ignorant and barbarous time,as one may cojecture by the title,which is thus at the vety beginning; In nomine domini \n-cipitherboralium ApuleiPlatonisquodaccepitaScolapio,ejrGn'i're-heCentauromagtjtro.Thenfol-lowes (as alfo in the former and in the printed booke^tfietraLtat afcribed to K^intonius Mufa%de herba Betonica.Aket that are thefe words,zfor medians, Platonisherbaticm explicit. By this it feems the Author of this Worke eitherwas named;, or elfe called himfelf Pla-to,a thing not without example in thefe times.Tbis worke was firft printed at Bafil, 1528, ^ amongft fome other works of phy ficke, and one Albanus^Torinus fet it forth by the helpe of many ManufctiptSjOf whofe imperfections hemuch"cbmplains,and I think not with- out caufe. After this,Gabriel Humelbergius of Rauenfpurge in Germany fet it forth with a Comment vpon it,who alfo complaines of the imperfe&ions of his eopies,and thinkes the Worke not perfect Indeed both the editions are faulty in many places; and by the help of thefe Manufcripts I haue feene they might be tended (ifany thought it worth their labour) in fome things,as I obferued in Curforily looking ouer them. One thing I much maruell at,which is,That I finde not this Author mentioned in any Writer of the middle times,as Plateariusjlartholom&u* Anglus,&c. Now I conjecture this Worke was originally written in Greeke/or thefe reafonsy fir ft,becaufe it hath the Greeke names ini fuch plenty ,and many of them proper,fignificant, and in the firft place. Secondly, fome are only named in Greek, as Hierobulbon.Artemifta Leptophyllos, and Artemiftatdgantes,Batra-chion,Gryas, (which I iudge rather Greekg}tftan Latine) &c. Befides, in both the written books in very many, places amongft the names I finde this word Omoesfiut diuerfl y written ; for I conjecture the Greeke names were written in the Greeke character^and a-mongft them: and then alfo when the reft of the Worke was tranflated,which afterwards made the tranferibers whovnderflood it not to write itvariouily,for in the one book it is alwaies written Amoeos,and in theother,Ow0W,andfometimes Omeos,asmihe chapter of Brittanica,the One hath it thu^Nomen berbaiftiusBritanica,Amoeos dicunt eumpamafinium^ &c. The other thvis^omen herba Brittanica-flmeos Vamdfiniusj&c, Arid in the chapter of Alth&a the one hath it thm,Nomen hujus herba Altea Antoebs vocanthancherbamMoloche^rci JheothetyNomen herba Ibifcus Omoeos Meldche,ejrc; If it be certain which Philip Perrartus affirrhes in his Lexicon Geographicttm,Thax. the City Apoley is Coriftantinople,theri haue I found Apolicnfii vrbspfwhich I can find no mention in any antierit or modern Geographer befides and then it is more than probable that this was written in Greeke* and it may bee thought differently tranflated,whichoccafions fuchdiuerfitie in the Copies,as you (hall finde in fome places. Now I conjecture this Worke was written about fome 00 yeares ago.
From the Antierits haue fprung a! I or the greateft part of the know ledge that the middle or later times haue had of Plants and all the controuerfies that of late time naue fo fluffed the books of fuch as haue writ of this fubiect,had their beginning by reafon thai the carelefnes of the middle timeswas fuch,that they knew little but what they tranferi.. bed out of thefe Antients, neuer ehdeauorfng to acquire any perfect knowledge of the things themfelues: fo that when as learning (after a long winter) began to fpring vp a-gain,men began tobe fomwhat more curious,and by the notes and defcriptions in thefe anticnt Authors they haue labored to reftore this loft knowledge,making inquirie,firftj; Whether it were knowne by rthedphrafus,Diofc6ridespt any of the Antients,then by what name. But to return to my Authors.
About An.Dom.noofix a little after liued the Arabians Aviceri,Averrhoes,Mefye;Rha- r$ ^wj^ fis and Serapio;mo{\ of thefe writ but briefly of this fubiect,neither ha'ue we their VVorks in the Arabicke wherein they were written, butbarbaroufly tranflated into Latine, and moft of thefe works were by them taken put of the Greeks,efpecially Diofcorides and Ga-lcnjjzt fo,as they added fomwhat of their own,ahd otherwhiles confounded other things with thofe mentioned by the Greeks,becaufe they did not well know the things whereof they writ. Avicen,Averrhoes,and Rha(is alphabetically and briefly(followirig the method of Galen) giue the names,temperature,and vertues of the chiefeft fimple medicines, put ^** f Serapio after a particular Tract of the Temperature and equalities of fimple medicines in j^X*"*-'*' generalI,comcs to treat of them in particular,arid therein tollowes chiefly Diofcorides,G'a- scrapie.-/f*,and P4/^,and diuers Arabians that went before him. This is the chiefe work in this kinde of the Arabians which hath come tb vs; he himfelfe tells vs his method in His pre-

To the leader.
nace^vhichiT(when he comes to particulars) firft of medicines temperat^hen of thofe that arc hot and dry in the firft degree,then thofecold and dry in the fimedegjee after tbat;thofe hot and dry in the fecond degree,&:c. and in each of thefe trafls he followe th the order of the Arabick Alphabet,
In or after the times of the Arabians,vntill about the yere i4oo,tnere w<*e diuers ob-fcurc and barbarous writers,whoby fightknew little whereof they wnt,but tooke out ot the Greeks, Arabians,and one another, all that they writ, giuing commonly rude figure?, feldomefetting down any defcriptions. I will only name the chiefe of them that I haue feen,and as neere as I can gueffe,in that order that one of them fucceeded anothehfor the particular times of their liuing is fomewhat difficult to be found out. One of the antien-teft of them feems to be Ifidore.-then Platearius, whofe work is alphabetical, and intituled
Si. circainjlans.lhe next M atthatu Sy haticus^ho flourifhed about the yeare13 ip.hiswork
tartboi. Angu is called PandcZlx. A little after him was BartholomausAnglus, whofe Works (as thatof Ifodorc^nd moft of the reftof thofe times) treat of diuers other things befides PIants,as Beafts,Birds,Fi{hes,&c. His worke is called Be proprieutibus return the Authors name was Bartholmew G/ Kcrtusfanltat. much like them,is the Bonusfanit at is,whofe Author I know not. But to leaue thefe ob-, leuremenand their writings,!et me reckon fome of later time,who with much more learning and iudgement haue endeauored to illuftrate this part of Phyficke.
About fome 200 years ago learning again beginning to flourifh,diuers began to leaue and loath the confufed and barbarous writings of the middle times,and to haue recourfe to the Antients, from whence together witftjpuritie of Language they might acquire a more certain knowledge of the things treated of,which was wanting in the other. One of
Hemtl. *trb. tne firft that tooke pains in this kinde w&sHermolaus Barbarus Patriarch of Aquileia,who notonely tranflated Biofcorides, but writ a Commentary vpon him fiue bookes, which he calls his Corslhrium. In this Work he hath (hewed nimfelfe both iuditious and learned.
MercVirgt Aftefhim MarcellusVirgilius Secretary to the State of J^orence,a map of no leffe learning and iudgement than the former, fet forth Biofcorides in Greeke and Latine, with a Comment vpon him.
jthnUtUiuu Much about their time alfo lohn Ruellius a French phy fitian,whoflouri (Tied inthe.yere i4.8ostranflated Biofcorides into Latine,whofe translation hath bin the moft followed of all thereft. Moreouer,hefet fottha large Worke,BenaturaStirpium,d'mided into three bookesjwherein he hath accuratly gathered all things out of fundry Writers, efpecially the Greeks and Latines: for firft hauing(after the maner of TheophraftusJdeliuered fome common precepts and aduertifements pertaining to the forme, life,generation,ordering, and other fuch accidents of Plants, hee then comes to the particular handling of each Species.
Much about this time the Gerriianes began tobeautifie this fonecelTariepartofPhy-plht *mftL ficke 3 and amongft them otho Brunfelfius a phyfitian of good account, writ of Plants,and was the firlt that gaue the liuely figures of them ; but he treated not in all of aboue 2 88 plants.He commonly obferues this method inhis particular chapters;firft the figure(yet he giues not the figures of ailhe writes of) then the Greeke,Latine,and German names-after that,the defcription and hiftorie out of moft former Authors jthen the temperature and vertues 5 and Iaftly the Authors names that had treated of them. His Worke is in three parts or Tomes, the firft was printed in An. 1530. the fecond in 15 31, and the third m1536.
Uitm.rragui. Next after him was Hieronymus t ragus; alearned ingenious and honeft writer who fet forth his works in the German tongue, which were afterwards tranflated into Latine by BtuldKtbet. He treats of moft of the Plants commonly growing in Germany, and I can obferue no generaH method he keeps,but his particular one is commonly this'he firft gi-"f^ .u gure Wlth th.e LaJine &hih Dutch namejthen commonly a good defcription-' wSvSSm hTS th^emPerature>and^ftly the vertues, firft inwardly>then outwardly vfed.He hath figured fome 5 67,and defcribed fome 800. his figures are eood *nd fo aremoft of the reft that folIow.His works werefet forth in Latine,!".?* 51g '
nh^fa^ ,a tofthem bh Pc figres:his general* method isafter the Greek Al-- phabet,and his particular one thus: Firft,the names inGreekeand Latine, togetheroft-

times with their etymoiogies,as alfothe Gerraanand French naraes,then the kinds,afrer that the form,the place, time> temperature, then the vertues j firft out of the Antients,as Biofcorides fialen,Pliny^c.and Cometimes from the late writers,whom he doth not parti-culari(e,butexpreffes in genQva\l,exrecentioribui. His Worke was fet forth at Bafil,i$42 in ^/.containing 516 figures; alfo they were fet forth in Octavo, the hiftorie firft, with; al the figuresby themfelues together at the end,with the Latine and high Dutch-names.
About this time and a little after flourifhed Conrade Gefner,z Germane phyfitian alfo, conrade Sep who fet forth diuers things of this nature,but yet liued not to finifh the great and general **r* Work of plants,which he for many yeres intePded,and about which he had taken a great deale of pains,as maybe gathered by his Epiftles. Hewas a very learned,painfull,honeft, andiuditious writer,as may appeare by his many & great works,whereof thofe of Plants was firft a briefe alphabetical! hiftory of plants without figures,gathered out of Biofcori-des9T'8cop&raftu*,tlmj^ for the moft part taken outof Pau-
las *gineta,with their names in Greek and French put in the inargent. This was pointed at Venice, 154 i,tri a fmall form Hefet fortka catalogue of plants in Latine,Greek,high D utch and French printed at Zurich, 1542, Alfo another tract Be Lunarys & noctu lucen-tibus cum montisfracti,fve Pi lati Lucernaium dcfcriptione^Ann. 15 5 2. in quarto. -He alfo fet forth thefoure books of Valerius Cordus (who died in his time)and his Sylvaobfervationum in Strausburgh, 15^1, infol: and to thefe he added a Catalogue of the Germane gardens, with an appendix and Coroffarium toCordus his hiftory. Alfo another treatife of his,de jlir-pumcollectione,wa% fet forth at Zurich by Wotphius,An. 1587,111 Octavo.
At the fame time liued' Adam Lonicerus a phyfitian of Frankford,whofe naturalhiftory Ltonnirai was: there printed,^ 1551. and the firft part thereof is of plants,and foure years after he added anothe rpaft thereto,treatingalfoof plants. I find ho general method obferued by him :but his particular method vfually is this; firft he giues thefigure^hen the names in Latine and Dutcb,then the temperature,& inTragus,from whom and Cordushe bor-rowesthemoft part of his firft tome,as he doth the fecond from Matth. & Amat Lufnanus.
In his time the Italian phyfitian Petrus Andreas Matthiolus fet forth his Commentaries P-A&m,or any one that takes fuch a worke in hand,to hauefhewed by defer ibing theplarit he giues,and conferring it with the defcription of his Authour,thac there is not any one note wanting in the defcription, vertues, or other particulars which his'Authot fets down .and if fee can fhewthat his is fuch, then will the contrary opinions of all others fall of themfelues,and need no confutation.
^Almatus Lufnanus alfo about the fame time fet forth Commentaries vpon Biofcorides, Amamifid* adding the names in diuers languages,but without figu'res,at Strausburgh, ^#^1554,in 'guarPe-.Btdiffeh'tedfrora Matthiolus in many things,Whereupon i^atjtiioluswxitiLnk* pologie again ft him;He hath performed no great matter in his enafrations vpon Diojeeri-desibixt wais an author of the hpnelly of dUdtthio'lus^ for'as the on1deceiued the World with counterfeit figures, fotheofcticrby feined cures to ftrengthen his opinion1, as Crato iudgedofhis Curaiiones MediemiUs (another Worke of his) which he tnitik&pofiusfiftai quam facts. -frMfrpt
ReWbertsts bodonm,* Phyfitian born at Mechlin ip Brabant, about this titrieBegan to j^fodm write of Plants. Hee firft fet forth an hiftory inDutcb,vyhichby Clufius was turned into French,with fome additions,^. i$6o. And this was trapiTated Out of FrerichintoEng-lifh by mr Henry Lyte, and fet forthwith figures, Ann. Bom. 1578.. and diuers times fince printedjbut without figures. In the yeare if 5 2, Bodon&us fet forth in Latine hii'Frugum hiJloria,and within a while after,his Flo'rum3purgdntium,& deleteriorum hifloria. And afterwards he put theraall tbgether,his former and thofe his later Works,and diuided them into 3 oSooks^and let them forth w^
, alfo' >

To the%$ader.
--nfla^edh^Englifh, which became the foundation of this prefent Worke, as I
fliall Oiew hereafter, ItW fince been printed in Latine, withthe addition of fome few new figures and of late in Dutch, 8,with the addition of the fame figures,and
moft of thefe in the Exoticks of Cluftus, and great ftore of orher additions. His generall method is this firft he diuides his works into fix Pemptades or hues: the firft Pemptas or fine books of thefe contain plants in an alphabetical order,yet fo5as that other plants that haueaffinitie with them are comprehended with them,though they fal not into the order of the alphabet.The fecond Pempt.contains Flores Coronartaflanta odor At a & vm-bellifera. The third is j)eRadicibus,PurgantibusherbU,convolvulu, deleterijs ac pernicious plan-tis FilicibusMcis,& Fu^is.The fourth i$DeFrmentisiLeguminibus)palJlribus,& aqmti-libus. The fifth,D* oleribus & Carditis. The fatipeFruticibus& Arboribus.Jhe particular method is the fame vfed by our Author. T ff 7 ,
per -Pew. in the yeare 15 lojeter Pena and Matthias lobeldid here at London let forth a Worke Mmb.iobtU intituied stirvium Adversaria nova; the chief end and intention wherof being to find out the Materia medic a of the Antients. the generall method is the fame with that of Our Author,whichis,putting things together as they haue moft refemblance one with another in external forme,beginning with GraiTes,Cornes, &c. They giue few figures ,but iomtimes refer you to FuchJius,Dodon. & Matthiolus-put where the figures war not giuen by former Authprs,then they commonly giue it; yet moft of thefe figures are very fraall and vnperfe ylmox6o 1 ,in Folio: and ,n the yeare 16oS he alfo in Folio fet forth in another volume fixbopkes ofcontaining various matter, as plants, orfome particles of them as Fruits,Woods,Barks,&c. as alfo the forenaraed transitions of J^S, and Sf? W,,Three^ %WS^^f^t Scorfijtera. The^VeFer^eiusfacAib, \ ^S||^^^
^: To

Tothe^aden \
To thefe he alfo adden idlwitu his Obferuations or Singtilarities,and a tract ofthe fame-Author. DenegkUa Stirpiuni cultura, both formerly tranflated oUt of French into Latine by him. He way borne at Atrebas or Arras, the chiefe city of Artois, kAmo i 52$. and died at Leyden, \^inno 1609. After his death, by Euerard Vorjlius^ Peter Patvprfome b-thers,were fet forth fome additions and emendations of his former Wbrks,together with his funerall oratioa made by Vorfiius, his Epitaph,&c. in C&mOy^inrio 161 i I by the name of his Curapojleriores.
In the yeare 1583 ^Andreas Cafalpinus an Italian Phyfitian, and ^rofeffof atpife, fet Andr-faftiti forth an hiftory of Plants, comprehended in fixteene bookes :his Worke is without ft-gures,and he oft times giues the Tufcane names for Latine 3 wherefore his Worke is the more difficult to be vnderftoodjvnleffeit be by fuch as haue beene in Tufcanie,or elfe are already well exercifed in this ftudy. He commonly in his owne virords diligently for the moft part defcribes each Plant, and then makes enqUirie whether they were knowne by the Antients. Hee feldome fets downe the faculties, vnlefle of fome, to which former Writers haue put downe none4 In the firft booke he treats of PJants.iu generall, according as Tbeophraflus doth: but in the following bookes hee handles them in particular: he maketh the chiefe affinity of Plants to confift in the fimilitude of their feeds and feed veftels.
Ioachimus Corner arius aPhyfition of Noremberg fldurifhed ibbut this time: Hee fet ioeeB.Gm$ forth the Epitome of uwatthiolus, with fome additions and accurate figures, ig Quarto, at Frankfort, i<>$6. in the end of which Worke (as alio in that fet forth by CMattbidus himfelfe) is Iter baldi,or a journey from Verona to mount Baldus,Writtefi by Francis Cat- Vtstktitefek, seqkrius an Apothecary of Verona. Another Worke of Comerarius was his Horttts CMe-dictts, being an Alphabetical! enumeration of Plants, wherein is fet forth many things concerning the naroes,ordering,verr,ues,&c.of Plants. To this he annexed Hjrcinia Saxo-nothuringica ivbamis Thalijpr an alphabetical! Catalogue written by Iohn Thaliusp[fuch xohtTbali*H Plants as grew in Harkwald a part of Germany bctwfcfene Saxohy and Durengen, This was printed alfb at Frankfort in quatto,/fd 15-88. 1
In the yeare 1587. came forth tfie great Hiftory of Plants printed at. Lyons, which is therefore vulgarly termed Hiftor.ia Lugdunenfis tit was begun by lialechamfius :bwthee Hl^.iHgi\\ dying before the finifhing thereof, one John tMolindus lettf forth, but put not his name thereto. It was intended to comprehend all that had Writteh before, and fo it doth, but with a great deale of confufion5which occafioned Bauhine to Write a treatife of the errors committed thereinj in which hee fhewes there are about foure hundred figures twice or thrice ouer. The whole number of the figures in t^hiswofke ire 2686. This Hiftory is diiiided into eighteene bookes, and the Plants in each booke are put together either by the places of their growings^as in WoQdsiCopfes,raount?ains, Watery places^&fc.or by their externall fliape,as vmbelliferoUs,bulbous,&c;6rlby their qualities, as pufgihg,poy- # fonous, &c. Herein are many places of Ttieophrajtus and other antient Writers explained. He commonly in each chapter giues the narijes^plaCe, forme, vertue, as moft other do. And at the end thereof there is an Appendix containing fome Indian pla'nts,for the moft part out of Acofia 5 as alfo diuers Syrian and iEgiptiari plants defcribed by Reinold iton&toilt* RamslfcfA Phyfition of Ausburgh.
Atdiistimejtowit^ww i{$S Jacobus fheodorusl' abernamontanm fet forth an Hiftory rabtrmtaml of Plants in the Germane tongue, and fome twelue yeares after his Figures being in all 2087. were fet forth in a long forme, with the Latine and high-Dutch names put vnto them 5 and with thefe fame Figureswas this Workeof our Author formerly Printed. i^^S^^j?/i?#%^hyfition of Paduain Italy, in the yeare 1592 fet forth a Treatife of p^.^j^T fome Egyptian PIants,wirh large yet not very accurate figures: hee there treats of fome 9 46. plants, and at theend thereofis a Dialogueor Treatife of Balfam. Some fix yeares agone^nno 16%rj. his Son fet forth two bookes of his Fathers^ He Plantis Exbticis, with the figures cut in Brafle: this worke corttaines fome r %6 Plants.
Fabitu Cohmna a gentleman of Naples of the houfe of Columna at Rome, Anno 155*t Set ^tbxnlnmM forth a Treatife called phytobafanos,or an Examination of Plants-fortherein he examines and aflerts fome plants to be fuch and fuch of the Antients :and in the efid of this worke he giues alfo the Hiftory of fome not formerly defcribed Plants. Hee alfo fet forth two other bookes,Z>e minus cogniiis, or of leffe knowne Plants: the firft of Which was Printed at Kome.Annd 1606; and the other 1616. He in thefe works, which in all containe little aboue two hundred thirty fix plants,fhewes himfelfe a raanofanexquifit iudgmentind very learned and diligent* duely examining and weighing each circumftance in-thewri- I tings ofthe Antients, -(; \'

To thunder.
at, mm c^^^,aPhyfmonand:Profeff^^
forthdiuets of Plants. Anno 1^96 he fetforth his Phytopinaxpt Index of Plants, wherein he followes the befi method that any yet found : for according to Lobels method (which our Author followed) hebegins with Graffes,Rufhes5&c. but thenhebriefely giues the Ety mologie of the name in" Greeke and Latine, if any fuch be, and tells you who of the Antients writ thereof,and in what part of their Works': and laftly (which I chiefly commend him for) he giues the Synonimas or fcuerall names of each Plant giuen by each late Writer,and cjuoteth the pages. Now there is nothing more troubles fuch as newly enter into this ftudy, than the diuerfitieof names,which fornetimes for the fame plant are different in each Author 3 fome of them not knowing that the plant they mention was formerly written of,namc it as a new thing 5 others knowing it writ of, yet not approuing of thename. In this Worke he went but through fome halfeofthe hiftory of Plants. After this, Anno 1598,he fet fotth Matthiolus his Commentaries vpou Diofcorides, adding to them 3 30 Figures,and the defcriptions of fifty new ones not formerly defcribed by any; together with the Swoninta's of all fuch as were defcribed in the Worke. He alfo Anno 1613 fet forth Tahernamontanus in Dutch,withfome addition of hiftory and figures. In Anno 16 2o he fet forth the Prodromust or fore-runner of his T-heatrum Botanicum, wherein he giues a hundred and forty new figures,and defcribes fome fix hundred plants,the moft not defcribed by others. After thls,t>rf00 \6i 3,he fets forth his Pinax Thcatri Botanic^ whofe method is the fame with his Phytbpinax, but the quotatians of the pages in the fe-uerall Authors are omitted. This is indeed the Index and fummeof his greatand generall Worke, which fhould containe about fix thoufand plants,and was a Worke of forty yeares :but he is dead fome nine yeares agone,and yet this his great Worke is not in the PrelTe, that leanheareof. uafiBefur. BafilBeJlexan Apothecary of Noremberg,\Anno 1613 fet forth the garden of theBi-, fliop of Eyftet in Bauaria,the figuresbeingvery large,and all curioufly cut inbraffe,and printed vpon the Iargeft paper: heonely giues the synonima's and defcriptions, and diui-. deth the worke firft into foure parts,according to the foure feafons of the y*eare5and then againe he fubdiuidesthem,each into that they agree with the moneths, putting in each GJaffis the Plants that flourifh at that time, m
Thefeare the chiefe and greateft part of thofe that either in Greeke or Latine (whole Works haue come to our hands) haue deliuered to vs thehiftory of Plants-yet there are fomewho haue vfed great diligence to helpe forward this knowledge,whofe names I wil AutfMiuiu. not pafr;eouet in fiicnce. The firft and antienteft of thefe was LAloyfius Anguillara a Phyfition of Padua5and Prefidentof theipublique Ga*flen there:his opinions of fome plants were fet forth in Italian at Venice; r 5 61. ;
uZGl"1' Mdchi?r Giilandiwn fucceeded Anguilldrd in the garden at Padua, writ an Apol: gie agamft CMatthiolusjbme Epiftles of PlantSjand a Commentary vpon three chapters OfPliny\Defapyro. -
f W ruenir f *?* PS f ?ft !.kf home'and fee who we haue had that haue taken pains in this .kinde. The firft that I finde worthy of mention is D' William Turner, the firft of whofe works that I haue feene,was a little booke of the names of herbes, in Grceke3Latine,En-
forth his Herbal or Hiftory of Plants,whcrehe giues the figures of Fuchfwsfa the moft part: hegjues the^amesinLatine,Greeke,Dutch,and French:hedid not treatof many
mentand learning,and well performed wat he tooke in hand 5 An^ r^thlS,7)^r'WaS 'I?3^ inrto Englifh by Wipe, as I formerly mentioned. h^n^2ZZa^m Aotofefi^ih Wakq wiereof I will p/efently treat, hauing firft made mention of a Worke fet forth betweene that former Edition and thiJ ,,p In?r^ntToumthaIL *aition,anatnis, JVj^'rkinfin an Arx>thecary of this City (yet lining and labouring for the commongood) in the yeare 1619 fet for a Worke by the name of Parades f erWwherein' he giuei the figures of all fuch plants as are preferued in gardens, fo/ the ffii 6ftfaS ,fiqures,fpj vfe in meats-or fauces-and alfo an orchard of all tree bearing frui and fuch ^"fortheir^^

To the 'JRgader. *~~
planting and preferuing Of all thefe. In this Worke hee hath not fuperficially handled thefe things,but accurately defccnded to the very varieties in each fpecies: wherefore I haue now and then referred ray Reader addicted to thefe delights,tothiswoikeefpecial-Jy in floures and fruits, wherein I was loth to fpend too much time,efpecially feeing I could adde nothing to what he had done vpon that fubieci before. He alfo there promi-fed another Worke,the which I thinke by this time is lit for the Preffe.
Now am I at length come to this prefeht Worke, whereof I know you will expect I ftiould fay fomewhat$and I will not fruftrate your expecration,but labour to fatisfie you in all I may, beginning with the Author^hen his Worke,what it was,and la ft ly,what it now is.
For the Author Mr lohn Gerard1 can fay little^ but what yoiLalfo may gather out of M*Gtm& this Worke;which is,he was borne in the yeare 1545 .in Chefhire, at Namptwich, from whence he came to this City,and betooke himfelfe to Surgery, wherein his endeauours werefuch,as he therein attained to be a Mafter of that worthy Profeffion: he liued fome ten yeares after the publifhing of this worke,and died about the yeare 1607.H1S chiefe commendations is, that he out of a propenfe good will to the publique aduancement of this knowledge, endeauoured to performe therein more then he could well accOmplifh j which was partly through want of fufficient learning,as (befides that which he himfelfe7 faith of himfelfe in the chapter of Water Docke) may be gathered by the tranflaring of ^ fof-diuers places out of the Adaerfaria-,^% this for one in the defcriprion of* After Atticus, trh; plac Cattiespedales term aut quattrni: which is rendred,A ftalke foure or fiue foot long.He alfo here nwnuo-by the fame defed called burnt Barley, Hordeum difticbon^nd diuided the titles of ho- 2*d, nour from the name of the perfon wherero they did belong, making two names therof, p:66-' beginning one claufe with Iulius Alexandrinus faith,&c.and thenext with, Cafarius Ar- t,l*7> ehiaier faith* He alfo was very little conuerfant in the writings of the Antients,neithcr, as it may feemeby diuers paffages, could hee well diftinguifh betweene theantient and moderne writers:for he in one place faith,[* Neither by Diofcorides, FucbjiusyOx any other M^* antientwr iter once remembred.] Diuers fuch there are, which t had rather palTeouer in filence, than here fet downe: neither fhould I willingly baue touched hereon, but that I \ haue met with fome that haue too much admired him, as the only learned and iudicious writer. But let none blame him for thefe defe<5ts,feeing he was neither wanting in pains nor good will, to performe what hee intended; and there are none fo fimple but know, that heauie burthens are with moft paines vndergone by the weakeft men : and althoagh. there were many faults in the worke, yet iudge well of the Author ; for as a late Writer well tiithyFal/iejr hallucinari humanum eft folitudinem quarat oportet, qui vult cum f erf Bis cuM.^e^. viuere. Penfanda vitqs bonacuiufque funt,& qua maiorpars ingenij ftetit,eaiudicandum de homi- weft.
Now let me acquaint you how this Worke was madevp. Dodonaus his Vemptadejs coraming forth Anno 15 82, were fhortly after tranflated into Englifh by Dr Prieft a Phy-fition of London,who died either immediately before or after the finifhing of thi tran-flation. This I had firft by the relation of one who knew Dr Prieft and Mr Gerard: and it is appararit by the worke it felfe, which you fhall finde to containe the Pemptades of Dodon&us tranflated, fo that diuers chapters haue fcarce a word more or leffe than what is in him. But I cannot commend my Author for endeauouring to hide this thing from vs,cavilling(though commonly vniuftly)withlW worke wherein that error was coramitted.was a tranflation ofDodonausmd that madeby
_- ..... ..... f ^ V Prieft

To the cReadet\
-5Xa^l^ Now this tranflation became the grcund\worke
thereupon W Gm^built vp this Worke :butthat it might not appeare a tranflation he changes the generall method of Dodonaus, into that of Lobel and therein alrnoft all ouer followes hislcones both in method and names,as you mayplainly fee in the GrafTcs ad Orchitis. To this tranflation he alfo added fome plants out of Clufiw, and- other-fome out of the AduerCmaM & fourteene of his owne not before mentioned. Now to this hiftory figures were wanting^hich alfo W Norton procured frOrn Frankfort,^being the fame wherewith the Works of Tabernamontanus were printed in Dutch 1 but this fell crone for my Author,who(as itfecmes)hauing no great ludgment in them,frequent-ly put one for another: and befides there were many plants in thofe Authors which hee followed,which were not mTabornamontanus,and diuers in him which they wanted,yet he put them altogether, and one for another 5 and oft times by this meanes fo confounded all,that none could poflibly haue fet them right,vnleffe they knew this occafion of thefe errors. By this mcanes,and after this mannerwasthe Worke of my Author madevp, which was printed at the charges of Mr Norton Anno 1597.
Now it remaines I acquaint you with what I haue performed in this Edition which is either by mending what was arniffe, or by adding fuch as formerly were wanting: fome places I helped by putting out3as the Kindes in the Chapter of Stonecrop, wheare there was but one mentioned. I haue alfo put out the Kindes in diuers places elfe where,thcy were not very neCeflary, by this meanes to get more roome for things fmore neceflarie: as alfo diuers figures and defcriptions which were put intwo or three places,I haue put them out in all but one,yet fo, as that I alwaies giue you notice where they were, and of what. Some words or paffages are alfo put out here and there, which I thinke needleffe to mention. Sometimes 1 mended what was amiffe or defe&iue, by altering or adding one or more words, as you may frequently obferue, if you compare the founer Edition withthis,in fome few chapters almoft in any place. But I thinke I fhall beft fatisfie you if 1 briefely fpecifiewhat is done in each-particular, hauing firft acquainted you with what my generall intention was: I determined\as well as the thortneffeof my time would giue me leaue,to retaine and fet forth whatfoeuer was formerly in the booke defcribed,or figured without defcriptions (fome varieties that were not nccefiary excepted) and to thefe I intended toadde whatfoeuer was figured by Lobel, Dodonaus, ox Clufius, whofe figures we made vfe of.' and alfo fuch plants as grow either wilde,orvfually in the gardens ofthisKingdome, which were not mentioned by any of the forenamed Authors .for I neither thought it fit nor requifite for me, aime at all that Bauhine in his Pinax reckons vp,or the Exotickes of Projper Alpnu* containe, not mentioned in the former. This was my generall intention. Now come Ito perticulars,and firft of figures: I haue,as I faid,made vfe of thofe wherewith the Workes of Dodonaus, Lobel, and Clufius were formerly printed,which though fome of them be not fo fightly,yet are they general Jy as rrrtly expreft,and fometimes more. When figures not agreeable to the defcriptions were formerly in any place, I giue you notice thereof with a marke of alteration before the title, as alfo in the end of theChapter- and if they were not formerly in the booke, then I giue you them with a marke of addition. Such as were formerly figured in the booke, though put for other things; and fo hauing no defcription therein, I haue caufed to be new cut and put into their fit placesjwith defcriptions to tbem,and only a marke of alteration. The next are thedefcriptions,whieh I haue in fome places lightly amended, without giuingany notice thereof but when it is much altered, then giue I you this* marke + at the beginning thereof but if it were fuch as that I could not helpe it but by writing a new one, then fhall you finde it with this marke % at the beginning and end thereof, as alfo whatfoeuer is added in the whole booke, either in defcription or other-wife. The next is the Place, which I haue feldome altered, yet in fome places fupplied, and in others I haue putdoubts,& dofufped otherfometobe falfe5which becaufel had not yet viewed I left as I found. The Time was a thing of no fuch moment,for any matter worth mentioning to be performed vpon, wherefore I will not infift vpon it. Names are ot great importance, and in them I fhould haue bin a little more curious if I had had
Th^f'y0Umayf?1 "J-thf fir?.haUe bcene5huifin^nira"oublefomeworke, l^^^^^^l^f^ "r* needfuI1 inf,fted vPn Bauhinuthh TzUfiZlT ^ wJf yurin &de wantiog.In-many places of this worke you
Mmifrt^ftF ?,fc?urfeSand fometiraescontrouerfieshandled by our Author in the and bv\ f J!fn \ a Wt\<*to"*& fome of them were fo abbreuiated, I tawW^5^^*1 Aongbj Hot worth my paines to mend them,fo 1 put them out in fnfw places,and referred you to the places in Dodonaus out of

which they were taketyas in the chapter of Alehoofe.-it may be they are not fo perfed as they fhould be in fome very few other places(for I cpufd not compare all) but if you fufpe<5t any fuch thing,haue recouife t^that/Authoijand you fhall find fullfatisfa&ion.
Now come I to the Temper and Vertues.. Thefe commonly were taken foithof the fore-mentioned Author, and hereand thereout of Lobtls Obferuations, ond Camerarius his Hertm medicus. To thefe he alfo added fome fewxeceipts of his owne: thefe I haue notalteredjbut here and there fliewe4;Jtofhich theydid moft properly be!ong;as alio iH found them otherwife than tbeydughtslnoted it5 pijifin vnfit places, Ihaue tranf-fenedthsra to the right placejand in diuers^hings whereof our Author hath been filenr,; I baue fupplied that defed.
For my additions I will here fay nothingjbut refer you to the immediate Jnfuing Ca-talogUe^hich will inforrhe you^ty whasisgdded in figure, or defcription,or inbo^h,j by which, and thefetwo formerly mentioned markes, you may fee what is mucn altered oraddedinthe Wotke-for this marke tputeithertofigure,or before any claufe,(hews it to haue bin otherwife putbefore^or that claufe whether it be in defcription, Place,Time, Names,or Vertues to be much altered. This other marke $ put to a figure fhewes it not to haue been formerly in the worke,but now added; and put in any other place it fhewes all is added vntill you come to another of the fame raarks.But becaufe it is fometimes o-mitted, I will therefore giue noticein the Errata where it fhould be put, in thofe places where I obferue either the former or later of them to be wanting.
Further,! muft acquaint you how there were thedefcriptionjS.of a few plants here and there put in vnfitting places,which made me defcribe them as new added,as Saxifragama-ior (JWattbioli,Perftcaria filiquofa, of which in the chapter ofPerJicaria there was an ill de-fcriptiOn,but a reasonable good one in the chapter of Afirantia mgr*Papauer f]>inofum>vi3ti figured and defcribed amongft the Cardui j now all thefefas t faid)I added as new in the moft fitting places: yet found them afterwards defcribed, but put them out all, except the laft, whofe hiftory I ftill retained, with a reference to the preceding figure and Hi-ftorie. Note alfo,wherefoeuer my Author formerly mentioned Clufius,according to his SpanifhorPannonickc Obferuations>t haue made it,according to this Hiftorie? which containes themhoth with additions. I
Alfo I muft certifie you, becaufe I know it is a thing that fome will thinke ftrange, that the number of the pages in this booke do no more exceed that of the former (con fi-dering there is fuch a large acceffion of matter and figUres)tbe caufe hereof is, each page containes diuers lines more than the former,the lines themfelues alfobeing longer 5 and by thebmiflidn of defcriptions and figures put twice or thrice oucr,and the Kinds,vnne-ceffarily putin fome places, I gained as much as conueniently I could^being defiroUs' that it might be bound together in one volume.
Thus haue I fhewed what I haue performed in this Workejentreating youto take this my Labor in good part and if there be any defect therein (as needs there muft in all humane works) afcribe it in part to my hafte and many bufinefies, and in fome places to the want of fufficient information, efpccially in Exoticke things; and in otherfome, to the little conuerfation I formerly had with this Author, before fuch time as (ouercome by the importunitie of fome friends, and the generall want of fuch a Worke) I tooke this taske vpon me. Furthermore I defire,that none would rafhly cenfure me for that which I haue here donejbut they that know in what time I did it,and who themfelues are able to do as much as I haue here performed ; for to fuch alone I fhall giuefree liberty, and will be as ready toyeeld further fatisfa&ion if they defire it,concerning any thing I haue here affcrted, as I fhall be apt to neglect and fcorne the cenfure of the Ignorant and Vn-learned, who I know are ftill forward to verifie our Englifh proucrbe *y ftattu
I muft not in filence paffe ouer thofe from whom I haue receiued any fauoUr or incou- it fine fhti. ragement, whereby I might be the better enabled to performe this Taske. In the firft: place let me remember the only Afliftant I had In this Worke,which was Wlobri Goodyer of Maple-Durham in Hampfhire, from whom I receiued many accurate defcriptions, and fome other obferuations concerning plants 5 the which (defirous to giue euery man his due) I haue caufed to be fo printed,as they may be diftinguifhed from the reft: and thus you fhall know them 5 in the beginning is the name of the plant in Latine in a iinai by it felfe.and at the end his name is inferted fo that the Reader may eafily finde thofe things that I had from him,and I hope together with me will be thankfull tohim,that he would fo readily impart them for the further increafe of this knowledge.
Mr George Bowles of ChiffelhUrft in Kent muft not here be forgot, for by his trauehY and induftry I haue had knowledg of diuers plants,which were not thoughtnor formerly'
i knovrne

To the leader.
. knowne togrowwilde in this kingdome,as you fhall finde by diuers places in this book. jiffiS*'*" ^omng friends and fellow Trauellers in this ftudy, and of the fame profeflion, whofe wMmilatd. companie I haue formerly enjoyed infearchihgouera'great part of Kent, and who are jb male, ftiii ready to doe the like in other places,are here alfo to be remembredi and that the ra-imis Si(h tber,becaufc this knowledge amongft vs in this city was alfnoft loft, leaft too much Men Lorkjn. neglected, efpecially by1 thofe to whom it did chiefeJy belong, and who ought to be a-fhamed of ignorance, efpecially in a thing^'fe'abfolutely neceffary to their profeflion. They fhould indeed know them as workemen'do their tooles,that is readily to call them by their names, know where tofetchyand whence to procure the beft of eachkinde and Jaftly, how to handle them.
T 1---;---f----1---..1,
time as I findea&ratefull exceptance; or ^^^JSSSBS^^^Jig^; uite me to fet Pen to Paper, v^hich, That it maybeformy Countreves good and Gods glory, fhalleuer be the prayers and Endeauourt of ffiyWell-- Wifher/
Frommj houCeon Snow-hilJj <
babbit >. .v/I ;lv- tii Mo l&sriW
. 3q>OJC3-lI* ttfolfath rj v-ir}
I hiia i;^ri. gnib njy ;.<" s 11:
-T H 0 m A i-1 a h n,5',<9 n.
it$ :r O orb %iocu> b-xUis:. >fe bneb^wgrt t3; vm^rfjMJi^^'O'-bsalQsm^jHflon!
i wS rTi'i.-;-
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" TD Ecaufe the marlces were not fo carefully and right put to thefe Figures, which were *~*not formerly in the booke, I haue thought good to giue you the names of all fuch as are added,either in figure or defcriptio^or both: togetherwith the booke, Chapter,and number or place they hold in each chapter. F ftands for Figure, D for Defcription, and where both are added, you il.all find both thefe letters- and where the letter C is put,the hiftorie of the whole chapter is added;;
k e
Booke I.
.-It J
CHap.2. l' Ch.5. %Gram.artind .minus 'Defc. ; Ch6. \Gram.tomenrarundi.i
2 Gram.pan.elega^fA Ch.8.3 Gram.typhoidesJpicalongifA j r*V
Ch.13.3 Gr~aUkTamcJJ'^.jtmpA' Ch.14. 1 Grdm.pal.echin.i
/3 Gram.capit.globA
^Gram.mont.echinA C\\.i6. 8 Gram.cyper.jpicA,. Ch.203 Gram.dailyloides,i,d
Ch.2I.lCrMm.C^.<(^^4> t, 2Pfeudocyperus,iA ^Cypermlong.inod.lA
$Cyperturot.iod,iA 4 5 fjd; ;.,-. Ch.22.1 Gram.mont C.J
3 Gram.crifiafu.m,iA
4 Jram.JptcafecalA jGramfycaBrizaA b. 6Gr 7 GramJmc.^ <~y,^
%Gr*m.L?li4cjnJ!i 1 o Gram.fparteum minA liGram.a/ppee^r:Jp.aJperdA I GramftopariumA
A,Cyp>mm.CretA i. -..
GaUngamtnorQ. Ch.27 Cy/tfra* Indictu,Q Ch.28 ZedMridfi j,;itM'.. Ch.29. 5 cap.EqHif.iA Ch. 3 4.5 Spartum ojt.pat, f,d ,v
6 Spart.AnBriac.iyt Ch. 3 9,4 Phalangium 4nttqA~
Ch.42, dflrisBjaatttinaA"',
7 -6" fiwierui.obfol. f,d
8 Cham&iris riivep, f,d f,d xoChantairdtitSA
\ 11 Cham'.variegat, f,d"
Ghf45 3 G/tlamm aromat.fA I Ch.63. 3 Panic ttm Americf,&
Ch.64, 3 'Phalar.prat.altera, A
Ch.6 5, Z Alopecuros Anglic pal. d I Ch.68,2 MeleimpyrumpurpSA
3 Melampyr. carul. f,d
4 Melampjr.lnt. f,d Ch70, j Afphodelut min.fA
\ Ch.71, 3 AJphod.Lanc.ver.iA Cb.74,1 bulbojalut.iA 4Irubdlb.verJic0I.fA
6 Irk bulb.fl.o,cin,iA
7 /r*f bnlb,fio.alb.iA Ch.7J, 2 Sifynrichiummintujt Cb.76,4 Gladiolus lacttftrisyfA^ Ch.77, z Hyacinth** mUMbkansA
iHjacivthwJiell.bipi. fA
6 HjacftelkBjWHtJA
9 Hyacslel.aft.mai. f,d
'12Bjac.Peruv.iA Q^.i^Hyac.flel.ver.d ; Ch.79, 7 Hyac.Or.purp.iA M
9 Byac.Brumulm,?A''
10 Hyac.Or.caulefo{iofi,iA 1 r Byac.Or.fio.plenofA
12 Hyac.Or.flo.CArul.plenoSA
13 HyacjQr.fio.cdnd.plen.iA 14 Hyac.dbfdet.flo.Hijp.i}d
15 Hyac.tJiin,HijbSA v"
16 HyaCilndituber.iA
Ch.8o, 3 HyacinthuiCom.Byx.dnui -' 4 Hyacmtbxm.ratofu?Ji i Hyacmth.cdm.rm*leg;iA

Ch.84,4jN*raj^ medio~cractus feroupolyanth. iA 5 Narc,medio purp.fio.plen. f,d
11 Narc.flare plena alb.iA
12 Narc,flo>plen.medio Int. f,d \^Narc*flo.pleH.medloverfa. f,d
17 Narciuncifol.rofealut. f,d
18 Narc*imcifol.amplo calSA
19 Narc.iuHCtfol.refiex.flo.alb.,d
19 NarcJuncifol.reflex.min>i)d
20 Narc.iHnctfol.mftlt.iA
23 Narc.vtrms prac.flav. f,d Ch.85,3 Pfeudonarcifm Eifp.i.
4 Pfeudonarc.min.Hifpan. ij&
5 PfiudoHAtcdbo floreSA fC.86,1 Ncrcif.omnium maxmtuA
2 NarciJf.mult.RobiniA
3 Pfeudonarc.fio.plenoSA
4 NarciJf.fVilmot. d Narc.Tradefcant. c\ Narc.ParktnfonA
5 Narcif.IacJndic.iA
6 7^'>t.min.f>6
7 "Karc mont.imcifolfio.fimbriatot f,d
8 Narc omnium min.mont. alb, f,d. C\\.%j.Tuliparumfig. 23
Ch.88,2 Leucoiumbulbofpracex ByzMnUiA
5 Leuceium bulb.Aut.min.iA
6 Leuc.bulb. vern.min d
Ch.8p,3 PrittiBariaAtjuita.mmflo.obfilSA
9 FrittiH.alb.pracex,iA
Cum nominibut & notis novem attarum vafttta-turn.
Ch.90, 3 Crocus vernutfioJutS
4 Crav vtrn.flo.albt>,
5 vern.fio.purp. 6Croc.mont.C4utumri
7 Croc.mon.Autum.fio.mai.albid,carul. jd
8 Croe.Autum.fioMb.i
9 Crocus vernus angufi.fio.vhl f,d
. lo frocusvtrnuslat.fio.flav.ilrysviilJiA' I1,s~iriatflo.duplA Ch .9l,y Colchicummont.min.verftc.fio,A
9 Colchicum lattfol. i,d
10 Colchicum verJic.fio.iA
11 Colchicumfio.plen.iA
12 Colchicum bifior&A
13 Colchicum vernum$ \4-Colchicum variegai.ChienfeSA 15 HermodaStyti officSA
Ch.92, a Ornithogalum Hiifan.minSA
5 Ornitbngalum luteum minSA
6 Bttlbfu uutfol.iA
7 Ornithogalum mai.Arab.iA
8 Ornithogalum sJieSA
9 Ornithogalum NcapelSA Ch.93,3 CeptHifyan.QblivgaSA
4 Afcalonitides,i,d Ch.94,1
6 Narcifftu tertius Mattb. iA. Ch.95 PorrumfeRmauttaufileSA ^9^ 3 Ampelcprafon,five Porrumfjl.,d Gh.97,2 -rf///wfylrubenumclSA Ch.99,2 Scorodoprafitmfrim.ClufS.
3 fcorodoprafvm min.fA
4 OphtofcoridonSA
Ch.ioo,6Mljlatifilfe.pvS,d jMoljmin.fio^W.iA
fCh.ioij 1 MoljNarciJf.folijt primed
2 Moly Kare.fol.fecmd.i,d
3 flfo/y NarcfoLtertium, f,d a.M)ly mont.latifot.i Cluf.iA 5 c%/p mont.fecmd.Cluf.ftd CMolymont.^ Cluf.iA
7 .#/0/7 /.4 f. 1 Cluf.FA
8 j*/<# 0^.4 /j5*c. c/#y: f,d
X 9 /fc/o^ wwtf .5 ClufiiA Ch.103,2 Liltumrubrum,iJA
4 Lil.cruent.bulb.
5 LiUruent.fecuHd.caulJbulb.donS
6 Lil.purp.min.iA
Ch.105,2 Lilium ByzMHt.fio.purp.fang.iA
3 Lilium ByZiitut.flo .dilute rubent.iA
4 Lilium BjzAtnt.miniat.polyanth.iA 106,1 LUium rubrum angufiSA
2 Lilium rubrum praeox A
3 */ m9nt.fi0.fiav.punB.iA
4 Lilium mont.flo.fUv.nonpunSl. f,d Ch.110, 5 Cynoforchism'tn.P annonSA Ch.HI, 3 Cynoforchis mono minorSA Ch.i 12,4 7>rf0r<:& min.Batav.iA Ch. 113, 15 CWw trifol.min. iA
16 Orchis angitjl. d ? Ch.115,3 Orchispalmata Pann,%Cluf.f,d Ch. 110,9Serapias BatrachitesaltSA Gh. 117,5 PalmaChrifii max, ,4 Ch. 14 8,2 avisfie.&cattle violatA
Lib. 2.
CHap. i, 2 oblongaSA Ch.2, 2 RapifyHmarvenfe alt.f,d ^ Ch.3, i Baniasji
2 Buniasfyl.Lob. Ch.5,1 RaphanUsfativ.i % Kadiculafat.min. Ch.7,3 LeptdiumaununmfA Ch.9,1 SinapifativumX
2 Sixapi vulgA $Sinapifat.alt.
4 /^.f,d
5 Sinapifyl.minmS Ch.10,1 Erucafativa, s
^8rucanaflurt.cogn.ttnu\folf i
5 ErucamarinaS
6 Eruca aquAt.d
Ch. 15 > 2 Eryjimum altJtal. f Ch.17,2 o'ww w/o'jw d
3 Stum umbeKat.repent,d
4 o7/'*/ alt.Olufatrif*cie,A 6 Stum Matth.& ItalSA
Ch. 18,3 Cardamine alt.flo.plenoSA
' 7 min.impatien)SA
8 CardaminejumilaBeSidisfolSA Ch.19,6 ThlafpiamarumA Gh.20,ThlaJpi cand.fio.atb ,f,d Ch.21,8 ThlafpipetraummiH.fA Ch.22,4 Thlafpifrutic.foLLiuc^marS -
5 Tblafpi hederaciA Ch.2 3,2 Turritis maiorSA
rt.Ch.24,1 Draba Diofc.fA
N 2 I>r<^ />ri//* reptns, I A C.n ^Urabaalt.repensSA
Q A,T>rabafive Arab.quorundA Ch27 3 Erigerontoment.alt.iiA

Cb.28. 2 Iacob&d anguft.fA
3 lacobaalatifol.iA Ch.29, 5 CichoriumJpitof.iA Ch.31,3 ChondriSa luteas
4 ChondrilU Bijpantf
9 Cichorium verrucdr.fA Ch*32,3 Densleonis bulb.iA Ch.33, 2 Sonchut afperSA
5 Sonchus lavis mur.A
6 Sonchut lavis anguFt. f,d 9 Sonchus arboref.alt.iA loSonch-Jylvat. d
Ch. 34,9 Bier actumfale at.alt.iyA
Cb.3 5, 5 Hieraciumparv.Cret.iA 6 Bieracium dent.Leon.fol.hirf.A oCh 36, 1 Pulmon.Gall.five aurealai. iA
C.*< 2 P/w. Gall.Jive aurea angttfl. fA
6 3 iA oCh.38,1 Lailucafyl.mai.fyd
C.*\ 2LaUucafjl.min.fol.integrA
O. 3 LaQuca fjUfeh dijfeft. f,d Ch.42,3 Betarub.Rom. Ch.43,1 Blitum mat.alb.i
3 Blitum min.alb.i
4 Blitum min.rubft
Ch.44,5 Amaranthut panmcula incur M botofefica,
id '
Ch.45,3 Atriplex fyl'fivt PolyfpermonA
5 Atrip.fyl.vulgJiA 7 AtripfyLangHfl. f,d
8 Atrip.baceiferaSA Oa.^j,i Atrip.Jyidatif.
2 Atrip.fjl.Utif.alt.iA Ch.52, 1 Cynocrambe, i
3 Phy lion thelygthon, d Ch.54,2 Scorpioides MatthS Ch.5 j, 2 Solanum fomnif. f,d Ch.58,2 Mribilia Peruv.fio.alb.f Ch. 65,3 Byofcyamus alb.minSA
4 Byofcyamus atb.Cret.iA Hyofcyamusfio.rub. f,d
Ch.CZj^TabacUmmm. A Ch.71,2 CapJicumr9tHHd.filiq.iA
cum 12 alijsvarietatibus Ch.72,3 Tapaver corHic.pboenicglab.fyd Ch.73, 3 Papaverfimbriat.aH>.iyd
5 Papaver fyl.iA
O1. 76", 7 Anemone laiifolia duplo jl.tvo flofe, f,d
"Ch.77,1 A^ntMottelatif.fio.coecin. f,d
2 Anem.tat.fio,mag.coccin. f,d
3 AhemJat$yx,dnt.fA
4 Anemjten.fioiampl.faMg.iyd Qi ')Anem.ten.fio.cocciH.)d
v *| 6 Anem.teH.flo.dilute purp. td 7 Anem.ten.flo.exalb.fyd 2AHemiten.flo.carul.flriat.fA 9 eyfHemiteH.flo.pleu.cocciH.ffd { 10 Anem.ten.flo.atropurp.fA Ch.78, 3 Anem.nemorum fio.pleu.alb.
4 Anemjtem.fio.plen:purp.fA Ch.79,4 PulfatiRa flore mi.fA
<$Pulfaul.FloJutA Ch. 81,3 Lapathumfyl.foljnin.acut.iyd Ch82,5 Lapathrmfath>.fang.
Ch.83,2 caphatum angUsl.fA
3 Rhaverum antiqSA -Ch.87,3 Opr bifolbuib. f,d Ch.88,2 OpbiogUffonabm f
Ch.89, 3 Lunar/a min ramo/k, f}d Ch.90,2 Pyrolal tenerior Cluf. fyd
$ Pjrola $ fiut.CiMflA J
4 Pjrola aminiCiuffA
Ch,92,3 Limoniumfol.fin.fA
^Limonio congener QuflfA Ch.93, 2 Trtpoliumvulgjain. f Ch.95,2 Plantagoaquat.miM.ftei.fyd CH. 97j 6 Plantagopanhic.sfarflsyfA Ch.99,4 Bolofleumfive LeontopodiCret.t&
5 tfoloB.five LeontopJCret.alt.fyd Ch.104 BerbaDored Lob.f
Berba'DoreadltA Ch. 105,2 Gentidna min.pUrp.fA
^Ch.107,1 GentianelUvcrn.rnai.fjd q V 2 Gent.alp.vernA
'i ^Gent.fugaxmin. d 4G!^.J^j*!7^i.d Ch. 109,2 SpcculumFen.inm.fA Ch. 112, 2 Calceolus tMar.ult.f,d Chi 14,3 PerficariapufilU repent, f,d
a,PerficariaflliquofayfyA Qa.\\G,'t>Tracheliummaitpetr.fyd Chi 17,7 Campanula Qmbalar.folA Ch.118, \Rapunculusalp.cornic, fyd
$Rap unculut eornicmont. ,d
6 Rapunculusfdxat.fA Ch* 119,4 Leucoiumfyl.d
5 Leuc.lni.flb.ampL dP&> 6Leuc.flo.albA Ch.i2o,2 Leucoiumflo.mttltipl.fA
3 Leucoium fpmof Ch. 12 2, 2 P/o/ni matr6nattsflo.multiplA
3,4, rW<* Mat.flo.obfol.fheLeucoium meUncho-IteumSA
Ch.I24, 2 Alyffum Diofcf
Ch. 126", 3 Lychnis cor onar.multi.r,d
Ch. 127,1 Lychnis fyl. rub.flo.f
Ch. 127, 7 Z^fW calicultsflriat.l Cluf. d %Lychnfyl.alb.QClufA b ^ ^lCh.128,1 Lychnis fyl.multipUpHrp.iA K 1 LychnisfyUlb.mult.fA
G.< l Lychnis abort flo.mult.vtrid.yd J 4 Lych.fyl.Ut.Cluf.fyd
V 5 Lycb.mont.repe/tsJ: A Ch. I i 9, Lyfimachia Im.min. f,d
4 Lyfimachia lutjvirg. f,d ; yChamanerioMyf %Chamanerionalt.angHft.^jd
9 Lyfimachia coerul.f <.!'..>
10 Lyfimachia galeric. i^Lyfimachiapurp.min.fyd
Gh.131,1 Conyz,a maior^A v ; ^
/-^j 2 ContxM minSA j ^ 3 Coni-ca med.d
_ ^ 4 Coniz,a min A
h sConl:uif0ldttciri$A^
Y 6 Coniz.apaluft.ferrat.d:
b 7Cow*4Aufi.Cluf.iA \ :

8 ConizA incanajfA r> Qotiiut Alp.pdofifSyd xoConi^acvruLacrisSA -
Ch.132,2 Afterltal.iA 5 After coniz,.Gefii. 6tAfter lutfup.Clu{. j After lut.fol.fuccifaS ItAttcrJalicisfoll
9 After Auftr.<)ClufS
10 tAfter 6 0Hf'$
11 After tCW*.
12 After Virg.frut A
13 After fiuumtnA Ch 3 Sefam.parvXfttatth. d Ch. 139, loTithymaltu characiatanguftSA
11 Tithym.cbaraci.uferat. f,d
l2Tithym.dendr.ex cod.Caf.f
J7 Efitla'exigua Tragi, f,d
Z^ApioirddMongaSA-Ch.141,1 AloevulgS Ch.l42j 2 Sedum mat jirborefS
y Sedum mai.anguft.i Ch.143,3 Sedummin.aflivS
5 Sedum med.teretif.fA
6 Aiz,oon Scoyp.f ', 7Sedumportland.f ......... ; ,
%Sedumpctr.i Ch.144,iSedutUmin.paluft.fyd.. \ i Sedum Alp.\ ClfifSA... 3 Sedum Alp. 3 ClfiffA i r..v\ 1J i^Sedam tAlpa. ClufSA; r jSedttmpetr.bupkur.foLfA ,\ 1., : Ch. 147,3 Telephium\legit\tmpA Ch.149,1 Halimus latS .4D
2 Haltmusynguft.)
3. Haiimut vulg. A>z\\Z.\ \\..,\T. v A Vermtcul.fiut.minS bcl,-5Vermic.fiut.maul.. s :i O
Ch.150,5 Chamap^js^ur.altiBodt^ 1.1
6 Chamapitjs AttftrS I f",<
Ch.15 i,j Vmbelicus Vev.five CotylMiS
%VmbeWen.minA h%>x h ;,^:>% .
4 Cotyledon min.mont.faitiiyj-: .1 J <' 6 Cymbalaria Ital.fA ; v
Ch. 1 $ 5 j %&altmAhfmiWhl&*> ^KattminS
Ch.157,2 Cerintbeatferfio.fiavfyd\. .--Chi 58,3 Hjpertcumtemeftt.Lob.fyd Hyper.fup.glab.fyd.
5 Hyper.putch.TragiA\;. Ch.159,2 Afcyronfup.paluft.d Ch.i60y2Androfamumbyper.fyd
q 5CI1.161,1 GorisMatth.iAa '2 Cor caeruLMihfpSA v v..,
Ch-l62, 2 C^(W|Mi.^(^tMi;v.V
Chi64, 5 Antirrhinum min.rep,fyd:jw3 1 Ch.i6"J, 3 Linariapurp.alt\f) w fc*wD 4.LinariaValent.Cluf, '.
7 Ofyrupv.fyl. f,d
8 Mri 12 Paferina linarjoiff. ~:,
13 Pafer.alt.d b,lv- \ifLinaria adult, d
Ch.166 LinumfatS
Ch.107,3 LinumfyLlat.f ',
5 fyljathart,,f,d
6 3 CY/d
7 Lium marlut.fA Ch.170,3 Tolygommmar.max.d Ch.171, 2 AnthylluVafent.finfS
3 Polygonum ferp.k\d
5 Saxifiaga Angl.alfinefel.d
6 Saxifi.palusl.alifinefoLfA Ch.172, 2 Millegranamin, Ch.173,7 Serptllum citni
SSerpill.birf.fyd Ch. 17J, 4 Satureia Cret.f,d Ch 177,5 Hyjfspus parv.anguJl.fol. fyd Ch.iySy2Graiiolaanguft,fA Ch.180, ^Stoechat fitm.caul.nud.fyd Ch,i%2CariophyU. fig.4, Ch.183 Cariophjll.plum.alb6dor.fA
8 Cariophjll.pum.Aip&A ?
11 Cariopbyll.prat A
13 f \itCariophyll.mont.alb.fyd
lj Carioph.hum.fio.cand.amanSyd Ch. 1845 5 Armeriaprolif.LobA Ch. 18 5, 3 Armeria prat.fio^plen. F Ch.l8<5, 3 MufcipulaanguflSyd cCh.i88,i Saxtfiag.magn.Mat.fyd
*2 2 On.\%y,4.PtarmicaimpA b Ch.19 J, 3 LithojpermumAnchufafacf
4 Anchufa deg. f
Ch. 192,11 u^^w raf W. ;d
12 A/fine palusl.ferp.fA Alfinebaccif.fyd
Ch.194, 3 AnagatlistenSA
Ch.195j 3 Anagallis aquat,r.otmd*fA'
^Anagallii aquat.^ Lob.f,d
jCepaafyd Ch.196,1 AntbyUii lent, f
2 Amhyllii mar.incana,f.
3 AnthyllisaltJtal.d
Ch. 197,5 Veronica fiut.ferpJA
7 Veron.tfie.latA
%Vcron.fup.f .t .
Ch.i$%j%Nummuldriafio;pHfp.fA Ch.205,8 GndphaliumAmerJf:
13 Gnaphal oblong fol. fyd .
14 A Ch.207, lStoschatcitr. i...
aAmaranthuslut.latA Ch.2o8,3 AgeratHmfel.nbnferS ;,
4 Ageratumfto.alb.fyd Ch.209, ^Tanacetuminodor.maiSyd Ch. ziCj 3 Matyjcaria AlpiCluf.
Ch. 211,5 P0/;'w lavandfol. f,d ; *j
Ch.213 j 3 Xetfcnium mauPanSA
\Teucr.pctr.pumbyd Ch.215 Scoredoniayf &$} Ch. 219,3 TragpyiganumCret. f,d Ch22i,i Puiegiumreg.i
^ulegiummoiS .As Ch.222,40>ww/W, f,d : .,,c5-,.iv ,A
Ch.223,3CwcW^,f :. ^AcinosAngLClufA
6 Cltnoped.AlpSA
7 Acinos odor, d
<1 ,

Ch.l2').Ai Utfentbacar'diacaS
Mentha fpicttta alt SA <3h.2 27.3 Mentaftrttm, A
4 Uentafir.niv.Angi)A.f^ -^Mentaftrttm minus Syd x \ U>V<$.i 6Mentaflr.mont.I ClufiA *
7 Mentaflrum tub^tri^tCiluf^^-Cb.229.3 JJ&/# Fuvttfaiadf&j^^ V :'
^ Herba ludaicdLbbS <3 A- ;_
Cb.231.3 Staehyspnef^eticdS,Ay'- ^StacbysLuJttan.iA'^ .
5 SideritisfcordioideiS .-...^.Vv^.
6 Sideritis Alpina HjffopifoliaS V' Ch.232.1 Sideritis vulgarisy{\d) '
2 Sideritis angujlifoliA
3 Sideritis precumb.ramofaSA 1 ^ C, 15 Sideritis humilis latoobtufdfolioA 6 Sideritis latifolia glabrajiyd L 7 Siderittsarvesi/tiflo.rttb.d Qht2tyOWarrubiuniae[uat. Cb.234-2 Marrubium nigrum IqngifqlSyd Ch.235.2 LamiumTannonS-
5 Galeopfis vera fA
6 Lamium Pannom^. ClufSA Ch.238. 2 CannibisfcemS Gh.239-1 Cannabis fl>urt)tuttS
3 Cannabis Jpuriate'rtS Ch.240. 2 Eupat.Cannabinnm masS Ch.245 2 Scrophularia IndS
3 Scrophularia fio (utSA Ch. 247-2 Soabtofartthra AuftrA
8 Scabiofam0nt.alb.A 13 Scabtofamin.BcllidisfolSA
15 Scabiofa proliferated
i Scab iofa rubra IndicaSA
17 Scabiofaaftivalt* ClufSA Ch.249 'jlacea Ausir.viHofaSA
8 capitults hirfutA -Ch.25o4 Rofmarini folSA
5 Stabeex Cod.GzfarSA Ch. 2 51.9 Cyanut repens la'tifolSA
10 Qranus repens angufiifolSA Ch.z$%'4. Fiperaria angttftifol.eldtiorS
5 Ftper.Panwn.anguflA QS\.1$6.lChrjfathemumfegetum}
3 Cbryfanth.Alp: I C///r,d
4 Chryfitnth.Alp.2 CtufS}d <$Cbryfantb,Cret.i}d
6 Chryfttntb.BiticumBoelijA jChryftnth.tenuifol.B Ch.2 60. Flos foils pyramidalisSAfic Ch.262.3 Leucahthemum Alpinum ClufSA Ch.264.5 1>oronicumangttftifol. Auftr.ijS .
6 Dorajicum Stiriacumfio.ampSA
7 Doronicum maximum A Ch.205.7 SaluiaabfintbttesA
8 SaluiaCret.pomiferaQfr onpomifS,z A Ch.26'6.2 Verbafcumangustis faluiafolS
3 Pblomos Lychnites SyrSA Ch.267.3 Co/** IovisS-Ch.268.3 Horminumfyl. latifolSA
5 Horminumfyl.fio.rubSA' Ch.271.3 Blattariafio.viridiyi
OjBlattariafio.ex v'tr.purpurafcS
7 BlattariaflolutSA '
Ch.273.8 Primula verisHctyeibiS Ch.277.3 DigitalsttteedS-
4 Digit dl&ferrugfhedf' .....
5 Digitalis ferrug.7mdt A Ch.ljS.Bdcehar.rjMoMJpel.F ; Ch.283.3 BugloffafylwinSA
Ch.284. 2 Anchufa luteaS
^Anchufa minorf Ch .28 3.2 Eehinm i>ulgare3f"
3 EchiumpuBofloreSyd-'
aEehiumrubrofloS,d Ch.286.2 CynoglofJkmCretS
3 Cynogloff.Cret.ahSA
/{Cynoglojf.minusfol.vireiitdS -Ch.22y.^Symph^tf/mt'ubl!rofimy
4 Symphytum par;Borag.facSA' Ch.s9o.2Tupag0 AlpinaSA
c 5 Ch.292.1 Cacaliainca%afolioSA Hi 2 Cacaliafolioglabre)>d Ch.29j.2TotamogeitonanguftA
3 Potamogeiton^lTpdif
4 Potamogeiton longjcahfiLys'Syd Cb.298.2 Tribulus aquat.min'.quer.fioSA1
3 tribulus aquat.min\(JMufcat.fioSid Cb.300.4 5 MillefoLpalufir. CalericS
6 MyriophyHonaqHat.minmA
Ch.302.3 StellarJaaqttaticaS ''-Ch.304.2 Arum^EgyptiacumS Ch.^oj.tSoldanella^/p.maiorS .
3 S-oldauella Alp.minorSA Ch.308. GramenParnafftfloidupS
J Ch.loy.SaxifragaalbapetraaSA Cb. 31 o. 3 Cyclamen vernumfi
4 Cyclamen vernum albumSA J
5 A Cyclaminos altS Cb.311.4 Ariftolochia Saracenkk^
5 PifiolochiaS
6 Ptfl.Cret.fiueFirginianaSA Ch.314.2 Hedfrafaxatilisyiyd" Ch.^i^.^Hedera FirginianaA Ch.317.4 Convolvulus drgenteutA Ch. 318.2 Convolvulus zar.folirot'SA
3 Convolu.carul,minSA Ch.319.3 Scammonium Monfj/elS Ch.3 21.3 Bryonia nigratdntumfidrensAx Ch.^i2.lalapiumA Ch.326.3 Clematis ckr.fio.plenoSyd' Ch.^iy.Clematis cruciataalpinaJtA Gh.330.2 Clematis BaphmidetmaiorS Ch.334. Apocynum Syr.ClufiS Ch.336.2 Per iploca latifolia S Ch,337.6 PotygonatumVirgmantimA* Ch,342,2 CitrultusminorS Ch.^tfSJtfacocksVirginidhid
V'irgA -Ch.352.5 fifdlzraaftiva HitpanicaSfi Ch.353.5 dlced'fiuticofaeannabS Ch.3 55.3 ^/ ^g^f.f,d Cb.3 5^-2 Geranium eolum,maius dijfebl.folA'
^Gcran.faxatileA X Cb^^o. 2GeraniumbatrachiotdesaltSA
3 Geran. BatrachioidespuUofioSA
^Gerabatracb. longsadSA
Ch. 36>:
n0 8^..n3

Ch.33'1 Geraneum butbyPenSyd C 3 Geran.nodofum Plateau ji A
C. 3 Gtran.arg6nt.AlpS,d } t(Gtran.batrach.fio.varA ^GeranJnd.flo.maculatoA Ch.367.13 Ranunculus birfitt.*>albSyd
\AfRan.Mont.birfut.purpS)d-Ch.3 69.2 Ranunculus Afiat.FlOiplenJuinSid a R<*. Afiat.fie.plen.proliferoSid
5 Ran.grum.rad.ramofutSA
6 Ran.grumrad.fio.afbSA ~ tAfiat,grum.rad,flti.fiav.varSA \
Ch.371.1 Ran.Cret.latifolSyd 2Ran.folioplantSA 3 Ranjmnt.fio.minli.jd C.o( 4 Ran.montyfio.maiSA
6 Ran.pracoxThMietrtfolSA
7 Ran.parvutecbinat.iA Ch.376.4 AconitumlycoQjcxcod.Ca.fS.
5 Acon.lyce5l.hirfntSxd
6 AconyioiacenmSA
j Aconitumpurp.NeuhergSA 2 Acomtnm max. IuienbergSA 9 Acon.max.mtant.comaSA Ch.380.5 PptouiapromifcuaS 61-'esenia ftxmma pumilaS
7 Pceonia ByzAntSA Ch.381.5 PoeontaPentapbyll.altS Ch.382.6 Pentapbyllonfup. Torm.fac.d
^Terttaphyll.tncanummipm repA j I Qjunquefol.fjl.mtnuiSyd
It Quinquefol.min.fio^urSA 13 PentapbyllumfiagifSA
Ch.^.aCaryopbjll.mqnt.p0rpSA 5 CaryophjU.Alp.minS)d
Ch.386 FragariafruBubijpidojd
Ch.387.3 ArchangelicaS. .
Ch.391. LoferpitiumJl i ^
Ch.,3 95.2 GoriandrumaltjninjodS
Ch. 3 96.3 Apiumjiue Petrofel.VirginyA
Ch.399.1 Petrofelinum Macedon.FucbS
Ch.400. Selinum Si)folSA,C.
Ch.403.2 Caucalis ApyfolA 4 Caucalis maiorfiA % Caucalis minor fiofcrubSA 6 Caucalis nodo.ccbinatoJem.fA<
Ch.407.2 Paftinacd fatiua atrorubtnti
Ch.414.2 Anifnm Ind.fiellSA
Ch.415.2 AmmiCreticum$
3 AmmiperpufilS Ch.416.2 (JerefoliumIA
4 Myrrhis alteraparuafcA
5 Myrrhu lAlauicolorMOUaA
6 Cicutaria alba A Ch.417.2 AnthrifcusSA Ch.419.2 Barba Capri Tragi A Ch.421. 3 'PimpinellafangHiforbamaxA Ch.422. iSaxifiaga Ang.fae.fefelipratS
2 S axifiaga TannonSA Ch.424.* SefeliCreticmaiS
3 Sefelimontanum mains S aSefeliMaJfiUenfeS
Cb.425.2 MeumaltJtalS l Ferulagof
Ch.427.3 Pand& AfclepittmSyd, C^.435. Chelidon.mai.fel.mag.difeBoSA Ch.440.6 Valeriana MexicanS ^Valeriana annua ClufSA
9 Valtt.Alp.latSA
10 Vakr.Alp.angufiSyd Ch.442. ^Confolidareg.fio.dupSA
4 Confol.reg .elat.fio plenSA' Ch.443.4 Melantbium Damfk.plcnSA
6 NigeUa Hi>fio.ampSA Ch.aqj.a, AquiltgiavarSA .
5 Aqutl.fio.inutrforubroSA
6 Aquilfio.inuerfo alboSA
7 Aqutl.fio.rofSyd
8 Aquil.degenerSA Ch.^y.6 Drypisji
Ch.560.4 Rubta teat a CreticaSA
5 RubtaJynanchicaA
6 Rubta minimaSyd
Ch.46* .2 Rub ia cr aetata UnisSA Ch.463.2 tAft>erulafio,c*rulS
3 SaginafpergulaS .< OfSptrgulamarinayd \ 5 Sptrgula rubrayd
Ch.^6")'Filicis maris varietSyA Ch.467.3 Polypod'mm IudSyd Ch.468. Dryopteris ayiduSA Ch.470.3 Hemipnitis maitrS
4 Hem.miKorS
5 Hem.peregrinajt Ch.472.4 Cbamafilix mar.AnglS,. Ch.475.2 AcanthHsfyl,aculeattjtsS Ch.478. 2 Carduus globofacutS
3 Carduus 5 Cardans glob.capJatioreS. C Cardutu eriocepbalusS. Ch.48 ii 1 fori'"?1 oaultfcensS
3 Carlinaacaulos min,flo.purpSid Ch.485.5 Eryngiumpufil.planSA Ch.aSy.^Dipfacutminorft 1 Ch.488.1 CartbamusS Ch,490-9 PtcnomosA 1,
.Ch.493.1 Cirfiumtnax.AJphod.radSyd
2 Cirfium mai.alttrSyd'
3 Gtrfium fol.nonhtrfutSA \Cirfmont.cap.parvSyd
5 Cirf.mont.AnglicS.$ d
6 Carduus mollis foLdiffcttSA
7 Card.moll.fol.LapatbiSA Ch.494.4 7rifol.mai.fio.albS
Trifol.mai.flo.purpS ^TrifoLlutJupulS 6 Trifol.lut.mtnS Ch. 496.6 Coronopus excod.^afSA
%Trifol.lut.fil.cornSyd Ch.497.1 Lagoput maxS \
2 ica long Std
3 Lagop.angufi.Hi0yd Ch.5oo,fnum-GracumfylS Ch.501. Lotus filiqua quadSyd
Ch. <&2.MedicafiHft.Cockltat.ppinSA'*i Vdr. ^h.^ooM
2 Trifol.ang.AlpSA
3>in.CretSA aTrifolfiagifSA 5 TrifoLfieUMrfutA 6Trif.fiell.glabA
Ch. 507^

Ch.jdp ^
x Vicia max.duwet.d.
3 Vicia fyl.fio.albSA.
5 Vicia fjl.fiue Cracca minSA. Ch .516.1 Lathyrus maijatifel.f.
2 Lath.ang.flo.aibS.
% Lath.angufl.fiopurpSA.
4 Latb.t&gjptSA.
5 Lath.ann~.fil. OrobiSyd.
6 Lath.fyl.fio.lntS.
Ch. 518.2 Hedyfarumglycyrrhiz.atumSi
3 Uedyfar.mai.fdiquis articS% qSecuridacamin.pal.carulS, $ Sscar.min.tutSAy
d Secnr.fil.plan.AentSAy
7 Uedyfar.clypS.
Ch.519.2 Afiragalus fylSA. G1.5 20-3 .Afiragalus CliatthS
4 AflragaloidesS. Ch.521,3.Ornitbopodiam ma'tS.
4 Qrnitbopod.minS'.
5 Scorpioides leguminofaSA' Ch.^ao* 1 Orobus venetSA.
2 Orbbtss Jyl.vernusSyd.
3 Orob.mont.fio.albSyd.
4 Orob.mon.anguflSyi. Ch.527.1 Ochrtss fine EruilidSjd*
2 ErvumfyhSA.
3 Aphaca,ftd.
4 Legumen mar.tong.radA. Ch.528.3 Taliilrum mai.HtJpanA. Cb.^i.BRnta caninSA.
LIB. 3.
CH.2.6 Rofitlut.multipl.fy6. 8 jRtf/S Cinnam.fio.jtmpiS. Ch.3.2 Rofafyl.odor.flo.dupS. Ch.4.2 .Kf repensfruSu cafioyd. Ch.5,19 C(/?J ann.fio.mac.fy6.
20 C/?/w fampfuchSA. Ch.7. ChamaciftusferpillifolSyd.
SChUmactflus Frififyd. Ch.7.15 C//?j LedonfolijS RofittSyd. Ch.i2.Glycyrrhiz.a vutgS. Ch.j7. Orobanches triplex varSfi. Ch ,20.5 Genifia Jpinofa humdis,d. Ch.25.2 Tragacantha mi,icon.accur. 3 PoterionLob.f. Ch.26.1 Acacia DiofcS. Ch.27.2 Lycium HiJpS. CH.28.1 Rhamnus fio.alb S. Rhamnjtk.fio.purpSA. 2 Rhamntu z ClnfSyd. 3 Rhamnus 3 ClufA. Ch.30.1 Rhamnus folutS,,min.f.d, 3 Rbam.foi.pumil.dy Ch.34. ///ear www fiorSy Ch.3 5 CMr* utinoris ram.cumfioS, Ch.37.2 sw***r altSydy Ch.40.2 Piceapnmtlaffy Ch.42.8 Pinafler AuflrSA.
9 Pinafler mar.minSAy Ch.43.2 Abies masS, Abietis ramus cum \uluS.
Ch.&J.Taxus glandif,& baccifA,
Taxui tant.flor.dy 01,48.3 Iuntperus AtpminSA, Ch.49.3 C'drw IjciaaltSydy Ch.50.3 Sabina'bacc.altSA. Ch.52.3 Ericamai.fIo.aibA,
9 Erica baccif.procumbensS,
10 Erica baccif.tenA,
11 Erica pumrf.DodSA,
li Erica ternis per interuaSa ramisfydy
13 Erica peregrin.Lob.ftdy
14 Erica cor is folte 7 ClufSA,
15 Erica Corisfol.9 Cluf.fyd, Ch.54.2 Vitex lat.ferat.folioyfyd, Ch.5 5.8 Salix humjrepensyfy ~ Ch.61.3 Syringa Arabicafyd, Ch.71 *3 3 UMyrt.exot.fy
4 (J\yrt.fiuH.albSy
6 (JWjrf.BaticafylSA,
Ch.73.6 Vttis Ch.77.2 Sambucusfiuttu albS, Ch.89.Ave/hwa pum.Byz.Sydy Ch.91.3 CaftaneaPeru.fiuSS)d9 Ch.94.5 Perficaflo.plenoAt Gh.98.* UktfpilusfatiuaaltSyd,
AjCkamamcffitluSyi. Ch.113.2 Alntts hirfutSA, Gh.i 15.1 VlmusvulgatfoLlatofcabroyd,
% Vlmus mtn.fol^ngufto fcabroSydy 3 VlmusfoLlatiffcabSydy
4 Vlmus fol.glab.d, Ch. 118.1 Acer mai.f, Ch. 11*9.5 PopulusalbafoltjsminorS* Ch.122.2 Zix,ipha CappadoctcaSy Ch.\2\.GuaiacumPatau.anguflA, Ch.l 3 3.2 Chamaficm ,f, Ch. 139 t^Mufa firutlus exatt .iconSA, Ch.145, 3 Balfamum AlpS.dy Ch. 146.2 MoUearboris adult a ramusS. Ch.153.5 Piper caudatumS, q 5 159. Fruftus Indici & exoticqmrumflg.
\ ad.2fy Ch.162.6 Mufcus PyxidatuSyS,
12 LMufc.clauat.fol.Cypr.dy
14 4 Quernus mar.var.fyd%
5 Quern.mar.fecund.fAy 6Quern.mar.terttayfA* T
7 Quern.mar.quartaSA$
8 tAlgUyiA,
9 Fucusphafganoides &poly[Sid,
10 Fucus lpoug.Hod.fyd,
11 fonferuayfydy
Ch. 165,7 Fucus ferul fyj,
8 Fucus tenuifol.alt.fyd,
9 ^Mufcus mar.Cluf.fydy
10 Cfttufcut mariertius rDod.fidi
11 sAbietmar.Belg.GlusSA Ch.l 66.SC oraloides albifydy
6 Goral.rub.fydy
8 SpongJnfundibuli formaSyd,
$Spongia ramofiyfydy Ch. 167. Fungorumfig. 14, 2% Appendix containesfig,a,6.defcrlp.'j2}

,b^L< iVV* AttAc.f{vdD
'Si-}'.- '&v.*.m^v.u;$:
.;.-..-.t,-.r,-.v;v. .w'"'., f jWIVtWI v.- V-~"i '. -
fi J
;h,"r .is..

Ix- IB. I.
Tag. i.
Containing Graff -Rujbes, 'Reeds, Come, Flags, and'Bulbous
or Onion-rooted Tlants.
N this Hiflorie of Plants it would be tedious^
to vfe by way of introduction any curious difcourfe vpon the generall diuifion of Plants, contained in Latine vnder i^frbor, FrutcXySujfrutexJlerba: or to ipeake of the differing names of their feuerall parts, more in Latine than our vulgar tongue can well exprefie. Or to go about to teach thee, or rather to beguile thee by the fmellor tafte, to' ghefle at the temperature of Plants: when as all and euery of thefe in their place fhall haue. their true face and note,w hereby thou may ft both know and vfe them.
In three bookes therefore, as in three gardens, all our Plants are beftowed; forted as neere as might be in kindred and neighbourhood.
The firftbooke hath Graffes,Rufhes, Come, Reeds,Flags, Bulbous or Onion-rooted Plants.
The fecond, moft forts of Herbs vfed for meat, medicine, or fweet fmel 1.
Thejhird hath Trees, Shrubs, Bufhes, Fruit-bearing Plants, Rofins,Gummes,Rofes, Heaths; MofTes, Mufl^roms, Corall, and ther feuerall kindes.
Each booke hath Chapters, as for each Herb a bed: and euery Plant prefents thee with the Latine and Englifh name in the title^placed ouer the picture of the Plant.
Thenfolioweth the Kinds, Defcription,Place, Time, Names, Natures, and Vertues, agreeing^ with ihebeft receiued Opinions.
Laftof all thou haft a generall Index,as well in Latine as Englifh, with a carefull fupply like-wife of an Index Bilifiguis, of Barbarous Names.
And thus hauing giuen thee a generall view of this Garden, now with our friendly Labors wee will accompanie thee and leadc thee through a GralTe-plot, little or nothing of many Herbarifts heretofore touched; and begin with the moft common or beft knowne Grafle, which is called in Latine Gr&men Pratexfe; and then by little and little conduct thee through moft pleafgnt gardens and QtheLdelightfuU places, where any Herbe or Plant may be found fit for lyieator Medicine.
Of (iZMedovo^Cjrajfe.
Herebefundryand infinite kindes of Graflesnot mentioned by the Antients, either as* vnneeeffarie tobe fetdownes orvnknowne to them: only they make mention of fome few, whole-wants We meane tofupply,in fuch as haue come to our knpwledge,referring the reft to the curious feareher of Simples.
5f, The Defcripiotts
OmmonMcdow draffe hath very fmall tufts or roots, with thicke hairy threds depending vpon the higheft turfe, matting .and creeping on the ground with a moft thicke and apparant (hew of wheaten leaues, lifting vp long thinne jointed and light ftalks>a foot or a cubit high, growing finail^nd fharpeat thetop,with : loofe eare hanging downward, like the tuft or top of the common Reed.
A' z Siinau

Of the1 Hiflorie of Plants.
IB. I.
a Small MedovvGralTediffercth from the former in the firft kinde groweth in medovves,fo doth this fmall GralTeclothe the hilly and more dry grounds vnul-led, and barren by nature; a Graffe more fit for foeepe than for greater Cattell. And becaufe the kindes of Graffe do differ apparantly in root, tuft, ftalke, leafe, ftieath.eare.Or creft, we manure our felues that they are endowed with feuerall Vertues, formed by the Creator for the vie of man, although they haue been by a common negligence hidden and vnknowne.; And therefore in this our Labor we haue placed each of them in their feuerall bed, where the diligent fearcner df Nature may, if fo he pleafe, place his learned obferuations.
i Grantenpratenfe. Medow-Graffe.
2 Grantenpratenfeminus. Small Medow-Graffe.
If The Place.
Common Medow-Graffe groweth ofit felfe vnfet or vnfowne, euery where; but the fmall Me-dow- Graffe for the moft part groweth vpon dry and barren grounds, as partly we haue touched in the Defcription.
Concerning the time when Graffe fpringeth and feedeth, I fuppofe there is none fo fimple but khoweth it, and that it continueth all the whole yeare,feeding in Iune and Iuly. Neither needeth it any propagation or replanting by feed or otherwife; no not fo much as the watery GralTes, but that they recouer themfelues againe, although they haue beene drowned in water all the Winter long/as may appeare in the wilde fennes in Lincolnfhire,and fuch like places.
1$ The Names.
GralTe is called in Greeke, 'a*** in Latine, Gramen 5 as it is thought,gradicdo,quodo-enicula-tuinternodusferpat,crehroquenovosjpargat radices. For it groweth, goeth,or fpreadeth it felfe vnfet or vnfowne naturally ouer all fields or grounds, cloathing them with a faireand perfect green. It is yearely mowed in fome places twice, and in fome rare places thrrce.Then is it dried and withered by the heate of the Sun, with often turning it; and then is it called FanHm.nefcio an a fanort autfatu. In Englifh, Hay: in French, Le herbedupraiz.
^ The Nature.
',,Te^ of all Writers moderatly to open obftru & ions, and prouoke vrine.
^ The

Lib. I. Of the Hiilorie of Plants. ?
GTK if T^' venues.
The decoftion of G raffe withrthe roots of Parfley drunke,helpeth the Diffurie,and prouoketh A vrine. i
The roots of Graffe, according to Galen, doe glew and confolidate together new and bleeding B wounds.
The juiceof Graffe mixed with hony and the pouder of Sothernwood taken in drinkejkillech C wormes in children butifthechilde be yongror tender of nature, it fhall fuffice to mix the juice of Graffe and the galfof an Oxe or Bull together, and therewith anoint the childes belly, and lay a clout wet therein vpon the nauell.
Fernehus faitb,That Graffe doth helpe theobftru&ion of the liuer,.reines,and kidnies,and the D inflammation ofthe reinstalled Nephritis. Bayfodden in water till it be tender, and applied hot to the chaps ofbeafis that be chap-fallen through long ftandingin pound or ftable without meat, is a prefent remedie.
Chap, i., Of %edT>^arfe<(jrajlf%
^ The Defcription.
i T""XWarfe-Graffe is one of theleaftof Grafles. The root con fifts of many.little bulbs, _J coueredwkh a reddifh filme or skin, with very many fmall hairy and white firings : the tuft or eare is of a reddifh colour, and not much differing from the graffe called jfehmony though the eare be fofter, broader, and more beautifull.
t I Gramen minimum ruhrum: jive Xerampelinum.
Red Dwarfe-Grafie. z Gramen minimumdhum.
' White Dwarfe-Grafie.
t 2 This kinde of Graffe hath fmall hairy roots 5 the leaues are fmall and fhort, as alfo the ftalke,whichonthetopthereofbearesapanniclenotmuchvnlike thefraajl medovv Graffe, but lefle: the colour thereof is fometimes white, and otherwhiles reddifh; whence fome haue giuen two figures, which I thinking needlefle, haue only retained the later, and for the former giuen the figure of another Grafle, intended by our Author to be comlprehended*"in this Chapter.
- A 2' Small

Of the Hiflorie of Plants.
Lib. i.
' 2 Small hard GralTe hath fmall roots compaa of little firings dr threds, from which come for h n^Ce rufhy leaues of the length of an inch and a halfe: the *uto*e^^ mrypanniclesorverylittleeares,whichtoyour feelingare very hard orharfh. This Graffe is
4 Rufn-Graffe is a fmall plant fome hand-full high, hauing many fmall rufhy leau^es tough and pliant,as are the common Rufhes; wheron grow fmall fcaly or chaffie husks,m fteadof flours: the feeds are like thofe of Rufhes, but fmaller: the rootis*hreddy like the former. There is a varietie of this to be found in bogs, with the feeds bigger, and the leaues & whole plant leffer. t
3 Gramtn minus duriufculum. Small hard Graffe.
4 Gramenjunceum. Rufh-graffe, or Toad-graflTe.
11 ;
f The Place.
The Dwarfe-grafTegrowes on heathy rough and dry barren grounds, in moft places of England. 2 That which I haue giuen you i haue not yet obferued growing in any part of England, t
The white Dwarfe-graffe is not fo common as the former, yet doth it grow very plentifully a-mong the Hop gardens in E ffex, and many other places.
Small Hard-graffe groweth in moift frefh marifhesand fuch like places.
Rufh-grafTe groweth in fait marifhes neerevnto the fea, where the marifhes haue beene ouer-flowne with fait water. $ It alfo groweth in many wet woods,lanes, and fuch like places. as in the lane going by Totenam Court toward Hampfted. ThelefTer varietie hereof growes on the bogs vpon Hampfted heath. $ .
^ The Time.,
Thefe kindes of Graffes do grow,floure, and flourifh, when the common Medow-graiTc doth. The Names.
Jl rWCrth "f" h.ath bc? f?d ^ the Defcription^ well in Englifh as Latine; only that fome haue deemed white Dwarfe-graffe to be called Xerampdinum. Rufh-grafle hath been taken for Holojtenm Matthioli.
. t % The Names in particular. i inisi here giue you in the firft place is Gramen minimum Xerampdinum oUbld: it is the

L i b. i. Of the Hiftofie of Plants; $
Gramen of Matthiolus, and Gramen Bulbefumof D alefchampius. Our Author did not vnderftand what Xerampelinus fignified, when as he faid the white Dwarfe-graffe was fo termed; for the word imports red ormurrey,fuch a'colouras thewithered leaues ofVines are of. 2. Tabem.caWsthis, Gr amen panniculatum minus. 2. Label calls this, Exile Gramen durim. 4. This by Matthiolus was called Holojieum; hyThaiiuifiramenepigenatocaulon; by Tabern. Gird; Bufonium, that is,Toad-graffc.
ift The Nature and Vertues. Thefe kindes of! Graffe doiagree as it is thought with the common Medow-graffe in nature and vertues, notwirhftanding they haue not been vfed in phyficke as yet, that I can readeof.
f The firft figure was oncly a varietie of-the lecond, according to rBauhhun-} yet in my iiidgement it was the Tame w'th the third, which is (jrAneri mrm dicA- xfexlum.
i 1., C h a p. 3. Of Corne^Cjra/fe.
^ The Defcription.
i ^^Orne-graffe hath many graffie leaues refembling thofe of Rie, or rather Oats,amongft \. the which come vp flender benty ftalkes, kneed or jointed like thofe of Cornes whereupon groweth a faire tuft or pannicle not much vnlike to the feather-like tufc of common Reed, but rounder compact together like vnto Millet. The root is threddy like thofe of Oats.
1 Gramenfegetale. 2 Gramen harundinaceum* .
Corne-graffe. Reed-grafle, or Bent.
2 Reed-grafle hath many thin graffie leaues like the former :{the bufhy top with his long feat-ther-like pannicles do refemble the common Reed, which is lightly fhaken with the winde, branched vpon a long flender Reeden ftalke,kneed or jointed like come. The root h fmall and fibrous.
^ The Place and Time.
Thefe kindes of Graffes grow for the moft part neere hedges, &in fallow fields in moft places* Their time of fpringing,floUring, and fading, may be referred to the common Medow-grafle.

6 Of the Hiflorie of Plants. 'Lib.. i.
The Names.
+ The firft is called in Englifh, Corne-grafTe. Lobel calls this, Segetum gramen panniculap. ciofa latiore: others terme it Gramen fegetale, for that it vfually groweth among corne; the which Ihauenotasyetfeenc. .
The fecond is called in Englifh, Reed-graffe: of Lobel in Latine, Gramen agrerum lattore}arundi. nacva, & comofa panniculafox that his tuft or pannicles do refemble the Reed: and Spca "jenti agro-rum,by reafonof his feather top, which is eafily fhaken with the wind, t Some in Englifh,much agreeing to the Latine name, call thefe Windle-ftrawes. Now. I take this laftto be the Graffe with which we in London do vfually adorneour chimneys in Sommer time: and wee commonly call the bundle of it handfomely made vp for our vfe, by the name of Bents. $
^ The Temperature and Vertues.
Thefe Graffes are though t to agree with common G ra ffe, as well in Temperature as Vertues, although not vfed in phy ficke.
ChIf.4. Of-SMiUetGrajfe. '
I Gramen Miliaceum, t I Gfamen majus aquaticum.
Millet Graffe. Great Water-Graffe.
1 K 7T jllet GmSe is ^Ut a flender Graffe, bearing a tuft or eare like vnto the common Me-JYl dow-graffe, but confiftiag of fmall feeds or chaffieheads like to Milium or Miller, whereof it tooke the name. The ftalke or leaues do refemble the Bent, wherewith countrey people do trim their houfes.
r 2rh?t 8.rcat Water-GralTe, in root, leafe, tuft, and reedcn ftalke, doth very well referable the Grafle Latine,Gramenfdcaum, or Piflum. and by our.Englifh womem Lady-laces, becaufe it is ftript or furrowed with white and greene ftreakes like filke laces, but yet differs from that, thatthis yVater^Graffedotb get vnto it felfe fome new roots from the middleof the ftalkes
J??'7 uhu ?thDOtr* \h,isis3IareGraffe;hauingftalkesalmoftasthickeas ones li tie finger, with the leaues anfwerable vnto them, and a little roughifh Thetuft sfome-whatIikeaReed,butleffe,and.whitifhcoloured. $ ^"gnnn, inetutt isiome
^1 The

Ltb. i.
Of the Hiflorie of Hants;
The Place, Time, Names, Nature, and Vertues.
The former growes in medovves, and about hedges; and the later is to be found in moft fennie and warerie places and haue their. Vertues and Natures common with the other Grades, for any thing that wee can finde in writing. The reafon of their names may be gathered out of the defcription. -
+ Thiswhich I "ioe you in the fecond place is not of the fame plant that was figured in the former edition ; for that pi&ure was of ^rai/ien t^iatiam banni imuccumpmnkuUutm of Tabern- which hath aranningroot and large fpecioas parotide like to a Reed, of abrowne colour; bat it is moft apparent that our An. thotmeantthis.andframedhis defcription by looking vpon this figure, efpecially the later part thereof. The pruc figure of thiswa in thclecoud place in the next Chapter. <
Chap. 5, 0fT>4rneS (jrajfe.
s The Defcription.
1 T^N Arnell grafle,or Gramen Sorgbinumtzs Lobel very properly termed it, hath a brownifli ftalkethicke and knotty, fet with long (harpe leaues like vnto the common Dogs-gralTejatthetopwhereofgrowethatuftoreareof agrayifhcolour, fomewhatlike Sorghum, whereof it tooke his name.
I Gramen Sorghinum, t 2 Gramenharund^inaCeumpanmculatHm^
Darnell Grafle. < Wilde Reed.
iru '',;" >:} i 'i'.fu 01 r' von* i"'"?loniXiG,t) ^-'Kod. t*>,*i,*!'H'f ..t-ft ,r',,?i'-'! 11
2 Wilde Reed, or Gramen harundinaceumpanniculatumy called aKoCalamogrofiiSyis farre bigger than Couchgraffe or Dogs grafle, and in ftalkes and leaues more rough,rugged,and cutting, it is bad food for cattell, though they want,or be very hungry j and deadly to Sheepe, becaufe that, as she Husbandman faithjitis a caufeofleannefle in them, thirft,and confumption : itcutteth their
A-4 tongue,'

Of tlie Hiftorie of Plants.
IB. I.
$ 2 Gramen harundinaceum minus, The leffer Reed-grafle.
tongue,ftraitneth the gullet or throat,snd draw-eth downe-bloud into the ftomacke or maw 5 whereof enfueth inflammationjand death for the moft part. And not onely this Calamogrofiish hurtfull, but alfo all other kindes of {hearing leaued Reeds,Flagges, Sed ge,and the like,which haueas itwere edges, and cut on both fides like kniues,as well mens fingers, as cartels mouthes. This herb is in a meane between reed and grafle. The root is white, creeping downewards very deepe. The fpike or eare is like vnto the Reed, being foft and cottony, fomewhat refembling Panicke.
t '3 This in root,ftalks,and leaues, is like to the laft defcribed,but that they are lefTer. The top or head is a long fingle fpike or eare, not fe-uered or parted into many eares, like the top of the precedent, and by this and the magnitude it, may chiefely bediftinguifhed from it. This was in the twelfth place in the fixtecnth chapter,vnder the title of Gramen harundinaceum minus.and the Calamogroflis but now defcribed, was likewife there againe in the eleuenth place. $
fjj" The Place. The firft growes in fields and Orchards almoft euerie where.
The other grow in fenny waterie places.
f The Names I
7 This iivLincolnm'ire is called Sheere-graffe or Henne; in other parts of England, Wilde Reed: mLatmefialamogrofiis^outoi the Greeke Kalamogroflis. ?
As for. their natures and vertues, we do not finde any great vfe of them worth the relating.
t Thcfigure thatwasinthcfccond place was olGtdmeti mam aquaticm being the fecond of the precedent Chapter- The 'rue figureof this was paj.a t wider the title of Grtmehbatmimctim mivu. The thitdbeing there alfo, as I haue touched in the Defcription.
Chap. 6. Of Feather'^to^Feme3or\Vood^(jr'affe.
The Defcription.
i i npHis might fitly haue been put to thofe mentioned in the fore-going chapter, but J[ that our Author determined it for this, as may appeare by the mention made of ic in the Names,as alfo by the defcription hereof, framed from thclfigufe we here giue you. J This Graffe is garnifhedwith chaffie and downie tufts,fetvpona long benty ftalk of two cubits high, or fomewhat more,naked without any blades or leaues for the moft part. His root is tough and hard. $ The top is commonly of a red or murrey Colour, and the leaues foft and downy, t '
* i j-rrThisf hfe figure was form"ly by our Author giuen for the laft defcribed,though very much different from it is a very pretty and elegant graffe: it ip roots and leaues is not vnlike to the vfuall medow Graffe: the ftalke rifeth to the height of a foot,and at the top thereof it beareth a 1beautiful! pannicle, whence the French and Spanifh Nations call it Amourettes, that is,Louely Graffe. This head confifts of many little eares,fhaped much like thofe of the ordinarie Quaking Graffe, longer and flatter, being compofed of more skales, fo that each of them fomewhat refem-bles the leafe of a fmall Fern whence I haue called it Fern-graffc. Thefe tops when they are ripe are whitesandare gatheredwherethey grow naturally,to beautifie garlands V fJriv, f&*fehat^y fmall and threddy roots compatt together in manner of a tuft I irom which fpnngimmediatly out of the earth many graffie leaues, among the which are fundrie

Lib. i.
Of the Hiftorie of Plants.
I Gramen tomentofum arundinaceum. Feather-top,or Woolly Reed-grafTe.
2 Gramen panniculatum elegans.
5 Gramen fytvaticum majus. The greater Wood-graffe.
benty ftalkes,naked and without leaues or blades' like the former, bearing at the top a foft fpikie' tuft or eare much like vnto a Fox-taile,of a Brow-nifh colour.
t 4 This in leaues,ftalks,roots5manner and place of growing is like the laft defcribed : The only difference betweene them is, That this hath much Ieffe,yet fharper or rougher eares or tufts. The figure and defcription of this was formerly giuen by our Author in the fixteenth chapter and ninth place, vnder the title of Gramen fylvaticum minus. But becaufe the difference between the laft defcribed and this is fo fmall, we haue fpared the figure, to make roome for others more different and note-worthy.
ff the time andPlace.
1 This kind of Grafle growes in fertil fields and paftures.
2 The fecond growes in diuers places of Spain and France.
The other two grow in woods.
i Lobel in Latine calleth this, Gramen tomett-tofnm&acerofem. Some haue taken it for thefe* eond kinde-of Calamogroflis 5 but moft commodly.

Of the Hiftorie of Plants.
i b.i.
itis called Gramen phmofum : and in Englifh, a Bent or Feather-top graffe.
2 Gramenpanniculatum is called by {om^Heragroftis in Greeke. Label calls this,Gjw^ culofumpkalaroides. And it is named in th&HiJl.Lugd. Gramen filiceumjeupolyanthos: that is,Ferne,
or many-floured Grafle. $
3 Gramen fyhaticum, pr as it pleafcth others, Gramen nemortfum3\s called in our tongue,wood
Grafle, or (hadowie Grafle.
Gh a p. 8. Of great Fox-taileCjrajfe.
dfl The Defcription.
i rT"He great Fox-taile Grafle hath many threddy roots like the common Medow grafle; and the ftalke rifeth immediatly from the root, in fafhion like vnto Barley, with two or three leaues or blades like Otes; but is nothing rough in handling, but foft and downie, and fomewhat hoary, bearing one eare or tuft on the top, and neuer more ; fafhioned like a Fox-taile,Whereof it tooke his name. At the approch of Winter it dieth, and recouereth it felfe the next yeare by falling of his feed.
i Gramen ^Alopecmoides majus. Great Fox-taile graffe.
f 2 Gramen Alopecuroides minus< Small Fox-talle grafle.
pofed of long.(h feeds, each hauing a little beard or amie nmCe'lome tnree lneh >ng. com-
4 ^^#^3^ linde doth not

L ib. u Of the Hiflorie of Plants; I n
fend forth fuch large ftalkes and eares as the other, but fmaller, and not fo clofe packed together, neither hauing fo long beards or awnes.
I Gramen Alopecurinum majtu. 2 Gramen Alopecurinum minus.
Great baftardFox-taile graffe. Small baftard Fox-taile graffe.
f The Place And time*
Thefe wilde.baftarcl Fox-taile GraiTes So grow inthemoift furrowes of fertile fields, towards the later end of Sommer.
The Barnes.
t The firft by ZitWand Tdefn. is called Gramen phdaroides.The a&etjtM calleth 2 Grame* mdfopecuroides. ^CMinus. 4, alterum.
Chap. 8. Ofgreat Cats talk (jraff>,
1 /"""1Reat Cats-taile Gfaffe hath very fmall roots compact of very fmall skinhes or threds^ \J which may eafily be taken from the whole root. The ftalke rifeth vp in the middeft,
and is fomewhat like vnto wilde Barley, kneed and ioynted like corne,of a foot high or thereabout j bearing at the top a handfome round clofe <2ompa 2 The fmall Cats-taile Graffe is 1 ike vnto the other,d ifferirig chiefely in that it is leffer than It. Theroot is thickeor cloued like thofe of Rufh Onions or Ciues, with many fmall firings or hairy threds annexed vnto it.
$ 3 There is another that growes plentifully in many places about Londpn^the which may
fitly be referred to this Claflts. The root thereof is a little bulbe, from whence arifeth a ftalke
fome two foot or better high, fet teach joint with long graffie leaues, the fpike or eare is commonly

Of the Hiftorie of Plants.
Gramen typhinum minus. Small Gats taile graffe,
rnonly foure or fiue inches lortg, clofely and handfomly made in the fafhion of the precedent,which in the fhape it doth very anuch refemble. t
m The Place and Time.
I 1 'r' Tfejefe kindes ofGraffes do grow very
well heere Waterie places, as Gramen Cy-
peroide^doth, and flourifh at the fame
time that all the others do.
$ The later may be found by the
bridge entring into Chelfey field3as one
goeth frqm S.lames to littl^ Chelfey. $
The Names. ,
The Latines borrow thefe names of the Greeks, and call it Gramen Typhinum, of Typha, aCats taile: and it may in Englifh as well be called round Bent-Graffe, or Cats taile Graffe.
$ The laft defcribed is by Bauhine, who firft gauethe figure and defcription thereof in his Prodramus,pag. 10. called Gramen Typhoides maximuJpica longipma that is, The largeft Fox-tail Graffe with a very long eare.
h a p. 5>. Of C)ferns (jraffe:
i Gramen Cyperoidesj, Cyperus Graffe..
2 Gramen Iunceum aquaticum. Rufhy Water-Grafle.
iV. ,".'*

IvIB. I.
Of the Hiflrorie of Plants;
t(| ThcDefcripiie.
1 /"HYperUs GralTe hath toots fomewhat like Cyperus, whereof it tooke his name. His
leaues are long and lar ge like vnto the common Reed : the ftalke growes to the height of a cubit in fome places,vpon which growe little icaly knobs or earesj; fpike-fashion j fomewhat like vnto Cats taile or Reed-Mace, very chaffie, rough,and rugged.
2 Rufhy Water-Grafle hath his roots like the former, with many0 fibrous ftrings hanging at them, and it creepes along vpon thevppermoft face of the earth, or rather mud,wherein itgrowes; bearing at each joint one (lender benty ftalke, let with a few fmall graffy blades or leaues; bringing forth at the top in little hoods fmall feather-like tufts or eares.
The PlacefTimey and Names. They grow (as I faid) in myrie and muddy grounds, in the fame feaibn that others doe. And concerning their names there hath been laid enough in their titles;
HAP. 10.
Of rVater^Cjrajfe*
I Gramen aquaticum. Water-GralTe.
2 Gramen aquaticumfpicatuml Spiked Water- Grade.
The Defcription^
fx X X T Ater-graffe, or as we terme it, Water-Burre-grafle, hath a few long narrow y Y (lender and jointed leaues: among which rileth vp a ftalke of two foot high, bearing vpon his fmal and tender branches many little rough knobs,or brow-nifh fl.arpe pointed feeds, made vp into cornered heads': his root is fmall and thredd'y.
$ The figure of this plant is not well expreft, for it fhould' haue had the leaues made narrower, and joints expreft in them,like as you may fee in the Gramenjunceum fylvaticum,which is the ninth in the fixteenth chapter v for that andthis arefo like, that Iknow no other difference betweene them,but that this hath leaues longer and narrower than that, and the heads fmaller and whiter* There is a reafonable good figure of this in the &ijc.Lugd.p.iQoi. vnder the name of Artmdo minima. ,
sr Spiked

0 thecHiftorierf Plants.
? IB. i.;
2 Spiked Water-Graffe hath long narrow leaues \ the ftalke is fmall, fingle, and naked,with-out leaues or blades, bearing alongft the fametoward the top an eareor fpike made of certain fmal buttons refemblingthebuKony floutes of fea Wormcwobd. His root is thicke and tough, full offibrcs'ortfcreds.
:^ fhe.PlaceandTime.h They differnot from&former kinds of Graffes in Place and Time: and their Names are ma-
^. The Nature ana Vertues. Their Nature and Vertues are referredvnto Dogs graffe, whereof we will fpeake hereafter.
Ch a p. 11. OfF/ote~(jfraffe.
Gramen.'Fluviaiile. Flote-Graffe.
^ The Defcription..
FLote- Graffe hath a long and round rootfomewhat thicke, like vnto Doss-Graffe fet on euenioynts with fmall firings or threds. from the which rife vpW and v V Vu r {lajks^cj^iring,winding,and folding,one withinanothe^withOTany flag-
forth ve7manylittIeearesofawhiti^ alternatly, eachof thefe. fmallearcs being alraoftan inch in length.
^lJr^T'^ toP of each flender creeping
uncus. : .... .......... K ... 7
Tli c, n. r i r ; f The Place.- \
i ne tmtOi thefe growes-euery where in waters. The fecond is harder to be found.

Lib. i.
Of the Hiftorie of Plants.
^TM. Names, ...
The firft is called Gramen flaviatile, and alfo Gramen acfuis inhatans.- in Englifh,Flote-graflW 'Tragus calls it Gramen Anatum, Ducks Grafle.
The fecond is ealledG/amen flaviatile ft>icatumt and fluviatile album, by' Tahernamontanus. Like-wife in Englifh it is called Flote-Graffe, and Floter-Graffe,becaufe they fwimmeand flote in the

*--!*7Tj! \->i: ill ... WL'JJU'
Chap. U. Of fyeedJfrafie.
% TheDifiripim.
2 -1
Z2 ..ri
ix'isteed-GrafTe hath ftreight anjl-vpright ftrawy ftalkes, with joints liketothe ftrawof corne, and.beareth fmall graffy leaues or blades fpikedat the top like vnto Panicke, with a rough eare of a darke browne colour. His roots are hairy and*hreddy, and the joints of the ftraw are very large and confpicuous.
i Gramengemculatum. Kneed-Graffe,
^ jofi :5teu> 53fainncI ibiDRl eid | afjati rr.:r; >KrJl 30.
2 Gtamengemculattrmaquaticum. Water Kneed-Graffe,
2 Water Kneed-Graffe hath many long and flender ftemmes, jointed with many knobby and gouty knees like vnto Reed, fet with broad flaggy leaues fomwhat fharpe pointed, bearing at the top a tuft or panniele,diuided intofundry fmall branches of a duskifh colour. His root is thred-die like the other.
* The PlaceyTime, and Thames.*
Thefe Grafles do grow in fertile moift mcdowcs, not differing in time from others. And they are called Geniculata, becaufe they haue large joints like as it were knees.
We'hatte nothing deliuered vs of their Nature and' Properties /

, Cha-p, ijV ^
i Gramen PmceumV Bearded Panic&GWffe. .
[) 11 elk.- .. 'v.'v-t y& Deprtytitoi
i T) Earded Panickc graffe hath broad and j large leaues like Barly, fomwhat hoa-rie^orof an ouer-worne Rufiet colour. \T-he ftalkes haue two or three joints at the moft, apamanyearesonthe top without order 5 vpon fome ftalkes more eares, on others fewer, much like vnto the eare of wilde Panicke, but that this hath many beards or awnes, which the other
wants;* \r
2 Small Panicke Graffe, as Lobelx&Vkih, i
tobts, leaues, joints,and ftalks, is like the former, fauing that the eare is much leffe, conflfting of fewer rowes of feed, contained in fmall chafhe blackifh huskes. This, astheformer, hath many eares vpon one ftalke. ?.>. :>
$ 3 This fmall Pannicke Graffe from a threddy root fendeth forth many little ftalks,. whereof fome are one hand-fujl, other-fame lit. tie more than an inch high j and each of thefe ftalks on the top fuftains one fingle eare,th (Thape very like vnto the eare of wilde Panick,but about halfe the length.The ftalks of this are commonly crooked, and fet with graffie leaues like the reft ofthiskinde.
The#figure hereof was vnfitly placed by our Author in the fixteenth place in the eighth chap, ter, vnder the title of Gramen tyferoidesQuotum,
,2 Gramen Pantceum parvttm. Small Panicke-Graffe. i
m III if
5f The Place and Time.
""' V-'--' -j..-. iljfotaii.,-
tilJ Wf^!!hcfe twodoEh Btow ^evntomud ralls.ox foch Hkeplaces not manurcdayet fer-

The fecond groweth in fhallow waterie plafhes of paftures,and at thefame tiraeWitiiothers; $ 1 haue notasyecbb ferue<| any of thefe growing wilde; $
nqd alt.vv..u:q e$4i?M -.ju 0 qO? r>'i" ?s bf*6 ^ 3(3 onqhii' brii Pi au)fiip; od-9t:hod nc aiLii fcp
e eared Panicke Graffe.
1 *
Theyiare^He^P^fticke ^riaffes^becau^hey arc like the Ii^!i^-.^^..calleid'^nite. ,/T^ir}n^re4s?rl^?.e'fiPI- knownei
' atfotetfreditnrjdsiu^di ni w;;;fj ol bnH alfc-
?^''|sfeo*^^B!mfeS^rfi 'a a Gramen exileHirfutttm,
j&pQm,- mti&mT ^mim-woO- lb ltd] -.^/IKiai. [-'hn^
.iimiiffamtifiiv^)!^' -ocjvfcirV.-Jjp j.ij-sn (-:*
JBlq :..nrioni-^^ *J
r. '..^'0 >niwi ni
iO swrtvt-VO 5doik''.:r:or?3 z'U ^.i\mvVw8; |o<$\j$ /KB
^pffnH ni ji Ilaa vxro &u> On v!v/4:^4>aBw(i
, j '.'"it

Of.die-Miftoric of Plants.
Lib; il
4,.Gramen^ap^ulU globus. ^TS Round headed Siluer-graffe- ^yhe Defer iptton.
Edge-hog Grafle hath long ftiiFe flaggy leaues with diuers ftalkes proceeding from atfickefpreadingroot sand at the top of euery ftalke grow certaine round and pricking knobs faduoned like an hedge-hog.
t 2 The fecond is rough and hairie: his roots do fpread and creep vnder the mud and mire as Cyperus doth and at the top ojfthe italke^rej^rtilne round foft heads, their colour befog browne,intermixed with pi low, fo that'they ')^fe&ttily when as e^ are in their grj^^^^L
3 This Grafle^cVvfiofe figure was formerly in thefifft pT^cein this Chapter) hath a fmall and fibrou^root, from which rife leaues l|fcthoie-:o^fi^.heat, but with v^'^rate' long white hairs^pon them like thofe of the laft defcribed:at the tops of the ftalks (which are fome foot or better high) there -grow two or three round heads confifting of foft and white downie threds. Thefe heads are faid to fhinc in the night,and therefore they in Italy call it(according to Cafalpinw) Luciola^quiauoclu lucet.
4 To this h may adde another growing alfo in Iraly,and firft defcribed by Fabius Co-lumna. It hath fmall creeping joynted roots, out of which come fmall. fibies^nd leaues little and very narrow at the firft,but thofe that are vpon the ftalks are as longagain,iacompaffing the ftalkes,as in Wheat, Dogs-graffe,and the like.Thefe leaues arc pefte^Jalong,and a little forked at the end:the ftraw or ftalk is very flender,at the top whereofgrowes a,fharpe prickly round head,much after the manner of the laft defcribed: each of the feed-ve%els,whereof this head'confifts,ends in a prickly ftalke hauing fiue off|uen points,wber of the vppermoft thafeis in the middle is the longeft. The feed that is contai veffels'is little and tranfparent, like in colour to that of Cow-w^eatVl TI' of this kinde) hang tremblingn'pon yellowiih fmall threds. % ^jjk
1 \ \*-
% The Place anaTime. t il 12V They grow in watery medowe* and fields, as you miV&z fuch lftla^ri;.. I M \: j 1\\
3 ^|BotB^e|e grow in diuer,s mountainous places of Italy 51' May. -\ \
The>firfttts called Hedge-hog Graffe,and in Latine, Gramen Echinatum, by kles wh^|re^il^vnto a hedge-hog. \\
Thefecond hairy Graffe is called Gramenexile hirfutum c^m^hec^u^j.; and tcfc^tyti^ like a Goat: and c?/>fwW,becaufehis ro^tlsdol^njfeinlJi
$ Thisey Angu'illaraM thought to be CombretumofPUnyjiiil^^^n^k tanus tpidtGramcn hirfutum Captulo globe-fo&i BauhineA>in.p Ids and
l little,
4 Fabius Columna calls this Gramenmontamm Echinatum tribulo;des capit at um: and Bauhwe meth it, Gramen fpicafubrotunda echinata. Wc may call it in Englifh, Round headed Cajtrbpe Grafle. ^W-*:'' J^jSW^^^^f '
f The Vertues.
ood to be ap-
3 The bead of this (which I haue thought good to call Sikier- graffe) is very g plied to greene wouqds,and effe&uall to ftay bleeding,*?*/^. % 6

Lib. i. Of the Hiftolie of Plants. ip
Chap. if. Of Hairy Wwd^Cjrraffe.
^ The Defcription,
Airy Woodgraffe hath broad rough leaues fomewhat like the precedent,but much Ionger,and they proceed from a threddy root,whieh is very thicke, and full of firings, as the common GrahejWith fmall ftalkes riling vp from the fame roots but the top of thefe ftalkes is diuided into a number of little branches, and on the end of euery one of them ftandethalittlefloureor huske like to the top of!^AIlium VrfinumyOi common Ramfons, wherein the feed is contained when the floure is fallen.
2 Cyperus Wood-graffe hath many fhearie graffie leaues, proceeding from a root made of many hairy ftrings or threds: among which there rifethvp fundry ftraight and vpright ftalkes, on whole tops are certaine fcaly and chaffiehuskes, or rather fpikie-blackifh eares,not much vnlike the catkins or tags which grow on Nut-trees, or Aller trees.
I Gramen hirfutum nemorofum. 4 Gramen Cyperinum nemorofum. .
Hairy Wood-graffe. Cyprus Wood-graffe.
Thefe two grow in woods or fhadowie places,and may in Englifh be called Wood-graffe. Their time is common with the reft.
Their Nature and Venues,
There is nothing to be laid of their nature and vertues, being as vnknowne as moft of the former.
B z
O HA?*1

Of the Hiflorie of Plants.
Lib. i.". Of Sea tyi^Guffe.
^ The Defcription.
f i OEa Spike-gralTe hath many fmall hollow roun^
S **. bufhiethreddy white fibrous root, which are very ff^^"^ ling. Among thefe leaues there doe fpringvp many fmall rufhie ftalkes; alongft
which are at the firft diuers fmall flouring round buttons the fides whereof falling away,the mid-
die part growes into a longifh feed-veffell ftanding vpright.
i Gramen marintimJj/icatum. Sea Spike-graffe.
2 Gramen(p'icatum alterttm: Saltmarfh Spike-graffe.
t 2 Salt marfh Spike-graffe hath a wooddie tough thicke root with fome fmall hairy threds faftned thereunto out of which arife long and thicke leaues very like thofe of the Sea-graffe we vulgarly call Thrift. And amongft thefe leaues growvp flender nakedrufhie ftalkes which haue on one fide fome fmallknobs or buttons ofagreenifh colour hanging on them.
3 The third hath many rufhy leaues tough and hard; of a browne colour,well refembling Rufhes : his root is compaclof many fmall tough and long firings! His ftalke is bare and naked of leaues vnto the top, on which it hath many fmall pretty chaffie buttons'or heads.
.1,3 f a f llhk the tb,ird> fauing that k is larer 51he ftalke alf& thicker and taller than that of the former, bearing at the top fuch husks as are in Rufhes.
5 ?reac Cypreffe Graffe hath diuers long three-fquare flalkcs proceeding from a root com-P n f any 12T'g fiC0Ugh ftrins r threds- The leaues are Iong a^ broad^like vnto the fedgc ofa^fe
.fft ^ma^ and leaues, fairing that it is fmaller.
Orpannicles,like tothelaft de-
7 The

Li fit i. OF the Hiflorie of Plants; it
3 Gramen junceummarinum. 4 Gramenjunceum maritimunii
SeaRuuVgrafTe. Marifh Rufh-graiTe. -
Gramen patuftre Ctferoides. Gramen Cyperoidespdrvttmi
Great CypreiTe-grafie. SmaU Cypreffe-graffe*

Of the Hiflorie of Plants.
Lib. i.
7 Gramen aquaticum Cjperoidesvttlgatks. Water Cyprefle Grafle.
p Gramenjunceum Jylvaticam. WoodRuthy grafle.
7 The firft of thefe cwpkindes hath many crooked and crambling roots of a wooddy fubftance,very like vnto the right Cyperus, differing from it onely in fmell, becaufe the right Cyperus roots haue a fragrant fmell j and thefe none at all. His leaues are long and broad* rough, (harpe or cutting at the edges like Sedge. His ftalke is long, hig, andthree-fquare like to Cyperus, and on his top hath achaffie vmbelor tuft like vnto the true Cyperus,
t 8 The fecond kind hath many broad leaues like vnto thofe of Gil louers, but of a frefher greene $ amongft thewhich rifeth vp a fhort ftalk fome hand-full or two high, bearing at the top three or foure fhort earcs of a reddifh. murrey colour,and thefe ears grow commonly together at the top of the ftalk,and not one vnder another. There is alfo another leffer fort hereof,vyith leaues and roots like the former,but the ftalke iscojfrhionly fhorter, and it hath but one fingleeare atthe top thereof. You haue the figures of both thefe^expreft in the fame table or piece.
This kinde of Grafle is the Gramen JJ/ic.ttum folijs VetonicAO^iiobel. %
9 This hath long tough and hairy ftrings,grow-ingdeepein the earth like a turfe, which make the root j from which rife many crooked tough & rufhy ftalkes, hauing toward the top skaly and chaffie knobs or buttons.
* This

Lib. t.
Of the Hiftorje of Plants.
$ i This growes fome halfe yard high, with round brownifh heads, and the leaues are ioynted as you lee them expreffed in the figure We heare giue you. 0'^
All the Graffes which we haue defcribed in this Chapter do grow in marifh and watery places neere to the fea or other fenny grounds,or by muddy and myrie ditches, at the fame time that the others do grow and flouriffr. Their names are eafily gathered of the places they grow in, or by their Defcriptions, and are of no verrue orpropertie in medicine,ot any other necefferie vfe as yet knowne. ,:
"f Formerly in the;eighthplace (but very yofitlv) was the figure:of grdmcn pitmici effigie jtfctjtmfy. being the third in the thirteenth Chapterl The ninth alfo

Chap. 17. Of Couch-(jrajf1 or Dogs-Cfrajf ?<
1 Gramen Caninum. Couch-graffe or Dogs-graffe.
2 Gramen Caninum nodofuml Knotty Dogs-graffe.
the Defcription.
f I r I 1 He common or be ft known dogs graffeor Couch-graffe hath long leaues of a whi-I tifli greene colour; the ftalke is a cub it and a halfe high,with joints or knees like wheaten ftravves,but thefe joints are coueredwith a little fhort downe or wool-lineffe. The plume or tuft is like the reed, but fmaller and more chaffie, and of a grayifh colour: itcreepeth in the ground hither and thither with long white roots, ioynted at certaine diftances, hauinga pleafant fweet taftithey are platted or wrapped one within another very intricately, info-much as where it hapneth in gardens amongft pot-herbes, grcac labour muft be taken before it can be deftroyed, each'piece being apt to grow, and euery way to dilate it felfe.
B Of i a pottie

~~~ Of the Hiflorie of Plants. L i b. i.
-rn^otcy Dogs-graffe is like vnto the former in ftalke and Ieafe.but that they are ofadj.'
per colour alfo the fpike or eare is greener,and about fome two handfuls long,it much in fhape re, SKo, yet far fmaller, and is much more difperfed than the figure prefents to you. The roots of this are fomewhat knotty and tuberous,but thatis chiefely about the Springofthe yere; for afterwards they become leffe and lelTe vntill the end of Sommer. And thefe Bulbes doe grow confufedly together, not retaining any certaine (hape Or number.
fi The Place.
1 The firft grows in gardens and arable lands,as-an infirmitie or plague of thq field soothing pleafing to husbandmen; for after the field is plowed,they are cohftrained to gather the roots to. gether with harrowes and rakes,and being fo gathered and laid vpon heaps, they fet them on fire left they fhould grow againc.
2 The fecond growes in plowed fields and fuch like places, but not euery where as the other. i haue found of thefe in great plenty,both growing,and plucked vp with harrowes, as before is re-hearfed, in the fields next to Saint lames wall,as ye go to Chelfey,and in the fields as yee goe from the Tower hill in London,to Radcliffe.
% The Time.
Thefe Graffes feldomecome to fhevv their eare before Iuly.
^The Names.
It is called Gramen Caninum, or Sanguinale, and Vniola. The countreymen of Brabant name it $een others, fteut gtaffe of tbe Greeks, iy^< of the Latines by the common name, Gramen. It is offome named >>. in Englifh,Couch-graffe, Quitch-graffe,and Dogs-graffe.
Gramen Caninum bulbofumoxnodofum^is called in Englifh, Knobby or knotty Couch-grafle.
The Nature.
The nature of Couch-grafle, efpecially the roots, agreeth with the nature of common Grafle. Although that Couch-grafle be an vnwelcome gueft to fields and gardens, yet his phyficke vertues do recompenfe thofe hurts j for it openeth the ftoppings of the liuer and reins,without any manifeft heate.
The learned Phy fitions of the Colledge and Societie of London do hold this bulbous Couch-grafle in temperature agreeing with thecommon Couch-grafle, but, in vertues more effe&uall.
< V, \\ j Wy. I /
5f The Vertues.
A Couch-graffe healeth green wounds.The decottion of the root is good for the kidnies & bladder : it prouoketh vrin gently,and driueth forth grauell. Diofcorides and Galen doe agree, that the root ftamped and laid vpon greene wounds,healeth them fpeedily.
B The decoftion thereof feruetfi againft griping paines of the belly, and difficultie of making water.
C Marcellm an old Author maketh mention, Chap.2rf.That 2 7 knots of the herbe called Gramen or Graffe,boiIed in wine till halfe be confumed,preffed forth, ftrained< and giuen to drinke to him that is troubled with the ftrangurie, hath fo great vertue, that after the Patient hath once begun tomakewaterwithoutpaine,itmaynotbe giuen any more. But it mbft be giuen with water only to fuch as haue a feuer. By which words it appeareth,that this knotted Grafle was taken for that which is properly called Gramen, or Agrofiis; and hath been alfo commended againft the Stone and difeafes of the bladder.
The later Phy fitions vfe the roots fomtimes of this, and fomtimes of the other indifferently.
' 1 1 r -
Chap. 18. Of SeaVog^graJfe.
The Defcription.
1 THe Sea Dogs-graffe is very like vnto the other before named: his leaues are long and 1 flender, and very thicke compact together,fet vpon a knotty ftalke fpiked at the top hketheformer. Alfo the root crambleth and creepeth hither and thither vnder the
earth,occupying,muciground by reafonof his great encreafe of roots.

L i b. i. Of the Hiflorie of Plants. 2,5
and not onely fo,but I iudge it to be the fame Grafle that Bauhinus in his trodromits hath fet forth, ^.17.vnder the nameof Gramen latifolium Jpicatriticea compacJa. This is a very tall Grafle; for it fends forth a ftalke commonly in good ground to the height of a yard and a halfe: the leaues are large,thicke,and greenesalmoft as big as thofe of white Wheat 5 the which it al fo very much re-fembles in the eare,which is vfually fome handfull and an halfe long, little fpokes ftanding by courfe with their flat fides toward the ftraw. About the beginning of Iuly itis hung with little whitifh yellow floures fuch as Wheat hath. The roots of this are like thofe of the firft defcribed. This fometimes varies in the largeneffe of the whole plant, as alfo in the greatneffe, fparfedneffe; and compa&edneffe of the eare. $
1 G'rattier,i Caninum marinumt i Gramen Caninum marinum alteruml
Sea Dogs-graffe. Sea Couch-graffe.
9 The fecond Sea Dogs-graffe is according vnto Lohel fomewhat like the former: his rootes are more fpreading and longer, difperfing themfelues farther vnder the ground than any of the reft. The leaues are like the former, thicke bufhed at the top,with a clufter Or buffo of fhort thick ileaues one folded within another. The ftalke and tuft is ofa middle kinde bitweeattfehamon and thecommon Couch-grafle.
9ft The BlacefVimeJXamesJXaturejindytrtues. They grow on the fea fhore at the fame time that others do,and are fo called becaufe they grow neere the fea fide. Their nature and vertues are to be referred vnto Dogs graffe.
Chap. ip. Of fright^Dogs^ijra/fe.
K The Defcription.
1 \7Pright Dogges-Graffe, or Quitch-Grafle, by reafon of his long fpreading ioynted
V roots is like vnto the former, and hath at euery knot in the root fundry firings of
hairie fubftance,fhooting into the ground at euery ioynt as it fpreadeth: theftalkes lyecreeping,
or rife but a little from the ground, and at their tops hauefpoky pannicles farre fmaller than the

Of the Hiftorie of Plants.
IB. i.
common Couch-graffe. By which notes of difference it may eafily be difcerned from the other kindes of Dogs-graffe.
i Gramen Caninum fufinum. Vpright Dogs-graffe.
2 Gramen firiatum. Lady-lace Graffe.
2 Lady-lajces hath leaues like to Millet in fafhion,rough or fliarp pointed like to the reed, with many white veins or ribs,snd filuer ftreaks running along through the midft of the leaues, falhioning "the fame like to laces or ribbons wbuen of white arid greene filke,very beautifull and faireto behold. It groweth to the height of wilde Pannicke,with a fpoky top not very much vnlike,but more compaclt, foft, white,and chaf-fle. The foot is fmall and hairy, and white of colour like vnto the medow Graffe.
^[ The Place.
1 Vpright Dogs-graffe groweth in dunged grounds and fertile fields^
2 Lady-Laces grow naturally in wooddy and hilly places of Sauoy,and anfwers common Graffe in his time of feeding.
It is kept and maintained in .pur Englifh gardens rather forpleafure,than vertue which is yet knowne.
m The Names. U
; ,;y\...^. .;. v ,..v,i. ^
Lohelc&lkththe later, Gramen fulcatum and firiatum, or Gramenfitlum .'in Englifh, the furrowed Graffe, the white Chameleon Graffe, or ftreaked graffe ; and vfually of our Englifh women it is called Lady-laces,or painted Graffe : in French, Airuillettes d'armes.
rr, yr : r IF TheWjtureandrertues.
The Vertues are referred vnto the Dogs-graffes.
v_>h a p.

Lib. I.
Of the Hiftorie of Plants.
Chap. 10, Of Dew^GrafTe,
The Defcription,
Ew GralTe hath very hard and tough roots long and fibrous the ftalkes are great, of three or foure cubits high, very rough and hairy jointed and kneed like the common Reed: the leaues are large and broad like vnto corfle. The tuft or eare is diuided into fundry branches, chaffie, and of a purple colour; wherein is contained a feed like M ilium,wher' with the Germans make pottage arid fuch like meat, as we in England do with Ote-meale; and it is fent into Middleborow and other townes of the Low-countries, in great quantitie for the fame purpofe, as Lobel hath told me.
- 2- The fecond kinde of Dew-graffe or Ifihamon is fomewhat like the firft kinde of Medow-graffe, refembling one the other in leaues and ftalks, fauing that the creft or tuft is fpread or ftret-ched out abroad like a Cocks foot fet downe vpon the ground, whereupon it was called Galli crus, by Apuleius. Thefe tops are cleere and vpright, of a gliftering Purple co!our,or rather Violet,and it is diuided into foure or Sue branches, like the former Dew-graffe. The root confifts of a great many fmall fibres. .
$ 3 To thefe may fitly be added another Graffe,which Clujius hath iudged to be the medi-cinall Grafleof the Antients: and Lobel refers it to the Dogs graffes, becaufe it hath a root jointed thicke,and creeping like as the Dogs graffes. The ftalks areforae foot high, round, and of a purplifh colour: but the top is very like to that of the laft deferibed,of a darke purple colour.
i Gramen Uteanna efculentum Dew-graffe.
2 Ifchdmon vulgare. Cocks foot Graffe.
^TkPlaceand Time.
1 The firft groweth naturally in Germanie,Bohemia,and Italy, and in the territories of Go-litia and Carinthia, as Matthiolus reporteth.
2 The fecond groweth neere vnto rough bankes of fields, as I haue feehe in the hilly bankes neere Greenhithe in Kent. It differeth not in tirne from thofe we haue fboken of.
% 3 This

TTc^nlaailoides radice repente. 3 This growth plentifully in moa
* 3CoT^ parcsofSpaineandFrance^nditisproba..
^ocksioolvi- ble, that this was the graffe our Author found
- neere Greenhithc in Kent.
^ The Names,
1 The Germans call it ^imclDaU: That is to fay, rosy whereupon it was called Gramen Mannait feemestobe Mild fyhefiris
Jjturium qaoddamgenus, a certaine wilde or baftard kinde of Millet. Leonkerm and Ruellius name it Capriola andSanguinaria .-fome would haue it to be Gramen aculeatumPlinij^ but becaufe the defcription thereof is very fhort5no-thing can be certainly affirmed. But they are far to be Coronopus, as fome very learned haue fet downe: but euerie one in thefe dayes is able tpcontroll that error. Loklcalkth it Gramen Manna efculentum, for that in Germany and other parts,as Bohemia and Italy, they vfe to eat the fame as a kinde of bread-corne, and alfo make pottage therewith,aswedowithOtc-meaIe 5 for the which purpofe it Is there fowne as corne, and fentinto the Low-Countries, and there fold by the pound. In Englifh it may be called Manna Graffe or Dew-graffe, but more fitly, Rice-graffe.
2 This is iudged to be IfchmwoH Pliny and GalltCr us of Apuleius,
Thefe Graffes are aftringent and drying, in tafte fweet like the common Dogs graffe.
The Vertues^
ZApuleius faith, if a plaifter be made of this Graffe, Hogs greafe, and the Xeauen of houfhold bread, it cureth the biting of mad dogs.
As in the defcription I told yoU, this Plant in his tuft 1-eare is diuided into fundry branches, fome tuft intothree,fome foure, and fome fiue clouen parts like Cocks toes. Apuleius reporteth,if you take that eare which is diuided only into three parts, it wonderfully helpeth the running or dropping of the eyes, and thofe that begin to be bleare eyed;Being bound about the necke,and fb vfed for certaine dayes together, it turneth the humors away from the weake part. i t Manna-graffe or Rice-graffe is faid to be very good to be put into pul|effes,to difcuffe hard fwellings in womens breafts.
The Cocks-foot Dogs graffe is very good in all cafes as the other Dogs-Graffes are, and equally as effe hap. 21.
Of diners Cyperus (jraffes.
_ ^ The Defcription.
t I *T^He firft of thefe hath reafonable ftrong fibrous roots, from whence rife ftiffe long and narrow leaues like thofe of other Cyperus Graffes: the ftalkes alfo ( as it is proper to all the plants of this kindred)are threefquare,bearing at their tops fome three brownifh eares foft and chaffie like the reft of this kiride, (landing vpright,and not hanging downe as fome others do.
2 Thishath pretty;thickecreepingbIackerdots,from whence arife three ftalks,fetwith fhor-ter leaues, yet broader than thofeof the laftdefcribed; and from the top of the ftalke comeforth three or foure foot- ftalks,whereupon hang longifh rough skaly and yellowifh heads.
3 Therootsof this are blacke, without fmell, and fomewhat larger than thofe^of the laft

r the Hiftorie of Plants
% I Crdme&CypemderangufttfoUttmm^ Great narrow leaned Cyperus GrafTe.
3 Cyperus longus iriedorus[yluejlrps. Long Baftard Cyperus.
* 2 C^StK
Baftard Cyperus*
defcribed: the 3 .fquare ftalke alfo is fome twocubits high,bearing at the topdifger-fedly round fealy heads fomewhat like thofe of the wood R ufh-graffe: the leaues are fomewhat fharpe and triangular like thole of the other Cyperus.
4 This Cyperus hath creeping blacke roots* hluinghere and there knotty tuberous'heads for the moft parr, putting "vr> leaues like thofe of the laftdefcribed, as alfo a ftalke bearing at the top long chaffie. eares like to fome others of this kinde.
5f This .Cyperus-GrafTe hath pretty thicke"1" fibrous and Blacke roots, from
s whence arifeth a ftalke fome cubit high, pretty ftiffe, triangular,jbinted,fet at each ioyrit with a large greerie Jeafe which at thebpttome incompaffcs the ftalke,which
; is omitted in-the figure. At tfie top of the ftalke, as in the true Cyperus,come forth two or three pretty, large leaues, betweene which rife vp many fmall foor-ftalkes very much branched, and bearing many, blacke feeds fomewhat like Millet or Rufhes.
The.Place and'Time., All thefe grow in ditches and vvaterie

Of the Hiflorie of Plants.
IB. I.
^s,andaretobeefoundwiththeirheadsaboutthe middle of Summer, and fome of them foo.
The Names.
The firftof thefe by Lobel is called Gramenpaluftre majusv
2 This by Gefne^Lobel^nd Dodonaus is called Pfeudocypertts.
3 Lobel names thissC^er* /^o inodorusfyluefiris.
4 He alfo calls ihlsfyperusaquaticusfeptentrionalis. \ 5. This is the Cyperus gramineamUiaceaoUobelmd Pena: tWuncus latus intne HiJter.Lugdun,
pag.9 8 8 .and the Pfeudocyperuspolycarpos of Thalius.
$ 4 Cyperus rotundus i'nodorus fylueftris. Round Baftard Cyperus.
$ 5 Cyperus gramineus miltaceus. Millet Cyperus grafle.
% The Temperature andvertetel. None of thefe are made vfe of in Phy ficke; but by their tafte they feerae to be of a cold and aftringent qualitie. $
* C h a p. z a* Of diuers other (jrttffes*
The Defcription.
l arefomecubithigMender^omted^nd fet with fhort narrow leaues: atthe topof r rTC^the eare>long> fle^, and bending, compofed of downie huskes
containing a feed like to a naked Ote.The feed is ripelnluly. It^esfnthemouSoS ihadomewoodsofHungarie/Auftri^andBohemia*. Our Authour miftaking himfelfe ^tt
from which arifeleaueslongandnirro^

ib. i.
Of the Hiftorie of Plants
Mat-wced:among thefe graiffie leaues there growes vp a flender ftalkefprne two foot long, fcarfc ftandirig vpright, butpft times hanging down the head or top of the ease Hthafh fome two joints, and at each ofthefea pretty graffieJeafe. The eare is almofta foot in length, compofed of many fmall and {lender hairy tufts,which when they come to maturitie looke of a gray i(h or whitifh co-lour,and doe very well refemble a> Capons taile whence my friend the firft obferued thereof, gaue it the title of Gramen ax.*?**^* or Capons-taile graffe j by which name I feceiUedshe feed thereof,, whichfowne,tookeroot,and flourifhes. ;-;>
% i Gra.mantanumavenaceum. Mountaine Hauer- Graffe.
$ 2 Gramen murorum jpicalongifiima. Capon-itailc Grafle.
. istejo oj alsii
v x31B <..o r:.\?uo
Next to this I thinke fit to place the Gramen Crtftatumpx Cocks-combe graffe of Bauhinm. This Graffe hath forthe root many white fibrous threcUf^ the leaues are but
$brt,ahqut the bigneffeof the ordinaf ie mtdow-graffe the ftalks are fome cubit and halfe high,1 with fome two or tljrejgknots a piece: the leaues of the ftalke are fomefoure or flue inches long: thc^areis..(^Ji]}lQngiig)>bfa pategreenecplp$rt^mew^f^.e^dingvfpthat in fomc$>rt it refem-bles thejeflmi)epf a C^oGkejpr theifeedrvefftll of that plant which fa called Caput Ga/iinaceum. This is ordinarily to be found in moft medowes;a^u$|.jyiid-furamer.--
^TJ^jrp^ ourmedowes tobe found a Grafle grow-,
ing to fome cubit high,hauing a fmall ftalke^at flie the top whereof there grows an eare fome. inch1, and an haIfe,or twpinches long,confiftingas;it were of t#a sankcs p come x it very much refern -bles Rie both in fhape and colour, and in his fhort bearded awues, wherefore it may very fitly be termed Gramen fecalinum^oi Rie-graffe. Yet it is not Grammfpicafecalwa which Bauffi^ defcribes in the fifty, jfeuenth place,in his Pridrm^pag n 8, for that is; much taller,'and the eare much larger thanthis of my defcription, >.. ;.
5 In diuers places about hedges, in Iuly and Auguft is tobe found a fine large tall Graffe,; whiph Bauhine (whoalfo firft defcribed it) hath vrider the name of Gramen (pica Briza majus. This hath ftalkes as tall as,Rie, but not fo thicke.neither are the leaues fobroad;:at the ropof the ftalke grow diueis prettie little flattilhearesconfiftirigof tvyprankes of chaffie huskes or feed-veffels, which haue yellowifh little floures like to thofe of Wheat.
6 There re alfocommonly to be found about May or the beginning of lube, in medqives and

flich places.rhat grafle which m thefl#w* fet forhvnder thenani^r^kBi^ DakkamPH tb* ftalkes and Jeaues;ar.e;much Itefeefcptrig^^ morewhitimandhairie^
ortlfcamurriebolour. J .Tf
7 There is tobe found: in fomebogs in ,Surnmer;time aboutthe end oh Jui^w^ettiei-mli^ graffe,fome foo'te or betterliniheightilthe ftalke is bard and ftflkk-, hauing fome three^ints, at each whereof there comes forth akafe as in other graffes, and-out Of the b^ome of the two vp. permoft of thefe leaues comes forth a flender ftalke being fome 2 or 3 inches highland at the top thereofgrowesasinalitrfe^mWea^retty whitechaffie flourehand at, or nigh to thetop of the maine ftalke there grow three or foure fuch floures cluttering together vpon little fhort and fieri. derfoot-ftalkes:the leaues are but fmall, and fome handfull orbetterlong, the root I did notob-ferue. This feemes to haue fomeaffinitie with the Gramen jmceum aquattcpm}foxmet\y defcribed in the ninth chapter. I netier found this but once, and that was in the company of W.Thomas. Smith, and Mr. lames Clarke^ Apothecaries of London wee tiding into Wind for Forreft vpon the fearchofrare plants, and wee found:t|is vpon a bogge neere the'iigh way fide at the corner of the great parke. I thinke it;may very fi^be called Gramen junceumleucanthemum; White floured Rufh-graflc. /
8 The laft yeare at Margate in the Ifle of Tenet,neere to the fea fide and by the chalky cliffe I oWerued a pretty little grafle which from a fmall white fibrous roote feiit vpsa number Of ftalkes ofa^ynequall height; for the longeft, which were thofe that lay partly fpred vpon the ground, were fome handfull high, the other that grew ftreight vp were not fo much; and of this, one inch and halfe was taken vp in the fpike or eare, which was no thicker than the reft of the ftalke, and fee-mcd nothingjelfe but a plainefmooth ftalke, vnleffe you looked vpon it earneftly, and then you might perceive it to be like Darnell graffe:wherefore in the journall that I wrdre of this Simpling voyage, I called itpag.3 .Gramepparvum marimmfpica Loliacea. I iitdge it to be the fame that Bait-hine in his Protyromnstfag.. 19 .hath fet forth vnder the name of Gramen Loliaceum 'minus jpicajimplici. It may be caljecNnEnglifri. pwarfe Darnell-grafle.
9\ ThdD&heU-graffe tftat I compared the eare of this laft defcribedjvnt4 is not the Gramen forghkmvnt (wnichour Authour called ^Darnell-grafle) but another graffe growing in moft places with ftalkes about fome fj^h Higlji, but they feldome ftand vprignt, the eare is made juft'Iike that whieh hereafter chap. 58.1s called Loliim rub?um$&& Darnell,of which I judge this is a variety,dif. feripg little theiefrom bira^
1 o Vpon Hampftead heath I ha#e|aften obferueda fmall graffe whofe longeft leaues are fel-domeabout tWoor three inches h%fe^|nd thefe leaues are very greene, fmall, and perfectly round like the SpdrtumXAluilriacumyOtVekhh-gxaffeilcould neuer finde any ftalke or eare vpon it: wherefore I haue brought it into the^Srden to obferue it better. In the forementioned journall, pag.i 3. you may finde it vnder the name of Gramen Spattium eapillacto folio minimum. It maybe this is that graffe which Banhine fet forth in his Prodromus$ag.\ 1. vnder the ti^le of'Gramenfiar. team LMonfpelidcumcapilldceofolio minimum.! haue thought good in this placebo explaine my meaning by thefe two names^ to fuch as are ftudious in plants,which may happen tolightby chance (for theywere not intended for publicke) vpon our Iournall, that they need not doubt of my meaning.' '^ WW ,. v\ : fmthliffimnsVl .
^ 1 r I muft not pafle ouer in filence two or three Grafl^ which for any ^hirig f hati1 know are grangers with vs,the one I haue feene with W.Parkinfon, and it is fet ioit^^Bduhm^pdg. 3 o. of his Prodromus.tht other bfLobell in the fecond part of his Aduerfariafag.qgS. The firft'(whicli
fir ft is greenej and fhewes yellowifh little floures iff Auguft.
12 This other GralTe which Z M^a VS^n^i ^c^/^^,vteofitisakinde. It growes; naturally aboutOrk, ance,3ndmayiyecaIledinEnglim,BrafhrgFaflev-t -, |if^|
pi i
h a p.
... "j.

IB. I.
Of the Hiflorie of Plants*
Chap. 23. OfComn-Cfrajfe*
ijj The Defcription,
1 '"p*His ftrange Cotton-Graffe, which VObelius hath comprehended vnder the kindes of
I Rufhes; notwithftanding thatit may paffe with theRufhes,yet I finde in mine owne experience, that it doth rather refemble graffe than rufhes, and may indifferently be taken for either,for that itdoth participate of both. The ftalke is fmall and ruthy* garnifhed with many graffie leaues alongft the fame,bearingatthetop.a bufh or tuft of moft pleafant downe or cotton like vnto the moft fine and foft white filke. The root is very tough, fmall and threddy.
2 This Water Gladiole,orgraffyrufh,of all others is the faireft and moft pleafant to behold^' and ferueth very well for the decking and trimming vp of houfes, becaufe of the beautie and bra-ucrie thereof rconfifting pf fundry fmall leaues, of a white colour mixed with carnation,growing at the top of a bare and nafked ftalke, Sue or fix foot long.and fometime more. The leaues are long and flaggie,not much vnlike the common reed. The root is threddy, and not long..
1 GramenTomentAnum,. Cotton Graffe."
2 Gladiolus palufiris Cordi. Water Gladiole.
The Place and Time;j
1 Cotton graffe groweth vpon bogy and fuch like moorifh places, and it is to be feene vpon the bogsin Hampfted heath. It groweth likewife in Highgate parke neere London.
2 Water Gladiole groweth in ftandingpbples, motes, and .water ditches. I found it id great plenty being in company with aworfhipfull Gentleman W.Robert JVilbraham^t a Village fifreene miles from London called Bufliey. It groweth likewife rteere RedrifTeby London, and many other places; the feafbn anfvvereth all others.
|J ThcNjmes.
1 GramenTontentofum is called likewife Uncus bombicinus: of Cprduij Linw pratenfc and Gnal fbalhwiHicronymiBocty. In Englifh,Cotton-Grafie. .

Of the Hiflorie of Plants.
i b. i.
2 Water Gladiole is called of L'obelius, Uncus Cyperoides floridus paludofus, Flouring Cy. prefle Rufh : Iwcus, for that his ftalke is like the rufh : Cyperoides, becaufe his leaues refemble Cyperus: Floridus, becaufe it hath on the top of euery ftalke a fine vmble or tuft of fmall floures in famion of the Lilly of Alexandria, the which it is very like,and therefore I had rather call it Lilly graffe. .7
% The 2{Ature and Vertues.
Cor dus kith, That Uncus hombicinus fodden in wine, and fo taken, helpeth the throwes and gri. pings of the belly, that women haue in their childing.
There be alfo fundry kinds of Graffes wholly vnknowne, or at leaft not remernbred of the old Writers, whereoffome few are touched in hameonelyby the late and new Writers: now for as much as they haue onely named them, I will referre the better consideration of them to the indii. ftrieand diligence ofpainefullfearchers of nature, and profecute my purjpofed labour, to vnfold the diuers forts and manifold kindes of Cyperus,Vlags,and Rufhes: and becaufe that there is added vnto many of the Graffes before mentioned, this difference, Cyperoides t that is to fay, refembling Cyperus, I. thought it therefore expedient to joyne next vnto the hiftory of Grafiesthe difcourfeof Cyperusand his kinds,which are as follow.
Chap. 24. Of Engli/h galingale.
1 Cyperus longus. Englifh Galingale*
2 Cyperus rotundus vulgaris. Round Galingale.
<(f The Defcriptidn.
1 'T7r Nglifh Galingale hath leaues like vnto the common Reed, but leffer and fhorter. His ftalke is three fquare, two cubits high: vpon whofe top ftand fundry branches, euery little branch bearing many fmall chaffie fpikes. The rootis blacke arid very Icing, creeping hither and thither, occupying much ground by reafon of his fpreading: it is of a moft fiveet and pleafant fmell when it is broken.
*' The

ib. i.
Of the Hiftorie of Plants;
5 'Cyprus rotundas littoreus. Round SAk-mnrihCypertts;
2 The common round Cyperus is like the.former in leaues and tops,but the roots are here and there knotty and round, and not altogether fo well fmelling as the former. c, ^
$ 3 There is alfo^another Cyperus which growes in S yria and ./Egypt, whofe roots are round blackiu\and largcmany hanging vponone ftring, and hauing a quickeand aromaticke fmeli: the leaues and fpoky tufts refemble the former.
4 There is faidtobe another kinde of this laft defcribed, whiclj is lefler,and the roots are blacker, and it growes in Creet, now called Candy.
5 Therc is alfo another round Cyperus which growes ab|put^ditches and;, the bankes of Riuers whereas the fait water fometimes comes: the roots of this are hard arid blacke, without fmell, many hanging fometimes vpr-heads vnlike,for they are rou fcuen at the top of the ftalke. .
% The Place and Time. JlrWxL i 2 The firft and fecond of thefe grow naturally in fenny grounds,yet w|ll they profper exceedingly in gar-dens,as expreiencehath taught vs.
3 4 The former ofthefegrowes naturally in Syria and ^gypt, the later in Candy.
5 This growes plentifully in the Marifhes below Grauefend, in Shipey, Tenet, and other places, 9ft the Names in generall.
Cyperus is called in Greeke, of the La-
tines_as well Cypirm as Cyperus:ai fome, 1 uncus quadratus : of Pliny,luncus Angulofus, and Triangularis:pi others,-4-jpalathum and Eryfifceptron; in French, Dutch, <5alg8fntin' Spanifli,7 oderofafoy vs, Cyperus and Englifh Galingale.
f The Names in particular.
i This is called, Cyperus longus, and Cyperus longus O-doratior: in Englifh, common Cyperus, and Englifh Galingale. 2 This isca\led,Cyperss rotundus vulgaristKound Englifh Galingale. 3 Cyperus rotundus Syriacus, or *JE-gyptiacus^Synaufir ^Egyptian round Cyperus. 4 Cyperus minor Creticus, Candy round Cyperus. 5 Cyperus rotundus inodorus Littoreus^ouad fait marfh Cyperus, or Galingale. t
If The Nature.
Diofcorides faith, That Cyperus hath an heating quali-tie.Galen faitb,the roots are moft effectuall in medicine, and are of an heating and drying qualitie: and fome doe reckon it tobe hot and dry in the fecond degree. qj The Vertues.
It maketh a moft profitable drinke to breake and ex-pell grauell, and helpe the dropfie.
If itbe boiled in wine,and drunke,it prouoketh vrine,driueth forth the ftone,and bringetbdowri B the naturall fickneffe of women.
The fame taken as aforefaid,is a remedie againft the flinging and poy fon of Serpents. C
F ernelius hith,The twt of Cyperus vkdiix Baths helpeth the coldneffeand flopping of the ma. D trix,and prouoketh the tearmesV
HewritethaIfo,that it increafethbloud by warming the body, and raaketh good digeftion- E wonderfully refrefhing the fpints,and exhilefating the minde, comforting the ferifes, and encrea-fing their liuelineffe,reftoring the colour decayed, and making a fweet breath.
The powder of Cyperus doth not oriely dry vpall moift vtcers,either of the mouth, priuy mem- F bers and fundamentjbut ftaieth the humor and healeth them, though they be maligne and viru-lent,according to the iudgement of Fernelius.
Ch a "ia
; -

Of the Hiftorie of Plants.
L I B.I.
Chap. p Of Italian Trafior Sfanijh galingale.
i Cyperus Efiulentusfine Cauleejrfore. Italian Trafi, or Spanifh Galingall, without ftalke and fioure.
z Cyperus Efculentus,JiueTraJi Italorum, Italian Trail, or Spanifh Galingall.
* 1
THe Italian TrafijWhich is here termed Spanifh Galingale, is a plant that hath many fmall roots, hanging at ftringy fibres like as our ordinary Dropwort roots doe, but they are of the bigneffeofa little Medlar, and haueoneend flat and as it were crowned like as a Medlar,and it hath alfo fundry ftreakes of lines,feeming to diuide it into feuerall parts j it is ofabrownifh colour without,and white within; the taft thereof is fweet almoft like a Chefnut.The leaues are very like thofe of the garden Cyperus juid. neuer exceed a cubit in length. Stalkes, floures, or feed it hath none, aslohn Pona an Apothecary of Verona, whodiligently obfer-ued it nigh to that city^whereas it naturally growes, affirmes- but hee faith there grows with it much wild Cj//>er*,which as he judges hath giuen occafion of their error who gaue it the ftalkes and floures of Cyperus Englifh Galingale, as Matthiolus and others haue done. It is encreafed by fetting the roots,firft fteeped in water, at the beginning of Nouember. I haue here giuen you the figure of it without the ftalke, according to Pom, and with the ftalke, according to Matthiolus and others.
iff The .Names.
The Italian Trafi is called in Greeke by Theophrafius h^a, Hift. plant. 4. Fabius Ce-lumna hath proued at large: Pliny tearmes it, Anthalittmthe later writers, Cyperus Efculentus, and IXuUichinum^. The Italians, Trafi, and Velzolini,by which names in Italy they are cryedvpand downe the ftreets,as Oranges and Lemmons are here.
The fame creame is alfo good tobe drunke againft the heate and fharpeneffe of the vrine,efpe-aally if you in making it do adde thereto the feeds of Pompions, Gourds, and Cucumbers. The Citifens ol Verona eare them for dainties, but they are fomewhat windy. $

Lib. i.
Of the Hiftorie of Hants.
t C h a p. z6. Of the trm^a^mgale^ the greater and theleffih
% x Galanga major.
The greater Galingale.
% 2 Galangammor,
The lelTer Galingalei
THe affinitie of name and nature hath induced me in this place to infert thefe two, the bigger and the letter Galingale s firft therefore of the greater.
The Defcription.
j '/-Tp He great Galingale, whofe root onely is in vfe, and brought to vs from lava in the Ea ft I Indies,hath flaggie leaues fome two cubits high,like thofe of Cats-taile orReed-mace: the root is thicke and knotty,refembling thofe of our ordinary flagges,but that they areof a more whitifh colour on the infide,and not fo large. Their tafte is very hot and biting/and they are fomewhat reddifh on the outfide.
2 The letter growing in China,and commonly in (hops called Galingale,without any ad diti-on is a fmall root of a brownifh red colour both within and withoutjthe tafte is hot and biting, the fmell aromaticalljthe leaues (if we may beleeue Garcias ab Horto) are like thofe of Myrtles.
The Names.
1 The firft is called by Matthiolus, Lobel, and others, Galanga major. Some thinke it to be the Acorusoixhe Ancients: and Pena and Lobel in' their ^/.^^/.queftionwhctheritbenotthe Acorus Galaticue of Diofcorides. But howfoeuer, it is the u4corus of the (hops, andby many vfed in Mithridateinfteadofthetrue. The Indians call it Lancuaz.
2 The letter is called Galanga, and Galanga minor, to diftinguifh it from the precedent. The Chinoiscall i^Lauandon: the Indians, Laneuaz,: we in Englifh tearme it, Galingale, withoutany
addition. .
g The Temperature and Vertues.
Thefe roots are hot and dry in the third degree,but the letter are fomewhat thehotter. They ftrengthen the ftomacke, and mitigate the paines thereof arifing from cold and flatulencies.
The fmell, efpecially of the letter, comforts the too cold brainej the fubftance thereof being chewed fweetens the breath. It is good alfo againft thebeating of the heart.
They are vfefull againft the Collicke proceeding of flatulencies, and the flatulent affeds of the wombe; they conduce to venery, and heate the too cold reines.To conclude,they are good againft all cold difeafes. $
t C
h a p z 7* Of T'ttrmericfy,
THis alfo challengeth the next placets belonging to this Tribe, according to Diofcorides; yet the root,which onely is brought vs3and in vfe,doth more on the outfide refemble Ginger,but that it is yellower,and not fo flat, but rounder. Theinfide thereof is of a Saffron colour,the taftehotandbitterifh :it is faid to haue leaues larger than thofe of MiIIet,and a Ieafie ftalke. There is fome varietie of thefe roots, for fome are longer and fome rounder, and the later are the hotter, and they are brought ouer oft times together with Ginger.
% The Place.
It growes naturally in the Eaft-Indies about Calecut, as alfo at Goa.
9j The Names.
This without doubt is the Cyperus Jndicue of Diofcorides, Lib.i. Cap.4. It is now vulgarly by
C 3 inoft

Of the Hiflorie of Plants.
IB. i.
IrSwTi^s^in (hops called by the name of Terra merit a, ud Curcuma: yet fome terme it Crocus Indies and we in Englifh call it, Turmericke. ,
' s\ The Temperature and Vertues. This root is certainely hot in the third degree, and hath a qualitie to open obftrudions and it is vfed with good fucceffe in medicines againft the yellow Ianndife, and againft the cold diftem-
pers of the liucr and fpleerie.
C h a p. 28. Of Zedoarie.
$ Zerumbtthjtue Zedoaria rotunda. Round Zedoarie.
ZEdoarie is alfo a root growing nalurally in the woods of Malaver about Calicut and Cana-nor in the Indies;the leaues thereof are larger than Ginger, and much like them; the root is alfo as large, but eonfifting of parts of different figures, fome long and fmall, others round; their colour is white, and oft times brownifh on the infide, and they hanemany fibres commingoutof them,but they are taken away together with the outward rinde before they come to vs. Theferoots haueaftrohg medicine-like fmell, and fomewhat an vngratefull tafte.
The TJjmes.
Some call the longpartsof theferoots Zedoaria^vA the round(whofe figure we here giue you) Zerumbeth, and make them different, whenas indeed they are but parts of the fame root, as Lobel and others haue well obferued. Some make Zedoaria and Zerumbeth different, as x^Auicen others confound them and make them one, as Rhafes and Serapio. Some thinke it tobe 'a,i*0 of Mgine-/4 .but that is not fojforhe faith, w^^toj^mW^^^ an Aromaticke, and
therefore chiefely mixed in ointments: which is as much as if he fhould haue faid, That it was put into ointments for the fmells fake, which in this is no waies gratefull,but rather the contrary,
*\ The Temperature and Vertues.
It is hot and dry in the fecond degree; it difcufles flatulencies, and fattens by a certaine hidden qualitie. ltalfodiffipatesand amends the vngratefull fmellwhich Garlicke, Onions,Or too much wine infeft the breath withall,if it be eaten after them. It cures the bites and flings of venomous creatures,ftops laskes,refolues the Abfcefles of the wdmbe,ftaies vomiting, helpes the Collicke, as alfo the paine of the ftomacke.
It'kils all forts of wormes, and is muchvfed in Antidotes againft the plague, and fuch like contagious difeafes, %
. Chap. 2^. OfJty/hes.
$ T Do not here intend to trouble you with an accurate diftindtion and enumeration of Ru-J[ fhesjfor if I fhould,it would be tedious to you.Iaborious to me,and beneficial to neither.
Therefore I will onely defcribe and reckon vp the chiefe and more note-worthy of them, beginning with the moft vfuall and common. $
9ft The Defcription.
i The roots of our common Rufhes are long and hairy, fpreading largely in the ground, from which,as from one entire tuft, proceed a great company of fmall rufhes. fo exceedingly well knowne that I fhall not need to fpend ranch time about the defcription thereof J *h u be/un,dry frtsof Rnpp befides the former, whofe pidures are'not here expreft, ^mL^^^ aIfo their common vfe and feruice
^Jnfeifh^Tf^11^1^ fthem- Thisgt Water-Rufhor Bul-Rufh,in ^nfnL^H nSSC-A ^ ^jggic Aoots or fprings, which be round, fmooth,
fliarpe pointed and without knots. Their tuft or flonre breaketh fSr ha little bcneatl rhe top
it groweth

Lf i b. i. Of the Hiflorie of Plants. 35
it groweth againe of the feed. And they aifirme likewife that the male is barren, and groweth ao-aineof the young (hoots, yet I could neuer obferue any fuch thing.
$ 3 There growes a Rufh to the thickneffe of a Reed, and to fome two yards and an halfe, or three yards diuers fenny grounds of this kingdome j it is very porous and light, and they vfually make mats,aud bottom chaires therewith. The feeds are contained in reddifh tufts, breaking out at the top thereof.The roots are large and joynted,and it grows not, vnleffe in waters. $
4 luncus acutus pr the fharpe Rufh,is likewife common and well knowne j not much differing from luncus l&uis, but harder,rougher,and fharper pointed, fitter to ftraw houfes and chambers than any of the reft for the others are fo foft and pithy, that they turne to duft and filth with much treading where contrariwife this rufh is fo hard that it lafts found much longer.
$ 5 There is alfo another pretty fmall kinde of Ru fh growing to fome footin height,hauirig fmooth ftalkes which end in a head like to that of the ordinary Horfe-taile. This rufh hath alfo one littlejoynt toward the-bottome thereof. It growes in vVatery places, but notTo frequently as the former. $
1 Uncus Uuis. 4 luncus acutus. 3 luncus aquaticus maximus.
Common Rufhes Sharpe RufhiOrhard Rufh. Great Water-Rufh,or Bul-Rufh.-
0 Theflace.
1 luncus Uuii groweth in fertile fields, and medowes that are fomewhat moift.
2 3 5 Grow in ftanding pooles, and by riuers fidesin fundry places.
4. luncus acutus groweth vpon dry and barren grounds, efpecially neere the furrows of plowed land. I need not fpeake of their time of growing,they being fo common as they are.
*J The Time.
The Rufh is called in Greeke, $e>W: in Latine, luncus: in high Dutcb,J5infteilSin low Dutch, 2Sicfctl t in ltalianyGiunco .-in Spam{h,Iunco: in French, Jaw: in Englifh, Rufhes.
2 3 The Grecians haue called the Bul-Rufti,ft.a?.r The greater are commonly in many places termed Bumbles.
1 luncus Uuis is that Rufh which Diofcorides called
4 luncus acutus is called in Greeke i?a?o,: In Dutch, pUtttX 2Siefctt
5 Th is is called by Lobel, luncus aquaticus minor Captulis Equifeti; By Dalefchamfius, luncus cla* uatustox Club rufh.
j The

Of the Hiftorie ofPlants.
I B.i.
9ft The Nature and Vertues. A ThefeRufhes are ofa dry nature. \
B The feed ofRufhes dried at the firft, and drunke with wine allaied withwator,ftayeththelaske and the ouermuch flowing of womens tearmes.
C' Galen yeeldeth this reafon thereof, becaufe that their temperature confifteth of an earthly eT. fence.moderately cold and waterie, and meanely hot, and therefore doth the more eafilydrievp the lower parts, and by little and little fend vp the cold humors to the head, whereby it prouoketh drowfinefleanddefire to fleepe,but caufeth the head-ache; whereof Galen yeeldeth the reafon as
D The'tender leaues that be next the root make a conuenient ointment againft the biting of the
Spider called phalangium. E1 -The feed of theBull-Rufh is moft foporiferous, and therefore the greater care muft behad in the
adminiftration thereof,leaft in prouoking fleepe you induce a drowfineffe or dead deep.
Chap. 30. Of IZeeds,
OF Reeds the Ancients haue fet downe many forts. Theophraftus hath brought them all firft into two principall kindes, and thofe hath he diuided againe intomoe forts. Thetwoprin-cipall are thefe, Aulcticapx Tihidss Arundinestand Arunde vaSatoria. Of thefe and the reft we will fpeake in their proper places.
X Arundovallatoria, Common Reed.
2 Arundo Cypria. Cypreffe Canes.
9ft The Defcription.
I r~Y~l He common Reed hath long ftrawie ftalkes, full of knotty joints or knees like vnto J[ corne, whereupon doe growvery long rough flaggy leaues. The tuft or fpokie eare doth grow at the top of the ftalkes, browne of colour, barren and without feed, and doth refemble a bufh of feathers,which turneth into fine downe or cotton which iscaried away with the winde. The root is thicke, long,and full of ftrings,difperfing themfelues farre abroad,

Lib. i. Of the Hiflorie of Plants
whereby it doth greatly iucreafe. t Baubine reports, That he receiued From D.Cargilla ScOttifh man a Reed whofe leaues were a cubit long, and two or three inches broad, with fome nerues apparently running alongft the leafejthefe leaues at the top were diuided intotwo, three,or foure points or parts 5 as yet I haue not obferued it. Bauhine termes it Arundo Anglicafol'dsinfummitaH diffeclk. t
i The Cyp'reffeReed is .a great Reed hauing ftalkes "exceeding long, fometimes twenty or thirtie foot high, ofawoo'dy fuftance, fet with very great leaues like that of Turky Wheate. Ic carriethat the top the like downie tuft that the former doth.
3 ^Arundo farcia. 3 Thefe Reeds Lobelius hath feene in the Low coun-
Sturfed Canes. tries brought from Conftantinople, where, as it is faid,
4" Calamus fagittalis Lobelij. the people of that countrey haue procured them from Small fluffed Reed, the parts of the Adriaticke fea fide where they doe grow.
5 NafiosCluJfj,. They are full ftuft with a fpongeousfubftance, fo that 1 Turky walking ftaues. there is no hollowneffe in the fome,as in Canes and other
6 Arundo fcriptoria. Reeds, except here and there certaine fmall pores or pafc Turkie writing Reed. fages of the bigneffc of a pinnes point in manner fuch
jf a pith as is tobe found in the Bull-Rufh,but more firme
r^gjSI!^. andfolid. iijnS'il 4 The fecond differeth in fmalnelfe, and that it will
winde open in fleakes, otherwife they are very like,and are vfed for darts,arrowes, and fuch like.
5 This great fort of Reeds'or Canes hath no particular defcription toanfweryour expectation, for that as yet there is not any man which hath written thereof,efpe-cially of the manner of growing of them, either of his owne knowledge or report from others, fo that it fhall fuffice that ye know that that great cane is vfed efpecially in Conftantinople and thereabout, of aged and wealthy Citifens, and alfo Noblemen and fuch great perfo-nages, to make them walking ftaues of, earning them at the top with fundry Scutchions, and pretty toyes of itrjagerie for the beautifying of them-and fo they of the better fort doe garnifh them both with filuer and gold, as the figure doth moft liuely fet forth vnto you.
1$ In like manner the fmaller fort hath not as yet beene feene growing of any that haue beene curious in herbarifme,whereby they might fet downe any certainty thereof; onely it hath beene vfed in Conftantinople and thereabout, euen to this day to make writing pens with-aII,for the which it doth very fitly ferue, as alfo to make pipes,and fuch like things of pleafure, % The Place.
Thecommon Reed groweth in ftanding waters and in the edges and borders of riuers almoft euery where; and the other being the angling Cane for fifhers groweth in Spaine and thofe hot Regions.
f The Time.
They fiourifh and rloure from Aprill to the end of September,at what time they are cut downo for the vfe of man, as all do know.
^| TheTQmes.
The common Reed is called Arundp^nd Harundo vallatoria: in French, Rofeau: in Dutch, i in Italian, Came afarfiepo: of Diofc.Phragmitis: in Englifh, Reed.
Arundo Cypria or after Lobelius,Arundo Donax: in French,C*0 9j The Nature. Reeds are hot and dry in the fecond degree, as Galen faith.
m\ The Vertues.
The roots of reed ftamped fmall draw forth thorns and fplinters fixed in any part of mans body. A The fame ftamped with vinegre eafe all luxations and members out of joynt, r* And likewife ftamped they heale hot and fharpe inflammations. The afhes of them mixed with
vinegre helpe fihe fcales and fcurfe of the head, and the falling of the faaire.
' The

Of the Hiflorie of Plants.
ib. i.
D The grcar Reed or Cane is not vfed in phyficke, but is efteemed to make Hears for Weauers fundry forts ofpipes, as alfo to light candles that ftand before Images, and to make, hedges and pales, as wedo of lats and fuch like 3 and alfo to make certaine diuifions infhjps to divide the fivcet oranges from the fowre, the Pomecitron andiemmoas likewik infunder,and many other purpofes.
K^irundo Saccharina. Sugar Cane.
Chap. 31. Of SugarXane.
9ft The Defcription.
SVearCaneis a pleafantand profitable Reed, hauing long ftalkes feuen or eight foot high ioynted or kneed like vnto the great Cane; the leaues come forth of euery joynt on euery fide of the ftalke one, like vnto wings, long, narrow,and fharpe pointed. The Cane it felfe or ftalke is not hollow as the other Canes or Reeds are, but full, and ftuffedwitha ipongeous fubftance in tafteexceeding fweet 'The root is great and long, creeping along within the vpoer cruft of the earth,which is likewife fweet and pleafant,but leffe hard or woody than other Canes or Reeds from the which there doth ihoot forth many young fiens, which are cutaway from the maine o'r mother planr,becaufe they fhould not draw away the nourifhment from the old ftocke and fo get vnto themfelues a little moifture, or elfe fome fubftance not much worth, and caufe the ftocke to be barren,and themfelues little the better 5 which fhoots do ferue for plants to
fet abroad for encreafe.
9ft The Place.
The Sugar Cane groweth in many parts of Europe abthisday,as in Spaine, Portugal,01bia, and in Pro-uence. It groweth alfo in Barbarie, generally almoft euery where in the Canarie I (lands, and in thofe of Madera,intheEaft and Weft Indies, and many other places. My felfe did plant fome (hoots thereof in my garden,and fome in Flanders did the like: but the coldneffeofour clymat made an end of mine, and I rhinkthe FJemmings will haue the like profit of their labour.
9^ The Time. This Cane is planted at any time Of the yeare in thofe hot countries where it doth naturally grow,by reafon they feare no frofts to hurt the young (hoots at their firft planting.
9ft The Names. r The Latines haue called this plant Arundo Saccha-rina, with this add itament, Indica, becaufe it was firft knowne or brought from India. Of fome it is called, Calamus Saccharatus .: in Englifh,Sugar Cane : in
Dutch, -&u#cfcenfeftt*
The Nature and Vertue. The Sugar or juice of this Reed is of a temperate qualitie5it dricth and cleanfeththe ftomacke, ma-keth fmooth the roughneffe of the breft and lungs, cleareth the voice, and putteth away hoarfeneffe, the cough,and all foureneffe and bitterneffeaas Ifaac faith in Dictis. 9ft The Vfe.
Ofthejuyceofthis Reed is made the moft pleafantand profitable fweet, called Sugar, whereof is made mfiniteconfeaions,confeaures, Syrups and fuch like, as alfo preferuing and con-feruing of fundry fruits,herbes,and floures,as Rofes, Violets,Rofemary floures,and flich like, which ftill retaine with them the name of Sugar,as Sugar Rofet, Sugar Violet, &c. The- which to write of would require a peculiar volume,and not pertinent vnto this hiflorie, for that it is not mypurpofetomake of my booke a Confectionary, a Sugar Bakers furnace, a Gentlewomans
chief elt fcriptions
yon the ordering of thefe reeds

Li %: i. Of the Hiflorie of Plants.
when they be new gathered, as I receiued it from the mouth of an Indian my feruant :he faith, They cut them in fmall pieces, and put them into a trough made of one whole tree, wherein they put a great ftone in manner ofamilI-ftone,whereunto they tie a gorfe,bufHe, or fome other beaft which draweth it round: in which trough they put thofe pieces of Canes, and fo crufh and grind them as we doe the barkes of trees for Tanners, or apples for Cyder. But in fome places they vfe a great wheele wherein flaues doe tread and walke as dogs do in turning the fpit: and fome others doe feed as it were thebottomeofthe faid wheele, wherein are fome fharpe or hard things which doe cut and crufh the Canes into powder*, And fome likewife haue found the inuention to turne the wheele with water works, as we doe our Iron mills. The Canes being thus brought intodufi or powder,they put them into great cauldrons with a little water,where theyboile vntill there be no more fweetneffeleft in thecrufhed reeds. Then doe they ftraine them through mats or fuch like thingSj and put the liquor to boile againe vnto the confidence of hony, which being cold is like vnto fand both in (hew and handling, but fomewhat fofter; and fo afterwards it is carried into all parts ofEurope, where it is by the Sugar Bakers artificially purged and refined to that whiteneffe as we fee.
jo r>rr; v
Chap. 31. Of Flouring Ifyed.
^Arundo florida. Flouring Reed.
9j The Defcription.
FLourifhing Reed hath, a thicke and fat ftalke of foure or'Sue foot high, great below neere the ground, and fmaller toward the top, taper-wife5 whereupon do grow very faire broad leaues full of ribs Or finewes like vnto Plantaine, in (hape representing the leaues ofwhiteHellebor,or the great Gentian, but much broader and larger euery way at the top of which ftalkes do grow phantafticke floures of a red or vermilion colour j Which being faded, there follow roundjrough, and prick ly knobs, like thofe of Sparg'a. /f,or water-Burre,of a browne colour,and from the middle of thofe knobs three fmall leaues. The feed contained in thofe knobs is exceeding black,of a per-fe&roundneffe,of the bigneffe of the fmalleft peafe. The root is thicke,knobby,and tuberous,with certain. fmall threds fixed thereto, t There is a variety of this, hauing floures of a yellow or Saffron colour, with red joints.
ff the Place.
It groweth in Italy in the garderiof Padua,and many other places of thofe hot regions. My iel fe haue planted it in my garden diuers times, but it neuer came to flouring or feeding,for that it is very impatient to endure the injurie of our cold clymat. It is a" natiueof^c Weft Indies.
WJ: fj The Time. It muft be fet or fowen in the beginning of April!, in a pot with fine earth, or in a bed made with horfe* duiig,and fome earth ftrawed thereon, in fuch manner as Cucumbers artd Muske-Melons are. TheTQmes.
The name Arundo indie a is diuerfly attributed to fhndry of the Reeds, but principally vnto this,called of'LobelimyCannacotits i otdthetSyi^drundojloridd, and Harundoflorida: in Englifh, the Flouring Reed.
*j The Nature and Vertues. There is not any thing fet downe as touching the temperature and vertues of this Flourifhing Reed, either of the Ancients, or of the new or later Writers,

Of the Hiftorie of Plants.
Lib. i.
PaprR.driatrtmanvlareeflaeKie leaues fomewhat triangular and fmooth,not much vnlike heSmootethv^twoor three
high aboue the water:at the top wherof there ftands a tuft or bundle of chaffie threds fet in come. lyorder,refemblingatuftoffioures,butbarienandvoidoffeed. ^gg^
papyrus Nilotic a, Paper Reed.
This kinde of Reed growes in the Riuers about Babylon,and neere the city Alcaire, in the riuer Nilus, and fuch other places of thofe countries.
" ff TheTime,
Thetimeoffpringingandflourifhingan-fwereth that of thecommon Reed.
.......9ft ^TheWim'eJ.
This kinde of Reed, which I haue Engli. fhed Paper Reed,or Paper plant,is the fame (as I doe reade) that Paper was made of in iEgypt, before the inuehtion of paper made of linnen clouts was found out. It is thought by men of great learning and vnder ftanding in the Scriptures,and fet downe by them for truth, that this plant is the fame Reed mentioned in the fecond chapter of Exodus-, whereof waj? made that basket or cradle, which was dawbed within and without with flime of that countrey,calIed Bitumen ludai. fw,wherein UUcfes was put being committed to the water, when Pharaoh gaue com-mandement that all the male children of the Hebrewes fhould be drowned. *
9ft The Nature, Vertuts,nndVfc. The toots of Paper Reed doe nourifh, as may appeare by the people of ^Egypt,\yhich doe vfe to chew them in their raouthes, and fwallow downe the juice, finding therein great delight and comfort. The afhes burned affwage and confume hard apoftumes, tumors, and corafiue vlcers in any part of the body, but chiefely in themouth.
Theburnt Paper made hereof doth performe thofe* effeds more forcibly. The ftalkes hereof haue a Angular vfe and priuiledge in opening the channels and hollow paffa-ges of a Fiftula, being put therein j for they doe fwell as doth thepithofElder,oratent made of a fponge.
The people about Nilus do vfe to burne the leaues and ftalkes,but e fpecially the roots.
The frailes wherein they put Raifms and.figs are fometimes made hereof h but generally with the herbe Spartum, defcribed in the next Cnapter. .. -
ha p.
The Kindes.
Therebediuers kindes of Mat^weeds,as fhall be declared in theirfeueralldefcriptions.
*[ The Defcription.
THe herbe Spares Pliny faith, groweth ofitlelfe, and fendeth forth from therbota multitude of flender rufhie leaues of a cubit high, or higher, tough and pliable, of a whitifh
is the Rufh. The ftub or ftalke thereof beareth at the top certaine feather-like tufts comming

Lib. i.
Of the Hiftorie of Plants.
forth of a fhcath or huske* among the which chaffic huskes is contained the feed, long and chaffic. The rootconfiftetfiof many firings folding one within another,by meanes'whereof it commeth to the forme of a tuft-or haffocke..
i Spartum Plinij Clafio. Mat-Weed.
2 Spartum dterum Plinij. Hooded Mat-Weed.
2 The fecond likewife defcribethto haue a long ftalke not muchvnlike to Reed,* but lefler, whereupon doe grow many graffie leaueS, rough and pliant, hard in handling as are rhe Rufhes. A fpokie chaffie tuft groweth at the top of the ftalke, comming forth of a hood or finewie fheatbjfuch as ehclofeth the floures of Onions, Leekes, Narciffus, and fuch like, before they come to flouring, with feed and roots like the precedent.
3 Englifh Mat-weed hath a rufhie root, deepely creeping and growing in heapes of fand and grauell, from the which arife ftiffeand iharpe pointed leaues a foot and a halfe long,ofa whitifli colour,very much refernbling thofe of Camels hay. The ftalke groweth to the height of a cubit or more,wherereupon doth grow a fpike X or eare of fome fiue Or fix inches long, fomewhat refernbling Rie; it is the thickenefle of a finger in the midft,and fmaller towards both the ends. The feed is browne as fmall as Canarie feed,but round and fomewhat fharpe at theoneend^. Ofthis plant neither Sheepe nor any other Cattel will tafte or eate.
4 This other Englifh Mat-Weed is like vnto the former, fauing that the roots of this are long, not vnlike to Dogs Grafle,but do not thruft deepe into the ground, but creepe onely vnder the vppercruft of the earth. Thetuftor eare is fhorter,and more refernbling the head of Canary iced than thatofRie.
$ 5 Lobel giues a figure of another fmaller Ruflvleaued Spartttm with fmall heads, but hee hath not defcribed it in his Latine Workes,fo that I can fay nothing certainely of it.
6 To this kindred muft be added the Feathered Grafle, though not pertaking with the former in place of growth. It bath many fmall leaues of a foots lengtb,round, greene and fharpe ported, not much in forme vnlike the firft defcribed Mat-weed, but much leffe: amongft thefe leaues rife vp many fmall ftalkes not exceeding the height of the leaues, which beare a fpike vnlike the fore-mentioned Mat.weeds, hauing three or foure feeds ending in,orfendingvp very fine white Fea-thcrs,refembling the fmaller fort of feathers of the wings of the Bird of Paradife.The root confifts fmall graffie fibres.
D %

Of the Hiflorie ofPIants.
i b.i.
3 Sptrtum Anglicantim.
' Englifh Mat-weed or Helme.
J 6 Spartttm A'ujlriacum. Feather-graffe.
2 Spartttm Anglicanum alteram. Small Englifh Mat-weed or Helme.
9ft The Place. i 2 Thefe grow in diuers places of Spain. $ 3 I being in company with M. Thorn.Rich, W. Broad, and three other London Apothecaries .befidesjin Auguft 163 2,to find out rare plants in the Ifle of Tenet, found this bigger Englifh one in great plenty, as foone as wee came to the fea fide,goingbetweene Margate and Sandwich.
4, 5. Thefe it may be grow alfo vpon out coafis jhoweuer, they grow neere the fea fide in diuers parts of the Low-countries.
6 This elegant plant Cluftus firft obferued to grow naturally in the mountaines nigh to the Baths of Baden in Germany,and in diuers places of Auftria and Hungary. It is nonrifhed for the beauty in fundry of our Englifh gardens, t 9ft The Time. Thefe beare their heads in the middle,8: fome in the later end of Sommer.
9ft the Names. t i This is called Spartttm primum that is,the firft Mat-weed defcribed by Plin") j? Spain they call it Spam: the French in P'rouince tetme it olpho.
2 This is Spartttm altemm Pliny PUniti fecond Mat-wced,or Hooded Matweed:it is called y^dlhardin'm Spain.
3 This is Spartttm 3. Clufij, and Gramen Spur-teumfecund.Schcenant&inum of Taker. Our A"^or

Lib. i.
Of the Hiflorie of Plants*
gaue CIttfiw his figure for the firft, and Tabernamontanm figure for the fecond Spartttm Anglicanitm: but I will thinke them both of one plant (though Bauhine diftinguifh them)vntil fome thai make the contrary manifeft.This the Dutch call I^aUne; and our Englifh in Tenet,HeIme.r>w>" cals it Sea-Bent.
4 This is Spartttm herba 4 Bafavicum of Clufixs Gramen Spartetim, or Ttmci spartium of Taberni and our Author gaue 7*4^r.figure,Chap. 2 3 .of this Booke, vnder the title of Itmcus marines gra-mincm: Lobel calls it Spartttm nofiras alterttm. 5 Lobel calls this^Spartum noftrasparvum: of which fee the figure and defoription at the end of the booke.
6 Clttfws calls thi^Spartum Aufiriacum Dalefchampittt, Gramenpinnatum: wein England call It Gramen plumofumpx Feathered-grafie. $
:!^f- TheTemperature^Vertues^andvfe.
Thefe kinds of graffie Or rather rufhy Reeds haue no vfe in phyfickCj but ferue to make Mats A| and hangings for chambers, frailes,baskets,and fuch like. The people of the countries where they grow do make beds of them, ftraw their houfes and chambers in ftead of Rufhes, for which they do excell, as ray felfe hauefeen. Turner affirmes,That they made hats of the Englifh one in Northumberland in his time.
-. They do likewife in fundry places of the Iflands of Mader3jCanaria,S .T&?w The Feather-graffe is worne by fundry Ladies and Gentlewomen in ftead of a Feather,which it G txquifitly refembles.
Chap. 53. Of Qamels^Hay.
I Sccenanthum. Camels Hay,
"io.gsic'ijj ?jrri&a 5rsj33U3 r- r h: tab isd:-.> hn^^ontnx 'V.fcio ibflfinp v.';....
ft n
2 Sccenanthumadukerinuml Baftard Camels Hay
. .;::iW <&3n -: JgUOJ liu
iforii tuplbbirn arf laiwhpifulntagj'"' -
... -Liiiiil .'.l.i I (nenifoU rl; ^IsuhwtL mi. >uteT;Sftcd
*J The Defcription. Mike vnto Mat-We
quantitiemeane, full of fmall haires orthreads proceeding from the bigger Root, deepely growing in theground,bauing diuers long ftalkes like Cyp erus Grafle, fee
* C^AmClS k*"*1 ^*" v"^ik?.vnto^ait"Weedor HeIme Hls roots are many, in

44 Of the Hiflorie of Plants. L i b. i.
?3 51 i M Oa. of a reafonable good fmell and fauour when they are broken,hke vto
like thofe of wilde Oats, of a reafonable good (mell and iauour wnen rney are DroKen,nice vmoa Rofe with a certaine biting and nipping of the tongue.
t C<* (of famous memorie) a good Phy fition and skilful} Herbarift, gathered o the coaft of the Mediterranean fea,betweene Aigues Mortes and Pe^jre, this, bea^full Plant whofe roots, are creeping,and ftalks and leaues refemble^S^
and thicke comparand fome Hue or fixinches in len^hke^ they in colour refem.
blewhite filke or liluer. Thus much Lobel. Our Author defcribed thisinthe firft place5Chap,?3( vnder luncus marinm-gramineus; for fo Lobel calls it.
] The Place;.
1 This growes In Africa, Nabatha.-a,ancl Arabia,and is a ftranger in thefe Northern regions,
2 The place of the fecond is mentioned in the defcription.
f The Time.
Their time anfwereth the other Reeds and'Flags.
j The Names. .'
Camels Hay is called in Greeke,cw'"f: in Latine, luncus odoratus, and Scananthum;'^ {hops,Squinanthum,that is, Floslunci: inVveneh^PaJleurdeChammeau: in Englifh, Camels Hay, andSquinanth,
2 This Lobel calls luncus marinusgramweus^xAPfetidofihcenanthum: Wecal 1 it baftard Squi, nanth,and Fox-taile Squinanth.
the Temperature. T his plant is indifferently hot, and a little aftri&iue.
*ft.!tbeV ertues. : Camels Hay prouoketh vrinc,moueth the termes,and breaketh winde about the ftomacke.^ It caufethaking and heauineffe oFthe&eafl -:Galen yeeldeth this teafon thereof, becaufe it hea. P teth moderatly, and bindeth with tenuitie of parts.
jy According to Diofcorides^ it diflblues,digefts,and opens the paffages of the veins.
The floures orchaffie huskjs are profitable in drinke for them that pifle bloud any wayes. It is giuen in medicines that areminiftred to cure the paines and griefes of the guts, ftomacke, lungs, liuer,and reins,the fulneffe,Ioathfomneffe,and other defects of the ftomackei the dropfie, convul-fion or fhrinking of finues,giuen in the quantitie of a drame, with a like quantitie of pepperfor
P fome few dayes.
The fame boiled in wine helpeth the inflammation of the matrice,if the woman do fit ouer the fume thereoLand bathe her felfe often with it alfo. ffi,' -N/'/
Chap. 36. OJTSurreSRgel
-Hefirftofthefeplantshathlongleaues, which are double edged/or fharpeon both L Ifff a m$ cre&in the middle,in fuch manner>raifed vp that itfeerheth tobe triang eor three-fquare. The ftalks grow among the leaues.and arc tWopr three foot ig diuided into many branches}garnifhed withfmany prickly husks Of k'nops of the big-neffefefamit. The root is full of hairy ftrings. ( WlTf *
hnisIeaues"fingimmediatlyftomthe^ftor^bf theroot A this kinde
ftalke and ftomrS T^7' fmej?ues fti 1 g^ing aboue others, euen to the top of the wharfs or SlSf ?dovTnward bycertaine diftarices. It is garnifhedwith many round
. fc TW^ ynePlav.e W? u 3re-VerZ ?mmon>and 8^ in moift medo>es and neere vnto water courts They
~ru u- c "ff XheTime. \
They bring for;tn their burry bulkts or feedy knots in Auguft.

L IB. I. Of the Hiflorie of Plants; 45
<|f The Names'.
Thefe plants of fome are called Spatganium: Theophraflus in his fourth booke and eighteenth chap, calleth them Butomus: of fome, Platanaria i I call them Burre-Reed: in the Arabian tongue they are called Safarhe Bamon : in Italian, Sparganio: of Dodonaus, Car ex. Some call the firft Spar-' ganium ramofumprbranched Burre Reed. The &cond,Sparganium non r4?tffw,Not-branched Bur Reed.
9ft The Temperature. They are cold and dry of complexion.
The Vertues.
Some write,that the knops or rough burres of thefe plants boiled in wine,are good againft the bitingsof venomous beafts, if they be either drunke, or the wound wafhed therewith.
Chap. 37. Of Cats-taile*
The Description<
CAts-tailehath long and flaggy leaues full of a fpongeoUs matter or pith, amongft which leaues groweth vp a long fmobth naked ftalke without knot,fafhioned like a fpeare,of a firm or follid fubftance,hauing at the top a browne knop or eare, foft,thick,and fmoth,feeraing to be nothing elfe but a deale of flocks thicke fet and thruft together,which being ripe turns into a downe and is carried away with the winde. The roots be hard, thicke, and white, full of ftringsj and good to burne,where there is plenty thereofto be had.
9ft The Place.
It groweth in pooles and fuch like ftanding waters,and fometimes in running ftreames. I haue found a fmaller kinde hereof growing in the ditches and marifhie grounds in the I fie of Shepey,going from Sherland houfe to Feuerfham.
9ft The Time.
They floure and beare their mace or torch in Iuly and Auguft. *;
i\, f The*

Of the .Hiflorie of Plants.
Typha. Cats-taile.
9^ The Names. It is called in Greeke, Typhe: in Latine, Typha 0f fome, Centrum Morionis : in French, Mortem (Jkaffes. in DutckifftPoDemand 50nCcn t in Italian,M^^. da: in Spanifh, Behordo, and lunco amacorodato: in Englifh, Cats-taile or Reed-mace. Of this Cats-taile Ari-flophanes makes mention in his Comedy of Frogs,where he bringeth them forth one talking with another, being very glad that they had fpent the whole day in skipping and leaping inter Cyperum & Phleum, among Galingale and Cats- taile. Ovidfeemes to name this plant Scirpus. for hee termeth the mats made of the leaues,Cats.taile mats: as in his fixt booke Faprum,
At DominuSydifcedite^ait^pla&freque morantes Suftulit, inplaujlrofcirpea matt a fait.
9\ The Nature. It is cold and dry of complexion.
9j The Vertues. The foft downe ftamped with Swines greafe wel wa fhedjhealeth burnes or fcalds with fire or water. B Some Praditionersby their experience haue found,
that the downe of the Cats taile beaten with the leaues of Betony, the roots of Gladiole, and the leaues of Hyp. pogloffbn intopouder,and mixed with the yelks of egges hard fodden,& foeaten,is a moft perfect, remedy againft thedifeafe in children called nmyu'u, which is, when the gutcalled Inteftinum cecum is fallen into the cods. This medicine muft be miniftred-eueryday fafting for thirty dayes fpace: the quantitie thereof to be miniftred at once is i. 5. This being vfed as before is fpecified,doth not onely helpe children and ftriplings, but growne men alfo,if in time of their cure they vfe conuenieut ligature or tru flings, and fit con-gerie P eIS vPontDe gneued place, according to art appointed for thatpurpofe in Chirur-
This downe in fome places of the Ifle of Ely and the Low-countries adioyning thereto, is ga-thered and well fold to make mattreffes thereof for plow-men and poore people
nl.V^i 1, ur pr0UC? tohea^kibed orhumbledheeles,(as they are tcrmed)being applied to them either before or after the skin is broken. .
Chap. }8. Of Stitch^wort.
9ft The Defcription.
1 QTitch-wort, or as Ruelliu s termeth it, Holojleum, is of two kindes, and hath round tender ^ ft^ks full of joints leaning toward the ground: at euery ioynt grow two leaues one a-
gainft another .The floures be white,confiftihgofmany fmall leaues fetinthe manner of a ftar. The roots are fmall, ioynted,and threddy. The feed is contained in fmall heads fomewhat lonpnd fharp at the vpperend ;and when it is npe,itis very fmall,and browne.
2 The fecond is like the former in fhape of leaues and floures, which are fet in form of a ftar but the leaues are orderly placed,and in good proportion,by couples two together,being of a vvhi-tifh colour W hen the floures be vaded,then follow the feeds, which are inclofed in bullets like the feed of flax but not fo round. The chiues or threds in the middle of the floure are fometimes ofa reddifh or blackifh colour. *There are more differences of this plant, or rather varieties, as differing little but mthe largeneffeof the leaues, floures,and ftalks. $
, H The Place.
They grow in the borders of fields vpon banke fides and hedges almoft euery where.
They flourifh all the Summer, efpecial ly in Ma^Ind lime,

JLlB. I.
Of the Hiflorie of Plants.
Gramen Leucanthemttm. fj The Names.
Some (as Kuellim for one) haue thought this to be the plant which the Grecians calL'OAfew :in Latine* totaoffea r in Englifh, All-bone. Wherofi feenorea-fon,vnIeffc it be by the figure Antonomia ; as when we fay in Englifh,he is an honeft man,our meaning is,he is a knaue: for this is a tender herbe hauing no fuch bony fubftance. % Dodonaus queftidns whether this plant be not Crat&ogonon; and he calls it Gramen Leucanthemttm, or White floured Graffe. The qualitie here noted with B,is by Diofcorides giuen toCrat&ogo-non, but it is with his i^^^a^, that is, fome fay Or report fo much. Which phrafe of fpeechhee often vfeth when as hee writes faculties by heare-fay, and doubts himfelfe of the truth of them.
The Nature.
The feed of Stitch-wort,as Galen writeth, is fharpe and biting tohim that taftes it; and to him that vfeth it very like to Mill.
T T$>e Vertues. They are wont to drinke it in wine with the pouder h, of Acornes,againft the paine in the fide, ftitches,and fuehlike.
Diuers report, tilth. Diofcorides, That the Seed of B Stitchwort being drunke, caufeth a woman to bring forth a man childe>if after the purgation of her fick-nefle, before fheconceiue, fhee doe drinke it falling thrice in a day,halfe a dram at a time, in three ounces of water many dayes together.
V!X"'Xi V .--' .'. v '........ -;-- ......-.'-S
,. ^$flJ!M3flA 3jB?-^l^?^RShi^'2 3fi*J i', .1"' *." -'_'
Chap. jp. Of Spider-wort.
mj The Defcription.
j '"TpHeobfcure defcription which Diofcorides and Pliny haue fet down for Phalangium,h&thl \ bred much contention among late writers. This plant hath leaues much like Couch { graffe,but they are fomewhat thicker and fatter,and of a more whitifh green colour. The ftalks grow to the height of a cubit. The top of the ftalke is befet with fmall branches, garni-? fhed with many little white floures,compar. of fix leaues.The threds or thrums in the middle are whififh,mixed with a faire yellow: which being fallen, there follow blacke feeds inclofed in final round knobs which be three cornered. The roots be many.tough $and white of colour.
2 The fecond is like the firft,but tlftt his ftalke is not branched as the firft,and floureth a mo-ncth before the other.
3 The third kinde of Spiderwort,whichC//*/# $ 4 This Spiderwort hath a root confifting of many thick long and white fibres,not much vnlike the precedent, out of which it fends forth fome fine or fix greene and firme leaues, fomewhat hollow in the middle, and mutually involving each other, at the root. Amongft thefe there jrifethvp a round greene ftalke, beating at the top thereof fomenineor ten floures, more or leffej JThefe confift of fix leaues a piece,of colour white, (the three innermoft leaues are the broader, |and more Curled, and the three outmoft are tipt with greene at the tops.) The whole floure much >>. v,,.. x refembles

Of-tKc Hiflorie of Plants.
Lib. i.
KfcpibleawhiteLilly,bntmiichfinailcr. Three fquarc heads containing a dusky and vnequall feed follow after the floure. *
' x Phdangiumrmofrm. Phddngiutnnonrdmofum.
Branched Spiderwort.
^ j-----.
Vnbranched Spiderwort.
} 3 PhdanghmCreta'. Candy Spider-wort.
$ 4 PbdanghviAnti^tt^um^^-' The true Spiderwort of the Ancients?
5 pbdatfgfofl

I Bi i.
OfinfielHiflJQrferM Hate
5 phalangium VirginidnumTradefc. Tradefcants Virginian Spider-wort.
5 This plant in my iudgment cannot be fit-lier ranked with any than thefe laft defcribed ^ therefore I haue here giuen him .the lift place,as the laft commer. It hath many creeping ftxingy rootSjWhich here and there put vp green leaues in fhaperefernbling thofe of the laft defcribed: a-mongft thefe thererifeth vp a pretty ftiffe ftalke. jointed, & hauing at each joint pne Ieafe incom-paffing the ftalke, and out of whofebofbme oft-times little branches arife: npty the ftalke at the top vfually diuides it felfe into two leau^mUch after the manner of CyperusJoQtween which come forth many flours3confifting of three prety large leaues apiece,of Colour deepeblew,with reddifh chines tipt with yellow ftanding in their middle. Thefe fading, ( as vfually they do the fame day they fhew themfelues)there fucceed little heads couered with the three little leaues that fuftained the floure. In thefe heads there is contained a long blackifh feed.
J The Place. 1.2.3. Thefe grow Only in gardens with vs, and that very rarely. 4 This growes naturally in fome places of Sauoy. 5 This Virginian is in many of our Englifh gardens, as with M.r.Par-kinjon, WTradefcdnt, and others.
The Time.
1.4.5. Thefe floure in Iune; the fecond a-bout the beginning of Iune, and thethird aoout Augufh
The Nantes.
The firft is called Phalangium ramofum, branched Spider-worti 2, phalangiumnon ramofum,Vn-branched Spider-wbrt. Cordus Calls it Liliago. 3, This Clufius calls <^A$hoddm minor: Lobd,Pha. langium Creia,Candy Spider-wprt. 4 This is thought tpbe the Phalangium of the Antients,arid that of O^atthiolus. It is Phalangium Allobrogicum of Clujius, Sauoy Spider-wort. This by Mr. Par* kinfon (who firft hath in writing giuen the figure and defcription thereof) is aptly termed Phalangium EphemerumVirginlanum,Soon-fading Spiderwort ofVirginia :or Tradefcants Spiderwort,for that WJohn Tradefcant firft procured it from Virginia. Brnhine hath defcribed it at the end of his finaX) and very vnfitly termed-it Allium, fiue CWoly Virginianum. %
9ft The Nature.
Galen, faith, phalangium is of a drying qualitie, by reafori of the tenuitie of parts*
9] The Venues. (j
Diofcorides faith, That the Ieaues,feed,and floures,or any of them drunk in wlne,preuaile againft A the bitings of Scorpions,and againft the ftingingand biting of the Spider called Phalangium,and all otherjenomous beafts.
The~rpots tunned vp in new ale, and drunke for a moneth together, cxpell poyfonjyea although ithauevniueffally fpread it felfe through tne body/
91 .. v>hap. 40* Vt the Moure de-luce*
9ft The Kindes i
'Here be many kindes of Iris or Floure de-lnee, whereof fome are tail and great, fome little, fmall,andlow5fomefmellexceedingfweetin the root, fome haue no fmell at all. Some fr* ll^re ed :'vermes attributedto f6me,orhers not remembred-fome haue tuberous or knobby roots,pthers bgo^rpnio^|p^ts.|Xom^ue..leaues. like flags,othcrs-like graffe or rufhes.

50 Of the Hiftorie of Plants. Lib.i.
q The Defcripion,
t He common Floure de-luce hath long and large flaggy leaues like the blade of a fword I with twoedges.amongft which ^ rine floures toward the top compact of fix leaues ioyned together,wherof three that ftandvpright are bent inward one toward another 5 and in thofe leaues that hang downeward there are certaine rough or hairy welts,growing or riling from the netherpart of the leafe vpward,almoft ofayellow colour. The roots be thicke,long,and knobby,with many hairy threds hanging thereat.
2 The water Floure de-luce,or water FJag,or Acer us,\% like vnto the garden Floure de-luce in roots,Ieaues,and ftalkes,but the leaues are much Ionger,fometimes of the height of foure cubits, and altogether narrower. The floure is of a perfect yellow colour, and the root knobby like the other jbut being cut,it fecmes to be of the colour of raw flefh.
I Irk"vulgaris. 2 Iris falujlris luteal
Floure de-luce; r- ;Water Flags/* Floure de-lucei
wf ThePlacel :
The water Floure de-luce or yellowFlag profpereth well in moift medowes, and in theborders and brinks of Riuers,ponds, and ftanding lakes. Although it be a watery plant of nature,yet being planted in gardens it profpereth well.
*J The Names.
Floure de-luce is called in Greeke, LAthenaus an&Theophraftus reade"ip<>: as though they (hould fay Confecratrix .-by which name itis called.of the Latines,jWz'Ar tMarica,ot rather Rw* Naronica,o theriuer Naron,by which the beft and greateft ftdre do grow.Whereupon Meander id his Treacles comraendeth it thus:
Iridem quam aluit Drilon^ Naronii ripa, Which may thus be Englifhed;
Iris, which Drilonwater feeds, And Narons.bankSjWith other'Weeds?

Lib. i. Of the Hiflorie of Plants
Water flags, baftard Floure de- luce,or Water Floure de-luce : and in the North they call them 'Seggs. ,
9J 7he Nature.
i The roots of the Floure de luce being as yet frefh and greene, and full of juyce, ate hot al-: moft in the fourth degree. The dried roots are hot and dry in the third degree.burning the throat I and mouth of fiich as tafte them.
I 2 The baftard Floure de-luce his root is cold and dry in the third degree,and of anaftringerit or binding facultie. .
The Vertues.
The root of the common Floure de-luce cleane w allied, and ftamped with a few drops of Role- A water,and laid plaifterwife vpon the face of man or woman, doth in two dales at the moft take away the blacknelfe or blewneffe of any ftroke or brufe: fo that if the skinne of the fame woman or any other perfon be very tender and delicate, it (hall be needfull that ye lay a piece of filke,fin-da!l,ora piece of fine laune betweene the plaifter and the skinne j for otherwife in fuch tender bodies it often caufeth heat and inflammation.
The juyce or the fame doth not onely mightily and vehemently draw forth choler,but moft B efpecially watery humors, and is a fpeciall and lingular purgation for them that haue the Drop, fie, if it be druuke in whay or fome other liquor that may fomewhat temper and alay the heate.
The dry roots attenuate or make thinne thicke and tough humours, which are hardly and with C difficultie purged away.
They are good in a, loch or licking medicine for fhortneffe of breath, an old cough and all in- D iirmities of the cheft which rife hereupon.
They remedie thofe that haue euiU'fplecnes, and thofe that are troubled with convulfionsor E cramps, biting of ferpents,and the running of the reines,being drunke with vinegre, as faith Diofcorides ; and drunke with wine it bringeth downe the monethly courfes of women.
Thedeco&ion is good in womens baths,for it mollifieth and openeth the matrix. F
Being boy led very foft,and laid to plaifter-wife it mollifieth or foftneth the kings euill,and old G hard fwellings.
$ The roots of our ordinarie flags are not(as before is deliuered) cold and dry in the third de- H; gree,nor yet in the fecond, as Dodonaus affirmes but hot and dry, and that at the leaft in the fen cond degree, as any that throughly tafts them will confeffe. Neither are the faculties and vfe (as fome would perfuadevs) to be neglected, for as Pen* and Lobel affirme, though it hath no fmell, nor great hear,yet by reafon of other faculties it is much to be preferred before the Galanga major^ or forreine Acorus of fhops, in many difeafes; for it imparts more heat and ftrength to the fto-mackeand neighbouring parts than the other, which rather preyes vpon and diffipates the innate heateand implanted ftrength of thofe parts. It bindes,ftrengthens,and condenfes: it is good in bloudyflixes, and ftaies the courfes. $
C ha p. 41. Of Floure de-luce of Florence.
mft The Defcription.
1 r~T~iHe Floure de-luce of Florence, whofe root in fhops and generally euery whete are
I called lreos, or 0rice (whereof fweet waters, fweet pouders, and fuch I&e are made) is altogether like vnto the common Floure de-luce,fauing that the floures of the ireos is of a white colour,and the roots exceeding fweet of fmell, and the other of no fmell at all.
2 The white Floure de-luce is like vnto the Florentine Floure de-luce in roots, flaggy leaues,and ftalkes; but they differ in that, that this Iris hath his floure of a bleake white colour declining to yellownefle; and the roots haue not any fmell at all; but the other is very fweet, as we haue laid.
3 The great Floure de-luce of Dalmatia hath leaues much broader, thicker, and more clofe-ly compaft together than any of the other, arid fet in order like wings or the fins of a Whale fifh, greene toward the top,and of a fhihing purple colour toward the bottome, euen to the ground: amongft which rifeth vp a ftalkeoffoure foot high,as my felfe did meafure oft times in my garden : whereupon doth grow faire large floures of a light blew, or as we terme it a watchet colour. The floures do fmell exceeding fweet, much like the Orenge floure. The feeds are contained in fquare cods,wherein are packed together many flat feeds like the former, The root hath no fmell at all.