Panama Canal

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal official handbook
Uncontrolled:
Official handbook of the Panama Canal
Physical Description:
30 p. : ill., map ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Isthmian Canal Commission (U.S.)
Publisher:
The Commission
Place of Publication:
Ancon, Canal Zone
Publication Date:
Edition:
2nd ed. rev. and enl..

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Description and travel -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Statement of Responsibility:
compiled by the secretary of the Isthmian Canal Commission.
General Note:
Cover title: Official handbook of the Panama Canal.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 29836252
ocm29836252
sobekcm - AA00006079_00001
Classification:
lcc - TC774 .P35 1911
System ID:
AA00006079:00001

Full Text











Janama Qanal








Qfftcial ajndblook












Atlton, Canatl onte
1911




















































Digitized by Ihe Inie nel Aichije
in 2011 walh funding i orn
University ol Florida. George A. Sinalheils Libraries w'lh suppoi[ Iroan LY RASIS and Ihe Sloan Foundalion


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Contents.
Page.

Canal Appropriations and Expenditures.... 27

Canal, Breakwaters ...................... .. 22

Canal, Dimensions ....... ....... .. .. 5-6

Canal Force, Quarters etc.............. ...... 24

C anal, Profile...... .... ........................ .. 3

Canal, Relief M ap ......... ..... ............ ..... 2

C anal Statistics ..... ... ....... ............. ..... 4

Canal Zone .............. .. ........... 26

Culebra Cut, Cross Sections .......... 17-19-21-23

Dam G atun........ .. ....... ... ..... ... 6

Dam, Gatun, Cross Section ................ 9

Dam, Gatun, Spillway and Locks... ....... 7

Dam s, on Pacific Side ............ ... ......... 10

Equipm ent .. ........... ...... ............ 29-30

Excavation.................. ..... ............ 16-18

Food, Clothing etc...... ....................... 25

French Equipment etc., value of .............. 26

Lake, Gatun, WaterSupply ....... ... 8

Lake, Nliraflores ................ ........... ..... 10

L o ck s ...................... ... ......... ..... .. ... 10 -12 -14

Locks, Cross Section............. ........... 11

Locks, M odel of........................................ ... 13

Locks, wall comparison ................. .......... 15

Relocated Panama Railroad....................... 28

S lides ...................................... .. ... ...... ... 16

Steam Shovel and Train Capacity ........ .. 20









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Canal Statistics.
Length from deep water to deep water (miles)

Length from shore-line to shore-line miles). _......

Bottom width of channel, maximum ifeet).........

Bottom width of channel, minimum, 9 miles, Cule-
bra Cut feet. .................

Locks, in pairs........... .. ........ ......... ...

Locks, usable length eet)... .......................... ....

Locks, usable width (feet)..... ............................

Gatun Lake, area square miles) ........ ..... ....

Gatun Lake, channel depth (feet) ............... .. .

Culebra Cut, channel depth (feet)....................

Excavation, estimated total (cubic yards) ...............

Excavation, amount accomplished May 1, 1911
(cub ic yards ......... .............

Excavation by the French cubic yards)...............

Excavation by French, useful to present Canal,
(cu b ic y a rd s l ..... .............. ...

Excavation by French, estimated value to Canal,

Value of all French property........... ... ........

Concrete, total estimated for Canlal .cubic yardsl..

Time of transit through completed Canal i.hours) .

Time of passage through locks ihours'l..... ...

Relocated Panama Railroad. estimated cost.........

Relocated Panama Railroad, length imiles)..

Canal Zone, area (square miles ..............

Canal and Panama Railroad force actually at work
(ab o u t .. .............. .

Canal and Panama Railroad force, Americans
(a b o u t) ........ .... .... .......... .............

Cost of Canal, estim ated total ...............................

Work begun by Americans ...... .................. ......

D ate of com pletion................................................... .


50

10

1000


300

12

1000

110

164

85 to 45

45

182,537,766


137,750,520

78,146,960


29,908,000

S25,389,240

$42,799,826

5, 000,000

10 to 12

3

S9,000,000

47.1

448


35,000


5000

$375,000,000

May 4, 1904

Jan. 1, 1915














The Panama Canal.


THE entire length of the Canal from deep water
in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific is about
50 miles. Its length from shore-line to shore-line is
about 40 miles. In passing through it from the
Atlantic to the Pacific, a vessel will enter the approach
channel in Limon Bay, which will have a bottom
width of 500 feet and extend to Gatun, a distance of
about seven miles. At Gatun, it will enter a series
of three locks in flight and be lifted 85 feet to the level
of Gatun Lake. It may steam at full speed through
this lake, in a channel varying from 1,000 to 500 feet in
width, for a distance of about 24 miles, to Bas Obispo,
where it will enter the Culebra Cut. It.will pass
through the Cut, a distance of about nine miles, in a
channel with a bottom width of 300 feet, to Pedro
Miguel. There it will enter a lock and be lowered 301
feet to a small lake, at an elevation of 54| feet above
sea level, and will pass through this for about 11 miles
to Miraflores. There it will enter two locks in series
and be lowered to sea level, passing out into the Pa-
cific through a channel about 8- miles in length, with
a bottom width of 500 feet. The depth of the ap-
proach channel on the Atlantic side, where the maxi-
mum tidal oscillation is 21 feet, will be 41 feet at mean
tide, and on the Pacific side, where the maximum
oscillation is 21 feet, the depth will be 45 feet at mean
tide.
Throughout the first 16 miles from Gatun, the width
of the Lake channel will be 1,000 feet; then for 4 miles
it will be 800 feet, and for 4 miles more, to the northern
entrance of Culebra Cut at Bas Obispo, it will be 500
feet. The depth will vary from 85 to 45 feet The
water level in the Cut will be that of the Lake, the
depth 45 feet, and the bottom width of the channel
300 feet.
Three hundred feet is the minimum bottom width
of the Canal. This width begins about half a mile










The Panama Canal (Continued.)
above Pedro Miguel locks and extends about 8 miles
through Culebra Cut, with the exception that. at all
angles the channel is widened sufficiently to allow a
thousand-foot vessel to make the turn. The Cut has
eight angles, or about one to every mile. The 300-
foot widths are only on tangents between the turning
basins at the angles. The smallest of these angles is
70 36', and the largest 300.
In the whole Canal there are 22 angles, the total
curvature being 6000 51'. Of this curvature, 2810 10'
are measured to the right, going south, and 319 41' to
the left. The sharpest curve occurs at Tabernilla. and
is 670 10'.
Gatun Dam.
The Gatun Dam, which will form Gatun Lake by
impounding the waters of the Chagres and its tribu-
taries, will be nearly 1I miles long, measured on its
crest, nearly i mile wide at its base, about 400 feet
wide at the water surface, about 100 feet wide at the
top, and its crest, as planned, will be at an elevation of
115 feet above mean sea level, or 30 feet above the nor-
mal level of the Lake. Of the total length of the Dam
only 500 feet, or i, will be exposed to the maximum
water head of 85 feet. The interior of the Dam will
be formed of a natural mixture of sand and clay,
dredged by hydraulic process from pits above and
below the Dam, and placed between two large masses
of rock and miscellaneous material obtained from
steam shovel excavation at various points along the
Canal. The top and upstream slope will be thor-
oughly riprapped. The entire Dam will contain
about 21,000,000 cubic yards of material.
The Spillway is a concrete lined opening, 1,200
feet long and 300 feet wide, cut through a hill of
rock nearly in the center of the Dam. the bottom of
the opening being 10 feet above sea level. It will
contain about 225,000 cubic yards of concrete.
During the construction of the Dam, all the water
discharged from the Chagres and its tributaries will
flow through this opening. When construction
has advanced sufficiently to permit the Lake to be
formed, the Spillway will be closed with a concrete
dam, fitted with gates and machinery for regulating
the water level of the Lake.













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Water Supply of Gatun Lake.

Gatun Lake will impound the waters of a basin com-
prising 1,320 square miles. When the surface of the
water is at 85 feet above sea level, the Lake will have
an area of about 164 square miles, and will contain
about 206 billion cubic feet of water. During eight
or nine months of the year, the lake will be kept con-
stantly full by the prevailing rains, and consequently
a surplus will need to be stored for only three or four
months of the dry season. The smallest run-off of
water in the basin, during the past 21 years, as meas-
ured at Gatun, was about 146 billion cubic feet. In
1910 the run-off was 360 billion cubic feet, or a suf-
ficient quantity to fill the lake one and. a half times.
The water surface of the Lake will be maintained dur-
ing the rainy season at 87 feet above sea level, making
the minimum channel depth in the Canal 47 feet. As
navigation can be carried on with about 41 feet of
water, there will be stored for dry season surplus over
five feet of water. Makingdue allowance for evapora-
tion, seepage, leakage at the gates, and power con-
sumption, this would be ample for 41 passages daily
through the locks, using them at full length, or about
58 lockages a day when partial length is used, as would
be usually the case, and when cross filling from one
lock to the other through the central wall is employed.
This would be a larger number of blockages than would
be possible in a single day. The average number of
lockages through the Sault Ste. Marie Canal on the
American side was 37 per day in the season of navi-
gation of 1909, whiclf was about eight months long.
The average number of ships passed was about li per
lockage. The freight carried was more than 30,000,000
tons. The Suez Canal passed about 12 vessels per
day, with a total tonnage for the year of 15,500,000.






































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Dams on Pacific Side.
The water level of Gatun Lake, extending through
the Culebra Cut, will be maintained at the south end
by an earth dam connecting the locks at Pedro Miguel
with the high ground to the westward, about 1,400
feet long, with its crest at an elevation of 105 feet above
mean tide. A concrete core wall, containing about
700 cubic yards, will connect the locks with the hills
to the eastward; this core wall will rest directly on
the rock surface and is designed to prevent perco-
lation through the earth, the surface of which is above
the Lake level.
A small lake between the locks at Pedro Miguel and
Miraflores will be formed by dams connecting the walls
of Miraflores locks with the high ground on either side.
The dam to the westward will be of earth, about 2,700
feet long, having its crest about 15 feet above the water
in Miraflores Lake. The east dam will be of concrete,
containing about 75,000 cubic yards; will be about 500
feet long, and will form a spillway for Miraflores Lake,
with crest gates similar to those at the Spillway of the
Gatun Dam.
The Locks.
There will be 6 double locks in the Canal; three
pairs in flight at Gatun, with a combined lift of 85 feet;
one pair at Pedro Miguel, with a lift of 30- feet, and
two pairs at Miraflores, with a combined lift of 543
feet at mean tide. The usable dimensions of all are
the same-a length of 1,000 feet, and width of 110 feet.
Each lock will be a chamber, with walls and floor of
concrete, and mitering gates at each end.
The side walls will be 45 to 50 feet wide at the sur-
face of the floor; will be perpendicular on the face, and
will narrow from a. point 244 feet above the floor until
they are 8 feet wide at the top. The middle wall will
be 60 feet wide, approximately 81 feet high, and each
face will be vertical. At a point 424 feet above the
surface of the floor, and 15 feet above the top of the
middle culvert, this wall will divide into two parts,
leaving a space down the center much like the letter
"U," which will be 19 feet wide at the bottom and
44 feet wide at the top. In this center space will be
a tunnel divided into three stories, or galleries. The























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The Locks (Continued.).

lowest gallery will be for drainage; the middle, for the
wires that will carry the electric current to operate the
gate and valve machinery installed in the center wall,
and the upper will be a passageway for the operators.
The lock gates will be steel structures 7 feet thick,
65 feet long, and from 47 to 82 feet high. They will
weigh from 300 to 600 tons each. Ninety-two leaves
will be required for the entire Canal, the total weighing
57,000 tons. Intermediate gates will be used in the
locks, in order to save water and time, if desired, in
locking small vessels through,the gates being so placed
as to divide the locks into chambers 600 and 400 feet
long, respectively. Ninety-five per cent of the vessels
navigating the high seas are less than 600 feet long.
In the construction of the locks, it is estimated that
there will be used approximately 4,200,000 cubic yards
of concrete, requiring about the same number of bar-
rels of cement.
Electricity will be used to tow all vessels into and
through the locks, and to operate all gates and valves,
power being- generated by water turbines from the
head created by Gatun Lake. Vessels will not be per-
mitted to enter or pass through the locks under their
own power, but will be towed through by electric loco-
motives running on cog-rails laid on the tops of the
lock walls. There will be two towing tracks for each
flight of locks, one on the side and one on the middle
wall. On each side wall there will be one return
track and on the middle wall a third common to both
of the twin locks. All tracks will run continuously
the entire length of the respective flights and will ex-
tend some distance on the guide approach walls at each
end. The number of locomotives used will vary with
the size of the vessel. The usual number required will
be four; two ahead, one on each wall, imparting motion
to the vessel, and two astern, one on each wall, to aid
in keeping the vessel in a central position and to bring
it to rest when entirely within the lock chamber. They
will be equipped with a slip drum, towing windlass
and hawser which will permit the towing line to be

































Model of Pedro Miguel Locks.


The lock on the right is nearly filled for an up-
ward lockage. Four electric locomotives are shown
securely holding a 10,000-ton ship, and ready to tow
it out of the lock, so soon as the upper gates are
opened. In the foreground is shown a protective
chain; at the entrance to the lock on the left is
shown a caisson in position and acting as a barrier
between the high level above and the low level
below the lock.
On the right is shown an emergency dam in its
normal position when not in use and on the left the
other dam is shown swung in position across the
lock with the wicket girder down in readiness to
support the wickets or gates which complete the
barrier.










The Locks (Continued.)

taken in or paid out without actual motion of the loco-
motive on the track.
The locks will be filled and emptied through a sys-
tem of culverts. One culvert 254 sq. ft. in area of cross
section, about the area of the Hudson River tunnels
of the Pennsylvania Railroad, extends the entire length
of each of the middle and side walls and from each of
these large culverts there are several smaller culverts,
33 to 44 sq. ft. in area, which extend under the floor
of the lock and communicate with the lock chamber
through holes in the floor. The large culverts are con-
trolled at points near the miter gates by large valves
and each of the small culverts extending from the mid-
dle wall culvert into the twin chambers is controlled
by a cylindrical valve. The large culvert in the mid-
dle wall feeds in both directions through laterals,
thus permitting the passage of water from one twin
lock to another, effecting a saving of water. (See cuts.)
To fill a lock the valves at the upper end are opened
and the lower valves closed. The water flows from the
upper pool through the large culverts into the small
lateral culverts and thence through the holes in the
floor into the lock chamber. To empty a lock the
valves at the upper end are closed and those at the
lower end are opened and the water flows into the
lower lock or pool in a similar manner. This system
distributes the water as evenly as possible over the en-
tire horizontal area of the lock and reduces the disturb-
ance in the chamber when it is being filled or emptied.
The depth of water over the miter sills of the locks
will be 40 feet in salt water and 411 feet in fresh water.
The average time of filling and emptying a lock will
be about fifteen minutes, without opening the valves
so suddenly as to create disturbing currents in the
locks or approaches. The time required to pass a
vessel through all the locks is estimated at 3 hours; one
hour and a half in the three locks at Gatun, and about
the same time in the three locks on the Pacific side.
The time of passage of a vessel through the entire
Canal is estimated as ranging from 10 to 12 hours,
according to the size of the ship, and the rate of speed
at which it can travel.













































Side Wall of Locks Compared with Six-story
Building.










Slides.
There are in all twenty-one slides along the Culebra
Cut. Twelve cover areas varying from one to forty-
seven acres, and nine cover areas of less than one acre
each, making in all a total of one hundred and forty-
nine acres. The largest is the Cucaracha slide, on the
east side of the Canal, which covers an area of forty-
seven acres, and which has broken back 1,820 feet from
the center line of the Canal. This slide, according to
French records, started as early as 1884, and has given
the Americans considerable trouble since they began
work. Over two million cubic yards have been re-
moved by the Americans, and the slide is still active.
The next largest slide is a combination of two slides on
the west side of the Cut at Culebra, just north of Con-
tractor's Hill, covering about twenty-eight acres.
Over two million cubic yards have been removed from
this slide, and it is estimated that one million cubic
yards are still in motion. On the east side of the Cut,
north of Gold Hill, is another large slide covering an
area of about seventeen acres whi6h has broken back
1,200 feet from. the center line of the Canal. Over
416,000 cubic yards have been taken out of this slide
and about three-quarters of a million more are still in
motion. The total distance across the Cut at this
point from back to back of slides is 1,950 feet. In all,
over nine million cubic yards have been taken out
since July, 1905, because of slides, and over three
million cubic yards are still in motion.
Excavation.
The total excavation, dry and wet, for the Canal, as
originally planned, was estimated at 103,795,000 cubic
yards, in addition to the excavation by the French
companies. Changes in the plan of the Canal, made
subsequently by order of the President, increased the
amount to 174,666,594 cubic yards. Of this amount,
89,794,493 cubic yards were to be taken from the Cen-
tral Division, which includes the Culebra Cut. In
July, 1910, a further increase of 7,871,172 cubic yards
was made, of which 7,330,525 cubic yards were to allow
for slides in Culebra Cut, for silting in the Chagres
section, and for lowering the bottom of the Canal from
40 to 39 feet above sea level in the Chagres section.






















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Excavation (Continued.)

These additions increased the estimated total exca-
vation to 182,537,766 cubic yards. Active excavation
work on a large scale did not begin until 1907, when
15,765,290 cubic yards were removed. In 1908, over
37,000,000 cubic yards were removed, and in 1909,
over 35,000,000, making a total for the two years of over
72,000,000 cubic yards, or a monthly average for those
two years of 3,000,000 cubic yards. In 1910, over
31,000,000 cubic yards were removed, the monthly
average exceeding 2,600,000 cubic yards. The total
for these three years was nearly three-fifths of the
entire excavation for the Canal. Records of all exca-
vation to May 1, 1911, are appended:
By French Companies............................................. 78,146,960
French excavation useful to present Canal................ 29,908,000
By Americans-
Dry excavation ................... .......... 84,112,947
Dredges._................. .... ........-......... 50,976,485
135,089,432
May 4 to December 31, 1904............ 243,472
January 1 to December 31, 1905........ 1,799,227
January 1 to December 31, 1906 ....... 4,948,497
January 1 to December 31, 1907.......... 15,765,290
January 1 to December 31, 1908.......... 37,116,735
January 1 to December 31, 1909......... 35,096,166
January 1 to December 31, 1910.......... 31,437,677
January 1 to May 1, 1911.................... 11,343,456
EXCAVATION BY DIVISIONS.

May 4, 1904 to May 1, 1911.


Divisions. Amount excavated. Remaining to be
excavated.

Atlantic-
Dry excavation 8,001.5038 271,551)
31,548,,718 11,808,627
Dredges............ 23,547,215 11,537,076)
Central-
Culebra Cut.-... 62,814,749) 745o 5 8 21,371,975 .
All other points 11,761,299) 8 1,176,995 2548'
Pacific--
Dry excavation 3,322,902 316 75 3,057,240 10429
Dredges........... 28,302,852 7,372,409

Grand totals 137,750,520 44,787,246


















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Capacity of Steam Shovels and Dirt Trains.
There are several classes of steam shovels engaged
in excavating work, equipped with dippers ranging in
capacity from 11 cubic yards to 5 cubic yards, and a
trenching shovel, which has a dipper with a capacity
of 3 of a cubic yard.
Each cubic yard, place measurement, of average
rock weighs about 3,900 pounds; of earth, about 3,000
pounds; of "the run of the cut," about 3,600 pounds,
and is said to represent about a two-horse cart load.
Consequently, a five cubic yard dipper, when full,
carries 8.7 tons of rock, 6.7 tons of earth, and 8.03 tons
of "the run of the cut."
Three classes of cars are used in hauling spoil-flat
cars with one high side, which are unloaded by plows
operated by a cable upon a winding drum, and two
kinds of dump cars, one large and one small. The
capacity of the flat cars is 19 cubic yards; that of the
large dump cars, 17 cubic yards, and that of the small
dump cars, 10 cubic yards. The flat car train is or-
dinarily composed of 20 cars in hauling from the cut
at Pedro Miguel, and of 21 cars in hauling from the cut
at Matachin. The large dump train is composed of
27 cars, and the small dump train of 35 cars.
The average load of a train of flat cars, in hauling
the mixed material known as "the run of the cut," is
610.7 tons (based on a 20-car train); of a train of large
dump cars, 737.68 tons, and of a train of small dumps,
562.5 tons.
The average time consumed in unloading a train of
flat cars is from 7 to 15 minutes; in unloading a train
of large dump cars, 15 to 40 minutes; and in unloading
a train of small dump cars, 6 to 56 minutes. The
large dump cars are operated by compressed air power
furnished by the air pump of the locomotive, while the
small dump cars are operated by hand.
The record day's work for one steam shovel was
that of March 22, 1910, 4,823 cubic yards of rock
(place measurement), or 8,395 tons. The highest
daily record in the Central Division was on March
11, 1911, when 51 steam shovels and 2 cranes equip-
ped with orange peel buckets excavated an aggregate
of 79,484 cubic yards, or 127,742 tons. During this
day, 333 loaded trains and as many empty trains
were run to and from the dumping grounds.















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Breakwaters.

Breakwaters are under construction at the Atlantic
and Pacific entrances of the Canal. That in Limon
Bay, or Colon harbor, extends into the bay from Toro
Point at an angle of 42 degrees and 53 minutes
northward from a base line drawn from Toro Point
to Colon light, and will be 10,500 feet in length, or
11,700 feet, including the shore connection, with a
width at the top of fifteen feet and a height above mean
sea level of ten feet. The width at the bottom will
depend largely on the depth of water. It will contain
approximately 2,840,000 cubic yards of rock, the core
being formed of rock quarried on the mainland near
Toro Point, armored with hard rock from Porto Bello.
Work began on the breakwater in August, 1910, and
on May 1, 1911, the fill had been extended 4,214 feet.
The estimated cost is $5,500,000. A second break-
water has been proposed for Limon Bay, but this part
of the project has not been formally acted upon. The
purpose of the breakwaters is to convert Limon Bay
into a safe anchorage, to protect shipping in the har-
bor of Colon, and vessels making the north entrance
to the Canal, from the violent northers that are likely
to prevail from October to January, and to reduce to
a minimum the amount of silt that may be washed into
the dredged channel.
The breakwater at the Pacific entrance will extend
from Balboa to Naos Island, a distance of about 17,000
feet, or a little more than three miles. It will lie from
900 to 2,700 feet east of and for the greater part of
the distance nearly parallel to the axis of the Canal
prism; will vary from 20 to 40 feet in height above
mean sea level, and will be from 50 to 3,000 feet
wide at the top. It is estimated that it will contain
about 18,000,000 cubic yards of earth and rock, all
of which will be brought from Culebra Cut. It is
constructed for a two-fold purpose; first, to divert
cross currents that would carry soft material from the
shallow harbor of Panama into the Canal channel;
second, to insure a more quiet harbor at Balboa.
Work was begun on it in May, 1908. On May 1,1911,
it had been constructed for a distance of 13,000 feet.










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Canal Force, Quarters and Supplies.
The Canal force is recruited and housed by the
Quartermaster's Department which has two general
branches, labor and quarters, and material and sup-
plies. Through the labor and quarters branch there
have been brought to the Isthmus 43,432 laborers, of
whom 11,797 came from Europe, 19,448 from Bar-
bados, the balance from other islands in the West
Indies and from Colombia. No recruiting is required
at present, the supply of labor on the Isthmus being
ample.
On May 1, 1911, the total force of the Isthmian
Canal Commission and Panama Railroad Company,
actually at work, was divided as follows:
Gold Silver Total

Isthmian Canal Commission................ 4,540 23,592 28,132
Panama Railroad Company (proper) 467 3,639 4,106
Panama Railroad Relocation............. 121 2,201 2,322
Panama Railroad Commissary............. 219 800 1,019

Totals.................................................... 5,347 30,232 35,579
The gold force is made up of the officials, clerical
force, construction men, and skilled artisans of the
Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Railroad
Company. Practically all of them are Americans.
The silver force represents the unskilled laborers of
the Commission and the Panama Railroad Company.
Of these, about 4,500 are Europeans, mainly Span-
iards, with a few Italians and other races. The
remainder, about 25,000, are West Indians, about
3,700 of whom are employed as artisans receiving 16,
20, and 25 cents, and a small number, 32 and 44
cents, an hour. The standard rate of the West Indian
laborer is 10 cents an hour, but a few of these doing
work of an exceptional character are paid 16 and 20
cents. The larger part of the Spaniards are paid 20
cents an hour, and the rest 16 cents an hour.
The material and supply branch carries in eight
general storehouses a stock of supplies for the Com-
mission and Panama Railroad valued approximately
at $4,500,000. About $12,000,000 worth of supplies
are purchased annually, requiring the discharge of one
steamer each day.










Food, Clothing and Other Necessaries.

The Canal and Panama Railroad forces are supplied
with food, clothing and other necessaries through the
Subsistence Department, which is divided into two
branches-Commissary and Hotel. It does a business
of about seven million five hundred thousand dollars
per annum. The business done by the Commissary
Department amounts to about $6,000,000 per
annum, and that done by the hotel branch to about
$1,500,000 per annum.
The Commissary system consists of 22 general stores
in as many Canal Zone villages and camps along the
relocated line of the Panama Railroad. It is estimated
that with employes and their dependents, there are
about 65,000 people supplied daily with food, cloth-
ing, and other necessaries. In addition to the retail
stores, the following plants are operated at Cristobal:
cold storage, ice making, bakery, coffee roasting, ice
cream, laundry and packing department.
A supply train of 21 cars leaves Cristobal every
morning at 4 a. m. It is composed of refrigerator
cars containing ice, meats and other perishable arti-
cles, and ten containing other supplies. These are
delivered at the stations along the line and distributed
to the houses of employes by the Quartermaster's
Department.
The hotel branch maintains the Hotel Tivoli at
Ancon, and also 18 hotels along the line for white
gold employes at which meals are served for thirty
cents each. At these 18 hotels there are served
monthly about 200,000 meals. There are sixteen
messes for European laborers, who pay 40 cents per
ration of three meals. There are served at these
messes about 270,000 meals per month. There are
also operated for the West Indian laborers fourteen
kitchens, at which they are served a ration of three
meals for 27 cents per ration. There are about
100,000 meals served monthly at these kitchens.
The supplies for one month for the line hotels,
messes and kitchens cost about $85,000; labor and
other expenses about $17,500. The monthly receipts,
exclusive of the revenue from the Hotel Tivoli,
amount to about $105,000.











Value of the $40,000,000 French Purchase.

A careful official estimate has been made by the
Canal Commission of the value to the Commission
at the present time of the franchises, equipment,
material, work done, and property of various kinds
for which the United States paid the French Canal
Company $40,000,000. It places the total value at
$42,799,826, divided as follows:
Excavation, useful to the Canal, 29,708,000
cubic yards ...........---...-.............. .................. -$25,389,240.00
Panama Railroad Stock.........................-...-....... 9.644,320.00
Plant and material, used and sold for scrap..... 2,112,063.00
Buildings, used ................ ....... ............... ..... -------2,054,203.00
Surveys, planl, maps and records ...-................-... 2.000,000.00
Land ............----- ..- ..- ............--------.......-..-...... 1.000,000.00
Clearings, roads, etc...............................................- 100.000.00
Ship channel in Panama Bay, four years' use._. 500,000.00
Total ....................-......-... .. ..................... .... .... $42,79Q.826.00

The Canal Zone.

The Canal Zone contains about 448 square miles.
It begins at a point three marine miles from mean low
water mark in each ocean, and extends for five miles
on each side of the center line of the route of the Canal.
It includes the group of islands in the Bay of Panama
named Perico, Naos, Culebra, and Flamenco. The
cities of Panama and Colon are excluded from the
Zone, but the United States has the right to enforce
sanitary ordinances in those cities, and to maintain
public order in them in case the Republic of Panama
should not be able, in the judgment of the United
States, to do so.
Of the 448 square miles of Zone territory, the United
States owns the larger portion, the exact amount of
which is being determined by survey. Under the
treaty with Panama, the United States has the right
to acquire by purchase, or by the exercise of the right
of eminent domain, any lands, building;, water rights,
or other properties necessary and convenient for the
construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation, and
protection of the Canal, and it can, therefore, at any
time acquire the lands within the Zone boundaries
which are owned by private persons.












Canal Appropriations and Expenditures.

APPROPRIATIONS


Payment to the New Panama Canal Company....
Payment to Republic of Panama............................
Appropriation, June 28, 1902 ...---...........-............
Appropriation, December 21, 1905..................
Deficiency, February 27, 1906 ....... ..... .....
Appropriation, June 30, 1906-.....--........----.........-----
Appropriation, March 4, 1907......... ....................
Deficiency, February 15, 1908.. ........ .... ........
Appropriation, May 27, 1908 ---....-.................--....
Deficiency, March 4, 1909......................- .........
Appropriation. March 4, 1909......--................
Deficiency, February 25, 1910........---...........------
Appropriation. June 25, 1910 .......--------.................--
Private Act. Relief of Elizabeth G. Martin........
Private Act. Relief of Marcellus Troxell......... -
Private Act. Relief of W. L. Miles.....-..--..........
Private Act. Relief of Chas. A. Caswell ......-..-
Appropriation, March 4, 1911 .....--.............-.......


$40,000,01 uJ 00
10,000,000.00
10,000,000.00
11,000,000.00
5,990,786.00
25,456,415.08
27,161,367.50
12,178,900.00
29,187,000.00
5,458,000.00
33,638,000.00
76,000.00
37,855,000.00
1,200.00
1,500.00
1,704.18
1,056.00
45,560,000.00


Total- ---..-..........--.....-...........----------..$293,566.928.76

CLASSIFIED EXPENDITURES TO APRIL 1, 1911
Department of Construction and Engineering-... $108,841,789.99


Department of Construction of Engin'ring-Plant
Department of Sanitation ---...........--- .........
Department of Civil Administration--......-----.....
Panama Railroad. Second Main Track-......--....--
Panama Railroad, Relocated Line...........---.........-
Purchase and Repair of Steamers. ............-.......
Zone Water Works and Sewers .............
Zone Roadway ...... ... ... .... ......
Loans to Panama Railroad ....... .....
Construction and Repair of Buildingv .........
Purchase from New Panama Canal Compan.......
Payment to Republic of Panama..... ......... ...
1 isce lla n e o u s......... ...... ..... .......... .. ....


8,581,385.30
12,775,053.94
4,714,030.52
1,125,766.28
6,331,631.48
2,657,384.8S
4,365,053.09
1,512,869.34
3,247,332.11
9,949,267.23
40,000,000.00
10,000,000.00
4,127,106.76


Total.... ............................... $218,228,670.92

The balances carried in expenditure accounts, which
are included in the last item above, for water works,
sewers and pavements in the cities of Panama and
Colon amounted altogether to $2,146,695.52. The
unexpended balancein the appropriation for sanitation
in the cities of Panama and Colon, available for ex-
penditures on water works, sewers and pavements was
$334,965.56, including transfer of appropriations for
quarter ended March 31.










Relocated Panama Railroad.
The new, or relocated line of the Panama Railroad
is 47.1 miles long, or slightly shorter than the old line.
From Colon to Mindi, 4.17 miles, and from Corozal to
Panama, 2.83 miles, the old location is used, but the re-
maining 40 miles are new road. From Mindi to Gatun
the railroad runs, in general, parallel to the Canal, and
ascends from a few feet above tide water elevation to
nearly 95 feet above. At Gatun the road leaves the
vicinityof the Canal and runs east along the valley of the
Gatun River to a point about 4 miles from the center
line of the Canal, where it turns southward again and
skirts the east shore of Gatun Lake to the beginning of
Culebra Cut, at Bas Obispo. In this section there are
several large fills, occurring where the line crosses the
Gatun Valley and near the north end of Culebra Cut,
where the line was located so as to furnish waste dumps
for the dirt from the Canal. Originally it was in-
tended to carry the railroad through Culebra Cut on
a 40-foot berm, 10 feet above the water level, but the
numerous slides have made this plan impracticable
and a line is now being constructed around the Cut,
known locally as the Gold Hill Line. Leaving the
berm of the Canal at Bas Obispo, the Gold Hill Line
gradually works into the foot hills, reaching a distance
from the center line of the Canal of two miles opposite
Culebra; thence it runs down the Pedro Miguel Val-
ley to Paraiso, where it is only 800 feet from the center
line of the Canal. This section of the line is located
on maximum grade of 1.25 per cent. compensated, and
has a total length of 9| miles. The sharpest curve on
the whole line is 7. From the south end of Culebra
Cut at Paraiso, the railroad runs practically parallel
with the Canal to Panama, with maximum grade of
0.45 per cent. Where the railroad crosses the Gatun
River; a bascule steel bridge is to be erected, and a
steel girder bridge, 1 mile long, with 200-foot through
truss channel span, is in use across the Chagres River
at Gamboa. Small streams are crossed on reinforced
concrete culverts. Near Miraflores, a tunnel 736
feet long has been built through a hill. Total cost of
new line is estimated at $9,000,000.













Equipment.


CANAL SERVICE.
Steam shovels:
105-ton, 5 cubic yard dippers .............................. 14
95-ton, 4 and 5 cubic yard dippers ... ...... 32
70-ton, 2' and 3 cubic yard dippers .. ..... .. 35
66-ton, 2! cubic yard dippers ... .......... ....... 7
45-ton. 11 cubic yard dippers ..... ...... ...... 10
2 6 -to n .. ........ ........ .. ......... ..... .. .... ..... 1
Trenching shovel. j cubic yard dipper,..... .......... 1

Total ...................... .................... ..... .. 100

Locomotives-
American:
106 tons .. ....... .99
105 tons ... .. .. .. .. 39
117 tons ..... .. .. ..... ... ........ ....... 20

158

French:
20 tons ......... ... 5
26 tons ................................... ......... ..... .. 46
27 tons ............ ... .. ... .. ... 9
3 0 to n s ..... .. .... ....... ..... .... .. .. 4 2
D ecauville ........... ......... ....... .. .. ..... 10
112
Narrow gage. American, 16 tons.. ........ .. ..... 33
Electric .............. ........ ............... .... ... ........ 12 45

T otal ........ ........ .. ................................ 3 15

Drills:
M echanical churn, or well ....... .................. 265
Tripod .......................................... 295

Total .............. ........... ............. .. .. .... ........ 560

Cars:
Flat, used with unloading plows ........................ 1S02
Steel dum ps, large ...... ............. ........... .. .......... 600
Steel dum ps, sm all .......... ......... ....... ....... .. 1200
Ballast dum ps .. ....... .... .......... ....... ...... 25
W ooden dum ps ......................... ............... 12
S teel flats ...... ... ................... ... ............ .. 500
N arrow gage ................................................... ......... 200
M otor ..... .......... ............ ...................... ........... 6
P a y C a r ....... ........ ...... ............................. ...... ... 1

T otaL....................................................................... 4,346










30

Spreaders ................ ........... ..... ....... ........... .... 25
T rack shifters ........ .... .... ..... ..... ...... ........ 10
Unloaders .......... .................... ......... ......... 30
P ile d rivers .................... .... ......... ... .... ............. 19

Dredges:
F rench ladder ......... ....... ........ ........... 7
D ipper ........ .... ....................... ......... ................... 3
P ipe-line .............. ........................... ........ .... 7
Sea going suction ... ................ .. ...... 2
C lam shell ...... .... ........................ ............. .... 1

Total ....... .. .............. ... ......................... 20

Cranes ................... .................... .... 57
R ock breaker ... ......... ...... .. ... ................. .. 1
T ugs ................... .......... .. ... ..... ....... ....................... 12
Tow boat ............. ................................ 1
H house boats.... .... ........... ..... .......................... 2
C lapets ... .... ......... ... ... .. ......... ... ......... 11
Pile driver, floating. ............ ....... ..... .. ...... 1
C ra ne b oa t ....................................... ..... ... .. ..... 1
Barges, lighters and scows ........ .............. 70
L launches ........................................ ... .................... 14
C u tte rs .. ............................. ...................... ....... .... 3
D rill boats ........... ...... ........ ....................... ..... ..... 2
PANAMA RAILROAD
Locomotives:
Road, (12 oil burners) ..... .............. ......................... 36
S w itch ......... ... ............. .. .............. .......................... 34

Total.................................. 70

Cars:
C o ach es .............. .......................... ....... ... .......... 5 7
Freight .............. ... ........................ 1477

T o tal............ ...... .. ............................ ........... ..... 1,534

Locom otive crane ......... .... .................................. 1
P ile d river, track .......................... ..... .................. 1
Pile driver, floating ......... ....... ......................... 1
T u g s ... ...... ..... .... ................. .. ..... ... ... ............ 2
Lighters:
C oal, all steel .... ............. .. ....... ................ 5
C argo, steel and iron................................................ 8

Total ................ .... .......... ........................ 13







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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