Citation
Panama Canal

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal official handbook
Added title page title:
Official handbook of the Panama Canal
Creator:
Isthmian Canal Commission (U.S.)
Place of Publication:
Ancon, Canal Zone
Publisher:
The Commission
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
2nd ed. rev. and enl..
Physical Description:
30 p. : ill., map ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Description and travel -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
General Note:
Cover title: Official handbook of the Panama Canal.
Statement of Responsibility:
compiled by the secretary of the Isthmian Canal Commission.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
29836252 ( OCLC )
ocm29836252
AA00006079_00001 ( sobekcm )
20310726 ( ALEPH )
Classification:
TC774 .P35 1911 ( lcc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text











Janama Qanal








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Atlton, Canatl onte
1911




















































Digitized by Ihe Inie nel Aichije
in 2011 walh funding i orn
University ol Florida. George A. Sinalheils Libraries w'lh suppoi[ Iroan LY RASIS and Ihe Sloan Foundalion


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Contents.
Page.

Canal Appropriations and Expenditures.... 27

Canal, Breakwaters ...................... .. 22

Canal, Dimensions ....... ....... .. .. 5-6

Canal Force, Quarters etc.............. ...... 24

C anal, Profile...... .... ........................ .. 3

Canal, Relief M ap ......... ..... ............ ..... 2

C anal Statistics ..... ... ....... ............. ..... 4

Canal Zone .............. .. ........... 26

Culebra Cut, Cross Sections .......... 17-19-21-23

Dam G atun........ .. ....... ... ..... ... 6

Dam, Gatun, Cross Section ................ 9

Dam, Gatun, Spillway and Locks... ....... 7

Dam s, on Pacific Side ............ ... ......... 10

Equipm ent .. ........... ...... ............ 29-30

Excavation.................. ..... ............ 16-18

Food, Clothing etc...... ....................... 25

French Equipment etc., value of .............. 26

Lake, Gatun, WaterSupply ....... ... 8

Lake, Nliraflores ................ ........... ..... 10

L o ck s ...................... ... ......... ..... .. ... 10 -12 -14

Locks, Cross Section............. ........... 11

Locks, M odel of........................................ ... 13

Locks, wall comparison ................. .......... 15

Relocated Panama Railroad....................... 28

S lides ...................................... .. ... ...... ... 16

Steam Shovel and Train Capacity ........ .. 20









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Canal Statistics.
Length from deep water to deep water (miles)

Length from shore-line to shore-line miles). _......

Bottom width of channel, maximum ifeet).........

Bottom width of channel, minimum, 9 miles, Cule-
bra Cut feet. .................

Locks, in pairs........... .. ........ ......... ...

Locks, usable length eet)... .......................... ....

Locks, usable width (feet)..... ............................

Gatun Lake, area square miles) ........ ..... ....

Gatun Lake, channel depth (feet) ............... .. .

Culebra Cut, channel depth (feet)....................

Excavation, estimated total (cubic yards) ...............

Excavation, amount accomplished May 1, 1911
(cub ic yards ......... .............

Excavation by the French cubic yards)...............

Excavation by French, useful to present Canal,
(cu b ic y a rd s l ..... .............. ...

Excavation by French, estimated value to Canal,

Value of all French property........... ... ........

Concrete, total estimated for Canlal .cubic yardsl..

Time of transit through completed Canal i.hours) .

Time of passage through locks ihours'l..... ...

Relocated Panama Railroad. estimated cost.........

Relocated Panama Railroad, length imiles)..

Canal Zone, area (square miles ..............

Canal and Panama Railroad force actually at work
(ab o u t .. .............. .

Canal and Panama Railroad force, Americans
(a b o u t) ........ .... .... .......... .............

Cost of Canal, estim ated total ...............................

Work begun by Americans ...... .................. ......

D ate of com pletion................................................... .


50

10

1000


300

12

1000

110

164

85 to 45

45

182,537,766


137,750,520

78,146,960


29,908,000

S25,389,240

$42,799,826

5, 000,000

10 to 12

3

S9,000,000

47.1

448


35,000


5000

$375,000,000

May 4, 1904

Jan. 1, 1915














The Panama Canal.


THE entire length of the Canal from deep water
in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific is about
50 miles. Its length from shore-line to shore-line is
about 40 miles. In passing through it from the
Atlantic to the Pacific, a vessel will enter the approach
channel in Limon Bay, which will have a bottom
width of 500 feet and extend to Gatun, a distance of
about seven miles. At Gatun, it will enter a series
of three locks in flight and be lifted 85 feet to the level
of Gatun Lake. It may steam at full speed through
this lake, in a channel varying from 1,000 to 500 feet in
width, for a distance of about 24 miles, to Bas Obispo,
where it will enter the Culebra Cut. It.will pass
through the Cut, a distance of about nine miles, in a
channel with a bottom width of 300 feet, to Pedro
Miguel. There it will enter a lock and be lowered 301
feet to a small lake, at an elevation of 54| feet above
sea level, and will pass through this for about 11 miles
to Miraflores. There it will enter two locks in series
and be lowered to sea level, passing out into the Pa-
cific through a channel about 8- miles in length, with
a bottom width of 500 feet. The depth of the ap-
proach channel on the Atlantic side, where the maxi-
mum tidal oscillation is 21 feet, will be 41 feet at mean
tide, and on the Pacific side, where the maximum
oscillation is 21 feet, the depth will be 45 feet at mean
tide.
Throughout the first 16 miles from Gatun, the width
of the Lake channel will be 1,000 feet; then for 4 miles
it will be 800 feet, and for 4 miles more, to the northern
entrance of Culebra Cut at Bas Obispo, it will be 500
feet. The depth will vary from 85 to 45 feet The
water level in the Cut will be that of the Lake, the
depth 45 feet, and the bottom width of the channel
300 feet.
Three hundred feet is the minimum bottom width
of the Canal. This width begins about half a mile










The Panama Canal (Continued.)
above Pedro Miguel locks and extends about 8 miles
through Culebra Cut, with the exception that. at all
angles the channel is widened sufficiently to allow a
thousand-foot vessel to make the turn. The Cut has
eight angles, or about one to every mile. The 300-
foot widths are only on tangents between the turning
basins at the angles. The smallest of these angles is
70 36', and the largest 300.
In the whole Canal there are 22 angles, the total
curvature being 6000 51'. Of this curvature, 2810 10'
are measured to the right, going south, and 319 41' to
the left. The sharpest curve occurs at Tabernilla. and
is 670 10'.
Gatun Dam.
The Gatun Dam, which will form Gatun Lake by
impounding the waters of the Chagres and its tribu-
taries, will be nearly 1I miles long, measured on its
crest, nearly i mile wide at its base, about 400 feet
wide at the water surface, about 100 feet wide at the
top, and its crest, as planned, will be at an elevation of
115 feet above mean sea level, or 30 feet above the nor-
mal level of the Lake. Of the total length of the Dam
only 500 feet, or i, will be exposed to the maximum
water head of 85 feet. The interior of the Dam will
be formed of a natural mixture of sand and clay,
dredged by hydraulic process from pits above and
below the Dam, and placed between two large masses
of rock and miscellaneous material obtained from
steam shovel excavation at various points along the
Canal. The top and upstream slope will be thor-
oughly riprapped. The entire Dam will contain
about 21,000,000 cubic yards of material.
The Spillway is a concrete lined opening, 1,200
feet long and 300 feet wide, cut through a hill of
rock nearly in the center of the Dam. the bottom of
the opening being 10 feet above sea level. It will
contain about 225,000 cubic yards of concrete.
During the construction of the Dam, all the water
discharged from the Chagres and its tributaries will
flow through this opening. When construction
has advanced sufficiently to permit the Lake to be
formed, the Spillway will be closed with a concrete
dam, fitted with gates and machinery for regulating
the water level of the Lake.













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Water Supply of Gatun Lake.

Gatun Lake will impound the waters of a basin com-
prising 1,320 square miles. When the surface of the
water is at 85 feet above sea level, the Lake will have
an area of about 164 square miles, and will contain
about 206 billion cubic feet of water. During eight
or nine months of the year, the lake will be kept con-
stantly full by the prevailing rains, and consequently
a surplus will need to be stored for only three or four
months of the dry season. The smallest run-off of
water in the basin, during the past 21 years, as meas-
ured at Gatun, was about 146 billion cubic feet. In
1910 the run-off was 360 billion cubic feet, or a suf-
ficient quantity to fill the lake one and. a half times.
The water surface of the Lake will be maintained dur-
ing the rainy season at 87 feet above sea level, making
the minimum channel depth in the Canal 47 feet. As
navigation can be carried on with about 41 feet of
water, there will be stored for dry season surplus over
five feet of water. Makingdue allowance for evapora-
tion, seepage, leakage at the gates, and power con-
sumption, this would be ample for 41 passages daily
through the locks, using them at full length, or about
58 lockages a day when partial length is used, as would
be usually the case, and when cross filling from one
lock to the other through the central wall is employed.
This would be a larger number of blockages than would
be possible in a single day. The average number of
lockages through the Sault Ste. Marie Canal on the
American side was 37 per day in the season of navi-
gation of 1909, whiclf was about eight months long.
The average number of ships passed was about li per
lockage. The freight carried was more than 30,000,000
tons. The Suez Canal passed about 12 vessels per
day, with a total tonnage for the year of 15,500,000.






































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Dams on Pacific Side.
The water level of Gatun Lake, extending through
the Culebra Cut, will be maintained at the south end
by an earth dam connecting the locks at Pedro Miguel
with the high ground to the westward, about 1,400
feet long, with its crest at an elevation of 105 feet above
mean tide. A concrete core wall, containing about
700 cubic yards, will connect the locks with the hills
to the eastward; this core wall will rest directly on
the rock surface and is designed to prevent perco-
lation through the earth, the surface of which is above
the Lake level.
A small lake between the locks at Pedro Miguel and
Miraflores will be formed by dams connecting the walls
of Miraflores locks with the high ground on either side.
The dam to the westward will be of earth, about 2,700
feet long, having its crest about 15 feet above the water
in Miraflores Lake. The east dam will be of concrete,
containing about 75,000 cubic yards; will be about 500
feet long, and will form a spillway for Miraflores Lake,
with crest gates similar to those at the Spillway of the
Gatun Dam.
The Locks.
There will be 6 double locks in the Canal; three
pairs in flight at Gatun, with a combined lift of 85 feet;
one pair at Pedro Miguel, with a lift of 30- feet, and
two pairs at Miraflores, with a combined lift of 543
feet at mean tide. The usable dimensions of all are
the same-a length of 1,000 feet, and width of 110 feet.
Each lock will be a chamber, with walls and floor of
concrete, and mitering gates at each end.
The side walls will be 45 to 50 feet wide at the sur-
face of the floor; will be perpendicular on the face, and
will narrow from a. point 244 feet above the floor until
they are 8 feet wide at the top. The middle wall will
be 60 feet wide, approximately 81 feet high, and each
face will be vertical. At a point 424 feet above the
surface of the floor, and 15 feet above the top of the
middle culvert, this wall will divide into two parts,
leaving a space down the center much like the letter
"U," which will be 19 feet wide at the bottom and
44 feet wide at the top. In this center space will be
a tunnel divided into three stories, or galleries. The























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The Locks (Continued.).

lowest gallery will be for drainage; the middle, for the
wires that will carry the electric current to operate the
gate and valve machinery installed in the center wall,
and the upper will be a passageway for the operators.
The lock gates will be steel structures 7 feet thick,
65 feet long, and from 47 to 82 feet high. They will
weigh from 300 to 600 tons each. Ninety-two leaves
will be required for the entire Canal, the total weighing
57,000 tons. Intermediate gates will be used in the
locks, in order to save water and time, if desired, in
locking small vessels through,the gates being so placed
as to divide the locks into chambers 600 and 400 feet
long, respectively. Ninety-five per cent of the vessels
navigating the high seas are less than 600 feet long.
In the construction of the locks, it is estimated that
there will be used approximately 4,200,000 cubic yards
of concrete, requiring about the same number of bar-
rels of cement.
Electricity will be used to tow all vessels into and
through the locks, and to operate all gates and valves,
power being- generated by water turbines from the
head created by Gatun Lake. Vessels will not be per-
mitted to enter or pass through the locks under their
own power, but will be towed through by electric loco-
motives running on cog-rails laid on the tops of the
lock walls. There will be two towing tracks for each
flight of locks, one on the side and one on the middle
wall. On each side wall there will be one return
track and on the middle wall a third common to both
of the twin locks. All tracks will run continuously
the entire length of the respective flights and will ex-
tend some distance on the guide approach walls at each
end. The number of locomotives used will vary with
the size of the vessel. The usual number required will
be four; two ahead, one on each wall, imparting motion
to the vessel, and two astern, one on each wall, to aid
in keeping the vessel in a central position and to bring
it to rest when entirely within the lock chamber. They
will be equipped with a slip drum, towing windlass
and hawser which will permit the towing line to be

































Model of Pedro Miguel Locks.


The lock on the right is nearly filled for an up-
ward lockage. Four electric locomotives are shown
securely holding a 10,000-ton ship, and ready to tow
it out of the lock, so soon as the upper gates are
opened. In the foreground is shown a protective
chain; at the entrance to the lock on the left is
shown a caisson in position and acting as a barrier
between the high level above and the low level
below the lock.
On the right is shown an emergency dam in its
normal position when not in use and on the left the
other dam is shown swung in position across the
lock with the wicket girder down in readiness to
support the wickets or gates which complete the
barrier.










The Locks (Continued.)

taken in or paid out without actual motion of the loco-
motive on the track.
The locks will be filled and emptied through a sys-
tem of culverts. One culvert 254 sq. ft. in area of cross
section, about the area of the Hudson River tunnels
of the Pennsylvania Railroad, extends the entire length
of each of the middle and side walls and from each of
these large culverts there are several smaller culverts,
33 to 44 sq. ft. in area, which extend under the floor
of the lock and communicate with the lock chamber
through holes in the floor. The large culverts are con-
trolled at points near the miter gates by large valves
and each of the small culverts extending from the mid-
dle wall culvert into the twin chambers is controlled
by a cylindrical valve. The large culvert in the mid-
dle wall feeds in both directions through laterals,
thus permitting the passage of water from one twin
lock to another, effecting a saving of water. (See cuts.)
To fill a lock the valves at the upper end are opened
and the lower valves closed. The water flows from the
upper pool through the large culverts into the small
lateral culverts and thence through the holes in the
floor into the lock chamber. To empty a lock the
valves at the upper end are closed and those at the
lower end are opened and the water flows into the
lower lock or pool in a similar manner. This system
distributes the water as evenly as possible over the en-
tire horizontal area of the lock and reduces the disturb-
ance in the chamber when it is being filled or emptied.
The depth of water over the miter sills of the locks
will be 40 feet in salt water and 411 feet in fresh water.
The average time of filling and emptying a lock will
be about fifteen minutes, without opening the valves
so suddenly as to create disturbing currents in the
locks or approaches. The time required to pass a
vessel through all the locks is estimated at 3 hours; one
hour and a half in the three locks at Gatun, and about
the same time in the three locks on the Pacific side.
The time of passage of a vessel through the entire
Canal is estimated as ranging from 10 to 12 hours,
according to the size of the ship, and the rate of speed
at which it can travel.













































Side Wall of Locks Compared with Six-story
Building.










Slides.
There are in all twenty-one slides along the Culebra
Cut. Twelve cover areas varying from one to forty-
seven acres, and nine cover areas of less than one acre
each, making in all a total of one hundred and forty-
nine acres. The largest is the Cucaracha slide, on the
east side of the Canal, which covers an area of forty-
seven acres, and which has broken back 1,820 feet from
the center line of the Canal. This slide, according to
French records, started as early as 1884, and has given
the Americans considerable trouble since they began
work. Over two million cubic yards have been re-
moved by the Americans, and the slide is still active.
The next largest slide is a combination of two slides on
the west side of the Cut at Culebra, just north of Con-
tractor's Hill, covering about twenty-eight acres.
Over two million cubic yards have been removed from
this slide, and it is estimated that one million cubic
yards are still in motion. On the east side of the Cut,
north of Gold Hill, is another large slide covering an
area of about seventeen acres whi6h has broken back
1,200 feet from. the center line of the Canal. Over
416,000 cubic yards have been taken out of this slide
and about three-quarters of a million more are still in
motion. The total distance across the Cut at this
point from back to back of slides is 1,950 feet. In all,
over nine million cubic yards have been taken out
since July, 1905, because of slides, and over three
million cubic yards are still in motion.
Excavation.
The total excavation, dry and wet, for the Canal, as
originally planned, was estimated at 103,795,000 cubic
yards, in addition to the excavation by the French
companies. Changes in the plan of the Canal, made
subsequently by order of the President, increased the
amount to 174,666,594 cubic yards. Of this amount,
89,794,493 cubic yards were to be taken from the Cen-
tral Division, which includes the Culebra Cut. In
July, 1910, a further increase of 7,871,172 cubic yards
was made, of which 7,330,525 cubic yards were to allow
for slides in Culebra Cut, for silting in the Chagres
section, and for lowering the bottom of the Canal from
40 to 39 feet above sea level in the Chagres section.






















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Excavation (Continued.)

These additions increased the estimated total exca-
vation to 182,537,766 cubic yards. Active excavation
work on a large scale did not begin until 1907, when
15,765,290 cubic yards were removed. In 1908, over
37,000,000 cubic yards were removed, and in 1909,
over 35,000,000, making a total for the two years of over
72,000,000 cubic yards, or a monthly average for those
two years of 3,000,000 cubic yards. In 1910, over
31,000,000 cubic yards were removed, the monthly
average exceeding 2,600,000 cubic yards. The total
for these three years was nearly three-fifths of the
entire excavation for the Canal. Records of all exca-
vation to May 1, 1911, are appended:
By French Companies............................................. 78,146,960
French excavation useful to present Canal................ 29,908,000
By Americans-
Dry excavation ................... .......... 84,112,947
Dredges._................. .... ........-......... 50,976,485
135,089,432
May 4 to December 31, 1904............ 243,472
January 1 to December 31, 1905........ 1,799,227
January 1 to December 31, 1906 ....... 4,948,497
January 1 to December 31, 1907.......... 15,765,290
January 1 to December 31, 1908.......... 37,116,735
January 1 to December 31, 1909......... 35,096,166
January 1 to December 31, 1910.......... 31,437,677
January 1 to May 1, 1911.................... 11,343,456
EXCAVATION BY DIVISIONS.

May 4, 1904 to May 1, 1911.


Divisions. Amount excavated. Remaining to be
excavated.

Atlantic-
Dry excavation 8,001.5038 271,551)
31,548,,718 11,808,627
Dredges............ 23,547,215 11,537,076)
Central-
Culebra Cut.-... 62,814,749) 745o 5 8 21,371,975 .
All other points 11,761,299) 8 1,176,995 2548'
Pacific--
Dry excavation 3,322,902 316 75 3,057,240 10429
Dredges........... 28,302,852 7,372,409

Grand totals 137,750,520 44,787,246


















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Capacity of Steam Shovels and Dirt Trains.
There are several classes of steam shovels engaged
in excavating work, equipped with dippers ranging in
capacity from 11 cubic yards to 5 cubic yards, and a
trenching shovel, which has a dipper with a capacity
of 3 of a cubic yard.
Each cubic yard, place measurement, of average
rock weighs about 3,900 pounds; of earth, about 3,000
pounds; of "the run of the cut," about 3,600 pounds,
and is said to represent about a two-horse cart load.
Consequently, a five cubic yard dipper, when full,
carries 8.7 tons of rock, 6.7 tons of earth, and 8.03 tons
of "the run of the cut."
Three classes of cars are used in hauling spoil-flat
cars with one high side, which are unloaded by plows
operated by a cable upon a winding drum, and two
kinds of dump cars, one large and one small. The
capacity of the flat cars is 19 cubic yards; that of the
large dump cars, 17 cubic yards, and that of the small
dump cars, 10 cubic yards. The flat car train is or-
dinarily composed of 20 cars in hauling from the cut
at Pedro Miguel, and of 21 cars in hauling from the cut
at Matachin. The large dump train is composed of
27 cars, and the small dump train of 35 cars.
The average load of a train of flat cars, in hauling
the mixed material known as "the run of the cut," is
610.7 tons (based on a 20-car train); of a train of large
dump cars, 737.68 tons, and of a train of small dumps,
562.5 tons.
The average time consumed in unloading a train of
flat cars is from 7 to 15 minutes; in unloading a train
of large dump cars, 15 to 40 minutes; and in unloading
a train of small dump cars, 6 to 56 minutes. The
large dump cars are operated by compressed air power
furnished by the air pump of the locomotive, while the
small dump cars are operated by hand.
The record day's work for one steam shovel was
that of March 22, 1910, 4,823 cubic yards of rock
(place measurement), or 8,395 tons. The highest
daily record in the Central Division was on March
11, 1911, when 51 steam shovels and 2 cranes equip-
ped with orange peel buckets excavated an aggregate
of 79,484 cubic yards, or 127,742 tons. During this
day, 333 loaded trains and as many empty trains
were run to and from the dumping grounds.















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Breakwaters.

Breakwaters are under construction at the Atlantic
and Pacific entrances of the Canal. That in Limon
Bay, or Colon harbor, extends into the bay from Toro
Point at an angle of 42 degrees and 53 minutes
northward from a base line drawn from Toro Point
to Colon light, and will be 10,500 feet in length, or
11,700 feet, including the shore connection, with a
width at the top of fifteen feet and a height above mean
sea level of ten feet. The width at the bottom will
depend largely on the depth of water. It will contain
approximately 2,840,000 cubic yards of rock, the core
being formed of rock quarried on the mainland near
Toro Point, armored with hard rock from Porto Bello.
Work began on the breakwater in August, 1910, and
on May 1, 1911, the fill had been extended 4,214 feet.
The estimated cost is $5,500,000. A second break-
water has been proposed for Limon Bay, but this part
of the project has not been formally acted upon. The
purpose of the breakwaters is to convert Limon Bay
into a safe anchorage, to protect shipping in the har-
bor of Colon, and vessels making the north entrance
to the Canal, from the violent northers that are likely
to prevail from October to January, and to reduce to
a minimum the amount of silt that may be washed into
the dredged channel.
The breakwater at the Pacific entrance will extend
from Balboa to Naos Island, a distance of about 17,000
feet, or a little more than three miles. It will lie from
900 to 2,700 feet east of and for the greater part of
the distance nearly parallel to the axis of the Canal
prism; will vary from 20 to 40 feet in height above
mean sea level, and will be from 50 to 3,000 feet
wide at the top. It is estimated that it will contain
about 18,000,000 cubic yards of earth and rock, all
of which will be brought from Culebra Cut. It is
constructed for a two-fold purpose; first, to divert
cross currents that would carry soft material from the
shallow harbor of Panama into the Canal channel;
second, to insure a more quiet harbor at Balboa.
Work was begun on it in May, 1908. On May 1,1911,
it had been constructed for a distance of 13,000 feet.










mu'










Canal Force, Quarters and Supplies.
The Canal force is recruited and housed by the
Quartermaster's Department which has two general
branches, labor and quarters, and material and sup-
plies. Through the labor and quarters branch there
have been brought to the Isthmus 43,432 laborers, of
whom 11,797 came from Europe, 19,448 from Bar-
bados, the balance from other islands in the West
Indies and from Colombia. No recruiting is required
at present, the supply of labor on the Isthmus being
ample.
On May 1, 1911, the total force of the Isthmian
Canal Commission and Panama Railroad Company,
actually at work, was divided as follows:
Gold Silver Total

Isthmian Canal Commission................ 4,540 23,592 28,132
Panama Railroad Company (proper) 467 3,639 4,106
Panama Railroad Relocation............. 121 2,201 2,322
Panama Railroad Commissary............. 219 800 1,019

Totals.................................................... 5,347 30,232 35,579
The gold force is made up of the officials, clerical
force, construction men, and skilled artisans of the
Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Railroad
Company. Practically all of them are Americans.
The silver force represents the unskilled laborers of
the Commission and the Panama Railroad Company.
Of these, about 4,500 are Europeans, mainly Span-
iards, with a few Italians and other races. The
remainder, about 25,000, are West Indians, about
3,700 of whom are employed as artisans receiving 16,
20, and 25 cents, and a small number, 32 and 44
cents, an hour. The standard rate of the West Indian
laborer is 10 cents an hour, but a few of these doing
work of an exceptional character are paid 16 and 20
cents. The larger part of the Spaniards are paid 20
cents an hour, and the rest 16 cents an hour.
The material and supply branch carries in eight
general storehouses a stock of supplies for the Com-
mission and Panama Railroad valued approximately
at $4,500,000. About $12,000,000 worth of supplies
are purchased annually, requiring the discharge of one
steamer each day.










Food, Clothing and Other Necessaries.

The Canal and Panama Railroad forces are supplied
with food, clothing and other necessaries through the
Subsistence Department, which is divided into two
branches-Commissary and Hotel. It does a business
of about seven million five hundred thousand dollars
per annum. The business done by the Commissary
Department amounts to about $6,000,000 per
annum, and that done by the hotel branch to about
$1,500,000 per annum.
The Commissary system consists of 22 general stores
in as many Canal Zone villages and camps along the
relocated line of the Panama Railroad. It is estimated
that with employes and their dependents, there are
about 65,000 people supplied daily with food, cloth-
ing, and other necessaries. In addition to the retail
stores, the following plants are operated at Cristobal:
cold storage, ice making, bakery, coffee roasting, ice
cream, laundry and packing department.
A supply train of 21 cars leaves Cristobal every
morning at 4 a. m. It is composed of refrigerator
cars containing ice, meats and other perishable arti-
cles, and ten containing other supplies. These are
delivered at the stations along the line and distributed
to the houses of employes by the Quartermaster's
Department.
The hotel branch maintains the Hotel Tivoli at
Ancon, and also 18 hotels along the line for white
gold employes at which meals are served for thirty
cents each. At these 18 hotels there are served
monthly about 200,000 meals. There are sixteen
messes for European laborers, who pay 40 cents per
ration of three meals. There are served at these
messes about 270,000 meals per month. There are
also operated for the West Indian laborers fourteen
kitchens, at which they are served a ration of three
meals for 27 cents per ration. There are about
100,000 meals served monthly at these kitchens.
The supplies for one month for the line hotels,
messes and kitchens cost about $85,000; labor and
other expenses about $17,500. The monthly receipts,
exclusive of the revenue from the Hotel Tivoli,
amount to about $105,000.











Value of the $40,000,000 French Purchase.

A careful official estimate has been made by the
Canal Commission of the value to the Commission
at the present time of the franchises, equipment,
material, work done, and property of various kinds
for which the United States paid the French Canal
Company $40,000,000. It places the total value at
$42,799,826, divided as follows:
Excavation, useful to the Canal, 29,708,000
cubic yards ...........---...-.............. .................. -$25,389,240.00
Panama Railroad Stock.........................-...-....... 9.644,320.00
Plant and material, used and sold for scrap..... 2,112,063.00
Buildings, used ................ ....... ............... ..... -------2,054,203.00
Surveys, planl, maps and records ...-................-... 2.000,000.00
Land ............----- ..- ..- ............--------.......-..-...... 1.000,000.00
Clearings, roads, etc...............................................- 100.000.00
Ship channel in Panama Bay, four years' use._. 500,000.00
Total ....................-......-... .. ..................... .... .... $42,79Q.826.00

The Canal Zone.

The Canal Zone contains about 448 square miles.
It begins at a point three marine miles from mean low
water mark in each ocean, and extends for five miles
on each side of the center line of the route of the Canal.
It includes the group of islands in the Bay of Panama
named Perico, Naos, Culebra, and Flamenco. The
cities of Panama and Colon are excluded from the
Zone, but the United States has the right to enforce
sanitary ordinances in those cities, and to maintain
public order in them in case the Republic of Panama
should not be able, in the judgment of the United
States, to do so.
Of the 448 square miles of Zone territory, the United
States owns the larger portion, the exact amount of
which is being determined by survey. Under the
treaty with Panama, the United States has the right
to acquire by purchase, or by the exercise of the right
of eminent domain, any lands, building;, water rights,
or other properties necessary and convenient for the
construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation, and
protection of the Canal, and it can, therefore, at any
time acquire the lands within the Zone boundaries
which are owned by private persons.












Canal Appropriations and Expenditures.

APPROPRIATIONS


Payment to the New Panama Canal Company....
Payment to Republic of Panama............................
Appropriation, June 28, 1902 ...---...........-............
Appropriation, December 21, 1905..................
Deficiency, February 27, 1906 ....... ..... .....
Appropriation, June 30, 1906-.....--........----.........-----
Appropriation, March 4, 1907......... ....................
Deficiency, February 15, 1908.. ........ .... ........
Appropriation, May 27, 1908 ---....-.................--....
Deficiency, March 4, 1909......................- .........
Appropriation. March 4, 1909......--................
Deficiency, February 25, 1910........---...........------
Appropriation. June 25, 1910 .......--------.................--
Private Act. Relief of Elizabeth G. Martin........
Private Act. Relief of Marcellus Troxell......... -
Private Act. Relief of W. L. Miles.....-..--..........
Private Act. Relief of Chas. A. Caswell ......-..-
Appropriation, March 4, 1911 .....--.............-.......


$40,000,01 uJ 00
10,000,000.00
10,000,000.00
11,000,000.00
5,990,786.00
25,456,415.08
27,161,367.50
12,178,900.00
29,187,000.00
5,458,000.00
33,638,000.00
76,000.00
37,855,000.00
1,200.00
1,500.00
1,704.18
1,056.00
45,560,000.00


Total- ---..-..........--.....-...........----------..$293,566.928.76

CLASSIFIED EXPENDITURES TO APRIL 1, 1911
Department of Construction and Engineering-... $108,841,789.99


Department of Construction of Engin'ring-Plant
Department of Sanitation ---...........--- .........
Department of Civil Administration--......-----.....
Panama Railroad. Second Main Track-......--....--
Panama Railroad, Relocated Line...........---.........-
Purchase and Repair of Steamers. ............-.......
Zone Water Works and Sewers .............
Zone Roadway ...... ... ... .... ......
Loans to Panama Railroad ....... .....
Construction and Repair of Buildingv .........
Purchase from New Panama Canal Compan.......
Payment to Republic of Panama..... ......... ...
1 isce lla n e o u s......... ...... ..... .......... .. ....


8,581,385.30
12,775,053.94
4,714,030.52
1,125,766.28
6,331,631.48
2,657,384.8S
4,365,053.09
1,512,869.34
3,247,332.11
9,949,267.23
40,000,000.00
10,000,000.00
4,127,106.76


Total.... ............................... $218,228,670.92

The balances carried in expenditure accounts, which
are included in the last item above, for water works,
sewers and pavements in the cities of Panama and
Colon amounted altogether to $2,146,695.52. The
unexpended balancein the appropriation for sanitation
in the cities of Panama and Colon, available for ex-
penditures on water works, sewers and pavements was
$334,965.56, including transfer of appropriations for
quarter ended March 31.










Relocated Panama Railroad.
The new, or relocated line of the Panama Railroad
is 47.1 miles long, or slightly shorter than the old line.
From Colon to Mindi, 4.17 miles, and from Corozal to
Panama, 2.83 miles, the old location is used, but the re-
maining 40 miles are new road. From Mindi to Gatun
the railroad runs, in general, parallel to the Canal, and
ascends from a few feet above tide water elevation to
nearly 95 feet above. At Gatun the road leaves the
vicinityof the Canal and runs east along the valley of the
Gatun River to a point about 4 miles from the center
line of the Canal, where it turns southward again and
skirts the east shore of Gatun Lake to the beginning of
Culebra Cut, at Bas Obispo. In this section there are
several large fills, occurring where the line crosses the
Gatun Valley and near the north end of Culebra Cut,
where the line was located so as to furnish waste dumps
for the dirt from the Canal. Originally it was in-
tended to carry the railroad through Culebra Cut on
a 40-foot berm, 10 feet above the water level, but the
numerous slides have made this plan impracticable
and a line is now being constructed around the Cut,
known locally as the Gold Hill Line. Leaving the
berm of the Canal at Bas Obispo, the Gold Hill Line
gradually works into the foot hills, reaching a distance
from the center line of the Canal of two miles opposite
Culebra; thence it runs down the Pedro Miguel Val-
ley to Paraiso, where it is only 800 feet from the center
line of the Canal. This section of the line is located
on maximum grade of 1.25 per cent. compensated, and
has a total length of 9| miles. The sharpest curve on
the whole line is 7. From the south end of Culebra
Cut at Paraiso, the railroad runs practically parallel
with the Canal to Panama, with maximum grade of
0.45 per cent. Where the railroad crosses the Gatun
River; a bascule steel bridge is to be erected, and a
steel girder bridge, 1 mile long, with 200-foot through
truss channel span, is in use across the Chagres River
at Gamboa. Small streams are crossed on reinforced
concrete culverts. Near Miraflores, a tunnel 736
feet long has been built through a hill. Total cost of
new line is estimated at $9,000,000.













Equipment.


CANAL SERVICE.
Steam shovels:
105-ton, 5 cubic yard dippers .............................. 14
95-ton, 4 and 5 cubic yard dippers ... ...... 32
70-ton, 2' and 3 cubic yard dippers .. ..... .. 35
66-ton, 2! cubic yard dippers ... .......... ....... 7
45-ton. 11 cubic yard dippers ..... ...... ...... 10
2 6 -to n .. ........ ........ .. ......... ..... .. .... ..... 1
Trenching shovel. j cubic yard dipper,..... .......... 1

Total ...................... .................... ..... .. 100

Locomotives-
American:
106 tons .. ....... .99
105 tons ... .. .. .. .. 39
117 tons ..... .. .. ..... ... ........ ....... 20

158

French:
20 tons ......... ... 5
26 tons ................................... ......... ..... .. 46
27 tons ............ ... .. ... .. ... 9
3 0 to n s ..... .. .... ....... ..... .... .. .. 4 2
D ecauville ........... ......... ....... .. .. ..... 10
112
Narrow gage. American, 16 tons.. ........ .. ..... 33
Electric .............. ........ ............... .... ... ........ 12 45

T otal ........ ........ .. ................................ 3 15

Drills:
M echanical churn, or well ....... .................. 265
Tripod .......................................... 295

Total .............. ........... ............. .. .. .... ........ 560

Cars:
Flat, used with unloading plows ........................ 1S02
Steel dum ps, large ...... ............. ........... .. .......... 600
Steel dum ps, sm all .......... ......... ....... ....... .. 1200
Ballast dum ps .. ....... .... .......... ....... ...... 25
W ooden dum ps ......................... ............... 12
S teel flats ...... ... ................... ... ............ .. 500
N arrow gage ................................................... ......... 200
M otor ..... .......... ............ ...................... ........... 6
P a y C a r ....... ........ ...... ............................. ...... ... 1

T otaL....................................................................... 4,346










30

Spreaders ................ ........... ..... ....... ........... .... 25
T rack shifters ........ .... .... ..... ..... ...... ........ 10
Unloaders .......... .................... ......... ......... 30
P ile d rivers .................... .... ......... ... .... ............. 19

Dredges:
F rench ladder ......... ....... ........ ........... 7
D ipper ........ .... ....................... ......... ................... 3
P ipe-line .............. ........................... ........ .... 7
Sea going suction ... ................ .. ...... 2
C lam shell ...... .... ........................ ............. .... 1

Total ....... .. .............. ... ......................... 20

Cranes ................... .................... .... 57
R ock breaker ... ......... ...... .. ... ................. .. 1
T ugs ................... .......... .. ... ..... ....... ....................... 12
Tow boat ............. ................................ 1
H house boats.... .... ........... ..... .......................... 2
C lapets ... .... ......... ... ... .. ......... ... ......... 11
Pile driver, floating. ............ ....... ..... .. ...... 1
C ra ne b oa t ....................................... ..... ... .. ..... 1
Barges, lighters and scows ........ .............. 70
L launches ........................................ ... .................... 14
C u tte rs .. ............................. ...................... ....... .... 3
D rill boats ........... ...... ........ ....................... ..... ..... 2
PANAMA RAILROAD
Locomotives:
Road, (12 oil burners) ..... .............. ......................... 36
S w itch ......... ... ............. .. .............. .......................... 34

Total.................................. 70

Cars:
C o ach es .............. .......................... ....... ... .......... 5 7
Freight .............. ... ........................ 1477

T o tal............ ...... .. ............................ ........... ..... 1,534

Locom otive crane ......... .... .................................. 1
P ile d river, track .......................... ..... .................. 1
Pile driver, floating ......... ....... ......................... 1
T u g s ... ...... ..... .... ................. .. ..... ... ... ............ 2
Lighters:
C oal, all steel .... ............. .. ....... ................ 5
C argo, steel and iron................................................ 8

Total ................ .... .......... ........................ 13







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
S11 2 2 0 2 1 11 11 1 11111I 111111111Ill
3 1262 08522 0597




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PAGE 3

'Panama (Canal %@ffucizi @atdboio Almon, daual gone 1911

PAGE 4

Digitized by flhe Internet Aichive in 2011 with funding fr om University ot Florida, George ASmathers Libraries with support frovi LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation http: /wvww.achive.org/ detailspizanmcanalofficisti

PAGE 5

Contents. Page. Canal Appropriations and Expenditures_27 Canal, Breakwaters --------------22 Canal, Dimensions ---------------------5-6 Canal Force, Quarters etc ----------------24 Canal, Profile ----------------------------3 Canal, Relief Map ------------------------2 Canal Statistics 4------------------------4 Canal Zone ----------------------------26 Culebra Cut, Cross Sections-. .17-19-21-23 Dam, Gatun 6 Dam, Gatun, Cross Section9 Dam, Gatun, Spillway and Locks Dams, on Pacific Side -10 Equipment -------------------------29-30 Excavation ---------------------------16-18 Food, Clothing etc ------------------25 French Equipment etc., value of ----------26 Lake, Gatun, Water Supply ---------------8 Lake, Miraflores ---------------------10 Locks---------------------------10-12-14 Locks, Cross Section --------------------11 Locks, Model of ------------------------13 Locks, wall comparison -----------------15 Relocated Panama Railroad ---------------28 Slides --------------------------------16 Steam Shovel and Train Capacity ---------20 (1)

PAGE 6

A / (AA 474 m --* 00)c r 7

PAGE 7

Profile of Canal ~ ------3L7 "%Ltt. 0S < 0 z to .* 0 eN -s ic d-l o occ 0t -tnLn -0 I I ~~40h xcavd-') a M &cav~fed Aroeric-Jrs 7bro re c A~t s c D Sa To7 M,6 4 C01071w 4p 44 -41-,55o /~~5 '-''E"/Crtr) ____ rav$ Aof Lxivatr? 147eD NEE7ral DivAlo r Cr e v ior 0OvS

PAGE 8

4 Canal Statistics. Length from deep water to deep water (miles) 50 Length from shore-line to shore-line (miles). 40 Bottom width of channel, maximum (feet) 1000 Bottom width of channel, minimum, 9 miles, Culebra Cut (feet) -300 Locks, in pairs. ------------------------------12 Locks, usable length (feet) -------------------------1000 Locks, usable width (feet)--------------------------110 Gatun Lake, area (square miles) ------------------164 Gatun Lake, channel depth (feet) 85 to 45 Culebra Cut, channel depth (feet).---------------45 Excavation, estimate(] total (cubic yards) ----------182,537,766 Excavation, amount accomplished May 1, 1911 (cubic yards). _----------------------------137,750,520 Excavation by the French (cubic yards)----------78,146,960 Excavation by French, useful to present Canal, (cubic yards). -----------------------.-. _29,908,000 Excavation by French, estimated value to Canal, 825,389,240 Value of all French property --------------842,799,826 Concrete, total estimated for Canal (cubic yards) 5,000,000 Time of transit through completed Canal (hours) 10 to 12 Time of passage through locks (hours) 3 Relocated Panama Railroad, estimated cost --------S,000,000 Relocated Panama Railroad. length (miles) 47.1 Canal Zone, area (square miles) 448 Canal and Panama Railroad force actually at work (about) -----------------------------35,000 Canal and Panama Railroad force, Americans (about) 5000 Cost of Canal, estimated total 8375,000,000 Work begun by Americans May 4. 1904 Date of completion._-------------..Jan. 1. 1915

PAGE 9

The Panama Canal. THE entire length of the Canal from deep water in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific is about 50 miles. Its length from shore-line to shore-line is about 40 miles. In passing through it from the Atlantic to the Pacific, a vessel will enter the approach channel in Limon Bay, which will have a bottom width of 500 feet and extend to Gatun, a distance of about seven miles. At Gatun, it will enter a series of three locks in flight and be lifted 85 feet to the level of Gatun Lake. It may steam at full speed through this lake, in a channel varying from 1,000 to 500 feet in width, for a distance of about 24 miles, to Bas Obispo, where it will enter the Culebra Cut. It will pass through the Cut, a distance of about nine miles, in a channel with a bottom width of 300 feet, to Pedro Miguel. There it will enter a lock and be lowered 301 feet to a small lake, at an elevation of 54' feet above sea level, and will pass through this for about 1 miles to Miraflores. There it will enter two locks in series and be lowered to sea level, passing out into the Pacific through a channel about 81miles in length, with a bottom width of 500 feet. The depth of the approach channel on the Atlantic side, where the maximum tidal oscillation is 212 feet, will be 41 feet at mean tide, and on the Pacific side, where the maximum oscillation is 21 feet, the depth will be 45 feet at mean tide. Throughout the first 16 miles from Gatun, the width of the Lake channel will be 1,000 feet; then for 4 miles it will be 800 feet, and for 4 miles more, to the northern entrance of Culebra Cut at Bas Obispo, it will be 500 feet. The depth will vary from 85 to 45 feet The water level in the Cut will be that of the Lake, the depth 45 feet, and the bottom width of the channel 300 feet. Three hundred feet is the minimum bottom width of the Canal. This width begins about half a mile

PAGE 10

The Panama Canal (Contintued.) above Pedro Miguel locks and extends about 8 miles through Culebra Cut, with the exception that at all angles the channel is widened sufficiently to allow a thousand-foot vessel to make the turn. The Cut has eight angles, or about one to every mile. The 300foot widths are only on tangents between the turning basins at the angles. The smallest of these angles is 70 36', and the largest 300. In the whole Canal there are 22 angles, the total curvature being 600' 51'. Of this curvature, 2810 10' are measured to the right, going south, and 319* 41' to the left. The sharpest curve occurs at Tabernilla, and is 670 10'. Gatun Dam. The Gatun Dam. which will form Gatun Lake by impounding the waters of the Chagres and its tributariEs, will be nearly l miles long, measured on its crest, nearly i mile wide at its base, about 400 feet wide at the water surface, about 100 feet wide at the top, and its crest, as planned, will be at an elevation of 115 feet above mean sea level, or 30 feet above the normal level of the Lake. Of the total length of the Dam only 500 feet, or I, will be exposed to the maximum water head of 85 feet. The interior of the Dam will be formed of a natural mixture of sand and clay, dredged by hydraulic process from pits above and below the Dam, and placed between two large masses of rock and miscellaneous material obtained from steam shovel excavation at various points along the Canal. The top and upstream slope will be thoroughly riprapped. The entire Dam will contain aIbout 21 ,000,000 cubic yards of material. The Spillway is a concrete lined opening, 1,200 feet long and 300 feet wide, cut through a hill of rock nearly in the center of the Dam. the bottom of the opening being 10 feet above sea level. It will contain about 225,000 cubic yards of concrete. During the construction of the Dam, all the water discharged from the Chagres and its tributaries will flow through this opening. When construction has advanced sufficiently to permit the Lake to be formed, the Spillway will be closed with a concrete dam, fitted with gates and machinery for regulating the water level of the Lake.

PAGE 11

I aca r-.~ u ~J~) s/ -~ -r

PAGE 12

Water Supply of Gatun Lake. Gatun Lake will impound the waters of a basin comprising 1,320 square miles. When the surface of the water is at 85 feet above sea level, the Lake will have an area of about 164 square miles, and will contain about 206 billion cubic feet of water. During eight or nine months of the year, the lake will be kept constantly full by the prevailing rains, and consequently a surplus will need to be stored for only three or four months of the dry season. The smallest run-off of water in the basin, during the past 21 years, as measured at Gatun, was about 146 billion cubic feet. In 1910 the run-off was 360 billion cubic feet, or a sufficient quantity to fill the lake one and. a half times. The water surface of the Lake will be maintained during the rainy season at 87 feet above sea level, making the minimum channel depth in the Canal 47 feet. As navigation can be carried on with about 41 feet of water, there will be stored for dry season surplus over five feet of water. Making due allowance for evaporation, seepage, leakage at the gates, and power consumption, this would be ample for 41 passages daily through the locks, using them at full length, or about 58 lockages a day when partial length is used, as would be usually the case, and when cross filling from one lock to the other through the central wall is employed. This would be a larger number of lockages than would be possible in a single day. The average number of lockages through the Sault Ste. Marie Canal on the American side was 37 per day in the season of navigation of 1909, which was about eight months long. The average number of ships passed was about 11per lockage. The freight carried was more than 30,000,000 tons. The Suez Canal passed about 12 vessels per day, with a total tonnage for the year of 15,500,000.

PAGE 13

VPPCC6r bleyof rrn to b t-rtc k ted by lee t thicknes.o ;a2olSovr Other >o d 1,k foil t -w ---)1 -Water Leve + AS: .-----------~-.$ -FInu ic 5 LL--** M steMaterial -ft ea ---v------------------90.----------------Cross Section Gatun Darn.

PAGE 14

10 Dams on Pacific Side. The water level of Gatun Lake, extending through the Culebra Cut, will be maintained at the south end by an earth dam connecting the locks at Pedro Miguel with the high ground to the westward, about 1,400 feet long, with its crest at an elevation of 105 feet above mean tide. A concrete core wall, containing about 700 cubic yards, will connect the locks with the hills to the eastward; this core wall will rest directly on the rock surface and is designed to prevent percolation through the earth, the surface of which is above the Lake level. A small lake between the locks at Pedro Miguel and Miraflores will be formed by dams connecting the walls of Miraflores locks with the high ground on either side. The dam to the westward will be of earth, about 2,700 feet long, having its crest about 15 feet above the water in Miraflores Lake. The east dam will be of concrete, containing about 75,000 cubic yards; will be about 500 feet long, and will form a spillway for Miraflores Lake, with crest gates similar to those at the Spillway of the Gatun Dam. The Locks. There will be 6 double locks in the Canal; three pairs in flight at Gatun, with a combined lift of 85 feet; one pair at Pedro Miguel, with a lift of 301 feet, and two pairs at Miraflores, with a combined lift of 541 feet at mean tide. The usable dimensions of all are the same-a length of 1,000 feet, and width of 110 feet. Each lock will be a chamber, with walls and floor of concrete, and mitering gates at each end. The side walls will be 45 to 50 feet wide at the surface of the floor; will be perpendicular on the face, and will narrow from a point 244 feet above the floor until they are 8 feet wide at the top. The middle wall will be 60 feet wide, approximately 81 feet high, and each face will be vertical. At a point 42feet above the surface of the floor, and 15 feet above the top of the middle culvert, this wall will divide into two parts, leaving a space down the center much like the letter "IT," which will be 19 feet wide at the bottom and 44 feet wide at the top. In this center space will be a tunnel divided into three stories, or galleries. The

PAGE 15

A-CN k' #'' 5 ~~ L~ F F F F F E F F, Cross Section of Lock Chamber and Walls Qi Locks. A-Passageway for operators. E-These culverts run under the lock floor B-Gallery for electric wires. and alternate with those from sidewalls. F-Wells opening from lateral culverts into C-Drainage gallery. lock chamber. D-Culvert in center wall. G--Culvert in sidewalls. Hl--Lateral culverts.

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The Locks (Contiuied.), lowest gallery will be for drainage; the middle, for the wires that will carry the electric current to operate the gate and valve machinery installed in the center wall, and the upper will be a passageway for the operators. The lock gates will be steel structures 7 feet thick, 65 feet long, and from 47 to 82 feet high. They will weigh from 300 to 600 tons each. Ninety-two leaves will be required for the entire Canal, the total weighing 57,000 tons. Intermediate gates will be used in the locks, in order to save water and time, if desired, in locking small vessels through, the gates being so placed as to divide the locks into chambers 600 and 400 feet long, respectively. Ninety-five per cent of the vessels navigating the high seas are less than 600 feet long. In the construction of the locks, it is estimated that there will be used approximately 4,200,000 cubic yards of concrete, requiring about the saine number of barrels of cement. Electricity will be used to tow all vessels into and through the locks. and to operate all gates and valves, power being generated by water turbines from the head created by Gatun Lake. Vessels will not be permitted to enter or pass through the locks under their own power, but will be towed through by electric locomotives running on cog-rails laid on the tops of the lock walls. There will be two towing tracks for each flight of locks, one on the side and one on the middle wall. On each side wall there will be one return track and on the middle wall a third common to both of the twin locks. All tracks will run continuously the entire length of the respective flights and will extend some distance on the guide approach walls at each end. The number of locomotives used will vary with the size of the vessel. The usual number required will be four; two ahead, one on each wall, imparting motion t( the vessel, and two astern, one on each wall, to aid in keeping the vessel in a cent ril position and to bring it to rest when entirely within the lock chamber. They will be equipped with a slip drui, towing windlass and hawser which will permit the towing line to be

PAGE 17

13 Model of Pedro Miguel Locks. The lock on the right is nearly filled for an upward lockage. Four electric locomotives are shown securely holding a 10,000-ton ship, and ready to Low it out of the lock, so soon as the upper gates are opened. In the foreground is shown a protective chain; at the entrance to the lock on the left is shown a caisson in position and acting as a barrier between the high level above and the low level below the lock. On the right is shown an emergency dam in its normal position when not in use and on the left the other dam is shown swung in position across the lock with the wicket girder down in readiness to support the wickets or gates which complete the barrier.

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14 The Locks (Continued.) taken in or paid out without actual motion of the locomotive on the track. The locks will be filled and emptied through a system of culverts. One culvert 254 sq. ft. in area of cross section, about the area of the Hudson River tunnels of the Pennsylvania Railroad, extends the entire length of each of the middle and side walls and from each of these large culverts there are several smaller culverts, 33 to 44 sq. ft. in area, which extend under the floor of the lock and communicate with the lock chamber through holes in the floor. The large culverts are controlled at points near the miter gates by large valves and each of the small culverts extending from the middie wall culvert into the twin chambers is controlled by a cylindrical valve. The large culvert in the middle wall feeds in both directions through laterals, thus permitting the passage of water from one twin lock to another, effecting a saving of water. (See cuts.) To fill a lock the valves at the upper end are opened and the lower valves closed. The water flows from the upper pool through the large culverts into the small lateral culverts and thence through the holes in the floor into the lock chamber. To empty a lock the valves at the upper end are closed and those at the lower end are opened and the water flows into the lower lock or pool in a similar manner. This system distributes the water as evenly as possible over the entire horizontal area of the lock and reduces the disturbance in the chamber when it is being filled or emptied. The depth of water over the miter sills of the locks will be 40 feet in salt water and 414 feet in fresh water. The average time of filling and emptying a lock will be about fifteen minutes, without opening the valves so suddenly as to create disturbing currents in the locks or approaches. The time required to pass a vessel through all the locks is estimated at 3 hours; one hour and a half in the three locks at Gatun, and about the same time in the three locks on the Pacific side. The time of passage of a vessel through the entire Canal is estimated as ranging from 10 to 12 hours, according to the size of the ship, an11d the rate of speed at which it can travel.

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15 Side Wall of Locks Compared with Six-story Building.

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1; Slides. There are in all twenty-one slides along the Culebra Cut. Twelve cover areas varying from one to fortyseven acres, and nine cover areas of less than one acre each, making in all a total of one hundred and fortynine acres. The largest is the Cucaracha slide, on the east side of the Canal, which covers an area of fortyseven acres., and which has broken back 1,820 feet from the center line of the Canal. This slide, according to French records, started as early as 1884, and has given the Americans considerable trouble since they began work. Over two million cubic yards have been reimoved by the Americans, and the slide is still active. The next largest slide is a combination of two slides on the west side of the Cut at Culebra, just north of Contractor's Hill, covering about twenty-eight acres. Over two million cubic yards have been removed from this slide, and it is estimated that one million cubic yards are still in motion. On the east side of the Cut, north of Gold Hill, is another large slide covering an area of about seventeen acres which has broken back 1,200 feet from the center line of the Canal. Over 416,000 cubic yards have been taken out of this slide and about three-quarters of a million more are still in motion. The total distance across the Cut at this point from back to back of slides is 1,950 feet. In all, over nine million cubic vards have been taken out since July, 1905, because of slides, and over three million cubic vards are still in motion. Excavation. The total excavation, dry and wet, for the Canal, as originally planned, was estimated at 103,795,000 cubic yards, in addition to the excavation by the French coimpanies. Changes in the plan of the Canal, made subsequently by order of the President, increased the amount to 174,666,594 cubic yards. Of this amount, 89,794,493 cubic yards were to be taken from the Central Division, which includes the Culebra Cut. In July, 1910, a further increase of 7,871,172 cubic yards was made, of which 7,330,525 cu bic yards were to allow for slides in Culebra Cut, for silting in the Chagres section, and for lowering the bottom of the Canal from 40 to 39 feet above sea level in the Chagres section.

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H'pesf prje of eJxcbA a CILEBMA CUT Cross Section at Gold Hi17 Sedwa,'"L 75' H7i'es pot of excavation, noA de. 534 feet above sea 4vei g -+ 1 flIghes p~.t, joldt sd?, 410 1eot aboue jea level ir hffSes po5 on center ikp, 312feet abovw sea I"___ C'po'edi tlSt-. All + 40

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Is Excavation (Contulued.) These additions increased the estimated total excavation to 182,53 7,766 cubic yards. Active excavation work on a large scale did not begin until 1907, when 15,765,290 cubic yards were removed. In 1908, over 37,000,000 cubic yards were removed, and in 1909, over 35,000,000, making a total for the two years of over 72,000,000 cubic yards, or a monthlv average for those two years of 3,000,000 cubic yards. In 1910, over 31,000,000 cubic yards were removed, the monthly average exceeding 2,600,000 cubic yards. The total for these three years was nearly three-fifths of the entire excavation for the Canal. Records of all excavation to May 1, 1Q11, are appended: Bv French Companies ----------------------78,146,960 French excavation useful to present Canal.29,908,000 By AmericansDry excavation. .84,112,947 -redges. 50,976,485 135,089,432 May 4 to December 31, 1904 243,472 January 1 to December 31, 1905-----1,799,227 January i to December 31, 1906 -----4,948,497 January 1 to December 31, 1907----15,765,290 January 1 to December 31, 1908---37,116,735 January 1 to December 31 1909 -----35,096,166 January 1 to December 31, 1910 -----31,437,677 January 1 to May 1, 1911 -------.11343,456 EXCAVATION BY DIVISIONS. May 4, 1904 to May 1, 1911. Divisions. Amount excavated. Remaining to be excavated. AtlanticDry excavation 8,001,503 31,54S,718 271,551 Dredges_.-. 23,547,215 3 11,537,076 11,308,627 CentralCulebra Cut. 62,814,749 4 1,'71,975 2 All other points 11,761,299 1, 176,995 PacifcDrv excavation 3,322,902 3,057,240, 3)1,625,754 10,429,649 Dredges. 28,302,852 ) 7,372,409 Grand totals 137:750,520 44,787,246

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BAS OBISPO CUT Cross Sectton *Msn BID+50 og~~$o bwaS~k 6 zoo West BW skfl F# 0 to ro A0EA US0 4 00 iO Qi 0 9-

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90 Capacity of Steam Shovels and Dirt Trains. There are several classes of steam shovels engaged in excavating work, equipped with dippers ranging in capacity from 1 cubic yards to 5 cubic yards, and a trenching shovel, which has a dipper with a capacity of i of a cubic yard. Each cubic yard, place measurement. of average rock weighs about 3,900 pounds; of earth, about 3,000 pounds; of "the run of the cut," about 3,600 pounds, and is said to represent about a two-horse cart load. Consequently, a five cubic yard dipper, when full. carries 8.7 tons of rock, 6.7 tons of earth, and 8.03 tons of "the run of the cut." Three classes of cars are used in hauling spoil-flat cars with one high side, which are unloaded by plows operated by a cable upon a winding drum, and two kinds of dump cars, one large and one small. The capacity of the flat cars is 19 cubic yards; that of the large dump cars, 17 cubic yards, and that of the small dump cars, 10 cubic yards. The flat car train is ordinarily composed of 20 cars in hauling from the cut at Pedro Miguel, and of 21 cars in hauling from the cut at Matachin. The large dump train is composed of 27 cars, and the small dump train of 35 cars. The average load of a train of flat cars, in hauling the mixed material known as "the run of the cut," is 610.7 tons (based on a 20-car train); of a train of large dump cars, 737.68 tons, and of a train of small (lumps, 562.5 tons. The average time consumed iin unloading a train Of flat cars is from 7 to 15 minutes; in unloading a train of large dump cars, 15 to 40 minutes; and in unloading a train of small dump cars, 6 to 56 minutes. The large dump cars are operated by compressed air power furnished by the air pumIip of the locomotie, while Ihe small (lump cars are operated by hand. The record day's work for one steam shovel was that of March 22, 1910, 4,823 cubic yards of rock (place measurement), or 8,395 tons. The highest daily record in the Central Division was on March 11, 1911, when 51 steam shovels and 2 cranes equipped with orange peel buckets excavated an aggregate of 79,484 cubic yards, or 127,742 tons. During this day, 333 loaded trains and as many empty trains were run to and from the dumping grounds.

PAGE 25

NORTH OF EMPIRE-CUNETTE ANGLE Cross Section at warning Poz>zt Orft" as Arta tc66 0x AxVxe wPrenc ___ ___ Of Wa_ +_ E 40 --o tho A

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22 Breakwaters. Breakwaters are under construction at the Atlantic and Pacific entrances of the Canal. That in Limon Bay, or Colon harbor, extends into the bay from Toro Point at an angle of 42 degrees and 53 minutes northward from a base line drawn from Toro Point to Colon light, and will be 10,500 feet in length, or 11,700 feet, including the shore connection, with a width at the top of fifteen feet and a height above mean sea level of ten feet. The width at the bottom will depend largely on the depth of water. It will contain approximately 2,840,000 cubic yards of rock, the core being formed of rock quarried on the mainland near Toro Point, armored with hard rock from Porto Bello. Work began on the breakwater in August, 1910, and on May 1, 1911, the fill had been extended 4,214 feet. The estimated cost is $5,500,000. A second breakwater has been proposed for Limon Bay, but this part of the project has not been formally acted upon. The purpose of the breakwaters is to convert Limon Bay into a safe anchorage, to protect shipping in the harbor of Colon, and vessels making the north entrance to the Canal, from the violent northers that are likely to prevail from October to January, and to reduce to a minimum the amount of silt that may be washed into the dredged channel. The breakwater at the Pacific entrance will extend from Balboa to Naos Island, a distance of about 17,000 feet, or a little more than three miles. It will lie from 900 to 2,700 feet east of and for the greater part of the distance nearly parallel to the axis of the Canal prism; will vary from 20 to 40 feet in height above mean sea level, and will be from 50 to 3,000 feet wide at the top. It is estimated that it will contain about 18,000,000 cubic yards of earth and rock, all of which will be brought from Culebra Cut. It is constructed for a two-fold purpose; first, to divert cross currents that would carry soft material from the shallow harbor of Panama into the Canal channel; second, to insure a more quiet harbor at Balboa. Work was begun on it in May, 1908. On May 1, 1911, it had been constructed for a distance of 13,000 feet.

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SUSPENSION BRIDGE-EPIRE Cross Secion Starv" 1704 L i Srcet waler E. + 85

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2.1 Canal Force, Quarters and Supplies. The Canal force is recruited and housed by the Quartermaster's Department which has two general branches, labor and quarters, and material and supplies. Through the labor and quarters branch there have been brought to the Isthmus 43,432 laborers, of whom 11,797 came from Europe, 19,448 from Barbados, the balance from other islands in the West Indies and from Colombia. No recruiting is required at present, the supply of labor on the Isthmus being ample. On May 1, 1911, the total force of the Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama Railroad Company, actually at work, was divided as follows: Gold Silver Total Isthmian Canal Commission .4,540 23,592 28,132 Panama Railroad Company (proper) 467 3,639 4,106 Panama Railroad Relocation.-. 121 2,201 2,322 Panama Railroad Commissary. 219 Soo 1,019 Totals. .5,347 30,232 35,579 The gold force is made up of the officials, clerical force, construction men, and skilled artisans of the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Railroad Company. Practically all of them are Americans. The silver force represents the unskilled laborers of the Commission and the Panama Railroad Company. Of these, about 4,500 are Europeans, mainly Spaniards, with a few Italians and other races. The remainder, about 25,000, are West Indians, about 3,700 of whom are employed as artisans receiving 16, 20, and 25 cents, and a small number, 32 and 44 cents, an hour. The standard rate of the West Indian laborer is 10 cents an hour, but a few of these doing work of an exceptional character are paid 16 and 20 cents. The larger part of the Spaniards are paid 20 cents an hour, and the rest 16 cents an hour. The material and supply branch carries in eight general storehouses a stock of supplies for the Commission and Panama Railroad valued approximately at $4,500,000. About $12,000,000 worth of supplies are purchased annually, requiring the discharge of one steamer each day.

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Food, Clothing and Other Necessaries. The Canal and Panama Railroad forces are sup)IitLd with food, clothing and other necessaries through the Subsistence Department, which is divided into two branches-Commissary and Hotel. It does a business of about seven million five LIundred thousand dollars per annum. The business done by the Commissary Department amounts to about 86,000,000 per annum, and that done by the hotel branch to about $1,500,000 per annum. The Commissary system consists of 22 general stores in as many Canal Zone villages and camps along the relocated line of the Panama Railroad. It is estimated that with employes and their dependents, there are about 65,000 people supplied daily with food, clothing, and other necessaries. In addition to the retail stores, the following plants are operated at Cristobal: cold storage, ice making, bakery, coffee roasting, ice cream, laundry and packing department. A supply train of 21 cars leaves Cristobal every morning at 4 a. m. It is composed of refrigerator cars containing ice, meats and other perishable articles, and ten containing other supplies. These are delivered at the stations along the line and distributed to the houses of emlploves by the Quartermaster's Department. The hotel branch maintains the Hotel Tivoli at Ancon, and also 18 hotels along the line for white gold employes at which meals are served for thirty cents each. At these t8 hotels there are served monthly about 200,000 meals. There are sixteen messes for European laborers, who pay 40 cents per ration of three meals. There are served at these messes about 270,000 meals per month. There are also operated for the West Indian laborers fourteen kitchens, at which they are served a ration of three meals for 27 cents per ration. There are about 100,000 meals served monthly at these kitchens. The supplies for one month for the line hotels, messes and kitchens cost about $85,000; labor and other expenses about $17,500. The monthly receipts, exclusive of the revenue from the Hotel Tivoli, amount to about $105,000.

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Value of the $40,000,000 French Purchase. A careful official estimate has been made by the Canal Commission of the value to the Commission at the present time of the franchises, equipment, material, work done, and property of various kinds for which the United States paid the French Canal Company $40,000,000. It places the total value at $42,799,826, divided as follows: Excavation, useful to the Canal, 29,708,000 cubic yards-.------------.-.$25,389,240.00 Panama Railroad Stock .9,644,320.00 Plant and material, used and (d for scrap 2,112,063.00 Bulil ings, used----------------------------2,054,203.00 Surveys, plans, maps and record I .-------------2,000,000.00 Land ----------------------....1,000,000.00 Clearing, rmads, etc. -------------100,000.00 Ship channel in Panama Bay, i; year usv. 500,000.00 Total --------------------------S42,799.826.00 The Canal Zone. The Canal Zone contains about 448 square miles. It begins at a point three marine miles from mean low water mark in each ocean, adi(1 extends for five miles on each side of the center line of the route of the Canal. It includes the group of islands in the Bay of Panama named Perico, Naos, Culebra. and Flamenco. The cities of Panama and Colon are excluded from the Zone, but the United States has the right to enforce -;anitary ordinances in those cities, and to maintain public order in them in case the Republic of Panama should not he able, in the jt(gent of the Uinited StIates, to do so. Of the 448 square miles of Zone territory, the United States owns the larger portion, the exact amount of which is being determined by stirvey. Under the treaty with Panama. the Utnited States has the right to acquire by purchase, or by the exercise of the right of emi neilit domain, any lands, buildings, water rights, r other properties necessa ry and convenient for the constriction, 1naitnt enance, operation, san itation, and protection of the Canal, and it can,. therefore, at any time acqutire the lands withiii the Zoin boundaries which are owned by private persons.

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Canal Appropriations and Expenditures. APPROPRIATIONS Payment to the New Panama Canal Company$40,000,00000 Payment to Republic of Panama 10,000,000.00 Appropriation, June 28, 1902. 10,000,000.00 Appropriation, December 21, 1905 11,000.000.00 Deficiency, February 27, 1906 -5,990,786.00 Appropriation June 30, 1906 25,456415.08 Appropriation, March 4. 1907 -27,161 ,367.50 Deficiency, February 15, 1908 12,178,900.00 Appropriation, May 27, 1908 -29,187,000.00 Deficiency, March 4, 1909 -5,458,000.00 Appropriation, March 4, 1909 -33,638,000.00 Deficiency, February 25, 1910 76,000.00 Appropriation, June 25, 1910 -37,855,000.00 Private Act. Relief of Elizabeth G. Martin 1,200.00 Private Act. Relief of Marcellus Troxell 1,500.00 Private Act. Relief of W. L. Miles --------------1,704.18 Private Act. Relief of Chas. A. Caswell 1,056.00 Appropriation, March 4, 1911 -45,500,000.00 Total .--. .8293,566.,28.76 CLASSIFIED EXPENDITURES TO APRIL 1, 1911 Department of Construction and Engineering108,841,789.99 Department of Construction of Engin'ring-Plant 8,581,385.30 Department of Sanitation ---------------------12,775,053.94 Department of Civil Administration .4,714,030.52 Panama Railroad, Second Main Track -----------1,125,766.28 Panama Railroad, Relocated Line ---------------6,331,631.48 Purchase and Repair of Steamers -2,657,384.88 Zone Water Vorks and Sewers -4,365,053.09 Zone Roadways -----------------------------1,512,869.34 Loans to Panama Railroad 3,247,332.11 Construction and Repair of Buildings,------------9949,267.23 Purchase from New Panama Canal Company 40,000,000.00 Payment to Republic of Panama ---------------0,000,000.00 Miscellaneous. 4,127,106.76 Total-. 218,228,670.92 The balances carried in expenditure accounts, which are included in the last item above, for water works, sewers and pavements in the cities of Panama and Colon amounted altogether to $2,146,695.52. The unexpended balancein the appropriation for sanitation in the cities of Panama and Colon, available for expenditures on water works, sewers and pave.ments was $334,965.56, including transfer of appropriations for quarter ended March 31.

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2,S Relocated Panama Railroad. The new, or relocated line of the Panama Railroad is 47.1 miles long, or slightly shorter than the old line. From Colon to Mindi, 4.17 miles, and from Corozal to Panama, 2.83 miles, the old location is used, but the remaining 4( miles are new road. From Mindi to Gatun the railroad runs, in general, parallel to the Canal, and ascends front a few feet above tide water elevation to nearly 95 feet above. At Gatun the road leaves the vicinity of the Canal and runs eastalong the valley of the Gatun River to a point about 4'miles from the center line of the Canal, where it turns southward again and skirts the east shore of Gatun Lake to the beginning of Culebra Cut, at Bas Obispo. In this section there are several large fills, occurring where the line crosses the Gatun Valley and near the north end of Culebra Cut, where the line was located so as to furnish waste dumps for the dirt from the Canal. Originaliv it was intended to carry the railroad through Culebra Cut on a 40-foot berm, 10 feet above the water level, but the numerous slides have made this plan impracticable and a line is now being constructed around the Cut, known locally as the (old Hill Line. Leaving the berm of the Canal at Bas Obispo, the Gold Hill Line gradually works into the foot hills, reaching a distance from the center line of the Canal of two miles opposite Culebra; thence it runs down the Pedro Miguel Vallev to Paraiso, where it is only 800 feet from the center line of the Canal. This section of the line is located on maximum grade of 1.25 per cent. compensated, and has a total length of 9' miles. The sharpest curve on the whole line is 7'. From the south end of Culebra Cut at Paraiso, the railroad runs practically parallel with the Canal to Panama, with maximum grade of 0.45) per cent. Where the railroad crosses the Gatun River, a bascule steel bridge is to be erected. and a steel girder bridge, i mile long, with 200-foot through truss channel span, is in use across the Chagres River at Gamboa. Small streams are crossed on reinforced concrete culverts. Near Miraflores, a tunnel 736 feet long has been built through a hill. Total cost of new line is estimated at S9,000,000.

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Equipment. CANAL SERVICES. Steam shovels: 105-ton, 5 cubic yard zipperss 14 95-ton, 4 and 5 cubic yard zipperss --------------32 70-ton, 22 and 3 cubic yard -ippers ----------35 66-ton, 22 cubic yard dippers ------------45-ton, 13 cubic yard dippers -------------------10 26-ton ---------------------------------------Trenching shovel, cubic yard dipper---------1 Total. 100 Locomotives: American: 106 tons 99 105 tons -39 117 ton -20 French: 20 tons 5 26 tons 46 27 tons 9 30 tons ----------------------------------42 Decauville 10 112 Narrow gag American, 16 tons ---------------33 Electric-----------------------------------12 45 Total ------------------------------------------315 Drills: Mechanical churn, or well ---------------------265 Tripod--------------------------295 Total ---------------------------------------560 Cars: Flat, used with unloading plows ---------------1802 Steel dumps, !arge ---------------------------600 Steel dumps, small ---------------------------1200 Ballast dumps -------------------------------25 Wooden dumps ------------------------------12 Steel flats -----------------------------------500 Narrow gage -------------------------------200 Motor ---------------------------------------6 Pay Car ----------------------------------1 Total -------------------------------------4,346

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:30 Spreaders 25 Track shifters 10 Unloaders ------------------------------------------30 Pile drivers .------------------------------------19 Dredges: French ladder ----------------------------------7 Dipper -------------------------------------3 Pipe-line ------------------------------------7 Sea going suction -------------------------------2 Clam shell -------------------------------------1 Total ------------------------------------------20 Cranes ------------------------------_ -------57 Rock breaker --------------------------------------1 Tugs ----------------------------------12 Tow boat 1 House boats 2 Clapets 11 Pile driver, floating --1 Crane boat 1 Barges, lighters and scows 70 Launches 14 Cutters 3 Drill boats 2 PANAMA RAILROAD Locomotives: Road, (12 oil burners). .------------------36 Switch --------------------------------------34 Total ------------------------------70 Cars: Coaches -----------------------------------57 Freight. ------------------------------------1477 Total --------------------------------------1,534 Locomotive crane ---------------------------------1 Pile driver, track ---------------------------1 Pile driver, floating -------------------1-----------Tugs.--. ----------------------------------------------2 Lighters: Coal, all steel-.-. --------------------------------5 Cargo, steel and iron-------------------------8 Total---------------.--. 13

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