<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Part I: Tonnage and measurement...
 Part II: Principles controlling...
 Part III: Rules for the measurement...
 Appendices: Documents upon the...
 Index
 Back Cover


PCANAL



Measurement of vessels for the Panama canal
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00006071/00001
 Material Information
Title: Measurement of vessels for the Panama canal
Physical Description: vii, 596 p. : illus., col. plates, fold. map, plans (part fold.) diagrs. (part fold.) forms (part fold.) ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Johnson, Emory R ( Emory Richard ), 1864-1950
Huebner, Grover G ( Grover Gerhardt ), b. 1884
United States -- War Dept
Publisher: Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1913
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Ships -- Measurement   ( lcsh )
Tonnage -- Tables   ( lcsh )
Navires -- Mesure   ( rvm )
Tonnage -- Tables   ( rvm )
Rates and tolls -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Tarifs et péages -- Canal de Panamá (Panamá)   ( rvm )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama Canal (Panama)
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Emory R. Johnson, special commissioner on Panama canal traffic and tolls.
General Note: A report, submitted to the secretary of war, including a code of Panama measurement rules and a form of certificate to be issued to vessels measured for Panama canal tonnage.
General Note: Grover G. Huebner, collaborator.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03577931
lccn - 14030052
ocm03577931
sobekcm - AA00006071_00001
Classification: lcc - HE538.M5 A5 1913
System ID: AA00006071:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Part I: Tonnage and measurement rules
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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    Part II: Principles controlling Panama measurement rules
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    Part III: Rules for the measurement of vessels for the Panama Canal
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    Appendices: Documents upon the measurement of vessels and the operation of canals
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text











































I.I
4'~.













Measurement of Vessels

for the Panama Canal


EMORY R. JOHNSON


Special Commissioner on Panama Canal
Traffic and Tolls


WASH LNGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1913




















































































BII


















LETTER OF SUBMITTAL.


WASHINGTON, D. C., October 2, 1913.
Sm: I have the honor to submit herewith a report upon the Measurement of Vessels for
the Panama Canal. The report is made pursuant to instructions received from the Secretary
of War, September 1, 1911, "to formulate rules and regulations governing the measurement of
ships going through the canal, and to make an investigation and recommendation regarding the
tolls to be charged."
A report upon Panama Canal Traffic and Tolls was su bmitt ed to the Secretary of War, August
7, 1912, and the rates of toll recommended in that report were established by a proclamation of
the President, issued November 13, 1912. The proclamation fixing tolls also announced that
"The Secretary of War will prepare and prescribe such rules for the measurement of vessels and
such regulations as may be necessary and proper to carry this proclamation into full force and
effect."
The report herewith submitted considers in detail the problems of tonnage and vessel
measurement, and contains a set of rules which it is recommended be followed in determining
the tonnage upon which Panama Canal tolls shall be paid. The principles upon which the rules
are based are discussed in the report, and reasons are given for each of the main provisions con-
tained in the code of rules recommended. The introductory chapter presents a short summary
of the report and the concluding chapter contains a brief explanation of the main features of the
proposed Panama measurement rules.
In preparing this report I have been greatly aided by my assistant, GroverG. Huebner, Ph.D.,
of the University of Pennsylvania, whose cooperation has made possible the collection, analysis,
and presentation of much of the detail embodied in the report.
My thanks are due to Chief Constructor Richard Morgan Watt and other officers of the
Bureau of Construction and Repair Departmnent of the Navy, who have cooperated in drafting
the rules to determine the tonnage upon which warships shall pay tolls; and I am also indebted
to Mr. James H. Mancor, Principal Surveyor, United States and Canada, for Lloyd's Register
of Shipping, and to Mr. Hugo P. Frear, Naval Architect, to both of whom the proposed meas-
urement rules were submitted for criticism.
Very respectfully,
EMORY R. JOHNSON,
Special Commissioner on Panama Canal Trafic and Tolls.
The SECRETARY OF WAR.


















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CONTENTS.


Part I.-TONNAGE AND MEASUREMENT RULES.
Page.
Chapter I. Introduction. Scope of the report ................. ......................................... 3
II. Types of vessels distinguished and illustrated ...................... ........ 13
III. Cargo tonnage, displaremrnt, and dead-weight tonnage....................................... 31
IV. Gross tonnage and its measurement................................ ............ 43
V. Net tonnage.......................... .. .................................... .. 71
Part II.-PRINCIPLES CONTROLLING PANAMA MEASUREMENT RULES.
VI. Displacement tonnage the basis of tolls upon warships......................................... 97
VII. Net tonnage the basis of tolls on merchant ships ................... ..................... 107
VIII. The necessity for special Panama measurement rules........................... ............... 115
IX. Deductions for propelling power; history and criticism of rules................................... 125
X. Propelling power deductions for vessels equipped with oil and gas engines........................ 143
XI. Rules concerning superstructures and "shelter" decks; history and criticism...................... 163
XII. International uniformity in tonnage and measurement; past eff rt-, future possibilities............. 185
XIII. Comparison of the Panama and Suez measurement rules ..................... ................. 199
XIV. Main features of the Panama measurement rules.... ................ ......... ......... .. 207
Bibliographical note and list of principal works consulted................. .................... 215
Part III.-RULES FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR THE PANAMA CANAL.
Rules applying to vessels of commerce, Army and Navy transports, colliers, supply ships, and hospital ships.. 225
Deductions from the gross tonnage to ascertain the net tonnage ................... ...................... 236
Rules applying to vessels of war, other than Army and Navy transports, colliers, supply ships, and hospital
ships .......................... ............. ............... ................. ........... 241
FIGURES.
1. Midship section, showing beams and pillars for lower and main decks ................... ........ .... 16
2. Midship section of two-deck vessel ................. ................ .... .................... 17
3. Midship section of web frame steamer having cellular double-bottom, lower deck dispensed with ..... Face 17
4. Midship section of a steamer with three decks and a shelter deck, lower deck dispensed with............ 18
5. Profile of a two-deck ship with forecastle, bridge, and poop ............................ .......... 19
6. Profile of a raised quarter-deck, well-deck steamer .. -- ..................................... 19
7. Profile of a two-deck, ",ell "-deck steamer ............... ....... ............................. Face 20
8. Profile of a steamer having lower, main, and "shelter" decks....... ......................... Face 20
9. Profile of a steamer with three decks and a "shelter" deck ........................ ............... Face 20
10. Profile of vessel with shade deck.... ....... ....................................... 22
11. Midship section of freight and passenger vessel, Panama Canal service .........-...-.............. Face 23
12. Profiles of triple-screw steamship, designed for the Panama Canal service....------........................ Face 23
13. Mlidship section of rp'pi Al coastwise steamer for Panama Canal service .............. .................. Face 23
14 Profile of typical coastwise steamer for Panama Canal service ......................................... Face 23
15. Midship section of freight steamer for Panama Canal service ................. ...................... Face 24
16. Profile of freight steamer for Panama Canal service .................... ......................... Face 24
17. Midship ,ectiorn of turret steamer with lower and main (harbor) decks................................. 25
18. Hold view of self-trimming turret steamer .......... ...... .................................... Face 26
19. Mids.hip section of trunk steamer ........................................................ ......... 26
20. Hold view of eelf-trimming, three-deck steamer................................................ 27
21. Elevation and deck plan of an oil tank steamer. ........................................ Face 28
22. Midship section of an oil tank steamer ......-- .................................................... Face 28
23. Section in way of fore hold of oil tank steamer-....................... ............................. Face 28
v











MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


Page.
24. Profile and upper deck plan of oil tank carrier with [Di -sl enain. ... ............................ Face 28
25. Profile of cargo vesselwith small ipainger accommodations, Dies.,I enginrs.. ................. Face 28
26. Profileof steam ''rhon.-r" forwestcoastUnil-d Stati- lunmb.r trad ......... .............. Face 28
27. Displacement curve and scale.................. ....... .. .. Face 37
28. Diplacr.meut curves, U. S. battleship South Carolina .......... . . . Face 104

F'iRMS

1. British tonnage certificate................. .. 52
2. British tonnage formula...................... . .... .. .. .. Face 52
3. Suez Canal tonnage certificate............ . . Face 54
4. German tonnage certificate ................... ....... 57
5. American tonnage certificate................ .. 59
Panama (an'-l tonnage certificate ............. ... . .. ...... Face 242

TABLES.

I. MUeaur,-m-Tnt of gross tonnage under the m.-asiur.-mn'it rule of roat Britain. Su.-z I'anal 'o Germany,
and the United States............... ... . . . .. 60
II. Gross tonnage of steamers measured by British, Su.-z, and .\mrican rule...... .. ....... 62
III. Gross tonnage of two German steamers measured hy Sue-z, .Gernman, and Amprican rules..... ... 63
IV. Deductions other than for propelling power under the nimieurmcnin rules of Iroat Britian, Suez Canal
Co., Germany, and the United States. . .. ................ ...... 80
V. Gross and net tonnage of eight steamers as dret-rminred by the Brit rh. .\ m-riran. anid Suez m-easurement
rules................................................. .. .............. .. 83
VI. Gross and net tonnage of two German steamerj. as d,-t,-rmin-d by thei German. .merican, and Suez
measurement rules.................... ... ..... .. .. ... ...... 84
VII. Gross and net tonnages of the metal steam v-.e.el- f ihe> world, 1,90, 191U0. 1910, and the percentage
deducted from the gross in ascertaining h he net... .. . ...... . 85
VIII. Gross and net tonnages of vessels that pasvd Ihr..u.th the St., ('anal, 1891 -1S93 and 1903-1912.... 86
IX. Di.pla.erment, and gross and net tonnage, Brit-h .ard Suez mea.urement of five Britih warships . 100
X. Normal displacement, and gross and net t.,mnan., Su',- measurmrnpnl, nf different type- of American
warships..................................... ........... ..... 101
XI. Range o block coefficients of selected reprtientai '-- off dilff-rprn typre" .nm.-riran naval vessels.... 103
XII. Treatment (in 1913) of superstructures and .h Britain, the Suez Canal Co., Germany, and ith I'nitr.il S1iau.. .. ......... ..... 182
XIII. Nations that have adopted the Moorsom t1n and the Mo..ruinm nm-asurm.nifnt iyilem .......... 189


APPENDICES.

I. American laws concerning the measurement off \e l ....... .. ...... ... ................ 2 47
II. Rules and regulations of the United State- co-ncernine the mneas remnent of ve-pe,1s................ 255
III. British laws concerning the measurement of ers-el- .................... ......... .. 269
IV. British Board of Trade instructions relating 1 t hl.- ia-urermen- i -hip ........ .... 281
V. The ship measurement ordinan 'e of Germany...... .. .. 311
VI. Ship measurement instructions issued by the German i.;.rn--m ent March 21j, 185 ...... ...... 329
VII. Technical directions issued December, l9ot, by the Gernan Governmenl to the .ihip-measurement
boards cr.,n.i..ing the execution lf the.hip-ineaaur-empnl urdinanc- ,f March 1. 1895.... ... 347
VIII. Cumrpariari,.'e naly.iis ,f theFrench, British, and German .iip)-miueasurenieiit niles................... .. 355
IX. Comparative analysis of the provisions of the lunnaee certiticate; i.-isued to v\es.e;L in France, England,
and Germany...................... ..... ......... ....... ................... 375
X. Report of the International Tonnage omimission, signed at (',nstantinuple December 18, 1873..... 383
XI. History of the measurement of tonnage of vessels using the Suez Canal.......... .................. 391
XII. Suez CanalCo.'s rules for the measurement of vessel .............................................. 405








V











MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


Page.
XIII. Memorandum by the lUniversal Maritime Canal Co. of Suez on the application of therules of 1904 rela-
tive is the m ea.5urement of superstructures, Paris, 1909.--..............-..--- ..........--...--.. 413
XIV. Brit 'h Buard of Trade instructions to surveryors concerning the measurement of vessels for the issue of
Slez Carnal certificates..----------------------... ...................... ........ ............ ........ 419
XV. Inftrrcti onsj .. the German Government for the application of the Suez rules to the measurement of
\v-esIels I........... ...... .. .......... . ............. ... ...... . ....... ...... ....... 427
X I. Cuniparative a naljy.si of the provisions applying the Suez rules for the measurement of vessels by French,
Englihb, and German surveyors.-.................................... .......................... 433
X-'II. Instructiuins and re .ulations relating to the measurement of ships of the United States Navy for ton-
natc rerienicate. u.ed in navigation of the Suez Maritime Canal-.............. -................. 445
XVIII Repnrt of the British RoyalCommissionohTonnage, 1881 ...-.............. ........................ 475
XIX Law, ruleA, and regulations f.r the government of St. Marys Falls Canal............................... 493
XX. Regulations prep-.ribed by the Secretary of War for the use, administration, and navigation of the Louis-
\ille& Purtland Canal .. ................ ....................................................... 499
XXI. Operating rigj]laticons and navigation charges of the Suez Maritime Canal, January, 1913.............. 503
XXII. Traffic regulati.nrs and code of signals of the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal...........-...................... 515
XX II I. Reru latiun and by -laws and notices to mariners and pilots governing the use of the Manchester Canal.. 533
XXIV. General re ular iuns governing the use of rivers and canals in the Netherlands......................... 555
XXV. Special regiliatiion' relating to the North Sea (Amsterdam Canal).. --......................-......... 569
Index .................................................. ...... ............................................... 579




















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I1























PART I.


TONNAGE AND MEASUREMENT RULES.
1





%


II

i























L I

































CHAPTER I.



INTRODUCTION-SCOPE OF THE REPORT.
.3

















































L
















CHAPTER I.


INTRODUCTION-SCOPE OF THE REPORT.

By proclamation, issued November 13, 1912, the President of the United States, acting
upon the authority given him by the act of Congress approved August 24, 1912, prescribed the
following schedule of tolls to be paid by vessels using the Panama Canal:
1. On merchant vessels carrying passengers or cargo one dollar and twenty cents ($1.20)
per net vessel ton-each one hundred (100) cubic feet-of actual earning capacity.
2. On vessels in ballast, without pas-engers or cargo, forty (40) per cent less than the rate
of tolls for vessels with passengers or cargo.
3. Upon naval vessels, other than transports, colliers, hospital ships, and supply ships,
fifty (50) cents per displacement ton.
4. Upon Army and Navy transports, colliers, hospital ships, and supply ships one dollar
and twenty cents i$1.20) per net ton, the vessels to be measured by the same rules as are
employed in determining the net tonnage of merchant vessels.
By the act of August 24, 1912, Congress provided that-
Tolls may be based upon gross or net registered tonnage, displacement tonnage, or otherwise, and may be based
on one form ',f ronnace fr warships and another for ships of commerce. The rate of tolls may be lower upon vessels
in ballast than upn \~*-eli carrying passengers or cargo. When based upon net registered tonnage for ships of com-
merce the t-lls shall nrut er eed $1.25 per net registered ton, nor be less, other than for vessels of the United States
and its ri ilzpns, than the et imated proportionate cost of the actual maintenance and operation of the canal, subject,
however, to the pruo. ioirns (df article nineteen of the convention between the United States and the Republic of
Panama, enererl into Nio ember eighteechb, nineteen hundred and three. If the tolls shall not be based upon net
registered t~)ounrw the .shall not exceed the equivalent of $1.25 per net registered ton as nearly as the same may be
determined', nor b.e le' tha3r the equivalent of 75 cents per net registered ton. The toll for each passenger shall not
be more than 11.50. The President is authorized to make, and from time to time amend, reciulatir-ns governing the
operation .if the P-nam .'anral, and the passage and control of vessels through the same or any part thereof, includ-
ing the kl ks arns appr,:.aj'hr s thereto, and all rules and regulations affecting pilots and pilotage in the canal or the
approaches ihereto through the adjacent waters.
In his proclamation of November 13, 1912, the President directed the Secretary of War
to "prepare and prescribe such rules for the measurement of vessels and such regulations as
may be necessary to carry this proclamation into full force and effect."
The primary pur pose of this report is to present the facts to be considered in formulating
rules for the measurement of vessels and to recommend a set of rules to be followed in deter-
mining the tonnage upon which vessels using the Panama Canal shall pay tolls. The report
includes a code ut Panama measurement rules and a form of certificate to be issued to vessels
measured for Panama Canal tonnage. The report is intended to explain the rules fully and to
afford a guide to tlihoe whose duty it shall be to apply and interpret the rules. It is expected
that the report will be consulted by the officials, American and foreign, who measure vessels
and issue Panama tonnage certificates, by the administrative officials who'pass upon those
certificates when presented at the Panama Canal, and by those judges who may have to decide
cases involving the interpretation that Panama Canal officials have given the rules. To carry
out this purpose more effectively, an effort has been made so to write the report that it may
readily be understood by those who do not have a technical knowledge of tonnage questions.
Rules for the measurement of vessels must, if possible, be so framed as to be readily and
accurately applicable to the vessels that are to be measured. The rules must fit the ships, and








MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS EOR PANAMA CANAL.


ocean vessels of to-day are complicated structures of many types and designs. It thus seemed
clear that this report upon the measurement of vessels ought to begin, as it. does, with a brief
illustrative description of the main types of ships whose tonnage will be determined by the
rules to be formulated.
The words "ton" and "tonnage" have so many meanings that it. is difficult, even for the
technical man, to use the terms with strict accuracy. It is necessary, first of all, in framing
rules for the determination of the tonnage upon which Panama Canal charges shall be imposed,
to decide which kind of ton shall be made the basis or unit of the charges. The report in Part I
explains the different kinds of tons and analyzes the provisions of the rules by which the United
States, Great Britain, Germany, and the Suez Canal Co. determine the gross and net. tonnage
of vessels. This survey and analysis of the vessel-measurement rules of three important com-
merical countries and of the company operating the interoceanic waterway most comparable
with the Panama Canal brings out the merits and defects of existing tonnage rules and makes
clear what should be the main provisions of the Panama measurement code. Subsequent
chapters of the report discuss the principles that should-control in framing rules to determine
the tonnage upon which vessel charges should be imposed. The report, as a whole, may thus
be regarded as a treatise on tonnage and vessel measurement prepared with reference to fram-
ing rules to apply in determining the tonnage upon which Panama Canal charges shall be
imposed.
The question is often'asked why charges for the use of ocean-ship canals, such as the
Suez, Kiel, and Panama Canals, are imposed upon the tonnage of vessels instead of upon
the tonnage of the cargo carried by the vessels. The report seeks to explain why the capacity
of merchant vessels for the accommodation of passengers and the stowage of cargo, rather
than the cargo and passengers carried, is the more equitable and more practicable basis of
canal charges; and the report also states the reasons why warships should pay tolls upon
their weight or displacement tonnage, and not upon the kind of tonnage that is made the
basis of charges upon vessels of commerce.
The President's proclamation fixing Panama ('anal tolls makes displacement tonnage
the basis of the charges upon warships, while the dues payable by vessels of commerce are to
be imposed upon the earning capacity of ships. The Suez Canal Co. does not make this distinc-
tion between warships and merchant vessels, but levies tolls upon the net tonnage of vessels
of war as well as of vessels of commerce. The application of the Suez, or other, measurement
rules to warships can, however, result only in an artificial net or capacity tonnage that
but roughly indicates the size of different classes of war vessels. In fact, rules for the deter-
mination of the gross and net tonnage of merchant vessels are not applicable to warships.
Warships are fighting machines that have no earning capacity and can have no real net ton-
nage. The size of vessels of war is more accurately indicated by their weight, or dis-
placement, than by the capacity of their inclosed spaces. It. may be otherwise with vessels
that serve armed ships. Army and Navy transports, colliers, supply ships, and hospital
ships are structurally similar to merchant vessels, and may, without much difficulty, be
measured by rules applicable to passenger and freight carriers. Such auxiliary vessels of
war may be readily and equitably charged tolls upon their net capacity or net tonnage,
but charges upon fighting ships ought, for reasons that are set forth in the report, to be levied
upon their displacement tonnage.
The charges required of a vessel of commerce for the use of the Panama Canal might, theo-
retically be either upon the tonnage of the ship or upon the tons of cargo in the vessel; and,
in either case, there might also be a toll charged upon each passenger carried. If the tolls
were imposed upon the cargo, the charge might. be upon the tons of the commodities in the
ship without regard to differences in the kinds and values of the articles carried, or the tolls
upon the cargo might, like railroad rates, be made to vary with commodities or with classes
of articles. As a matter of fact, tolls upon cargo or upon commodities and classes of articles








MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL. 7

are administratively impracticable. Fortunately, itis not necessary to make cargo the basis
of canal tolls in order to realize equity in canal charges.
If the canal tolls and other charges payable by merchant vessels are levied upon the ship
and not upon the cargo carried, the charges may be either upon the weight of the ship or upon
the size, or closed-in capacity, of the vessel. If the charges are placed upon the weight of
the vessel-the displacement tonnage-the weight taken as the basis of the tolls would be
the weight of the ship and its load.
Tolls might, also be levied upon the difference between the weight of vessels when loaded
and when "light." In the latter case, the tolls would be levied upon the vessel's carrying
ability or its "dead-weight capacity."
If the canal charges are made such as to tax vessels of commerce according to their size
or closed-in capacity, the charges may be upon the entire capacity of the vessel or upon only
the closed-in space available for the stowage of cargo and stores and for the accommodation of
passengers. The entire closed-in capacity of a ship, in units of 100 cubic feet, is its gross ton-
nage. The capacity of a vessel, in units of 100 cubit feet, for the transportation of cargo,
and passengers is the vessel's net tonnage.
In the report made in 1912 upon "Panama Canal Traffic and Tolls," the possible bases
upon which the charges for the use of the Panama Canal might be imposed were necessarily con-
sidered in a preliminary way; and it was recommended that the tolls payable by merchant
vessels should be imposed upon their earning capacity, and that charges upon warships should
be levied upon their displacement. The reasons for those conclusions are presented at length
in the following report; and the rules for the measurement of vessels, other than warships, have
been so drafted that. the net tonnage of vessels, as determined by the rules, will be as exact an
expression as it is practicable to obtain of the capacity of vessels-which are of many types and
designs-for the stowage of cargo and for the accommodation of passengers.
It was necessary to have a special set of rules for the measurement of vessels of commerce
to determine the tonnage upon which Panama Canal tolls shall be paid. The adoption of the
rules followed by the United States in measuring vessels for registry was inadvisable; and none
of the national vessel measurement rules of foreign countries would have met the requirements.
The Suez Canal Co.'s tonnage rules, having been formulated by an international tonnage com-
mission with a view to establishing an equitable basis upon which to impose the charges for the
use of a great interoceanic waterway, are more nearly like the rules required for the Panama
Canal than is any one of the national measurement codes; but the Suez rules, drafted 40 years
ago, contain some provisions that ought not to be included in the Panama rules. The detailed
analysis, in this report, of the measurements rules of the United States, Great Britain, Germany,
and the Suez Canal Co. makes clear why special Panama measurement rules are necessary.
The main reasons why it is not advisable to adopt for the Panama Canal one of the existing
measurement codes may be briefly summarized:
None of the national measurement rules, neither those of the United States nor those of
foreign countries, is framed with a view to making registered tonnage an accurate expression
of the earning capacity of vessels. If any one of these sets of rules were adopted to determine
the tonnage upon which Panama Canal charges shall be paid, the charges would not be relatively
fair as among different types of ships, tolls would not be imposed as closely as is desirable in
accordance with the ability of vessels to pay the charges, and the Government might be deprived
of'a portion of the revenues which it would be justly entitled to receive for the service of passing
ships through the canal.
Still less would it be possible to accept as the tonnage upon which Panama'Canal charges
shall be paid the tonnage of vessels as stated in their respective national certificates of registry.
The measurement, rules in force in the several commercial countries differ in important par-
ticulars both as regards the spaces included in gross tonnage and as regards the deductions
made therefrom in determining the net tonnage upon which shipping charges are imposed.









8 MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.
There is, as the report shows, a surprising variation in gross tonnage given the same vessel
when measured by different rules, and there is even greater dissimilarity in the net tonnage of
vessels as determined by different measurement rules. In some countries the net tonnage of
vessels composing the merchant marine averages only 61 per cent of the gross tonnage, while in
other countries the average is over 70 per cent; or, stated differently, some countries in cal-
culating net tonnage deduct 39 per cent and other countries less than 30 per cent of the space
included in gross tonnage. Each country, some more zealously than others, seeks, by means
of its laws and regulations concerning gross and net tonnage, to lighten the burdens to be borne
by the vessels under its flag as compared with the shipping under other ensigns. In framing
rules for the measurement of vessels for national registry, commercial countries do not seek to
make net tonnage what it should be made by the Panama rules-the closest practicable approxi-
mation of the earning capacity of vessels of different types.
If it were advisable to adopt for the determination of Panama Canal tonnage one of the
measurement codes now in force, the British rules should receive consideration, for the reason
that nearly half of all the ships on the high seas are of British registry and thus carry British
tonnage certificates. The British rules, however, make both the gross and net tonnage of
most vessels especially low and do not apply with equal fairness to ships of different types. If
the British rules were correct in basic principles and in their main provisions, it might be well
to make them the Panama rules, provided Great Britain would agree not to change her meas-
urement rules except upon joint action taken by Great Britain and the United States to amend
simultaneously the common British and Panama rules. Possibly neither country would favor
such an arrangement. Indeed there seems more prospect, of the ultimate unification of tonnage
and measurement rules by harmonizing the Suez and Panama codes and making them the
basis of international tonnage uniformity.
The Suez measurement rules are based upon correct general principles-that gross tonnage
should include and express the total capacity of vessels, and net tonnage the capacity available
for passengers and cargo-hut in various provisions of the rules these principles are not closely
followed. As is explained in this report the Suez rules are not logical in their treatment of
double-bottom spaces and of ballast tanks; nor are the provisions satisfactory regarding the
measurement and exemption of spaces in superstructures. The most serious objection to the
Suez rules is that the deductions from gross tonnage allowable for crew and navigation spaces-
all deductions other than for propelling machinery and fuel-are limited to 5 per cent of the
gross tonna.e. Such a limitation mny have been justifiable in 1873 when the Suez rules were
framed by the International Tonnige Commission, hut any such restriction upon crew and
navigation spaces would be indefensible in rules drafted at the present time.
In formulating measurement rules to carry out the general principles that. gross tonnage
should be the equivalent of the ent ire closed-in capacity, and net tonnage of the earning capacity,
of vessels, there were, in addition to many questions of lesser importance, two large problems
requiring careful solution. These were (11 the treatment to be accorded spaces above what is
usually called the upper deck of vessels, and (2) the deductions to be allowed for propelling
machinery and fuel. Upon the provisions concerning the measurement. or exemption of the
spaces between the "upper" deck and the deck above-usually called the "shelter" deck-
and of the spaces within the superstructures (the poop, forecastle, bridge, etc.) depends, most
of all, the correctness of the gro.s tonnage accorded vessels; while the rule followed in making
deductions for propelling maclinery and fuel does most to determine the accuracy of net tonnage
as an expression of the earning capacity of vessels.
Gross tonnage, as determined by the measurement rules of Great Britain and of Germany
and such other countries as have gross tonnage rules like the British, is, for most freight vessels
of recent construction, less than the tonnage according to the rules of the Suez Canal Co. or
the rules followed by the United States in measuring ships for registry. The same vessel may
have as much as 20 per cent less gross tonnage when measured by the British or German rules









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOB PANAMA CANAL.


than when. measured in accordance with the Suez or American rules. While this is an extreme
variation, vessels often vary as much as 10 per cent in gross tonnage when measured by differ-
ent rules.
This is due partly to the fact that the rules of the Suez Canal Co. and of the United States
measure certain superstructure spaces which the British and German rules exempt from measure-
ment, but the variations in gross tonnage result mainly from the exemption by the British
and German rules, and the measurement under the Suez and American rules, of the spaces
between the uppermost full-length deck-which is called the "shelter" deck-and the deck
next below, which is usually called the "upper" deck. Under a decision rendered in 1875 by
the House of Lords, British admeasurers must exempt from measurement and gross tonnage
the between-deck space under the "shelter" deck when that deck has a "tonnage opening,"
and when the bulkheads subdividing the between-deck space has the openings stipulated in the
Board of Trade regulations. The "tonnage opening" by which exemption from measurement
is secured for the large between-deck space is in reality a technical opening which can be so
covered when the vessel is at sea as to protect the space under the "shelter" deck from the
weather and the sea. Dry cargo can be, and is, carried in the between-deck space under the
"shelter" deck. The Suez rules, and usually the American rules, include the space within gross
tonnage. The Panama rules follow the Suez regulations in considering as closed-in, and thus
to be included in gross tonnage, the space under so-called shelter decks. A history and criti-
cism of existing rules concerning the measurement and exemption of spaces in superstructures
and under "shelter" decks is presented in Chapter XI of the report.
The larger part of the deduction made from gross tonnage to ascertain net tonnage is for
the spaces occupied by propelling machinery and fuel. Under the Suez rules, deductions other
than for power and fuel may amount to only 5 per cent of the gross tonnage. There are three
rules or methods by which the space to be deducted for propelling machinery and fuel is deter-
mined.
One method is to measure the space actually occupied by the engine and boiler rooms
(including designated portions of the spaces framed in around the funnels and for the admis-
sion of light, and air to those rooms), by the shaft trunks or tunnels (in the case of screw-propelled
vessels), and by the fixed bunkers or compartments set aside for fuel. This method is not
readily applicable to vessels that have coal bunkers with movable partitions.
Another method of making propelling-power deduction is to allow for the space occupied
by machinery and fuel a fixed percentage of the entire space included in gross tonnage. For
most vessels-i. e., for vessels having screw propellers and having propelling-machinery spaces
comprising more than 13 and less than 20 per cent of the space included in gross tonnage-the
British rules allow a deduction for propelling power and for fuel of 32 per cent of the gross
tonnage. The adherence of Great Britain to this percentage rule has caused most other coun-
tries to adopt the rule.
A third method of determining the space to be deducted for propelling machinery and fuel
is to assume a percentage relationship between machinery and fuel spaces and to deduct for
power and fuel the space occupied by propelling machinery increased by a fixed percentage.
This is the method followed in the "Danube rule," which calls for the measurement of the spaces
occupied by the engine and boiler rooms, including designated portions of the framed-in light-
and-air and funnel spaces, and, in the case of screw-propelled vessels, of the shaft trunk or
trunks. To the volume of the machinery spaces thus measured, there is added, to allow for
fuel, 75 per cent for vessels with screws and 50 per cent for ships with paddle wheels. This
method of making propelling-power deductions is equally applicable to vessels with or without
fixed fuel compartments. The measurement rules of the European Commission of the Danube
and those of the Suez Canal Co. follow the Danube rule in making propelling-power deductions;
and give vessel owners the alternative, in the case of vessels having fixed fuel compartments,
of having the spaces deducted that are actually occupied by or set aside for fuel bunkers or tanks
and by propelling machinery.
61861 -13----2









10 MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.
The major share of ocean vessels consists of freight steamers, and most freight -vessels are
so constructed that the engine and boiler rooms (including shaft trunks and air and funnel
spaces) occupy spaces equal to slightly more than 13 per cent of the space included in gross
tonnage. If the propelling machinery spaces in a freight steamer occupied 13.2 per cent of the
gross tonnage, the deduction for machinery and fuel under the Danube rule would be 23.1
(13.2xl.75' per cent and under the British percentage rule 32 per cent. In the case of an
average-sized modern freight steamer of 6.000 tons gross tonnage, the propelling power deduo-
tion under the percentage rule would, if the engine room occupied 13.2 per cent of the space
included in gross tonnage, be 534 tons more than under the Danube rule.
The deductions allowed for fuel spaces by the Danube rule are liberal, experience showing
that vessel owners seldom prefer to have deductions made by the actual measurement of fuel
spaces. The Panama rules, for reasons given in detail in this report, have adopted with slight
modification the rule for propelling power deductions contained in the measurement codes of
the European Commission of the Danube and of the Suez Canal Co.-i. e., the Danube rule
with the alternative of the actual measurement of spaces occupied by fixed bunkers or fuel
tanks. Chapter IX of the report contains a history and criticism of rules concerning deductions
for propelling power.
During recent years numerous ocean vessels have been equipped with internal-combustion
engines. Such engines are of different kinds, some of which occupy less space than is required
by steam engines of like power, while all types of internal-combustion engines consume less
fuel than do steam engines of equal power. It was necessary to decide whether the same
rule as to propelling power deduction should be applied to vessels having internal-combustion
engines as to vessels equipped with steam machinery. The question is discussed with some
detail in Chapter X upon propelling power deductions for vessels equipped with oil and gas
engines. It was decided that the development of marine internal-combustion engines had
not yet proceeded far enough to warrant the application to vessels equipped with such engines
of a special rule, for propelling power deduction, different from the rule applied to other vessels.
Vessels will be measured for Panama tonnage certificates, not only by American admeas-
urers at the several ports of the United States but also, and much more largely, by foreign
admeasurers at foreign ports. In order to insure the fair treatment of all vessels and to protect
the Panama Canal revenues against losses, it is important that admeasurers the world over
shall give the Panama rules the same interpretation. To assist in bringing this about, the
measurement rules have been made as definite and specific as possible, and the final chapter of
the report is devoted to a brief explanation of the main features of the rules.
The Suez Canal Co. and the governments whose officials measure vessels for Suez tonnage
certificates have found it advisable to issue special directions for the guidance of admeasurers.
In the documents appended to this report will be found the instructions of the British Board
of Trade to surveyors who measure vessels for Suez Canal tonnage; also the instructions of the
German Government for the application of the Suez rules; and the memorandum of the Suez
Canal Co. on the application of the rules of 1904 relative to the measurement of superstructures.
It is hoped that it may not be necessary either for the Panama Canal administration or
for the vessel measurement authorities of foreign countries to issue special instructions for the
guidance of admeasurers in applying the Panama rules and in issuing Panama tonnage certifi-
cates. Should, however, experience in the application of the rules show the necessity for
special instructions for the guidance of admeasurers, the discussion of the rules contained in
the report should make the preparation of such instructions comparatively easy.
It has long been realized that the international unification of vessel measurement rules
would be of advantage to commerce and shipping. Uniformity in rules and in measurement
practice would give a common meaning to tonnage as stated in the certificates of vessels under
all flags, and the owners of vessels would not be burdened with the expense and possible delays
connected with any measurement subsequent to that necessarily given ships at the time of
their registry by the country whose flag they carry. Each vessel's tonnage as stated in its








MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOB PANAMA CANAL.


certificate of registry could be accepted at all canals in collecting tolls and at all ports as a
basis for tonnage taxes, towage, dockage, and other port charges.
Any ship using the Suez Canal must carry both its national registry certificate and a
Suez tonnage certificate. The use of the Panama Canal will require another certificate. This
requirement. is, however, of minor consequence as compared with other results of the lack of
international uniformity in measurement rules. If the tonnage of a vessel as stated in the
national certificate is not. accepted by the authorities of the foreign port entered by the ship
and admeasurerers make additions to the vessel's tonnage, delays, bickering, and appeals by
the vessel's owners from decisions of the surveyor of the port may result; while, if the tonnage
of registry is accepted without correction, the charges imposed upon shipping may be unfair as
between different types of vessels, unjust as between the owners of vessels and the owners of
docks, wharves, and other port facilities, and inequitable as between the different countries to
which tonnage or light dues" are paid.
These disadvantages are to some extent, but only partly, overcome by agreements among
the leading commercial countries to accept at each other's ports tonnage figures as stated in
national certificates. When the tonnage of a vessel is much less than it would be under the
laws of the country of a port the vessel may enter, it is usual for the measurement authorities
to measure, and add to the tonnage, spaces that were exempted in measuring the vessel for
registry. American admeasurers, for example, frequently make additions to the registered
tonnage of British, German, and French vessels. This is done because our navigation laws
include in the gross tonnage of some vessels spaces in superstructures and under the so-called
"shelter" deck that may be exempted from measurement under the rules of Great Britain
and Germany.
The desirability of unifying measurement rules was brought to the attention of the com-
mercial powers of Europe as early as 1861 by the European Commission of the Danube-an
international body that had been given charge, in 1856, of the improvement of the navigation
of the mouth and lower course of the Danube River and ha'd been given authority to collect
tolls to meet. the expenses of the improvements. This suggestion of the Commission of the
Danube was followed in 1862 by a memorandum, prepared by the British Board of Trade,
"pointing out. the importance of the uniform system of tonnage measurement." This memo-
randum was submit ted by the British foreign office to the French Government and negotiations
followed, which, however, did not lead to any definite results before 1870, when the troublous
decade of the sixties culminated in the Franco-Prussian War, which temporarily brought com-
mercial negotiations to an end.
It was thought that the opening of the Suez Canal in the latter part of 1869 might lead to
the international unification of tonnage rules. A commission appointed in IS6.S by de Lesseps
to consider questions connected with the operation of the Suez Canal recommended that charges
for the use of the canal should be levied upon the tonnage stated in each vessel's official papers
(its net register tonnage) until uniform rules had been adopted by the maritime powers. The
international unification of rules did not follow as expected. Moreover, the Suez Canal Co.,
finding that its revenues were inadequate to meet its capital charges, decided to collect tolls
from July 1, 1S72, upon the gross instead of the net tonnage of vessels. The opposition which
this aroused on the part of the shipping interests and of the commercial countries of Europe
led to the convening by the Sultan of Turkey of the International Tonnage Commission, which
met at Constantinople in September, 1873. The international commission, though convened
primarily to decide what tonnage should be the basis of Suez tolls and what rate of charges the
Suez Canal Co. should impose, considered, and the following December reported upon, the
"question of tonnage generally." It drafted rules which it expected would be adopted not
only by the Suez Canal Co. but also by the maritime countries represented at Constantinople.
As is explained in Chapter XII of this report, which discusses the past efforts for, and the
future possibilities of, international uniformity in tonnage and measurement, it is probable that
the expectation of the International Tonnage Commission of 1873 would have been realized had









12 MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.

not the efforts made by the British Board of Trade in 1874 and again in 1881 to secure the adop-
tion by Parliament of the measurement rules framed at Constantinople been defeated by the
opposition of the shipowners of Great Britain, who objected to the increase that would be
made in the net tonnage of vessels-the tonnage upon which shipping charges of most kinds
are levied.
The opening of the Panama Canal might wrll be made the occasion of another earnest
effort to secure the unification of tonnage rules. The Panama rules and those framed for the
Suez Canal Co. by the International Tonnage Commission are based upon sound principles
common to both sets of rules. It would not seem impossible for the leading commercial coun-
tries to agree upon a single code of measurement rules carrying out the principles that underly
the Panama and Suez rules and embodying the essential provisions common to those two codes.
If that were done, there ought to be no great difficulty in harmonizing the minor differences
in the Panama and Suez rules and in making the rules thus harmonized the single measurement
code of the world.


























CHAPTER II.


TYPES OF VESSELS DISTINGUISHED
AND ILLUSTRATED.








































































L















CHAPTER II.


TYPES OF VESSELS DISTINGUISHED AND ILLUSTRATED.
Throughout the discussion of the measurement of vessels it is necessary to refer to different
types of ships and to the structural parts of vessels. Frequent mention must also be made of
the many spaces into which vessels are divided. Inasmuch as technical terms are used, which,
though familiar to shipbuilders and seafaring men, are not a part of the vocabulary of those
not connected with ships and shipping, it will be well to distinrguih and illustrate the main
types of ocean vessels and designate and locate both the main structural parts and the prin-
cipal spaces within such ships.
It is desirable that this report and the measurement rules it contains should be understood
by lawmakers and courts as well as by the technical officials who may apply and enforce the
measurement rules. The rules may have to be interpreted by the courts from time to time
in deciding cases brought by complainants appealing from decisions of the executive officers
in charge of the interpretation and enforcement of the rules. It is also possible that vessel
measurement may be the subject of future legislation. Congress has authorized the President
to prescribe and to change the Panama rules, but the rules by which American vessels are
measured for registration and enrollment and by which all ships entering the ports of the
United States are, or may be, measured for the imposition of tonnage taxes are established
by law. Moreover, the existing national rules, as will be pointed out in the following report,
are incomplete in some particulars and not sufficiently specific in other regards. It has seemed
best to run the risk of seeming to some readers to be unnecessarily elementary, and to prepare
this report with a view to making its contents clear to the layman as well as to the engineer
and the nautical expert.
An ocean vessel's type is indicated by the number of its decks,, by the characteristics of
its structures above the main deck, by the fuel it uses, and by the kind of engin-es and the
number of propellers with which it is equipped. There are many variations in the structural
details of vessels, but the main types of ships may be designated by reference to the number
of their decks, the nature of their decks, their above-deck structures, their fuel, and their engines
and propellers.
Small freight vessels have two decks, medium-sized freight and passenger ships have three
decks, while large freight vessels and those carrying both freight and passengers usually have
four full decks, above which there may be one or more decks extending less than the
full length of the vessel and inclosing successive tiers of superstructures. In vessels having
more than one deck, the main deck (which, in measurement rules, is also called the tonnage
deck) is the second deck from the bottom of the vessel. When there are three decks they
are designated lower, main (or middle), and upper deck. If there are four full decks, the
fourth deck is generally called the shelter deck, above which there may be a bridge deck and
a promenade deck, or bridge, promenade, and boats decks. The decks above the shelter deck
do not extend the full length of the hull. The sketches (Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4) of half midship
sections of vessels name and locate the several decks.
The strength of a vessel depends, first of all, upon the weight and strength of its transverse
framing, consisting of t.he floors and frames (see Fig. 3) to which the plates inclosing the hull
are iiveted. The mmiimum size of.frames for different types of vessels is prescribed by the
rules established by Lloyd's Association and similar organizations which classify vessels and









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


give them the rating upon which insurance rates depend. The transverse frames are placed
from 24 to 30 inches apart and the framing may be strengthened in various ways: (1) By
"deep framing," i. e., by making the transverse frames deeper and stronger; (2) by substituting
web frames or beams for each sixth to tenth transverse frame; and (3) by increasing the number
and dimensions of the longitudinal beams or stringers that give longitudinal strength to the
vessel.
Practically every vessel is now constructed with a double bottom, the space between the
inner and outer plating being used to carry water ballast. Certain compartments may be


FIGURE 1.-Midship section, showing Le.am_ and Ipllr1 f.,r lower and madn dec'Li.
used to carry fresh water for the boilers, and in the case of ships with oil-burning engines a
portion of the tank space in the double bottom may be used to store fuel oil. The particular
use to which the double-bottom compartments are devoted is an important consideration in
vessel measurement and is the subject of special mention in all codes of tonnage rules.
The prevailing method of constructing the double bottom of vessels is illustrated in figures
3 and 11. It is called the cellular double bottom. The floors, which are the transverse steel
plates extending from the center longitudinal girder (keelson) to the margin plate or longi-


















I



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*


r






a


Fle. 3. MIDSHIP SECTION OF WEB FRAME STEAMER HAVING CELLULAR DOUBLE-BOTTOM, LOWER DECK DISPENSED WITH. :

25

/ K(eel; Side bar keel
2 Oarboard; 6arboardstrake.
2/ 3 Centerfrder; Vertica/centerplate;
Center hroq popte a -ke/a kan
4 Side girders.
5 WI?;g girde%; MarIn p/sate.
20 6 Floors; Intercostal loors.
S7 Brackets.
8 Inner bottom; Top of double 6ott;Top of tank.
S9 Bracket frames
/0 WIe frames.
18 16 / II Side st ringers
/2 Diamondplates
13 Hold.pillars, Hold stanchions.
/4 Main deck beams.
17 / r 15 Maln deck stringer.
S16 Wfain deck p/ating
0 1 /7 M8ain deck sheerstrake
18 Topside strike
/9 Upper deck sheerstrake.
S20 Upper deck pillars; Upper deck stpnchions.
U/ I 2/ Upper deck beams.
/ 22 Upper deck.
23 Bu/wark stay.
24 Bulwark platfng
25 Main rail/ Roughtree rail


G61"61-13. (To tace pap I17.1









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


tudinal wing girder at the upward bend of the frames, are crossed at right angles by the longi-
tudinal side girders that parallel the keelson. The floors may be continuous from keelson
to margin plate and the side girders intercostal between the floors; or, as in figure 3, the longi-
tudinal girders may be continuous and the floors may be intercostal between the girders.


PiougE 2.-Midship section of ltwiolek ve-ssel The second deck dispensed with, the vessel being given compensating strength by web frames
and side stringers.
Figure 3 is the drawing of a half cross-section of a three-deck vessel. The lower deck is
omitted, and compensating strength is given the hull by introducing web frames for each
fifth frame and by stiffening the hull by means of heavy longitudinal side stringers placed









18 MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.
FIG. 4. MIDSHIP SECTION OF A STEAMER WITH THREE DECKS AND A
SHELTER DECK, LOWER DECK DISPENSED WITH.









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


interc.ostally between the web frames. The web frames extend only to the main deck; and it
will be noted that there is a main-deck beam for each frame and that the main-deck floor is of
steel plates. The upper deck construction is lighter; there are beams only for each alternate
frame and the deck flooring is of wood. Instead of using web frames to strengthen the hull of
vessels from which the lower deck is omitted, it is now more usual to employ "deep framing,"
i. e., to use deeper frames all of the same size.
Figure 4 is a midship half section of a vessel with three decks besides a shelter deck. The
lower deck is dispensed with to permit cargo to be stored in the hold and handled in and out
more advantageously. The strength of hull sacrificed by leaving out the lower deck beams
and floor is compensated for by web framing and by side stringers. The significance of the
term "shelter deck" is explained below in discussing three and four decked vessels.

Forecastle
PooP Bridge

Main Deck

S----- Lower Deck-

FIGURE 5.-Profile of a two-deck ship with forecastle, bridge, and poop.

The early ocean steamers and some of the small freight vessels now in service were con-
structed with two full decks, the lower and main decks, above which were placed the three usual
superstructures-the forecastle, bridge, and poop. The outline sketch, figure 5, indicates
the general design of the two-deck vessel.
In a two-deck ship the main deck may, as in figure 5, extend without a break from stem
to stern; but the more usual practice is to raise the deck 4 or 5 feet from abaft the bridge to
the stern, as is shown in figure 6, the raised portion of the main deck -being called the quarter-
deck. In a two-deck general cargo steamer it is usual to place the engine amidships, and the
main purpose of the quarter-deck is to increase the capacity of the after cargo hold, which, on
account of' the space occupied by the shaft tunnel connecting the engine room with the pro-
peller, and on account of the finer lines of the aft part of the hull as compared with the fore
body of the ship, has less volume than the forward cargo hold. A vessel with a forward hold
Poop or
Hood Forecastle
I Raised Quarter Deck Bria ge Wl
Main Deck-

Lower Deck


FIGURE 6.-Profile of a raised quarter-deck, well-deck steamer.
larger than the aft hold would tend'to trim to the bow when loaded with homogeneous
cargo. The quarter-deck enables the vessel to be loaded to an even keel.
The fdrecastle and bridge being inclosed against the sea add to the buoyancy of the vessel,
and with the early development of the ocean freight steamers the bridge was extended and
brought nearer to the forecastle. In heavy weather the deck between the forecastle and bridge
being awash, the space was appropriately called the well and the steamer with a well was called
a well-deck ship. To increase the freeboard and reduce the shipping of water, the main deck
forward of the bridge is sometimes raised 4 or 5 feet to form a raised fore deck. Such vessels are
called raised fore deckers." These types of ships are still used to some extent in the charter
freight service. Figure 6 indicates the general arrangement of a raised quarter-deck, well-deck
steamer. If the vessel were a raised fore decker the well would be shallower.









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


The more detailed profile (fig. 7) of a well-deck steamer, without a quarter-deck, shows
the location of the main parts of the ship. The lower deck is dispensed with and the hull is
given compensating strength by deep framing and, in the engine and boiler rooms, by substi-
tuting "web frames" or beams for some of the frames. The vessel has a double bottom contain-
ing water ballast tanks. As is customary, the narrow parts of the ship at the bow and stern
contain peak tanks that are generally used to carry water ballast. The bridge, as is usual, is
built around the casings inclosing the smoke funnel and the ventilating spaces above the
engine and boilers. The poop and forecastle are closed in and used for crew quarters and
freight stowage. The profile also shows such other parts of steamers as the anchor-chain locker,
bulkheads, hatches, deck house, and shaft tunnel, engine funnel, donkey engine and boiler recess,
water-ballast tanks, steering-gear house and deck houses, all of which are spaces considered in
measurement, and must be provided for in any code of measurement rules. They are indicated
in figure 7 in case of a simple two-deck well "-deck steamer, in order that the repeated use of
these terms in succeeding chapters dealing with measurement rules may not be confusing.
The typical ocean steamer of to-day is a three or four decked vessel, i. e., a vessel with three
or four full-length decks. Until recently the three-deck vessel was the standard, and it might
be a full scantling or "three-deck" vessel, a spar deck, an awning deck, or a shelter-deck vessel.
In a "three-deck" vessel the frames are carried full sized to the upper deck, which is the strength
deck of the ship. When the frames are made somewhat lighter between the. middle and upper
deck and the upper deck is of lighter construction, the vessel is a spar-deck ship; and if the con-
struction above the middle deck is still lighter, and the middle deck is the strength deck, the
vessel is called an awning-deck ship. The space between the awning and middle decks is closed
against the sea and used to cariy light cargo, cattle, or passengers. If there are one or more per-
manent openings left in the upper deck, so that in heavy weather the sea may invade the space
between the upper and middle decks, the upper deck is called a shelter deck-not an awning
deck-and the ship is named a shelter-deck vessel.
The three-deck" ship being stronger than a spar-deck vessel, is allowed the smallest free-
board, while the spar-deck ship is allowed less freeboard than is permitted an awning-deck
vessel. For carrying heavy cargoes in rough seas the three-deck ship is preferable, while for
transporting light, commodities and package freight and passengers the awning-deck ship is
preferable. The desirable strength and weight of a vessel are determined by the service it has
to perform.
The use of the term "shelter deck" in shipping literature and in measurement rules is
confusing. Originally the shelter deck was one erected above the main deck or the upper
deck to shelter cattle or other cargo that did not need to be carried in spaces from which the
sea was completely excluded at all times. The shelter deck had permanent openings, while
the awning deck was capable of being completely or "permanently closed in." With the
evolution of ships, however, the shelter-deck veysel has come to differ very little from the
awning-deck ship, as is clearly shown by figure ., which is a profile of a steamer having lower,
main, and shelter decks.
The profile of the steamer illustrated by figure s shows that the shelter deck has closable
hatches above all the hatches in the main and lower decks, but that there is a small tonnage
opening in the shelter deck abaft the after hatch, placed there to meet the requirement of the
British Board of Trade measurement rules. In order that this ship may be classified as a
shelter-deck vessel by the Board of Trade, the tonnage opening must be not less than 4 feet
long fore and aft and be at least as wide as the width of the after-cargo hatch on the same deck.
The after edge of the tonnage opening imust be distant, from the aft side of the sternpost by
not less than one-twentieth the registered length of the vesel. If the tonnage opening is
placed forward, the fore side of it mu-t be not less than one-fifth of the length of the vessel
from the stem. Through the bulkheads that subdivide the space between the shelter and
main decks there must be "permanent openings" at least 3 feet wide and 4 feet. high; and,
if coamings are fitted thereto, their height must not exceed 2 feet. When the permanent
































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FIG. 8. PROFILE OF A STEAMER HAVING LOWER. MAIN, AND "SHELTER" DECKS.


SCALE
1 5 10 20 30 s0 50


60 70 80 90 00 FT.


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FIG 9. PROFILE OF A STEAMER WITH THREE DECKS AND A "SHELTER" DECK.


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MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


deck opening is situated aft, there must be at least two openings in all the transverse bulk-
heads in the 'tween deck on the fore side of it to entitle the space to exemption.
As will be explained later, the regulations governing vessel measurement in some countries
other than Great Britain, particularly in the United States, define closed-in and open spaces
more rigidly; and the 'tween deck space under the "shelter deck" is usually included in the
shelter-deck vessel's tonnage by American admeasurers. The British Board of Trade and
its admeasurers are compelled by an unfortunate decision of the House of Lords rendered in
1875 to treat as "open" the spaces under the shelter deck (and also under the bridge deck)
that. fulfill certain stipulations which prevent spaces from being considered as technically
closed-in spaces, which American admeasurers treat as capable of being closed-in and as avail-
able for the stowage of dry cargo.
As actually constructed at present, there is but little difference between three-decked
vessels classified as awning-deck and shelter-deck ships. In the awning-deck vessel, the
'tween deck spaces under the awning deck have only hatch openings which can be made
weather proof; while vessels, constructed to meet the requirements of the British Board of
Trade regulations as to shelter-deck openings, must have a tonnage hatch that can not be
tightly battened down; it must have the bulkhead openings aboye described, and there must
be scuppers and water ports to carry off the water that may reach the main deck. The ports,
however, may have back valves to prevent the sea from washing in, and the tonnage hatch
may be so constructed as to enable it to be so covered as temporarily to keep the sea water
from invading the 'tween-deck space. In practice, British vessels which fulfill the Board of
Trade requirements as to shelter-deck openings frequently carry dry cargo in the spaces under
the shelter deck. When cargo is so carried, the British admeasurers add the space actually
occupied by the cargo to the tonnage, upon which light dues and port charges are payable,
but. the 'tween-deck spaces are not added to the vessel's gross or net tonnage. In the United
States and at the Suez Canal, on the contrary, the entire 'tween-deck space is included in
the tonnage, if any dry cargo is or may be carried in the space.
The shelter deck is not necessarily the third or "upper" deck. It may be the fourth deck,
as in the ship illustrated by the profile in figure 9. That vessel has an upper and a middle (or
main) deck, the lower deck being dispensed with and compensated for by additional strength
of framing. A ship built according to the profile shown in figure 9 exceeds the minimum require-
ments of the British rules as to open spaces, two tonnage openings being provided-one fore
and one aft. If either one of these openings were kept permanently open and if the bulkheads
between decks under the top deck were provided with permanent openings, there would be no
question that, all the space between the shelter and upper decks would be excluded from net
tonnage by the British measurement rules; but, as a matter of fact, there is no reason other than
that of keeping the vessel's net tonnage at a low figure why the bulkheads between decks should
have nonclosable openings. In a vessel with four decks, nearly all of the space under the "shelter
deck" would naturally be used for accommodating passengers or for stowing miscellaneous
cargo.
The term "shelter deck" is sometimes applied to the fourth deck on large steamers (figs.
11, 12. 13, 14, 21, and 22), even though such deck has no tonnage openings whatever, but is a
complete deck in every sense and is so regarded under the measurement rules of all nations.
This terminulogy adds to the confusion concerning shelter decks, for such decks are so named
merely for convenience. They are not shelter decks in the meaning of measurement rules and
as the term is ordinarily used. A modern shelter-deck ship is one which has a full-length deck
fitted with one or more tonnage openings, with scuppers and ports, and with bulkhead open-
ings as provided in the measurement rules of Great Britain. The measurement or exemption of
such shelter-deck spaces when fitted with tonnage openings, which are but technical openings,
has been and is one of the main differences between the measurement rules of the several nations.
Passenger vessels are sometimes fitted with a so-called "shade deck" or lightly constructed
covering over the uppermost deck to afford a shelter and to provide a promenade for passengers.
Ordinarily such a deck is constructed with light deck beams supported on round iron stanchions,









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


frame angles, or tee bars. The sides of the spaces under such a light deck may be entirely open
fore and aft, or they may be partly closed-in as shown in figure 10. When partly closed-in the
sides are fitted with side openings, the shade deck, therefore, affording no additional buoyancy
to the ship. Its light construction renders it practically valueless as a contributor to the vessel's
structural strength, and since the space below the shade deck is exposed to the sea and weather,
it is nowhere regarded as a part of a vessel's gross or net capacity for carrying dry cargo or pas-
sengers. The tonnage rules of the United States, Great Britain, Germany, and the Suez Canal
Co. expressly exempt such spaces from tonnage measurement, excepting, of course, any closed-in
structures which may be located under the shade deck.
On a large passenger steamer the shade deck is sometimes called the promenade deck.
Originally they were variously known as awning and shelter decks. Modern awning and shelter
decks, however, though outgrowths of the shade deck, must be clearly distinguished, for modern
awning-deck spaces are always closed-in and are distinctly parts of a vessel's closed-in capacity.
Modern shelter-deck spaces, though fitted with a technical tonnage opening, are also, as a rule,
available for the stowage of dry cargo. Both awning and shelter decks, moreover, add to a
vessel's structural strength, and as neither has side openings they add to the ship's buoyancy.
The larger class of ocean freight vessels in service at the present time have four full-length
decks, and if constructed for the combined freight, and passenger services there are two or three
tiers of superstructures above the fourth deck. A midship section of a vessel designed with
particular reference to the traffic between American ports through the Panama Canal (fig. 11)
illustrates the arrangement of a typical combination freight. and passenger steamer. The ves-
sel's length is 500 feet, its beam 64 feet 6 inches, and its depth, to the shelter deck, 42 feet.
The vessel whose midship section is shown in figure 11 has four full decks-the lower, main,
upper, and shelter decks. The term "shelter deck is applied to the fourth deck, as is customary,




- ---... .. -----------------*- -

OFI RE 10O.-Profll. tf v-i~w l ii tn hadtl deck.
although the vessel is not of the shelter-deck type. Even in Great. Britain, where shelter decks are
exempted, the fourth deck space of this vessel would be measured. The.space between the shelter
and upper deck, as is shown in figure 12, is devoted to passenger accommodations and the stowage
of stores and refrigerated cargo. It may be noted in passing, that this vessel, being intended
to carry miscellaneous cargo and package freight, has lower deck beams and plating. (Fig. 11.)
There is no necessity for keeping the hold without, subdivision other than bulkheads below the
main deck. For all decks below the boat deck there is a beam on every frame. The pillars are
spaced 15 feet apart. The frames are spaced 24 inches apart at. t.he peaks, 30 inches "between
the forward peak and one-third forward," and 36 inches elsewhere. Below the main deck there
are three web frames on each side of the engine room and t wo on each side of the boiler room.
To strengthen the vessel amidships, web frames are introduced into the framing from the main
deck up to the promenade deck. Outboard and inboard profiles of this vessel and a plan of its
lower deck are shown in figure 12.
The outboard profile of the vessel illiutrated by figure 12 shows the superstructures usual
for a combination freight and passenger steamer. There is a forecastle which is used for stowage
purposes. The poop and the after part of the 'tween decks under the shelter deck are devoted
to third-class passenger accommodations. There are no second-class rooms. The first-class
passenger accommodations are amidships between the upper and shelter decks and above the
shelter deck in the amidship superstructures, of which there are three tiers covered by the
bridge, promenade, and boat decks. The wheelhouse and chart room are on a short deck one
tier above the boat deck. The light and air hatches and the stack casing are inclosed by the
surrounding superstructures. It is seen at a glance that the number of superstructures on this
































































































































































































































































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Fla. 13. MIDSHIP SECTION, TYPICAL C4OAT'WISE STEAMER FOR ANAMA CANAL SERVICE.


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Fno. 14, PROFILE OF TYPICAL COASTWISE STEAMER FOR PAOkMA CANAL SERVICE.


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MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


vessel is much greater than in case of the ordinary two-deck well-deck steamer of figure 7.
Every such increase in superstructures adds to the importance of the rules providing for their
measurement, or exemption. Measurement practices in this regard are widely difft'rtnt in the
several nations, and, as is discussed in Chapter XI, superstructures have for many years given
rise to serious measurement difficulties.
The inboard profile in figure 12 shows the use to be made of each of the subdivisions of
the above-deck and under-deck spaces. The plan of the lower deck shows the location of the
several hatches. The vessel is to use fuel oil carried partly in the double bottom and partly
in a large 'thwartships tank between the engine and boiler rooms. There are three propellers,
the side propellers being driven by reciprocating engines, the center screw having a turbine
engine.
A type of the vessel illustrated by figures 11 and 12 has a speed of 15 or 16 knots, and has
too high construction and operation costs for the transportation of heavy or low-grade freight.
It is intended for the transportation of high-grade, miscellaneous, and express freight at such
speed-- 4 or 15 knots-as must. be maintained by a vessel in the passenger service through the
canal. In order to be profitable, a vessel of that type and speed must derive a relatively large
share of its income from the third-class and first-class passenger fares. Experience will be
required to determine whether a vessel of this type will prove profitable in the American coastwise
service through the canal or in a service between the eastern seaboard of the United States and
foreign Pacific countries.
Figure 13 gives midship section and figure 14 a profile of one of the eight vessels consti-
tuting the 1912 and 1913 additions to the fleet of the American-Hawaiian Steamship Co. The
vessels of this type are designed solely for the transportation of freight. They can average
14 knots at. sea, but are operated at 12 knots, and some of them are now profitably employed,
together with the other vessels of the company's large fleet, in the services between New York
and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and between that i-thmnus and the ports of the Pacific coast
of the United States and the Hawaiian Islands. Miscellaneous cargo is carried in both directions,
and bulk cargo, especially Hawaiian sugar, is handled eastbound. The vessels are about 415
feet long between perpendiculars and are of 53 feet 6 inches beam. Their molded depth to the
shelter deck is 39 feet. 6 inches. Their gross tonnage, American measurement, is about 6,600
tons and their net. tonnage about 4,200 tons. Each vessel will carry about 10.000 tons of cargo.
The main structural features of these vessels are shown in figure 13. The ship is a four-deck
vessel, with a cellular double bottom and a second, an "upper" and an uppermost deck which
the builders term a shelter deck, but which is completely closed-in. The lower deck is dispensed
with and compensating strength is given the hull in the framing up to the second (main) deck;
but an orlop deck takes the place of the lower deck in the forward part of the hold from the
fore peak tank aft for about. one-eighth the length of the ship. The vessel being of moderate
beam and of strong side framing, there is but one row of hold pillars which rest upon the keelson
at the center line of the ship.
The left half of figure 13 is a midship section forward and aft of the engine room and boat
deck; while the right half of the drawing gives the section through the engine room. The
crown of the engine room is at the upper deck, above which the air hatch extends through the
shelter and boat decks. In this vessel, as in that illustrated by figures 11 and 12, the shelter
deck does not. have a tonnage hatch or opening. The space below the shelter deck is perma.-
nently inclosed and can be used to stow dry cargo. They are not vessels of the "shelter deck"
type.
Figure 14 gives the profile of the vessel of which the midship section is shown in figure 13.
The vessel is without forecastle. Above the shelter deck, however, there are two part-length
decks-the boat and bridge decks. Crew accommodations are provided in a short poop and in
I Oriop, according to the Inlermnaionl Dittonarv, is a contrt inon of over and leap or of over and loop, the orlop deek being defined as "the
lowest deck of a vessel, espeiaily of a ship of war. consist ng of a platform laid over the beams in the hold, on which the cables are coiled." Appar-
enly the term onginat-d with warships. but lt is now of en applied to the lowest deck of a merchant ship having four or more decks. Passenger
ships of exceptional depth may divide the hold below the lowir dec k by two orlop decks. The Lusitania, of the White Star Line,has the following
decks, named in order from he lowe.: t o the tbghest: Lower orlop, orlop, lower deck, main, upper, shelter, promenade, and boat decks--eight in all.








MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


the 'tween decks under the boat deck. The officers' quarters are on the boat deck, and there is
a bridge under a short open-bridge deck above the boat deck. Since this vessel is designed
solely for the freight service the number of above-deck erections is far smaller than in the case of
the combination freight and passenger steamer illustrated in figures II and 12 above, and the
tonnage considerations are consequently less complex. The profile shows the location of the
orlop deck and of those above, of the engine and boiler rooms, and of the deep tank. The
vessel is a twin-screw steamer with oil-burning, reciprocating engines. Fuel oil is ordinarily
carried in the large, deep tank placed athwart ships forward of the boilers. The double-bottom
and peak tanks are ordinarily use4 for water ballast except when long-distance steaming requires
their use for fuel oil. t
The type of ship that will doubtless be largely used for the freight service between the
eastern seaboard of the United States and the west coast of South America is illustrated by
figures 15 and 16. The vessel illustrated by these two figures has a length of 384 feet on the upper
deck, a molded breadth of 50 feet and a molded depth to the upper deck of 28 feet 6 inches.
The depth to the bridge deck is 36 feet 6 inches. The midship section shows the vessel to have
but three full-length decks. There is an upper and a second deck, but the lower deck is dis-
pensed with, except that the orlop deck subdivides the forward cargo hold. It, however, has
two partial decks above the upper deck-a bridge deck and an upper bridge deck. The vessel
has a double bottom for fuel and water ballast. The framing is made heavy, in order to com-
pensate for the absence of the lower deck and to reduce the number of hold pillars. The wheel
and chart houses and the captain's cabin, moreover, are on a very short, deck above the upper-
bridge deck. The various above-deck erections are similar to those of the vessel illustrated in
figures 13 and 14 above, as both vessels are designed for freight service through the Panama Canal.
The longitudinal profile of the steamer illustrated in figure 16 shows that oil is carried both
in the double bottom and in a deep tank, the deep tank being placed forward of the fireroom.
The vessel being an oil-burning steamer has a comparatively small boiler room, differing in this
respect from many other oil-burning steamers, which are designed to burn both coal and oil,
and which therefore have boiler rooms as large as those on coal-burning steamers of the same
power.
The three vessels illustrated by figures 11 to 16 represent standard types of vessels that
will probably be largely used in the coastwise and foreign commerce of the United States
through the canal. They were designed in 1911 and 1912 for the canal service. Naturally,
many kinds of vessels will be operated through the canal. A ship chartered for a single trip or
for a limited period may be any available vessel capable of performing the transportation
service desired by the charterer. Bulk carriers will be operated both as lines and as single
vessels for the transportation of bulk cargoes of coal, ore, nitrate, fuel oil, lumber, grain, and
similar products. Doubtless many corporations and individuals shipping bulk cargoes will
own, or operate under time charters, such vessels as they require for the marketing of their
products.
For the transportation of such bulk cargoes as coal, ore, and grain, when shipments are made
regularly and in large volume, special types of vessels such as turret and trunk steamers are
used to some extent. For shipping oil in bulk, tank steamers are employed. Figures 17, 18,
and 19 illustrate the general design of turret and trunk steamers.
The turret ship is so named because of the turret-like erection extending the entire length
of the vessel. The upper, or turret, deck, as is shown in figure 17, is narrower than the harbor
or main deck. "The sides of the turret are blended into the harbor deck, and the harbor deck
into the vertical side plating by well-rounded corners." (Walton's Present Day Shipbuild-
ing, p. 70.) The hatches, superstructures, and accommodations for officers and crew are on
the turret deck. The construction of the hull may follow various designs, and the turret ships
may differ materially in details of construction. The midship section given in figure 17 shows a
deep hold with two rows of hold pillars, and with a lower deck. By strengthening the framing,
the lower deck, or, if preferred, both the lower deck and the hold pillars may be dispensed with.
In some vessels all decks below the turret deck are done away with, and the interior of the








FIG. 15. MIDSHIP SECTION OF FREIGHT STEAMER, PANAMA CANAL SERVICE.


618681-13. (To facepage24.) No.




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FIG. 16. PROFILE OF FREIGHT STEAMER, PANAMA CANAL SERVICE.


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MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


hull is without obstructing pillars or decks. Such vessels require specially strong framing to
afford the necessary strength of hull.
A turret vessel constructed with lower and harbor decks, as shown in figure 17, is well
adapted to the stowage of heavy bales and packages and of miscellaneous weight cargo; while


FIGURE 17.-Midship section of turret steamer with lower and main (harbor) decks.


a turret ship without, pillars and without decks below the turret is well designed for the trans-
portation of bulk cargoes of grain, lumber, and ore.
A self-trimming turret steamer is illustrated by figure 18, which gives a view of the hold
of an ore ship in which the engines are placed aft and in which there is an unobstructed hold
extending all the way from the collision bulkhead to the boiler-room bulkhead. The hatches
618610-13--3









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


are continuous over the entire length of the hold. Such a vessel may also be used to advantage
for the shipment of coal, lumber, or other bulk cargoes.
A type of vessel known as "whaleback" is in some respects similar to a turret-deck vessel,
but the number of whalebacks likely to use the Panama Canal is too small to warrant the
reproduction of deck plans, cross sections, or longitudinal profiles. Both whaleback and turret
vessels dispense with fore and aft sheer, both" are designed for bulk cargo, and the gunwale


FIGURE 19.-Midship section of trunk leaderr.

is of rounded form in each case. The whaleback steamer, however, differs from the turret-
deck vessel in that it aims to provide absolutely clear decks without deck erections and with
a rounded form which breaks the force of the sea. It was found that it is difficult for the crew
to man such a deck in heavy seas, that the hatchways without coamings interfere with feeding
the holds with bulk cargoe, and that the shape of, the bow and bottom "makes the hull spe-
cially liable to damage when the vessel is pitching in a seaway, owing to the pounding action






























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MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


produced as the vessel thumps against head seas." Relatively few whalebacks are in opera-
tion while the turret steamers, on the contrary, are rapidly increasing in number.
The trunk steamer is another special type of bulk carrier without a lower deck. Its general
design is indicated by figure 19. There is above the upper deck a trunk erection which is 7 feet
high and half the width of that deck. This trunk connects the forecastle with the bridge and
the bridge with the poop. The hold is clear except for widely spaced pillars which extend
from the floor of the hold to the angle formed by the upper deck beams and the frames of the
sides of the trunk. One-half the pillar may be carried up the side of the trunk and be riveted
to the plating. The upper deck beams do not extend across the ship; but strong crossbeams,
in such number as the strength of the ship requires, are placed across the open portion of the
upper deck. With the exception of the crossbeams the hold is clear below the hatchways
which are in the trunk deck.
Turret and trunk steamers, being especially intended for dead-weight and bulk cargoes,
have a relatively small freeboard below the harbor and upper decks, but the turret and trunk



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FIGuRE 20.-Hold view, seli-trimmnmg three-dec 5eamer.
decks from which the ships are navigated are well above the water line. When the hold and
the trunk are filled with grain or other bulk cargo that may come, by settling, to occupy less
space, the cargo in the turret or trunk feeds into the hold, which is kept filled, and thus there
is no danger that a shifting of the argo may give the vessel a dangerous list. Lumber or other
deck cargo not injured by the sea is sometimes carried upon the harbor deck of the turret
steamer and upon the main (or upper) deck of the trunk steamer.
There are other types of self-trimming steamers than the self-trimming turret and trunk
steamers above mentioned. The principles of a clear hold without a lower deck, lower deck
beams, pillars, or other hold obstructions, and with arrangements to facilitate the trimming of
bulk freight are applied to vessels which have their walls carried to the upper deck without
turret, or trunk arrangement. Figure 20, for example, shows the hold view of a self-trimming
vessel, which does not differ externally from any ordinary steamer. This particular vessel has
water-ballast tanks between the self-trimming frames and ile walls of the ship, which bring
I Walton, Present-Day Shipbuilding, p. 69.








MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


its water-ballast capacity to nearly a third of the total dead-weight carrying capacity of the
ship. It is essential that measurement rules should deal fairly with those water-ballast spaces
which are not available for cargo; while, in case of turret and trunk steamers, the rules should
ully account for the inclosed turret and trunk deck spaces which constitute parts of the cargo
capacity.
Tank steamers are largely used for the transportation in bulk of petroleum and of some
other oils. The fluidity of oil in bulk and the danger of explosion from the gases formed of
petroleum require a special construction of tank steamers to make them stable and safe. The
part of the hold occupied by the oil in bulk is subdivided into small tanks; first, by a strong
longitudinal bulkhead extending the entire length of the ship above the center line of the vessel
and ri-ing to the uppermost deck; second, by transverse bulkheads spaced about 24 feet apart..
The small tanks thus formed being filled with oil Irhen the vessel is loaded, the fore-and-aft. and
side-to-side movement of the oil due to the pitching and rolling of the vessel at sea is reduced to a
minimum. To provide for the expansion of petroleum, due to increase in temperature, and to
prevent explosion, due to forming of gases, an expansion trunk or space is placed 'tween decks
between each oil tank and the hatch opening into the tank.
The general plan of a typical large oil tank steamer is shown in figures 21, 22, and 23.
The plans of the oil steamer illustrated by figures 21, 22, and 23 show that the tanks are
placed amidships with the engines aft. There is a small cargo hold forward of the tank. Be-
tween the tanks and the cross bunker adjacent to the engine room are two water-tight bulk-
heads spaced a few feet from each other to provide a cofferda m between the tanks and the engine
room. Asimilarcofferdam is placed between the cargo hold and the oil tanks. These cofferdams
may be filled with water or kept empty, their purpose being to prevent the escape of gases from
the oil tanks to the engine room or to the cargo hold. Coal or fuel oil for the engines may be
carried in the reserve bunkers located between the expansion trunk and the outer shell of the
ship. The vessel has four decks-a lower, which is dispensed with, a main, an upper, and a
"shelter" deck. The "shelter" deck, however, is without tonnage openings and is a shelter
deck only in name. The space between it and the upper deck, not occupied by expansion
trunks, is available for fuel, freight, stores, crew quarters, and officers' accommodations. As
indicated in figure 21, various superstructures, such as the galley, smoking room, chart room,
and lamp room are located above the shelter deck. Some of the space between the main and
upper deck is taken up by so-called "summer tanks," which are used for stowing oil during the
warmer seasons. These summer tanks are constructed and tested as required for ordinary oil
compartments and are likewise fitted with expansion trunks.
Figure 24 contains the deck plan and longitudinal profile of an oil tank vessel equipped
with Diesel oil engines. This vessel has but three decks-a lower deck, which is dispensed
with, an upper deck, and a shelter deck; and it has no summer tanks. Above the "shelter" deck
is a long poop surrounding the light and air casing above the engine room. The space in the
poop is used for living quarters.
The special feature of this vessel is the engine and fuel arrangement. There is no boiler
room because Diesel engines are of the internal-combustion type. The engine room is larger
than would be necessary to hold the engines, it being enlarged sufficiently to bring its volume
somewhat over 13 per cent of the vessel's gross tonnage in order thereby to entitle it to a power
deduction of 32 per cent of the gross tonnage under the measurement rules of Germany. The
fuel oil is carried partly in fuel tanks and partly in double-bottom compartments below the engine
room. The total fuel space is very much less in volume than it would be were the ship fitted
with steam engines burning either oil or coal.
Figure 25 illustrates a combination freight and passenger vessel fitted with Diesel engines.
It is 370 feet long, of 53 feet beam, 9,800 tons displacement, and 7,400 tons cargo capacity. It
is mainly a general cargo vessel, but has accommodations for 20 passengers, and has a speed of
114 to 12 knots. Aside from the engine-room arrangement, which is similar to that shown in
the preceding figure, and the absence of boilers, this vessel illustrates various additional phases
of ship construction and tonnage measurement. (1) The usual smoke funnels are dispensed







Fla. 21 ELEVATION AND DECK PLAN OF AN OIL TANK STEAMER.


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FIG. 23. SECTION IN WAY OF FOREHOLD OF AN OIL TANK STEAMER.
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fl1861--13. ITc facepng..'j., No.4







FIG. 25. PROFILE OF CARGO VESSEL WITH SMALL PASSENGER ACCOMMODATIONS, DIESEL ENGINES.


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MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


with: (2) the crude fuel oil used to operate the engines is stowed in the double bottom; (3) two
12-ton working tanks are provided, sufficient oil for a 24-hour run at full power being pumped
from the double bottom into these tanks for current use in the cylinders. The importance of
internal-combustion engines in tonnage measurement is fully discussed in chapterr X.
A type of bulk-cargo vessel which has become an important factor in the lumber trade on
the Pacific coast of the United States is the so-called "steam schooner." Originally, these ves-
sels were the outgrowth of sailing schooners, a number of schooners being fitted with engines.
Indeed, some of the steam schooners now in service still carry sails for occasional use. The
modern steam schooner, however, is a steamer, depending wholly upon its engines, the name
being retained because of the vessel's origin and because of its general construction. In a paper
by Mr. Frank W. Hibbs, read before the Association of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers,
New York, steam schooners a're described as follows:
The vessels are built similarly to the sailing schooner, with greater proportionate beam than the ordinary
steamer, with high freeboard, great sheer forward, a topgallant forecastle and raised quarter deck. There is a midship
deckhouse over the mar binery, with a very high bridge deck, leaving large clear gangways on the main deck, and a
small deck house on the bridge deck, with a small passenger accommodation. They have low power and are built to
very hea\) sacantliong, and are the stanchest vessels that are seen on the coast. They carry large deck cargoes of lum-
ber, and are regarded as the most profitable type of coasting cargo vessel.
Steam schooners are ordinarily fitted with low-powered oil or coal burning steam engines.
Figure 26 contains the longitudinal profile of a typical steam schooner used in the lumber
trade of the Pacific coast. Its length is 235 feet, its beam 422 feet, and its molded depth 18
feet S inches. Its gross tonnage, American register, is 1,600 tons, and its net tonnage 915 tons.
The net tonnage is small as compared with ordinary cargo steamers, because it is constructed
to carry much cargo on the open deck. The engine room is constructed so as to be in excess
of 13 per cent of the gross tonnage, thereby resulting in a deduction of 32 per cent for propel-
ling power and fuel. Its engines are designed to burn oil, some of the oil being carried in the
aft. double-bot tom compartment, and some in portable settling tanks on each side of the boilers.
Should this vessel make long voyages through the canal, additional oil would be stowed in the
forward double-bottom tanks and in the fore peak water ballast tank.
The vessel has but one full-length deck, although there are two short decks aft, the spaces
under which being occupied by officers' quarters, galley, saloon, pantry, light and air casings,
funnel, etc. The entire fore part of the vessel, with the exception of the forecastle, is used to
st ow ca rgo, nd the open deck between the forecastle and the short decks aft is used to carry great
volumes of deck cargo, the vessel being designed to transport 1,500,000 feet of lumber. The
advisability ofi measuring or exempting deck loads is of special importance in the measurement
rules applicable to steam schooners, as it is not unlikely that some of them will pass through the
Panama Canal with cargoes of Pacific coast lumber.
The foregoing description includes the leading typesof vessels' that will use the Panama
Canal. The plans and profiles locate most of the spaces referred to in the following discussion
of tonnage and vessel measurement. In the report recently submitted in 1912, upon Panama
Canal Traffic mll Tolls, it was recommended that merchant vessels be required to pay Panama
tolls upon their net tonnage and that the charges upon warships should be upon their dis-
placement. The proclamation issued by the President November 13, 1912, fixed the tolls
on merchant vessels at $1.20 per net ton-each 100 cubic feet-of actual earning capacity, and
upon warships a t 51 cents per displacement ton. The measurement rules embodied in the follow-
ing report are drafted with a view to including in the net tonnage of vessel allspaces available for
passengers or cargo-the tonnage of actual earning capacity. The plans and profiles presented
in this chapter show what use is made of the several spaces within typical vessels, and thus
indicate what spaces ought to be included in the net tonnage upon which the Panama charges
shall be imposed.
The words "ton"' and "tonnage" have many meanings. Before considering the problems of
vessel measurement and the rules by which mercha n t, ships using the Panama Canal shall be meas-
ured, it will he well briefly to define the several kinds of ton and tonnage and to explain why the
Panama tolls should be levied upon the net tonnage of merchant vessels and upon the displace-
ment tonnage of warships.




tt
























11









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CHAPTER III.


CARGO TONNAGE, DISPLACEMENT, AND
DEAD-WEIGHT TONNAGE.
31


















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I














CHAPTER III.


CARGO TONNAGE, DISPLACEMENT, AND DEAD-WEIGHT TONNAGE.
It. is theoretically possible to make either the ships that use the canal or the cargo-and
passengers carried by the vessels the basis of Panama tolls. It is thus necessary first of all to
decide whether the dues shall be levied upon the vessels themselves or upon their contents, and
whichever decision is reached the problem still remains of selecting the best unit of measurement.
For, while both the size of vessels and the amount of cargo they carry are designated in tonnage
units, a vessel ton is different, from a ton of freight. Moreover, there are three kinds of vessel
tonnage and at least three meanings given to the word "ton" as a measure of ocean freight
cargoes.
The purpose of this chapter is to explain the several units employed to designate the tonnage
of cargo carried by vessels and to consider the merits and disadvantaz .r of each as a basis for
Panama tolls. One kind of vessel tonnage-displacement-is also defined and discussed in
this chapter; because, as will be explained, one method of expressing cargo tonnage involves
the determination of the vessel's displacement tonnage. The other two kinds of vessel tonnage-
gross and net tonnage-will be discussed in turn in the two succeeding chapters.
Cargo tonnage may be of weight or of measurement. "Bulk" freight, like coal, ore, nitrate,
grain, and heavy manufactures, is transported as weight cargo, a ton on the ocean being either
the English long ton of 2,240 pounds (sometimes the short ton of 2,000 pounds) avoirdupois or
the metric ton of 2,204 pounds. Package freight and commodities that are light in proportion
to their bulk are often shipped as "measurement" cargo, 40 cubic feet usually being considered
a ton. When possible, vessels are loaded partly with heavy bulk freight, which is placed lowest
in the hold, and partly with light measurement cargo, which is stowed in available spaces above,
as well as below, the main deck. The heavy commodities give the ship the draft necessary for
stability, while the light package freight fills up the earning capacity of the ship without caus-
ing the vessel to exceed its authorized draft. A vessel loaded only with coal, ore, grain, orheavy
steel wdil be immersed to its deep load line before the space available for cargo has been filled with
paying freight. On the other hand, if a ship be laden only with package freight afid light cargo,
it may ride so high in the water as to be unstable. If heavy cargo is not available, the ship
must be given stability by means of ballast. It is a paradoxical fact that a vessel can be loAded
with more tons" of light freight than of heavy bulk commodities, the ideal lading of a ship
being the combination of bulk and Il:l-',ikiar freight.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CARGO TONNAGE AS A BASIS FOR CANAL TOLLS.

In selecting a basis for the levy of Panama tolls choice must be made between the ship and
its cargo contents. The transfer of a vessel from the Atlantic to the Pacific through the canal
is the service rendered to carriers engaged in the transportation'of freight and passengers;
but, as the revenues of the carrier are derived from the rates paid by shippers and the fares
collected of the passengers, it seems to many persons logical that the charges exacted by the
Government for the use of the canal should be placed upon passengers and cargo and not upon
the ship. The advantages of making cargo the basis of canal dues may be summarized as follows:
1. It is claimed that canal tolls based upon the cargo and platsenglrs carried in vessels
will be in direct. ratio to the carrier's ability to pay, because the charges will be levied upon the
carrier's sources of income for the voyage that causes the carrier to make use of the canal. If
the vessel making the trip through the canal is fully occupied by cargo and passengers, the
income of the carrier will be large and the tolls he will pay for the use of the canal will be
33









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PAEAMA CANAL.


proportional; while if the capacity of the vessel is but partially taken up, the revenues of the
owners of the vessel will be small and the tolls required of them will be correspondingly less.
2. By placing canal tolls upon cargo and passengers, the levies will be put upon the same
basis as are rail and ocean freiliht rates and passenger fares. The canal tolls will be a definite
addition to the charges payable by the shipper and passenger for transportation from ports of
shipment or departure to ports of destination. It should be stated, however, that this argu-
ment in favor of basing tolls upon cargo and passengers assumes that ocean rates and fares are
controlled by competitive commercial forces and that the canal tolls, whatever they may be,
area burden which shippers and passengers will be required to hear. As a matter of fact,
ocean rates and fares, like those charged for railroad transportation, are controlled by forces
which are but partially competitive and which are in a large degree monopolistic. In so far
as ocean rates and fares are controlled by monopoly forces, they will be made with reference to
what the traffic will bear and not with regard primarily to expenses incurred in performing the
transportation services. If ocean rates and fares are monopoly charges, they will not be
directly affected by canal tolls and the charges paid by carriers for the use of the canal will be
an operating expense which the carriers and not the shippers and passengers will have to meet.'
3. The third argument in favor of making cargo the basis of canal tolls is that the charges
for the use of the canal would be, or could in theory be, graded according to the value of the
different kinds of commodities, and that the charges could be made high on valuable articles
and low on cheap bulky commodities. Concisely stated, the argument is that the tolls can be
made what the different articles or classes of commodities can bear. By making commodities
the basis of canal charges, the dues would be based upon the value of the service to the carriers,
instead of ibcinq determined by the cost to the United States of performing the service of
passing vessels through the canal.
This raises the broad and fundamental question whether the value of ihe service to those
who use the canal or the cost of the service to the canal administration, which in this case will
be the United States Government, should be the controlling consideration in fixing canal
charge-.. It is generally assumed that the canal tolls, as in the case of other Government
charges, are to be, and ought to be, levied for the purpose of meeting. first of all, the expenses
incurred by the Government in operating and maintaining the canal. There nmay possibly be
some difference of opinion as to the advisability of fixing the Panama tolls at rates- high enough
to yield revenues that will cover not only maintenance and operating expenses but also interest
and amortization charge,: but there has been no serious doubt as to the wisdom of securing
from the Panama tolls the revenues necessary to cover the expenses of operating and main-
taining the canal, of the sanitation and government of the C'anal Zone. and of meeting the
$.50,000 annuity payable to the Republic of Panama. The tolls ought at least be sufficient
to cover current expenses.
Whether the fixed charges required to meet the interest upon, and the amortization of, the
funds invested shall be secured from the current revenues from toll s is a question that must be
decided in the light of experience obtained in the operation of the canal. The traffic of the
canal fortunately promises to be large enough to enable the Government to maintain a schedule
of tolls that will neither unwisely restrict the use of the canal nor uniifly bi urDlen commerce, but
which will yield revenues that will make the canal commercially self-siipp, rating. The probable
deficit during the early years of the canal's operation will, with the maintenance of reasonable
rates of toll, be converted, by the growth of traffic during the first decade, into a slight surplus
in excess of current expenses and fixed charges.
The natural and logical basis of charges for Government services is the cost of performing
the service, and unless some exceptional conditions make it desirable to fix Panama tolls upon
some basis other than the expenses due to construction, operation, and maintenance of the
canii:l, it would seem wise to give main consideration to cost of service, i. e.. to outlay for cur-
rent expenses and fixed charges in levying Panama Canal ilties. lHowever. while adhering to
I For fuller consideration of the incidence of canal tolls, see pp. 197-198 of the Report upon Panamna Cainl Traiffi and Tolls, ly Emory R.
Johnson, Government Printing Office, Washington, 1912.









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


the general principle of fixing Panama tolls with reference to operating and fixed charges, care
should be taken so to adjust the charges that they shall not be higher than the traffic geo-
graphically tributary to the Panama route will bear. The tolls should not be what the naturally
tributary tratlir will not bear. With this limitation as to the maximum within which the
charges must be kept, primary consideration should be given to cost of service in adjusting
Panama C'anal charges.

REASONS FOR NOT BASING PANAMA TOLLS UPON CARGO TONNAGE.
For the following reasons it is believed that cargo tonnage is neither a desirable nor a
practicable unit upon which to levy Panama Canal tolls:
1. If tolls are to be fixed primarily with reference to the Government's canal expenses, the
logical basis for the charges is the ship that uses the canal. The service performed by the
Government is that of furnishing and operating a canal whose channel, locks, lights, buoys,
and auxiliary appointments enable vessels to pass from one ocean to another. Each transit
of a vessel through the canal represents the performance by the Government of a unit of
service, a;nd it is this service for which the Government makes charges. Vessel tonnage rather
than the contents of the ship is the natural and logical basis for canal dues.
2. The primary purpose of making cargo the basis of canal tolls is to levy charges which
vary ancordini to the ability of different commodities to pay dues. The rates would neces-
sarily vary with articles or classes of articles; for, if all commodities were charged the same rate
of toll per ton the discrimination against coal and other minerals, nitrate, grain, lumber, and
similar commodities, as compared with high-valued and relatively light package freight, would
be so unjust as to be indefensible. The discrimination resulting from charging the same rate
of toll upon each ton of all articles carried would be much greater than that resulting from tolls
based upon vessel tonnage, i. e., the cubical contents of a vessel's earning capacity. In order
t.o avoid unjust discrimination in levying tolls upon cargo it would be necessary carefully to'
classify ocean freight and to work out a schedule of class rates relatively reasonable as between
the several classes of commodities. Doubtless some commodities, as in the case of railway
traffic, would be exempted from this classification and would be charged special, or commodity,
tolls. The canal tolls would thus include class and commodity rates, and the tolls payable by
each vessel would have to be determined by calculating from the ship's detailed manifest of
cn trg.: th e ti nnage of each class of goods contained in its lading.
3. The necessity of classifying ocean freight traffic and of collecting tolls in accordance
with a schedule which includes both class and commodity rates suggests the controlling reason
why the ship rather than the cargo should be made the basis of Panama tolls. Canal charges
based upon cargo would be administratively impracticable:
(a I The classification of ocean freight would be difficult to work outland would constitute
a perennial problem. The railroads have found by experience that the classification of freight
is second in difficulty only to the adjustment of rates, and this, too, under transportation condi-
tions more stable than prevail upon the ocean. Classification of freight and the making of rates
are inseparable connected, and without the stable rates resulting from the Government regula-
tion of railroads and without the adjustment of the interrelations of railway companies made
possible by the Government regulation of services and charges, the problems of the classifica-
tion of railway traffic and of making railroad rates would be far more difficult than they now
are. While it would not be impossible to classify ocean freight and to adjust canal charges
with reference to classes and special commodities, the difficulties encountered would be so great
as to overcome any theoretical advantages that might result from making the cargo rather
than the vessel the basis of canal charges.
('i The cilculatiori of the tonnage of the cargo composing the lading of any particular
vessel wild have to be made from the ship's manifest, which, in the case of a vessel carrying
several thotusiand tons of general fi eight, may contain many hundred entries, each entry ordi-
nal ily representing an individual shipment of some particular commodity. Over many ocean









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


routes the freight taken by the carrier is billed at carrier's option as weight or measurement
cargo; and oftentimes the charges are by article rather than by weight or measurement. Over
some ocean routes freight is taken by weight and the calculation of the tonnage of different
classes of freight and of special commodities would not require much time and labor; but, as
regards most freight handled upon the ocean, the calculation involved in determining the ton-
nage of the several classes and of the special, or "ex-class," commodities included in a ship's
cargo would be expensive and time consuming. This tonnage calculation to determine the tolls
payable would have to be made either before the ship cleared from its port of departure, or would
have to be made while the vessel was en route between the port of clearance and the Panama
Canal. A ship's personnel does not include a clerical force, and it is probable that the practice
would be to detain the ship at the port of clearance until the tonnage upon which tolls are to be
paid could be calculated in the office of the company or of the agents controlling the vessel's
movements. As is well known, the ship's manifest, in its present form, is the last paper taken
aboard the vessel, and in order not to delay a vessel's clearance it is customary for the steam-
ship company's office force to work overtime for one or more days in order to have the sbip's
manifest ready as soon as possible after the vessel's cargo has been put aboard. To make a
tonnage calculation for the purpose of preparing a statement of the tonnage of different classes
of freight as a basis for canal charges would so delay vessel movements as seriously to burden
ocean commerce.
(c) From the Government's point of view, cargo would be an undesirable basis for Panama
tolls, because it would be practically impossible to detect and prevent fraud. A vessel pre-
senting itself at the Panama Canal loaded possibly with hundreds of different articles could
not be so inspected by the collectors of tolls as to check up the company's statement of cargo
with the commodities listed in the ship's manifest or tonnage statement. It would be neces-
sary for the canal officials to accept the sworn statement of the owners or master of the ship,
*and this would open the' door to fraud. It is true that the Manchester Canal Co. derives most
of its, revenues from charges upon commodities, but this basis of charges is possible because
the Manchester Canal includes the docks and warehouses at the ports of Manchester and other
places along the waterway. In fact, the Manchester Canal Co. is both a company. Freight is loaded or discharged at Manchester and other canal ports, and the
officials of the canal company can thus readily check the carriers' statements as to commod-
ities loaded or discharged. In the case of such canals as the Kiel, the Suez, or the Panama,
however, charges based upon commodities are administratively impracticable. The canals are
merely transit routes where cargo is not transferred, loaded, or discharged. To prevent fraud in
collecting tolls at transit canals, it is necessary to base the charges upon the ship rather than
upon its cargo.
DISPLACEMENT TONNAGE.

Before discussing deail-w eight tonnage, which is applied to the weight of cargo and fuel which
vessels can carry, it will be best to explain displacement tonnage. Thd displacement t(.n is a
unit applied to vessels and not to cargo, but in order to ascertain the dead-weight tonnage
a vessel can carry it is first necessary to determine the vessel's displacement tonnage.
The displacement tonnage of a vessel is its weight in tons of 2,240 pounds avoirdupois,
and is equal to the weight of water displaced by the vessel when afloat. Unless the term i.
qualified, the displacement tonnage of a vessel is the weight of the ship with its crew and
supplies on board, but without fuel, passengers, or cargo. This is a ves-sel's displacement
"light." The weight of water displaced by a vessel when loaded to its deep-load line is
its displacement "loaded." The ililTerince between the displacement tonnage of a vessel
when "light" and when loaded to its "deep-load line" is its dead-weight tonniage, which is the
maximum weight of fuel, cargo, and passengers that a vessel can carry.
A cubic foot of sea water weighs 64 pounds, or one-thirty fifth of an English long ton of
2,240 pounds avoirdupois. Thus the contents in cubic feet of that part of tile ve-sel's hull

























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MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


that is below the water line divided by 35 equal the vessel's displacement tonnage. If a ship
were box-shaped-that is, if it were a parallelepiped-the product of its three dimensions in
feet, its length, breadth, and its depth below the water line, divided by 35 would be the dis-
placement, tonnage; but, as vessel hulls are not parallelepipedons, the cubical contents of the
hull of a ship have to be calculated by means of special mathematical rules, such as Simpson's
rules or the trapezoidal rules.1
The ratio of the actual contents of the submerged portion of a ship's hull to the contents
of a parallelepiped having length, breadth, and depth corresponding to the length, breadth,
and draft of the ship is the vessel's "block coefficient" or its "coefficient of fineness." A full-
shaped, slow freight steamer has a "block coefficient" of about 0.8-i. e., the submerged portion
of the hull has a volume equal to 0.8 of the volume of a parallelepiped with equal dimensions.
The "block coefficient" or "coefficient of fineness" of the average freight steamer varies from
0.7 to 0.75, while the coefficient of a combination freight and passenger steamer is about 0.65;
that of a fast passenger steamer is about 0.6, while racing yachts may have a coefficient as low
as 0.4. When the "coefficient, of fineness" of a vessel is known, its displacement tonnage is
determined by multiplying its length, breadth, and draft. by its "coefficient of fineness" and
dividing the product by 35.
In commercial practice it is desirable to know a vessel's displacement tonnage at any
given draft between its "light" and "loaded" lines, for the reason that the difference between
the displacement of a vessel "light" and the tonnage of its actual displacement indicates the
weight of what the ship contains other than a crew and supplies. The displacement tonnage
or weight of any particular ship at any given draft is shown by the vessel's "displacement
curve" and scale. Figure 27 reproduces a typical displacement curve.
Figure 27 presents the displacement, scale for a small vessel which draws but 7 feet of
water when light, its displacement "light" being 550 tons. The vessel may load to a maxi-
mum draft f 14 feet, at which draft, its displacement is 1,400 tons. The deadweight capacity
of the ship is thus 850 tons. It may be noted in passing that the ship is permitted to be loaded,
so that it has but 2 feet of freeboard, the freeboard bling the distance between the level of the
upper deck and the "deep-load line." Vessels engaged in the oversea trade would not be per-
mitted to have such a small freeboard.
The figure also gives the ship's displacement curve. The curve is drawn as follows:
At. the left the draft of the vessel and its freeboard are given in a perpendicular scale, which
may be assumed to have been drawn to a scale of I inch to 1 foot. From the top of this vertical
scale, a horizontal scale is so constructed that 1 inch equals 100 tons of displacement. By
drawing horizontal lines through the points indicating the draft of the vessel at different drafts
from zero to 14 feet, and by drawing vertical lines through the points in the horizontal scale-
corresponding to the number of tons of displacement at various drafts from zero to 14 feet, and
by drawing a curve through the points of the intersection of the horizontal and vertical lines,
the curve of the ship's displacement is located. With this displacement curve known, the dis-
placement of the vessel at any given point in its draft can be read off from the displacement
scale.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DISPLACEMENT TONNAGE AS A BASIS OF PANAMA TOLLS.

If displacement were made the basis of Panama tolls the charges might be placed either
upon the vessel's displacement tonnage when loaded to the deep-load line, or upon its displace-
ment tonnage at its actual draft, when applying at the canal for passage through the waterway.
If the displacement of the vessel at its actual draft, when passing through the canal were made
the basis of the tolls, the charges would be levied upon the weight of the ship plus the weight
of the cargo, passengers, and fuel it might have on board. The tolls would thus vary with the
lading of the ship.
i MaLhemaucal rles for the calculation of the contents of the hulls of ships are explained, among other places, in Chapter X of the book Know
Your Own Ship by Tnoma W\dahon Lonhln., 1909.









38 M.MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.
Displacement tinmnagc would have the following advantages us a basis for canal charges:
1. It would be easy to determine the tonnage upon which tolls were to be paid. The
vessel's displacement scale states its displacement tonnage at any draft. up to the deep-load line,
which represents the vessel's maximum draft. The displacement scale would indicate the
number of tons upon which the vessel applying for passage through the canal would have to
pay tolls.
2. Tolls based upon the displacement of a vessel at its actual draft. would vary with the
ship's lading, and vessels without cargo or with a light load would pay less than the ship would
pay when fully laden. In the case of low-powered cargo steamers, the weight of a vessel when
"light" might be half or less than half the weight of the vessel when fully loaded, and the amount
of tolls payable by such ships would be largely affected by the extent to which the vessel's
cargo capacity was occupied with freight. On the contrary, high-powered passenger steamers
have relatively small capacity for carrying cargo. So much machinery and fuel are required to
secure high speed that the weight of the vessel "light" will probably be at least three-fourths
of its weight when loaded. In the case of fast passenger steamers, there is comparatively little
difference in the weight of the vessel when its passenger and freight accommodations are unoccu-
pied and when they are filled. Such steamers, however, constitute a relatively small share of
the tonnage of the world's deep-sea marine. For mo-t ships, tolls based upon the tonnage
of actual displacement would vary materially with the lading of the vessels.
3. An advantage of minor importance which display ement tonnage would have as a basis
for tolls would be that merchant vessels and warships would pay charges upon the same kind
of tormage. Displacement is the only logical basis for tolls upon warships, and if merchant
vessels do not pay canal levies upon displacement, the charges must. be levied upon two different
bases. While the inconvenience resulting from this would be relatively slight, it obviously
would be better to have a single rather than a dual basis for canal charges.
The disadvantages resulting from the adoption of displacement as a basis for canal charges
upon vessels of commerce outweigh the advantages, and may be briefly stated as follows:
1. Unless actual displacement were made the basis of canal charges, every vessel would be
obliged to have marked upon its hull by official action of the appropriate authority its light line
and its deep-load line, because the location of these lines would affect the amount of tolls payable.
Freight ships under the British flag have the plimsoll mark placed upon the hull, indicating
the draft to which the rules of the British Board of Trade and Lloyd's Association permit the
vessel to be loaded. Passenger ships which carry comparatively little cargo, and which usually
have several decks above the main deck, always have much more freeboard than the minimum
requirements of the law, and thus there is no occasion for them to have a Plimsoll mark or a
.load line upon their hulls. If, however, the maximum load displacement were made the basis
of canal charges, it would be necessary for passenger ships to have their load line officially
determined, although the action taken in locating this load line would have to follow rules
largely artificial in character.
Quite as much difficulty would be encountered in establishing officially any vessel's light
draft, for the reason that the vessel's light line locates the ship's draft when equipped for a voyage
with fitting-, crew, and supplies. Vessels have their light line establi hed without fuel on board,
but an increasing number of vessels now use oil instead of coal for fuel and the oil thus used is
often carried in tanks which, in the case of coal-burning steamers, would probably be used for
water ballast. An oil-burning steamer when light may have less water ballast. than a coal-
burning steamer. The draft of a vessel without cargo or pa-sengers would not be the same at
'all times or for all v-.a T,. Thus the establishment of any vessel's light line would necessarily
result from the application of arbitrary rules dillh ult. to formulate and more dithcult to apply.
2. If the actual displacement tonnage of a vessel a t the time of its applicaitiun for passage
through the canal is made the basis of tolls, shipmasters may seek to le-se tile vessel's draft
temporarily by reduc iig the amount of water ballast to a minimum limit as the entrance to
the canal is approached, in order that the vessel may thereby have less draft and be required
to pay less tolls. When the vessel passes from the canal tu the sea, the ballast tanks could








MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


again readily be filled, and the ship's necessary ballast at sea could in this manner be easily
replaced. It might also be possible for coal companies or even steamship companies to establish
stations a slight distance from each entrance to the canal for the purpose of enabling vessels
to replenish their bunkers or tanks after having passed through the canal and having paid
the tolls. By entering the canal with a minimum amount of coal in the bunkers, and by coaling
just after departing from the canal, a vessel would avoid the payment of tolls upon the weight
of fuel it would normally carry.
3. The chief and conclusive reasons for basing tolls neither upon the actual displacement
nor upon the deep-load line displacement of vessels are that such tolls would be unfair as between
different types of ships, and would violate the fundamental principle of giving main consideration
to earning capacity in levying canal charges. Tolls upon the weight or displacement of ships
would be unfair as between different types of vessels, because fast passenger steamers have
maximum weight in machinery, fittings, and fuel as compared with the weight of paying load,
while slow cargo steamers have a maximum capacity for freight as compared with the weight
of, and space occupied by, machinery, fittings, and fuel. In the case of the passenger steamer,
the paying load is relatively light as compared with the nonpaying weight or taree," while the
freight steamer has an earning load heavy in relation to taree." Otherwise stated, the fast
ship of "fine" lines has a large displacement and small dead-weight capacity, while the ship
with "full" lines has large carrying space in relation to light displacement. It is manifest that
injustice as among different types of ships must result from taxing them upon the basis of
their weight. In order to make tolls equitable for different classes of ships, it is necessary to
base the charges primarily upon either what the ship is carrying or upon its earning capacity.
One method of levying tolls upon what the ship is carrying is to make "dead-weight"
tonnage the basis of the charges; and, in order to determine whether that would be a desirable
basis for Panama tolls, it is necessary to explain briefly what is meant by "dead-weight"
tonnage and what would result from making it the basis of dues payable for the use of the canal.
DEADIWEIGHT TONNAGE.
A vessel's dead-weight tonnage is the difference between the weight or displacement of
the vessel when "light" and when loaded to its maximum authorized draft. It is the number
of tons avoirdupois that the ship can carry of fuel, cargo, and passengers; it is the vessel's
dead-weight capability, its carrying power.
The term dead-weight is also applied in commercial practice, to some extent, to the weight
of coal and cargo actually aboard a ship at a given time. In this sense the dead-weight tonnage
of a ship at any particular draft is the difference between its displacement "light" and its
displacement at its actual draft.
Would it be wise to levy tolls either upon a ship's maximum dead-weight tonnage or upon
the dead-weight of the fuel and lading actually aboard a vessel at the time of application for
passage through the canal? As an argument in favor of tolls upon maximum dead-weight
tonnage, it is urged that charges based upon the ship's carrying power are placed upon the
weight from which the owners of the ship may derive traffic revenues. This argument is
strengthened by the fact that the rates charged for the use of chartered vessels-i. e., charter
rates-are upon dead-weight tonnage and that, inasmuch as a large share of ocean freight is .
transported in chartered vessels, the commercial world is accustomed to charges based upon
dead-weight. tonnage.
The advantages to be derived from making maximum dead-weight tonnage the basis of
canal tolls are, however, more than offset by the objections to making that tonnage the unit of
canal charges:
1. Freight ships, especially those employed in the transportation of bulk cargoes, would be
heavily taxed, because of their large carrying power, while passenger steamers having compara-
tively little dead-weight capability would be but lightly burdened with canal tolls. Unless the
rates of toll were different for different types of ships, there would be relative injustice as among
different. classes of vessels.









40 MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.

2. Even as between freight ships carrying different kinds of cargo the charges would be
inequitable. The tolls payable would be largest for vessels loaded with the heaviest., and thus
ordinarily the cheapest, commodities. Minerals, nitrate, lumber, grain, and other bulk com-
modities have large weight in comparison with value, and the canal tolls would fall most heavily
upon the classes of commodities that ought to be most. favored by the tolls. If cargo were
made the basis of tolls, articles which are shipped as package freight ought to be charged tolls
not upon their weight but upon their measurement tonnage-40 cubic feet, instead of 2,240
pounds, being considered a ton. This would probably not be practicable, but unless it
were done the discrimination against heavy bulk cargoes would be unjust to the shippers of
"dead weight freight." Carriers, moreover, vould find tolls upon weight of cargo less desira-
ble than charges upon space occupied by freight.
Would it be advisable to base Panama Canal tolls upon the actual weight carried by vessels
using the canal? It would seem offhand that tolls upon the actual weight borne by the vessel
would be on a proper and desirable basis. Ocean carriers would thus be called upon to pay
charges for the use of the canal varying with the amounts transported through the waterway.
The tolls would not be placed upon the vessel, but upon what is in the ship, and would be made
to vary with the weight of the vessel's burden. Moreover, the tonnage upon which tolls were
payable could theoretically be obtained without difficulty. It would be necessary only to read
off from the vessel's displacement or dead-weight scale the difference between the ship's light"
displacement and its actual displacement at the time of passing through the canal.
As a matter of fact, however, the objections to tolls based upon the actual weight carried
by vessels are stronger than the merits of such a system of charges. There are the same prac-
tical and equitable reasons against making actual dead-weight carried the basis of canal charges
as there are against the maximum dead-weight tonnage as a basis for tolls. There would be
the same difficulty encountered in deciding what should be considered the "light" draft of a
vessel and thus what should be thken to be its "light" displacement. Likewise there would
be the same inequity of charges as among different types of chips and as between similar
ships carrying different, kinds of cargo.

"BLOCK DISPLACEMENT.'

A variation from the method of levying tolls upon a vessel's actual displacement at the
time of passage through the canal would be to levy the charges upon the vessel's so-called
"block displacement" or upon the cubical contents obtained by multiplying the length of a
vessel's load water line by the vessel's breadth at the water line by its draft at any particular
time. It would be the displacement of a parallelopipedon circumscribing the vessel, or of a block
with dimensions equal to the length, beam, and draft of a vessel at, the time of passage through
the canal. The term "block displacement" is not generally used in tonnage literature, nor
is the tonnage obtained by calculating the "block displacement at present utilized for any
purpose.'
"Block displacement" has never been adopted as a basis for canal tulls, dock, or other
port dues, or tonnage taxes, nor has it ever been used as the basis for registering ships. Yet
the idea of making "block displacement" the basis of shipping charges is a very old one. It
was proposed in France as a possible basis for dock charges by the French naval architect
Bouguer as early as 1746.2 It was not adopted as the basis for dock charges, and Bouguer did
not propose it as a possible basis for registering vessels or for any other purpose.
The tonnage determined by calculating the "block displacement" was also proposed to
the Royal Commission on Tonnage of 1881, and was considered by that commission together
with other possible bases for dock charges.8 The majority of that commission rejected all ton-
nage bases, except net tonnage; one member of the commission favored dead-weight tonnage,
I Thissystem was proposed as the basis for canal tolls, and the term "block displasLmren'" was corned by Capt. C... Me Ultster, Engineer
In Chief of the United States Revenue-Cutter Service. Hearings before Hou.e Commtltee on Interstateand Foreign Commerce, Jan. 15, 1912, p. 436.
2 See White's Manual of Naval Architecture (5th Ed.), pp. 51 and 71-72.
See Appendix XVIII.


;rrrY








MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


and another displacement tonnage; but the "block displacement" idea was unanimously
rejected.
Until suggested as a basis for Panama tolls, "block displacement" had been considered
only as a tonnage upon which to impose dock charges. The tonnage obtained by multiplying
a vessel's length by its breadth and draft would roughly indicate the water space occupiedby
a ship when in a dock, hence the suggestion that the space so occupied would be a fair basis
for doc charges. Obviously, the "block displacement" of vessels of different t pes has little
relation to their earning capacity. As is stated by the British naval architect, Sir W. H. White,
the proposal that "block displacement" should be made the basis of shipping charges, "pro-
ceeds upon the assumption that dock and harbor dues should be paid on service rendered, and
not on the earning powers of ships; and this assumption, as has been shown, is not generally
admitted. In view of the full discussion of the subject in 1881, and the recommenda-
tions of the Royal Commission, as well as the continuous extensions of international obligations,
it. is obvious that the Moorsom system is now more thoroughly established than ever, and that
no change seems probable, except as regards improvement in details."2
The advantages of "block displacement" as a basis for canal tolls would be those stated
above in connection with actual displacement, with the additional advantage of greater sim-
plicity. The tonnage or measurement officials of the Panama Canal could easily measure the
length, breadth, and draft of a vessel applying for transit through the Canal, and there would
be no necessity to consult the displacement curves and scales or other documents carried by
the vessel.
"Block displacement" would have the same objections that actual displacement has as a
basis for Panama charges, with the additional objection that block displacement is not the
measure of anything actually in existence. Vessels are not block shaped; their coefficients of
fineness vary from 0.4 to 0.9. Block displacement" would discriminate most unfairly against
vessels with fine lines, the discrimination increasing with the extent to which a vessel varied
from the shape of the blunt freight steamer and the barge.
Tolls levied upon "block displacement" would violate the principle of basing canal charges
upon the earning capacity of vessels. As will be explained in Chapters V and VII, net tonnage,
accurately determined, represents the actual earning capacity of each vessel. If earning
capacity is the proper basis upon which to levy Panama tolls, the charges can not be imposed
upon "block displacement."
1 The Moorsom system of determining the tonnage of vessels is described in the following chapter.
2 Manual of Naval Architecture, p. 72.
618610-13---4















































































































IS





















0












CHAPTER IV



GROSS TONNAGE AND ITS MEASUREMENT.
43


























1







1














CHAPTER IV.


GROSS TONNAGE AND ITS MEASUREMENT.
Gross and net tonnage are terms applied to vessels and not to commodities. One hundred
cubic feet of space is a vessel ton, and the gross tonnage of a vessel is the number of tons of
100 cubic feet within the ship's elosed-in spaces.
The cubical contents of the closed-in spaces within any particular vessel would seem to be
a fixed quantity definitely determinable, and would supposedly be the same whatever the
flag of the ship or in whatever country the vessel is registered; but the several national rules
for the measurement of vessels define closed-in spaces differently, and these rules vary as to
what spaces shall be exempted from measurement, and thus from gross tonnage. Moreover,
the Suez Canal Co.'s measurement rules are different from nearly all the national rules.
The present rules or methods followed in measuring vessels to determine their gross
tonnage originated with Mr. George Moorsom, of England, and were first embodied in law in
the British tonnage act of 1854. The Moorsom rules for the measurement of vessels have
since then been adopted by practically all countries of the world and are now everywhere
followed, although, as will presently be pointed out, the practice of the several nations of
the world as to the exemption and measurement of spaces within vessels is far from uniform.
Prior to 1854 vessels were measured by brief rules which produced only approximately
correct results. Those in force in England were established by the "new measurement"
law of 1836. The need for improvement in the rules having become evident, the com-
missioners of the admiralty, at the request of the Board of Trade, appointed a committee
in 1849 to recommend changes in the rules. The following year this committee recommended
that the contents of vessels should no longer be determined by internal, but by external,
measurement. Mr. Moorsom was honorary secretary of this commission, but did not approve
of its recommendation. When it became evident that the report of 1850 was not to be
accepted, Mr. Moorsom formulated the measurement rules which now bear his name. These
rules were approved by the Board of Trade and made law by act of Parliament.
Mr. Moorsom worked out an exact mathematical method or formula for determining the
cubical contents of vessels, and the ships then registered under the British flag were measured
by these rules. It was found that the cubical contents of the entire British merchant marine
was 363,412,456 cubic feet. At that time the total registered tonnage of the fleet was 3,700,000.
The ratio of the number of cubic feet of contents to the number of tons register was 98.22 to 1.
It was the desire of the British Government to make as little change as possible in the registered
tonnage, and it was accordingly suggested by Mr. Moorsom that in order to simplify calculations
100 cubic feet instead of 98.22 should be'considered a gross ton. This suggestion was adopted.
Mr. Moorsom's recommendations regarding measurement rules and tonnage were embodied
in Rules 1, 2, and 3 of the tonnage act of 1854. These rules, as now in force, are printed in
full in Appendix III to this volume. Rule 1 prescribes a method for measuring empty vessels,
Rule 2 states how laden vessels shall be measured, and Rule 3 prescribes the rules to be followed
in measuring the space occupied by the engine and machinery of steamships. In their present
form the rules differ only in minor respects from those originally formulated by Mr. Moorsom.
The first country to follow England in the adoption of the Moorsom system of measuring
spaces and the Moorsom ton was the United States, which embodied them without change in
the act of 1864. The Suez Canal Co.'s measurement rules were formulated by the International
Tonnage Commission which met at Constantinople in 1873. These rules provided that the
gross tonnage of vessels shall be determined by the Moorsom system and be expressed in
45









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


Moorsom tons. Thus, by the action of the International Tonnage Commission and by the
laws of the United States and other countries, a vessel ton is everywhere 100 cubic feet, and
the contents of vessels are determined by the Moorsom system of measurement. The rules,
however, concerningthe spaces that shall be included in gross tonnage vary with different coun-
tries, and the regulations of the Suez Canal Co. are different from nearly all the national rules.
Dissimilarity in the several measurement codes is due to the fact that some include
spaces which are exempted by other rules. Thus the same ship would not have the same
measured contents and would not have the same gross tonnage by British, American, and
Suez rules. It is obvious that if gross tonnage were made the basis of Panama tolls it would
not be possible to accept the gross register tonnage of vessels as stated in their national registry
certificates, because ships of the same size having different gross register tonnage would not be
treated "on terms of entire equality, so that there shall be no discrimination in
respect of the conditions or charges of traffic." The Hay-Pauncefote treaty would be violated
if Panama tolls were collected in accordance with the gross tonnage of vessels as stated in the
ship's papers.
In discussing the measurement of vessels to determine their gross and net tonnage it is
necessary to keep in mind the distinction between "exemption" and "'deduct ion from measure-
ment. Measurement rules stipulate what spaces shall be measured to determine a vessel's
gross tonnage and what part of the vessel shall be exempted from measurement, while the
rules governing the determination of net tonnage specify which of the spaces that have been
measured shall be deducted. Net tonnage, as will be explained later in detail, is ascertained
by deducting from the contents of the spaces that have been measured and included in gross
tonnage the contents of such spaces as the rules designate shall not be included within the net
tonnage of the vessel. The gross tonnage of a vessel depends upon the spaces exempted from
and upon the spaces included within the measurement, while a ship's net tonnage is affected
by the specifications of the rules as to the exemption of spaces from measurement and as to the
deductions to be made from the spaces included within the gross tonnage. The rules regarding
the measurement and exemption of vessels control the gross tonnage and indirectly determine
-the net tonnage of vessels.
In order to collect the same Panama tolls from vessels of like size and capacity, it is neces-
sary that the gross tonnage of the vessels shall be determined by the same rules. Although
the tolls are levied upon net tonnage, it is none the less necessary that the measurement rules
should stipulate what shall be included in gross tonnage as well as what shall he deducted
therefrom in the calculation of net tonnage.
Spaces of a surprising number are differently treated by the several rules for the measure-
ment of vessels. As will be brought out later in this chapter, the leading national rules and
those of the Suez Canal Co. have different provisions as to the exemption or measurement, in
whole or in part, (1) of the light and air and funnel spaces above t he engine and boiler room; (2)
of spaces within such superstructures as the forecastle, poop, bridge, wheelhouses, donkey-engine
house, the house or rooms in which charts and navigation instruments are kept, galleys, bakeries,
cookhouses, toilets, bathrooms, crew quarters, lockers for anchor chain, and lookout houses;
and (3) spaces under the uppermost full-length deck usually called the shelter deck. The
location of these superstructures and spaces upon typical ships is indicated in the longitudinal
profiles presented in Chapter II.
The variations in the rules governing gross tonnage and in the regulations or instructions
issued for the guidance of measures in applying rules result, mainly from the different inter-
pretations that have been put by law and practice upon the terms "closed-in" and "open"
spaces. The gross-measurement laws of practically all countries are based upon the British
Merchant Shipping Act of 1854, which provided that-
If there is a break, a poop, or any other permanent closed-in space on the upper deck available for cargo or stores,
or for the berthing or accommodation of passengers or crew, the tonnage of such space shall be ascertained * *
and shall be added to its tonnage.









MEASUREMENT Of VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


The meaning of this law hinged upon the interpretation given to the words "permanent
closed-in space." It was the practice of the Board of Trade after the enactment of the law of
1854 to measure, and thus to.include in the gross tonnage, the closed-in spaces and super-
structures above the uppermost deck and also all spaces under that deck. Within a few years,
however, it came to be the practice of shipbuilders to leave one or more openings, other thah
the regular hatchways, in the uppermost deck in the manner described above in chapterr II.
These "tonnage" openings, while not constructed as hatchways. might be covered over with
planks and tarpaulins at sea during rough weather. The owners of the vessels with these
"tonnage" hatches or openings claimed exemption from measurement of the space between
the uppermost deck and the deck below it, which at that time was the main deck of the vessel.
The Board of Trade refused to exempt the space between what came to be called the shelter
deck and the deck below it; but the Clyde Steam Navigation Co. of Glasgow, in 1875, in the
case of the steamer Bear, secured a decision from the House of Lords, which required
the Board of Trade to treat as "open," and thus to be exempted from measurement, the
space under the uppermost continuous deck through which there were one or more openings
other than the regular hatchways.
Efforts to secure an amendment to the act of 1854 that would so define closed-in and open
spaces as to enable the Board of Trade to enforce the law as it had been enforced before the
decision of the House of Lords in the Bear case, proved ineffective; and in consequence the
British rules still exempt from measurement large spaces actually used for the stowage of cargo.
The present requirements of the Board of Trade regarding the exemption of spaces are as follows:
The attention of the surveyors is called to the following points relating to the exemption from measurement of
spaces situated above the upper deck:
The minimum width and height of the permanent openings in the bulkheads is fixed at 3 feet and 4 feet, respec-
tively, and if coamings are fitted thereto their height must not exceed 2 feet.
This rule also applies when exemption from measurement is claimed for the space between the upper and shelter
decks, when such spaces are subdivided by one or more transverse bulkheads.
A single opening on one side of a bulkhead is not considered sufficient to entitle the space thus partitioned off to
exemption, unless, in addition to this, there are a number of freeing ports and scuppers fitted on each side of the space
claimed. In such cases the owner's application for exemption and also a sketch of the space drawn to scale must
be forwarded to the principal surveyor for tonnage for examination, and exemption must not be allowed without the
Board's approval. 'In shelter deck cases, when the permanent deck opening is situated aft, there must be at least two
openings in all the transverse bulkheads in the 'tween deck on the fore side of it to entitle the space to exemption.
As regards the dimensions of the permanent middle line opening in the shelter deck, the length must not be less
than 4 feet clear opening, and the width must at least be equal to that of the after cargo hatch upon the same deck.
The distance between the after edge of the deck opening and the aft side of the stempost must not be less than one-
twentieth the registered length of the vessel, or if placed forward the fore side must not be less than one-fifth the length
of the vessel from the stem.
The builders of vessels engaged in the transportation of miscellaneous cargoes are careful
so to construct the ships as to bring them within the technical requirements of the Board of
Trade as to open spaces, although the larger part of the technically open spaces is actually used
for stowing cargo.
The Suez rules concerning both gross and net tonnage were formulated by the Interna-
tional Tonnage Commission, which met at Constantinople in the autumn of 1873. The rules
adopted by that commission concerning the spaces to be included in gross tonnage were and
are as follows:
The gross tonnage or total capacity of ships comprises the exact measurement of all spaces (without any exception)
below the upper deck, as well as of all permanently covered and closed-in spaces on that deck.
By permanently covered and closed-in spaces on the upper deck are to be understood all those which are separated
off by decks or coverings, or fixed partitions, and therefore represent an increase of capacity which might be used for
the stowage of merchandise, or for the berthing and accommodation of the passengers or of the officers and crew. Thus
any one or more openings, either in the deck or coverings, or in the partitions, or a break in the deck, or the absence of
a portion of the partition, will not prevent such spaces being comprised in the gross tonnage, if they can be easily
closed in after admeasurement, and thus better fitted for the transport of goods and passengers.
But the spaces under awning decks without other connections with the body of the ship than the props necessary
for supporting them, which are not spaces, "separated off," and are permanently exposed to the weather and the sea,









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


will not be comprised in the gross tonnage, although they may serve to shelter the ship's crew, the deck passengers,
and even merchandise known as "deck loads."
"Deck loads" are not comprised in the measurement.
Closed spaces for the use or possible use of passengers will not be deducted from the gross tonnage.
The above rules of the International Tonnage Commission were based upon the British
Merchant Shipping Act of 1854, but closed-in and open spaces were carefully defined. The
Bear case, which was decided by the House of Lords in 1875, had arisen in 1872, and thus it
was understood in 1873 to be necessary carefully to stipulate what should be considered open
spaces and what closed ones in the measurement of vessels. In defining a space as closed-in
when it represented "an increase of capacity which might be used for the stowage of merchan-
dise or for the berthing and accommodation of the passengers or the officers and crew," the
International Tonnage Commission minimized the possibility of evading the measurement. rules
with a view to reducing tonnage. The International Tonnage Commission by this definition
of a closed-in space established definitely the principle that gross tonnage should include the
entire closed-in capacity of the ship. The adoption of this policy, it may be added, received
the support of the representatives of Great Britain on the International Tonnage Commission.
Minor changes were subsequently made by the Suez Canal Co. in the definition as given
above of closed-in spaces, but the changes were found to improve neither the definition nor the
measurement rules framed in accordance with the definition. For this reason the company in
1904 issued a memorandum stating precisely how its rules should be applied to the measure-
ment of superstructures. The interpretation given the rules by the 1904 memorandum cor-
responds closely with the definition given to closed-in spaces by the International Tonnage
Commission in 1873. This memorandum, with illustrations, is reproduced as Appendix XIII
to this volume.
In 1902, to prevent the exemption from measurement. of spaces used for the carrying of
cargo, the Suez Canal Co. provided in its rules that-
Should a vessel at any time transit with merchandise of any kind. or bunker coal or stores of any description,
in any portion whatever of any exempted space, the whole of that space is added to the net tonnage and can nevermore
be exempted from measurement.
This stipulation was included in the memorandum of 1904. and it. has simplified the enforce-
ment of the Suez Canal Co.'s general principle, that the gross tonnage of a vessel shaU include
all closed-in spaces and that its net tonnage shall represent its actual earning capacity.
The United States in 1864 adopted a law, effective in 1865, for the measurement of vessels,
which incorporated the provisions of the British Merchant Shipping Act of 1854, and the stipu-
lations of the law as regards open and closed spaces have been interpreted by the United States
authorities as were the corresponding provisions of the British Merchant Shipping Act by the
Board of Trade prior to the decision of the House of Lords in the Bfar case, in 1875; that is
to say, any space that is either actually closed-in or capable of being closed-in against the sea
is included in the ship's measurement. There was one important and unwise exception made
made to this principle by an act of February 28, 1865, which provided that-
No part of any ship or vessel shall * be measured or registered for tonnaee that ip used for cabins or state-
rooms, and constructed entirely above the first deck which is not a deck to the hull
This clause exempts from measurement the space in all tiers of superstructures above the
first tier, if, as is customary, the spaces in the tiers of superstructures above the first tier are
used for cabins or staterooms. With the growth in the size of passenger steamers and in the
number of decks above the uppermost full-length deck, our laws have come to exclude from the
tonnage of the larger passenger vessels a considerable share of their actual closed-in capacity.
The amendment of 1865 seems to have been enacted for the purpose of favoring the steamers
on our seaboard, lakes, and western rivers. Some of these steamboats had-cabins or staterooms
above the promenade deck, whereas ocean steamers at that time had their passenger accommo-
dations below the upper deck. The law of 1865 came, in course of time, to be applied to
ocean steamers and is still in force, although it has no justification.









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


The customs regulations of the United States, which interpret the laws regarding the meas-
urement of vessels, define closed-in spaces as follows:
By "closed-in spaces" is to be understood spaces which are sheltered from the action of the. sa and weather, even
though openings be left in the inclosure. Measuring officers will exercise due vigilance that the intent of the law in
this respect is not evaded. It should be borne in mind, however, that no closed-in spaces above the upper deck to
the hull are to be admeasured unless available for cargo or stores or the berthing or accommodation of passengers or
crew. The engine room, pilot house, galley, windlass house, and the like are, when so situated and used, exempt.
Whether for the purpose of measurement a deck is to be regarded as an upper deck or as the shelter to an upper
deck is to be determined in each instance both by the character and structural conditions of the erection and by the pur-
pose to which the between-deck is devoted. Differences in construction are so numerous that no definition or rule on
this subject has been formulated. If the deck is a continuous deck, fastened down and water-tight, sealing up the cyl-
inder formed between the two decks and making it a fit place for the stowage of cargo, like a hold, the deck is to be
treated as an upper deck, and the space between it and the deck below is to be measured. If, however, the cylinder
is open to the shipment of seas, and the space is not reasonably fit for the carrying of dry cargo, but is used only for
cargo generally classed as deck cargo, such as cattle, horses, chemicals, oil in barrels, etc., then, usually, the deck is to
be regarded as a shelter deck, and the space as -hFl re- d space above the upper deck which is under cover and open
to the weather, that is, not inclosed," and not to be included in the recorded tonnage.
Specific as are the foregoing instructions, the admeasurers at the several ports of the United
States are obliged to exercise their judgment as to what shall be considered open and what
closed spaces. The practice of our admeasurers is not uniform at all ports. The surveyor of
the port of New York, where most vessels are measured for tonnage taxes and where many of
our ships are measured for registry and enrollment, reports the following regulations to be in
force at that port:
1. Closed-in spaces above the upper deck.-If there be a break, poop, bridge, forecastle, deck house, hatchway, or
any other permanent closed-in space above the upper deck available for cargo or stores, or for the berthing or accom-
inodation of passengers or crew, the tonnage of that space shall be ascertained and added to the gross tonnage.
2. Closed-in spaces defined.-By closed-in spaces is to be understood spaces which are sheltered from the action of
the sea and weather, even though openings be left in the inclosure. Forecastles, bridges, poops, or any other permanent
erection with one or more openings in the hides or ends fitted with doors or other permanently attached means of closing
them should be measured and included in the gross tonnage.
3. Bulkhead openings.-When an opening in the bulkhead of a deck erection is closed either by a hinged door, or
by a portable plate which is secured in place by nut and screw bolts so as to be water-tight, the opening may be regarded
as completely closed.
4. Openings in front of bridge house or poop.-When there is an opening or openings in the bulkhead at the front
of a bridge house or poop closed by hinged doors or by shifting boards when fitted into channel bars, which extend the
full height of the opening, the space may be regarded as closed.
5. Openings in after end of bridge house orforecastle.-When there are openings in the bulkhead at the after end of
a bridge house or forecastle, closed by portable plates secured in place by nut and screw bolts or closed by shifting
boards, when fitted into channel bars which extend the full height of the openings, the space maybe regarded ascom-
pletely closed.
6. Open spaces.-Spaces under awning decks without other connection with the body of the ship than the stanch-
ions necessary for supporting them, which are not spaces separated off and are permanently exposed to the weather
and the sea, will not be comprised in the gross tonnage.
7. Exempted spaces.-It'should be borne in mind, however, that no closed-in spaces above the upper deck to
the hull are to be ad measured, unless available for cargo or stores or the berthing or accommodation of passengers or
crew. The engine room, pilot house, galley, windlass house, and the like are, when so situated and used, exempt.
8. Exemption of cabins on decks above upper deck.-No part of any vessel will be admeasured or registered for tonnage
that is used for cabins or staterooms and constructed entirely above the first deck which is not a deck to the hull.
9. A deck to the hull defined.-Any deck is a deck to the hull which has a direct bearing upon the frame timbers,
even though lighter than other decks in the same vessel and though only a portion of the timbers extend to such deck.
In iron vessels an upper deck supported by stanchions of wood or iron bolted to the angle irons or to the iron plating of
the vessel is to be taken as a deck to the hull.
The foregoing definitions given to open and closed spaces by the measurement authorities
of Great Britain and the United States and by the regulations of the Suez Canal Co. show clearly
the possibility of large variations in the gross tonnage of vessels of the same size and design.
In order fully to explain the differences in the practice of measuring vessels to determine their
gross tonnage, the British, Suez, German, and American rules are analyzed in turn and compared.









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


It will be seen that the rules and practice of these three countries and the Suez company, while
agreeing as to the inclusion within gross tonnage of the principal spaces used or usable for the
accommodation of passengers and crew (other than the spaces under the shelter deck which
are usually exempted from measurement in Great Britain and Germany), differ as to the inclusion
within, or exemption from, gross tonnage of various minor spaces which taken together may
appreciably affect the gross, and consequently the net, tonnage of the vessels measured by the
several rules.
GREAT BRITAIN'S GROSS TONNAGE RULES.

The analysis of the measurement rules may best begin with those of Great Britain, because
the British Merchant Shipping Act of 1854, in which the Moorsom measuring system was first
incorporated, has been made the basis of the measurement laws and rules of the other countries.
The British practice as to the measurement of vessels has largely influenced the rules adopted
by other countries, because the British marine comprises nearly or quite half the shipping
engaged in international trade. Formerly the percentage was even higher than it is at the
present time.
The British Merchant Shipping Act of 1854 has been somewhat modified by the laws of
1867, 1876, 1889, 1894, 1906, and 1907. The present rules of the Board of Trade governing the
measurement of vessels are in accordance with the Merchant Shipping Acts of 1894, 1906, and
1907; and, of course, are so drafted as to conform to the decisions rendered by the House of
Lords and the British Courts in 1875 and later, defining what constitutes open spaces within
the meaning of the Merchant Shipping Act of 1854. The measurement rules now in force in
Great Britain include the following spaces within gross tonnage:
1. The space between the upper deck and the floor of the hold, with the exception of certain
minor exempted spaces included within hatchways, companionways, domes and skylight-
and spaces between ribs and floor beams in the case of certain vessels. The exact spaces
exempted are enumerated below.
2. Gross tonnage under the British rules includes the spaces within any "break, poop, or
any permanent closed-in space on the upper deck available for cargo or stores or for the berthing
or accommodation of passengers or crew." The meaning given to the words "permanent
closed-in" by the British courts and consequently by the Board of Trade has been explained
above. Whenever the poop, forecastle, or any superstructure is inclosed according to the
requirements of the British rules, the space is measured and included within the gross tonnage.
The space under a shelter deck is not included in the measurement, if the openings in t he shelter
deck and in the bulkheads subdividing the space between the shelter and upper decks fulfill the
requirements of the regulations prescribed by the Board of Trade in accordance with the decision
of the House of Lords in the Bear and other cases. If cargo is carried in spaces which have the
openings stipulated by the rules and which are thus exempted from measurement, the actual
space occupied by the cargo is measured. The space thus occupied by "deck cargo" is not
added to the vessel's gross or net tonnage, but is added to the tonnage upon which light dues
or other tonnage taxes are collected.
3. The space occupied by hatchways is measured and the part of this space in excess of
one-half of 1 per cent of the vessel's gross tonnage exclusive of hatchways is added to the gross
tonnage of a vessel.
The following spaces. are exempted from measurement and are thus not included in the
gross tonnage under the British rules:
1. Superstructures not permanently inclosed; that is, superstructures having the openings
prescribed by the rules.
2. Spaces under the shelter deck, provided the shelter deck and the bulkheads subdivid-
ing the space between the shelter deck from the upper deck have the openings prescribed by
the Board of Trade rules.
3. Any closed-in space or spaces solely appropriated to and fitted with machinery, and the
wheelhouse for sheltering the man or men when at the wheel, if not larger than required for
such purposes.









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


4. Any erection on the upper deck of vessels fitted for the shelter of deck passengers on short
voyages. The exemption of this space from measurement, however, is admissible only by
special directions from the Board of Trade. When claim is made by the vessel owner for
exemption of these spaces, the surveyors must apply to the Board of Trade for instructions.
5. The cook house and bakeries, when fitted with ovens and used entirely for their desig-
nated purposes, and the condenser space, provided the cook house, bakeries, and condenser
space are not larger than are required to shelter the cook when employed at his work and the
engineer when engaged in condensing water for passengers and crew.
6. Toilets of reasonable size and number for officers and crew. In the case of passenger
vessels, a toilet exempted from measurement is allowed for each 50 persons, but not more
than 12 toilets are exempted.
7. The light and air and funnel spaces above the machinery compartments are exempted
from measurement unless the owner of the vessel, for reasons that will be explained later,
requests the inclusion of these spaces within the measurement.
8. Of the space included within hatchways, one-half of 1 per cent of the gross tonnage of
the vessel exclusive of hatchways is omitted from the gross tonnage.
9. The spaces within the double bottom used for water ballast are exempted from measure-
ment. When such spaces are used for or are available for the carriage of cargo, stores, or fuel
they are measured and included in the gross tonnage.
10. The spaces between the frames or ribs of a vessel and between the floor beams are
not included in the measurement. The breadth of the vessel is its width between the inner
edges of its frames or between the inner faces of the inner side plating. The depth of a
vessel is measured upward from the upper side of the floor timber or beam "at the inside of the
limber strake"; that is, next to the keelson at the center line of the vessel.
11. Companionways are exempted from measurement excepting such portions of them
as are used for smoking rooms. Ladders and stairways in exempted spaces are excluded from
measurement.
12. Domes and skylights are exempted from measurement.
The "certificate of survey" issued by the surveyors of the Board of Trade to vessels meas-
ured under the British rules is presented, reduced in size, in Form 1. It summarizes the
spaces included within gross tonnage. The "tonnage formula," Form 2, used for calculating
the ship's tonnage under the Merchant Shipping Acts of 1894 to 1907 indicates in detail the
spaces that are measured. This "tonnage formula" also contains other entries that will later
be considered in the discussion of net tonnage.












MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


REGISTRY
FORM No. I
and
SURVEYS 59.
Prescribed by
H. M. CusTOMs
[SEAL OF COM. OF
COUNCIL FOR
TRADE.]
With the
Consent of the
Board of Trade.


FORM 1.-BRITIBH TON NAGE CERTIFICATE.
[Certificate of survey.]


Name of ship. Port of intended registry. Official number. there has
been any u.rrner registry.




Whether Brit- Whether a sailing or steam-
ish or for- ship; and if a steamship, Wherebuilt. Whenbuilt. Nare and didres
eign built, how propelled. of blders.



Feet. Tenths.
Number of decks...... Length from fore part if ~stem under Ihe bowsprAt
Number of masts...... 10o he all zid he a ol Iheea o thbe sterupo .....
Rigged................ Lenzib adr qui.rltr of depbh from top of weather
Stern................ alek ati i.e -an.ijsl to bottom of lieel........
Build................. M'.:n breath to outside of plank. .....
Galleries.............. Depth in hold from tonnage necik to ceiling at
Head................. mrr 'hipr. ... .. ..
Framework and de- Dilbh In huld from upper deck to ceiling at mij-
scription rf : l fup ih in 'be t e iol trere aiu< 3and. upwarus.
Number of bulkhiah. De ithb rom top ot.btman amridJshpa to opof keel
Number of mater bal. Derph from top of eck at i.dr ami.dtupi to bot-
last tanks and their rum of kcel.. ...............
capacity in tons..... runa of btr .............
LeiLvtb oif c( roori f an nyi........ .........

PARTICULARS OF DISPLACEMENT.


Tctal i,. quifirr the depth from Ditto per inch immersion at same tons
i, i, her i'-, at idle amidships to tons. depth........................... ..
bottom of keel..... .............I

PARTICULARS OF ENGINES, ETC. (if any).

Whether No ol and N.n P.
No. Description Britishor When r dameter Lent H.
engines. foreign Dmade. a ,of1; stro speed
made. cymakers cylinders stroke. p.


Engines. Engines. Engines.


Boilers. Boilers. Boilers.
Number........
Iron or steel.....
Pressure when
loaded........


PARTICULARS OF TONNAGE.

GROSS TONNAGE. No. of DEDUCTION ALLOWED. No. of
tons. tons.
Under tonnage deck........... On account of space required for propelling
Closed-in spaces above the potier. ... .
tonnage deck, if any: On account ol spaces occupied bty seamer. or
Space or spaces bet. decks, apprentir e. andl appiropriated ii their tue,
Poop...................... nd kept free from goods or stores of every
Forecastle................. kina not being the personal property of >he
Roundhouse.............. crew..................................
Other closed-in spaces, if These spaces are the following, viz:
any, as follows:
Deductions under sec. 79 of the Merchant
Spaces for machinery, and Shipping Act, 1894, as follows:
light and air, under sec. 78
(2) of the Merchant Shipping
Act, 1894, if required. Cubic
meters.
Gross tonnage............
Deductions as per contra......
Registered tonnage........ Total........................

NOTE.-The only spaces above the upper deck not included in the cubical contents forming the
ship's registered tonnage are.....................................................................
I, the undersigned............. ....ha in iir v'vei The above-nanied ship, hbrebt certif-y
th ath aboe T pirticulari are true, and Ihat her name is mark-a on eaih o' her bows, andl her name
and- thp prit of rerallry are pro-perly marked iin a ron pltrucui part of her stern, a scale of feet mirke'd
on ,'h lide of her stem and of her sl5rn polt. and ILnes permanrenll and 'coupicuouiul mrrrked on
each side amidships indicating the- [poitinn of each deck whbicb isabo\e after. in manner dlirUe ed by
the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894.
Dated at this- day of 18-.
8urveSor.






FPOB 2.--DpIr Inl ToNNi Poauu.A.

CAIe ,/ fr lagsi bh A fee, s be ue fr asil drciag aBs ap's tAsmqe sw JMBnmd M ies Bakni Ads, aS4 ID 0r.


Speejilt.




is a





(Ja ~ h Br of


amol ame and ysI d mber. Nam m and addrm of owner.
*slo~ ey epi-t juY;~a~~St~~P. ~~~drl~


PI e and year of blld.


-------------- --iN '.... .. .. z 1


Is^^. & P^
Qmlmmmmmm


a f--- 1 -I im Iuth
m, pvdde o W dS o on orH
-ern. i Ituig


Cubic content and
register tonam


No. o ult Arem Prod,
anm plum nuet.
up.

1 1 .... ......
2 4 .... .......
3 3 ..... ......
4 4
4 4 ............
5 .... .. ...
a 2 ...... .....
7 2
8 4 ......
0 2 ..... ......
10 4 ......... ..
11 2 ............
12 4 ...... .....
13 1 ......... ..

I om. Int.l
bet. areas.J


Are 1.1 Aea 2. ea A bea4t. I A rea A rea Arm .Arrea 10. Ae IL. Area 12. Area In.


Pac. r Pa. p S. F.1e. Fds. Fed. Fed. ea. Fa. Fd. Fed. Feet.
Depths....... ____ ____ ________ ______

bet. b s.............

No.ol M Btlhe. Prod- Bth. Bjths Bibs. th. S Bhs.B. Bihs. Btbs. Bthe. Bths. Bths.
bfl.L pliers. Ft. 1nt. l F. Jh i Ft. Ftt. . F. Ft. Ft. Ft. Ft.
J I ........:....... -. - .1 __


et. bth..............


Y"'' "Y~ ""'


Between......deoke.

Mean length....... ft.

Com. Int.
bet. bth............

No.o Multl- Bths. Prod.
ueta.
bthb. plier. Ft. Ft.

S 4 ...... ......
2 ..... .....
4 4 .... .. ....
5 .... ....
6 4 ............
7 2
1 ...... ......
9 2
10 4 .....
11 2 ...... .....
12 4 ...... .....
13 ...... ......

I oom. Int.
bet bths.....


Height.........


Between......decks.

Mean length....... t.

Com. int.
bet. bths...........


No.olfMulti-I Bthe.
bihs Ipllaers Pt


* com. int.
bet bis.....



Height.........


Round of beam.................... ........

Typeofship, and ifL ellularor macintyredonble bottom.


Forecastle.


Mean length....... ft.

Com. int.
bet. bths............

No.of Multi Bths. Prod-
ucts.
bis. pliers. t. Ft.

1 1 .... ..
2 4 ...... ......
3 1 .... ......

Scom. Int.
bet. bths.....


Heigt.........





Bridge

Mean length.... ...ft

Com. int.
bet. bthe ..........

No.O Multi- Bths Prod-
bth pliers. Ft. ueF
Ft

I ...... ..1
2 ..... ..
9 1 ..... ....


Break.


Mean length ......ft.

Com. int.
bet. bths...... ......

No.of Multi- Bthe. Prod
bths. pliers. Ft uF.

I I
2 4 ...... ..
3 1 ..... .... .

I com. Int.
bet. bths.....


Beight.........





Poop.

Mean length....... t.

Com. Int.
bet. bths..........

No. ofMulti- Bths. Prod
bth. piera. F.L nt.

I I ...... .. ...
2 4 ...... ....
S 1 .


t Com. itt. Com.it.
bet bths.. ..... bet bths..............


Height......... Height........


Rouses
(nanifng
ehem).....














































Carried for-
ward....... ...


Tons.
Houses,
brought
forward.....


Carried for-
ward. ........


Houses, brought
forward.......


Tons.


Hatchways.............














































Bignatoure ofu arner.

Signature of examiner.


I15-3 (TIaepg 2)(vr


.0


Whmim. ...-.........................
D Tn.r smum >. -.... ..............

Under deak.
Between....decks.
Between....decks.
orecatle.
Bridge.
Break.

Poop.
Roundhouses.
Side houses.
Chart house.
Light and air spaces.
Excess of hatahways. Cubit
eters.
Oross tonnage.
jAllowance for
-- propelling power.........
{Allowance for
I crew space ................
{Deduction under
section 79.
Register tonnage...........


'


61861-13. (To face page 52.)


[over]




y..'" ".i ;* *.., :'' : : : :;. :'. ;" :;; ".'










fsee.t forward al.t of ar ea........... .. ....... . .... ...... ....... .
S. "'........ "'- ...... ... . .. .. .... .: '.. .... ....lm.d b...

Inthl a8eofrt eB m vsleth~engeirbommsefmitgarnd thscl latl tio sottheal r P O' f v Lemgth. Brasdth. Depth.

Position of e na room .... IE fm s eom b labu iB .............ie fn u d) {sit) ...... . ........... . -" ......-.-- .*---*
flflli~i r i om Tb i lk 4a i i .............. .Bet( irward) (Bt)oiaroL........... *- *** ***- ** **


*.. f e '


Carried forward ...........


Toa.


brought forwad.... ..


Carried forward ...................


61861"-13. ITo back form 2.)


Brought forward.................. "


-------*1


aerhint Shipping Act, 1907.


Gross tonnage..........................
Deductions under section 79, viz:
To
I. Crew apace.. .......................
2. Other deductions....................


Remainder .............. r ..... .....
Multiplier for percentage .................... .55





Tons.
Limit of allowance for propelling power ....

Particulars of exempted apacer........................


----









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


SLrEZ GROSS TONNAGE RULES.1

The Suez Canal Co.'s rules for the measurement of vessels, as has been stated, were formu-
lated by the International Tonnage Commission at Constantinople in 1873. That commission
adopted the Moorsom system of measuring vessel spaces, and the rules of the commission
state that there shall be included within the gross tonnage "all spaces, without any exception,
below the upper deck," and "'all permanently covered and closed-in spaces on that deck."
In measuring the superstructures upon or above the uppermost full-length deck, the rules
as amended in 1904 provide for the exemption from measurement of portions of certain closed-
in spaces which are considered as open under the rules of the country of the ship's registry.
The provisions of the rules are as follows:
I. SHIPS WITH ONE TIER OF SUPERSTRUCTURES ONLY.
I. Poop, bridge, forecastle.-The following exemptions are allowed:
(o) Such length of the poop measured from the inside of the stern timber, at half height
of the said poop, as shall be equal to one-tenth of the full length of the ship.
(b) The portion of the bridge in way of the air spaces of [spaces within and at the side of
casings above] the engine and boiler spaces, it being understood that such air spaces are not
considered to extend beyond the forward bulkhead of the stokehold'and the after bulkhead of
the main engine room. [See figures accompanying Appendix XIII.]
(c) Such length of the forecastle measured from the inside of the stem at half height of the
said forecastle as shall be equal to one-eighth of the full length of the ship.
(d) In each of the above three cases of superstructures such portions in the walls of the
ships as are in way of openings not. provided with any means of closing and corresponding to
one another.
2. Poop and bridge combined, or .trecastle and bridge combined.-In each of these combined
spaces the following exemptions are allowed:
(a) That length only which corresponds to the openings of the engine room and boiler
spaces as specified in (ba above.
(b) Such portions as are in way of openings not provided with any means of closing and
corresponding to one another.
3. Shelter decks.-In the case of shelter decks the following exemptions are allowed: The
portions in way of openings in the side plating of the ship not provided with any means of
closing and corresponding to one another. Such air spaces as are situated within the shelter
deck must be measured into the engine-room space and deducted, together with 75 per cent
of their volume.
II. SHIPS HAVING MORE THAN ONE TIER OF SUPERSTRUCTURES.
(a) The exemptions prescribed in paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 above are applicable in their
entirety to the lower tier only.
(b) Tiers above the lower tier are only allowed the exemption of such portions as are in way
of openings in the side plat ing of the ship not provided with any means of closing and correspond-
ing to one another.
The foregoing rules stipulate that when a vessel has one tier of superstructures, including
detached poop, bridge, and forecastle, there shall be exempted from measurement and gross
tonnage, when the spaces are considered as closed-in by the Suez rules and as open by the
rules of the country of the ship's registry: (a) The space included in the poop for a distance
of one-tenth of the length of the ship measured from the inside of the stern timber; (b) the
portion of the bridge or the combined poop and bridge within and at the side of, and for the
length of, the casings surrounding the air spaces above the engine and boiler room; (c) the space
included in the forecastle for a distance equal to one-eighth of the length of the ship measured
from the inside of the stem; and (d) in the case of all three of these superstructures, the space
between. opposite permanent openings in the side walls of the ship.
'See Appendixes XII and XIII for Ibe Sue2 Canal Co's rules for the measurement ofre.,eLsarnd forthe'memorand'um"(on(cernigthe
appicat ion of the rules to the measurement of super.rru'tures.








MEASUREMENT. OF VESSELS FOB PANAMA CANAL.


When the poop and bridge are united into a continuous structure, the space within the
poop equal to one-tenth of the length of the ship is not exempted from measurement. Like-
wise, when the forecastle and bridge are combined there is no exemption of the space within
the forecastle equal to one-eighth of the length of the ship; but that portion of the bridge
taken up by the light and air space above the engine and boiler room is exempted from meas-
urement, as are also spaces between permanent opposite openings in the side walls of the ship.
The memorandum issued by the Suez Maritime Canal Co. upon the application of its 1904
rules to the measurement of superstructures states that when the poop, bridge, and forecastle
are united into one they constitute a shelter deck. In the case of the shelter deck thus formed,
the only spaces exempted from measurement are "the portions in way-of openings in the side
plating of the ship not provided with any means of closing and corresponding to each other,"
and the rules further provide that "such air spaces as are situated within the shelter deck must
be measured into the engine-room space and deducted together with 75 per cent of their volume."
When a vessel has two or more tiers of superstructures, the foregoing exemptions regard-
ing the spaces within the poop, bridge, and forecastle, when separated from each other and when
combined, apply in their entirety only to the first tier of superstructures above the upper full-
length deck of the ship. As the rules above quoted state, the tiers above the lower tier are
allowed the exemption of only such spaces as are between permanent opposite openings in the
sides of the ship.
Steamers now in service may have numerous superstructures, such as roundhouses, side
houses, galleys, cookhouses, bathrooms, wheel, chart and donkey-engine houses, and inclosures
required for the working of the ship, for smoking rooms, and companion houses. All such
spaces are measured and included in the vessel's gross tonnage. Hatches, also, as has been
stated, are measured and their space in excess of one-half of 1 per cent of the gross tonnage of
the vessel exclusive of hatchways is included in the ship's tonnage.
The definitions given to closed-in and open spaces by the rules of the Suez Canal Co. are
stated on page 47. These definitions, formulated by the International Tonnage Commis-
sion upon the recommendation of the representatives of Great Britain, provide that all
spaces capable of being so closed as to be usable "for the stowage of merchandise or for the
berthing and accommodation of the passengers or of the officers and crew" shall be included
in the measurement, and that openings in the deck or coverings of the spaces or in the parti-
tions separating the spaces under the deck containing the openings shall not entitle spaces to
exemption from measurerient if the openings can be so closed, after the ship has been meas-
ured, as to make the spaces available for the transportation of goods or passengers. In order
to make this rule effective and to avoid the attempts that had been made to exempt shelter-
deck spaces from measurement,' the Suez Canal Co. in 1902 adopted the rule still in force
that "should a vessel at any time transit with merchandise of any kind, or bunker coal, or
stores of any description, in any portion whatever of any exempted space, the whole of that
space is added to the net tonnage and can nevermore be exempted from measurement." The
enforcement of this principle has resulted in including in the gross tonnage of the vessels
measured under the Suez rules their usable or earning capacity. Moreover, the determination
of what is an open or a closed space does not rest with the measures of vessels but with the
officials of the canal company charged with the duty of collecting tolls and hence with checking
up the tonnage of vessels.
Briefly stated, the Suez rules as now enforced so measure the gross tonnage of vessels as
to include in that tonnage the entire space (with the exception of designated exemptions
enumerated below) under the tonnage deck and between the tonnage deck and the upper-
most deck and the space (subject to the exemptions allowed some ships by the "memoran-
dum" of 1904) in such superstructures as poop, forecastle, bridge, side and round houses,
galleys, and bakeries. The term "permanent closed-in" is defined to mean spaces so fitted
as to be capable of being so closed as to be used for the transportation of cargo, fuel, provisions,
or passengers.
1 For an historical account of the treatment of the measurement of superstructures by the Sues Canal Co. consult A ppendiz X I.









mi cU= .'- a UEiZ A MA AUSmana C.a aU&T1.


Tonum o an aeutirn ollst.

mpa.I ianme. Snp oaolS noaml. pIs oo cgfnel.
Gurem Ni.






DuTAneb or tImalams son Te Aoa n-IuAMD WIRE Paesam THm'BDu Tnl BmnuCAsA. M ee hstorh.
The lpoe moeam a or ma mo e In t Lbnhlp m mprlo thUe f lowmo t dn no others, vis:
I. B lmee ad r Leto~ dc ............................ ...... ......................................................
2 Bs oapsceabl nthetonnage deck ed the uppermota disk ......... .. .

Tone of
100
cublo
3. Cloud- pl under o in permanent comntruntlona above the uppermt dkh, wvs: fee
Bridgeapae. .
r &e .... ... .... ...... ..........................
ndghoi e ..... .... ....... .... .. .... ...... .. .. ....... .... ...
BP o ao r . .. ........ ..... ...... .... -.. -.-.. ..... .... ......-................... ...... ....... .....
T ru n k ............... .......... ... .. .... .. ....... ............. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .......
Round bhous .et....... ........-- to -tone-- ---L-hone----toa---tons-----Lo.
........ ..... ... --o-tonls---Lona-- tons---n--ton---ton

Compaeon house. part or, usd an omok room &oc. n XB. XH ten ....
eydeay |ook uuawate l .laoloneBBnd bth arom ...... ..... ... ..... ....... ....
WMielbn as, ouel L ios oZ, homne sor donkey boIler, and otbr closed-Ia aspaes used in working the shp.
,latow y................. -- to a--- tons---lono--- on---lton--- lona---toas.
u -nS-...-- a--Lo:o----ton--- --- oena ---tons
Eexos aboveonehalfL arctolLthe grostonnae .....
Toral otanageo o oclosed-in spaeo above the uppermost deck ..... ...... ............
O roe rre.l liter tonnage... ..... .. ............................. ...... ... .. ... .. ..............
NoTr -For par dculars of spaces not included m the moeaurmelnt for grIns ltomag, rse over.
Tons or
10o
DEDUCTlONi FROM OBOSS TrONNAQE. Cubl
feet.
I. Bertnhmg scommodation or crew I
Seamnen.... .--to : firemen.... -- tons. quartermara..-- ns ....-- ons, .-.. os.
S -- tons .......... tons, .............. ..- Loun .-- ons --o .
2. BerthiMng ofrenrs '
Cre omr.ca... -nao, 2ndd o cer...-to s rd cr .... ton -- e.
.. --Lon. -toln. --lons --lons .--to
Chbf tangmuer --tns Ind a.ngnr.e-- tons Irdesngnerr. -- Ion .. -- toni .- on.
a --1t, .--Lons. ......-ton ..--las --ton
Boatswai. tons. carpanLer.. .---ltrns. ................--I, --- ons. .--tons
L. B. D Tons. L Tuna.
Dotors cabins. .... X > I OMers' mes loom ... X -
En Lmers' mna rom .. M > = I Pulty omers' es room i .... x
Oela'rLthrome. .... x Ecns bathroom ........ X -
3. OGall.y, cooLbhiou~e, ttlercliaets, and lastrorbfe, ersclus vely for the use of hh otBics ra d crew.
L B D Tons L. B. D Tons L B I Ton. L B D. Tons.
x N I= \ v ,' x X -
XT \ XX -
P = IC I X X I X -
S X X X = A X X -
4 Clusdim Opisc atobov theo uppearmst deck eused i clrking the ahip, as folows.
Chart hoi'.... x = Look ouhou n .. < x Snal bouuse. .. X n -
Wheelho.is x X bteamiaterog nouoe y A jilclaes telerphy
psr.aOs' .... X -
,






o n uuoi, oD aB s l .. ... i e..... ...l ..... ... . ........ ..........
N Ta FL do tLOr-r Tern propelling ..lu .. ..p... .... ..







Or is., DenoteT tl
Ia) PonL irsoon s noit.or hbLnrlItdI ,. .T JI, ir.gh-ohait trunl: aid alloti~c'o .L p.[ lor I Lr rkln I
of tbe rosm-niery cad b.. ...




irit in a .eductir tiror i! pewr cool of engnoe rlon Jm rsn erri
Ei L.r st i rpputcb l"s-ar, p.Lr1 1at r nSit 'kr nu- --











Arts It and 1 of Appendix B of Ihe regulatici
Total deicllion for prop.elig p ......
NEit nto.tster Tiouner-di o emr r bo Acual rulb m
Onr 42 Dandre rule-
j FI.tnetomi u miuirdp l Th iiicludI.waII.Dghtl nuartcrl un ndulleac,.s[, bpair loIr urking i



dr a do ti-l o uhemar +a, pori cent of e oife r.uo,)m la m ps. pr t. fi, Fro rob .l abp
Ti iLn pdl le lsEtmerI + 'J ship Aovt ornm.-j u aspn ro adnd tl r.,- ir d an rrum ben rom1uesled to .... i i
.ru Ianl d14 u[ Appndd B c.fhe rei.jlulaion
T-.Lll deducrioii for proecpHt po-' . .I
Net RegLter Toron ',t ur rLeumm r L, DuDiJbu ruin .....
*TiJ.deiucur.u Q.1 ote LdptI nwe ol s Lsours, oaccetto t*Jper cetul tr, rcs. r-aLgLI yHrrran..,OofutleiJp
TtLs a toc,.rtifv tnal [he BrlLih sbip .above nammfJ na baen rem6eaured.and that tr.* b rncjiuk-uburtiined Ba sboie I,.In accordanK^Bllb tra
ruldj aodlcted b ltb1. Lom-tenalr na T ) noieI Comtmis ajln Q Oi C oItortinople
(JIl"n Alndar m) bhd B1 ith Boardr ofTrad, rthou-dc of-- 11 .
C' o/ t.,r i arioJa Senelor~n to is as d Baid.
lose I
Fuh dirm..nsurioA .l tollnase .roempied And iprn ir.v


Lienll frl tirde the sireim t hlinajr t herlt of thr, forocaslt to Lt h bid o nl otrirT tiur.d r r o htaU Lbh ha gh of the poop--l-- Iet

-In-greoti lenilt- ----- ----fut


Pani- usltcr a d)k parc P Orii. lrsf of exempted spaces

T.,rw Tons



Nour referring to the parlirlarar on page of thln ierrfiratf

1i1 SIer ia6 -.co'! r er,.rh smir amers. aE pahsn'er' servants are not part of Lbe crew ror wbom aspe s to .e deduolcid.
i2j Th ri 'arommodal-ion l.r Iheacptal&n, pur rj. crlrI. & Ls bol to Do Loislded [ thU dJdctrion
iI W1hen Lbpr L no 'rpraift chart room coo Le captaln's arcuimonrdolIo coiipries at eirael rooms, or aofwnsrh Li rfd au the chan room iLat
room alone as dedIcted IrnaII ad I it II.tI be.lruBedif above thio ppermost dec
(I, Tie dJeducIIIo d ILon.'e bus u1 niubfl i thn-codnliOn thai Lhey must be trruaiI orut -pll by Lbe de-iomr
l(i Tt.c, llow. n !ri.ar,. im., I, Jdu. vai n mon room. if Lhere L any, for Lte sCluiars u ir of the oflors,: a seread mae room. iU there any
far thi scuLitlr LsF nt he eigli.nem a ind a itird ma room if tbhee Is any, for the exclivre usa of the petty offer
No Odeduiion a allowed for aIe Orticr. mers rim l. rtnp: having p.aesneau accamnmodation. which ert not Los) prc-liad winh a passangmra

.1; Anl rrcs kl .ho ...il brlhroomor larnLoris rur Lhe sclilllve usoor Lhesthp' oiertBrsc, enmnaers and crew my be dducted, with the alepton
of snl-h uI the saa bathroom., ars e raiiable for passengers when no baLrroom afr thar exlousJ ii jue is proneled
17 pl pa rms peciallTp proidedJ or Ibe jlnrag of electricaamro ghtstlb and wireless elography bpplinces may be dduceed on uarditlin that the)
ame Arulted on the upper der
N D -Tbe d eductla or Lrhe rpact mentloned above is utject LO the condirlon that they are clearly and permaouenly marked o Ae to sbo-
ite purpipoe I which they ear extri iatly appropruatd
(B1 This deduceion u i no case to crncd 5 per cent of the entire gross tonnage of tme stop. san so soon u any storm or cargo re carried m or
passengers ar berthed or coummodated in any or the spasoe deducntd the whole deductlon ceas s.
RIr461'-13. To face pge 54..


u


____I b__ n_____ ____I___ __








MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL. 55

The spaces exempted from measurement under the Suez rules as amended in 1904 are the
following:
1. Spaces in the double bottom. Also, the spaces between the frames and the floor beams
are not measured.
2. That part of a bridge or of a combined bridge and poop that is in way of the light and
air and framed-in funnel spaces above the engine and boiler rooms. As is shown by figure 18
accompanying Appendix XIII, the present Suez rules exempt the bridge space, in the first or
lowest tier of superstructures from side to side of the ship for the length of the framed-in
funnel spaces and the light and air casings, but not beyond the limits of the forward and aft
bulkheads of the engine and boiler room. In order to be exempted this bridge space must be
closed-in under the Suez rules and open under the rules of the country of the vessel's registry.
In the superstructures above the first tier, the spaces framed-in around the funnels and the
space within the light and air casings, being open, are not measured; but the bridge spaces
alongside the framed-in funnels and the light and air casings are measured. The space within
the entire light and air casing and framed-in funnels above the first tier of erections, if any,
upon the upper deck is exempt unless the shipowner desires to forego some other specified
exemptions and to have some of the exempted light and air and funnel spaces measured into
the engine and boiler room for deduction under the Danube rule.'
3. The space within the poop for one-tenth of the length of the ship measured from the
inner side of the sternpost and the space within the forecastle for one-eighth of the length of
the ship measured from the inside of the stem, provided the poop and forecastle are not con-
nected with the bridge. This exemption is granted only when the spaces are open under the
national rules of the country of the ship's registry, but closed-in under the Suez rules.
4. All superstructures not permanently inclosed, under the Suez rules. Of the spaces
under the shelter" deck, only those between permanent opposite openings in the side plating
of the ship are exempted.
5. Companionways except such portions of them as may be used as a smoking room, and
the ladders and stairways located in exempted spaces.
6. The space occupied by hatchways up to one-half of 1 per cent of the ship's gross
tonnage exclusive of the hatchways.
7. The space occupied by domes and skylights.
8. The space occupied by cargo carried upon the open deck, i. e., by deck loads, is not
measured.
The tonnage certificate that is issued by the British Board of Trade to 'vessels measured
in accordance with the Suez rules is reproduced in Form 3. The certificate states what
spaces are included in gross tonnage and what spaces are deducted therefrom to determine
the net tonnage.
Vessels are measured for the Suez Canal Co. by the appropriate authorities in the several
commercial nations. In Great Britain the Moorsom system is applied to the measured spaces
strictly in accordance with the general measurement rules of the Suez Canal Co. In Germany
and France, however, the Moorsom system is applied in the measurement of vessels for Suez
Canal certificates, the same as the Moorsom system is applied in measuring vessels for French
or German registry. The results are not quite the same in the several countries, but the
differences are so slight that the Suez Canal Co. accepts the result without correction. This
is done in order to simplify the administrative work.
The history of the difficulties encountered by the Suez Canal Co. in maintaining uniform
practice as to the inclusion of spaces for, or their exemption from, measurement is recited
in Appendix XI. Since 1904 the company has made no change in its rules affecting the gross
tonnage other than to make the concession that superstructures erected, and used solely, for
the safety of navigation may be exempted from measurement, unless such spaces are included
in the vessel's tonnage under the national rules of the country in which the ship is registered.
For explanationof the application of the Danube rule see pp. 74. Also consult Appendix XIII.




0 #:


56 MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.

GERMANY'S GROSS MEASUREMENT RULES.
The rules in force in Germany for the measurement of vessels were established by the
imperial statute of January 5, 1872. Previous to that time different German States had dis-
similar rules, and none of them had the Moorsom system of measurement that was adopted
by the imperial law of 1872. The provisions of the act of 1872 have been modified from time
to time. The law as it now stands stipulates that gross tonnage shall "include the spaces
located under the uppermost deck of the ship and the permanent superstructures on or above
the uppermost deck." Otherwise stated the German law provides for the measurement and
inclusion in gross tonnage of: (1) The spaces under the tonnage deck and between the tonnage
and upper decks; (2) "the space occupied by all covered and inclosed superstructures perma-
nently erected on or above the first deck which are inclosed by substantial bulkheads and
coverings suitable for the stowage of freight or merchandise or for quarters or other accommo-
dations of the crew and passengers;" and (3) hatches in.excess of one-half of I per cent of the
gross tonnage.
The German rules exempt from measurement the same spaces that are excluded from
measurement in England. The provisions of the law as to the exemption of spaces in super-
structures are as follows:
1. All covered and inclosed spaces which are used exclusively for the operation of the
auxiliary machinery, and also the pilot house for the protection of the men at the steering
wheel, provided these spaces are not larger than necessary for the purpose specified.
2. Any structure necessary on short voyages for the protection of deck passengers against
storm and waves, if themeasurement board is authorized by the Bureau of Registry to exempt it.
3. The kitchen (galley) and the place for the distilling apparatus, provided they are not
larger than actually necessary for the preparing of meals, at the same time affording sufficient
shelter to the machinist while distilling water for the passengers and the crew.
4. Toilets for the officers and crew of the ship, provided they do not exceed the proper
number and size.
5. On ships designed for the transportation of passengers, a toilet for every 51) persons can
be omitted from the calculation provided the total number exempted does not exceed twelve.
In addition to the above spaces, the German rules exempt from measurement:
6. Double-bottom water ballast tanks and spaces between the frames and floor beams.
7. Companionways located between decks; ladders and stairways in exempted spaces;
domes and skylights.
8. Hatches up to one-half of 1 per cent of the gross tonnage exclusive of hatchways.
9. Light and air spaces over the engine and boiler rooms are exempted, above the upper
deck, unless this space needs to be added to the cubical contents of the engine and boiler rooms
to bring the power space up to that percentage of the gross tonnage of the vessel that will permit
the application of the Board of Trade percentage rule controlling deductions for power spaces.
The interpretation which the German measurement authorities now give to open and inclosed
spaces is practically the same as the definition given those terms by the Board of Trade in Great
Britain.
The technical directions issued by the German Government (see Appendix VII) to its sur-
veyors of ships as to the measurement of closed-in and open spaces under the shelter deck and
in superstructures are more detailed and specific than the instructions given by the Board of
Trade to British surveyors; but the German rules seem to be applied in such a way as to produce
practically the same results as are secured by the British surveyors in applying their rules. In
one particular the German rules are more lenient toward shipping than are the British rules.
Deck cargoes are not measured in Germany as they are in Great Britain. In neither country
are deck loads included in the registered tonnage; but in Great Britain the space occupied by
deck cargo is measured and added to the tonnage upon which light. dues and other port charges
are levied.
At the end of Appendix VI reprints will be found of the three forms of German measurement
certificates-the certificates issued for decked vessels, for open vessels, and for vessels measured











MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


by the abbreviated method. Each certificate states what spaces are included in gross tonnage
and what spaces shall be deducted therefrom in the calculation of net tonnage. The certificate
issued to decked vessels is the one most frequently used. It is printed here as form 4.


IOR DECKED VESSELS.


FORM 4.-GERMAN TONNAGE CERTIFICATE.

GERMAN EMPIRE.


I; Ll of vessel. Name of vessel.


Distinctive signal. Nationality home port.


I --- ---- -- ............ .....................- .............. .. .... ... ....................


SHIP'S MEASUREMENT CERTIFICATE.

DESCRIPTION OF VESSEL.

BRlwier ............. ....................... Character of upper l. I, .. .............. Shape of bow.............. .........
Iear built....................... ..... ...... ........Shape of stern..............................
Plar- built ........... ....... ..... .. I number olf ter-litLh trl-.' rr-. b ,i-1 r.l Number of funnels.......................
U LPri ... ............................... below and above the t)rimnae d.; .. . Number of masts........................
S o ru....................... Number of water ballast tanks with hatches.. Rigging................................
N timber uf decks............................ Planking........... ................ ...... ...........................................


STANDARD DIMENSIONS.
Meters.
1. I.ength of vessel from the rear face of the prowpost to the rear face of sternpost on the uppermost perma-
nent deck (in vessels with patent rudder, measure to middle of rudder post)........................
2. Greatest beam of vessel between outer surfaces of planking or of the wales........ ....- ..........
3 Dt pilh of hold from lower surface of the upper permanent deck to the upper surface of lower transoms
next to the keelson, or to upper surface of the inner iron double bottom, if there is one, at middle of
length as found in 1 ..................................................... ..............
4. Greatest length of engine room, including any permanent coal bunkers, between the limiting bulkheads
extending from side to side......................................... ...I....................

RESULTS OF MEASUREMENT.


Gross tonnage. mt Deductions. u


I. space unter tonnage deck....................................... I. On account ac of *t c. r euIr el f'.r pr-.thc pr.Cr .v..r...
2. SpiF between tonnage deck and the one above...................... II. Crew, navigation, etc.:
3 Spa. e bet ween first and second decks above tonnage deck........... 1. Spaces for sailors, firemen, deck officers, cooks,........
4 truarter-.eck cabin orpoop..................... ... ........ stewards, etc.
5. Foreai tle ...................... ..................... 2. Spaces for officers, engineers, etc.........................
6. SpaLe under bridge deck..................... .......... 3. Wheelhouses, chart house, etc.............................
7 Brela or breaks....................... ...... ..... .......... 4. Sail room..................................................
8. ,'tbEr pa es..................... ................................. 5. Ship's stores................................... ......
9. E b a hatchways................... ...................... 6. Spaces for water ballast................................
III. Spaces for the master..................................

C rb.s tonn.ae .... ..... .. ....... To l] I ai s.................. . ..


Cubic P Cubic
meters. tons meters. tons.


Gr trrase.......................... ................... Final result of measurement:
De.Juet.ou; ........ ...... ... .... ...... Gross tonnage ......................... ....... ..........
-Net tonnage....... na .................................. ... ..........
Net lonnau e................................ .. ..... ..


I n accordance with the ship measurement ordinance of March 1, 1895, this measurement certificate is made out
from the measurement completed on .......... day of ...................., 19.., by the measurement board
at .................... by the complete method.



N rE -The following constructions on or above the upper deck are considered open spaces, and are, therefore,
not included in the above measurements of gross and net tonnage:
61861-13----5









MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


AMERICAN GROSS TONNAGE RULES.
In 1864, by the law approved May 6, the United States adopted the Moorsom system of
measuring vessels to determine their gross tonnage. The measurement system then adopted
by the United States was practically the same as Great Britain had established by the Merchant
Shipping Act of 1854. The act of 1864, however, made provision only for the determination of
gross tonnage, which until 1882 was the tonnage upon which tonnage taxes and other ship
charges were levied at American ports.
The spaces included in measurement and the spaces exempted therefrom by the law of
1864, as interpreted by the measurement authorities in the United States, were the same as
the spaces measured and exempted under the rules of the British Board of Trade prior to the
modification of those rules made necessary by the decision of the House of Lords in the Bear
case in 1875. Large spaces which the Board of Trade rules consider open and thus not subject
to measurement are properly included in measurement and gross tonnage under the American
regulations.
The act of May 6, 1 Sty, was amended by alawpassed February 28, 1 65. which provided that-
No part of any ship or vessel shall be measured or registered for t'nnage that is used fur cabins or st.atercoma and
constructed entirely above the first deck, which is not a deck to the hull
The Customs Regulations of the United States (see Appendix II, p. -, to this volume)
state that this amendment-
Was designed merely to exclude cabins and staterooms above the promenade" deck of the reamlers uf the sea-
coast and lakes, or above a "boiler" deck as used on the western rivers It does not have the effect tl exempt from
admeasurement any closed-in place, even if so situated, if used for cargo I.r stares
Although the amendment of February 28, 1865, was enacted with reference to coastwise,
lake, and river steamers, it was also applied to ocean steamers. Thus in the case of modern
passenger steamers which have several tiers of passenger accommodations above the upper
deck only the first tier is measured. This rule regarding upper tiers of superstructures prevails
in no other country and is without justification.
The measurement rules of the United States provide in general that the gross tonnage of
a vessel shall include "the entire internal cubical capacity" ascertained by the Moorsom
system in a manner prescribed by statute. Specifically stated, the spaces included in the
measurement, and thus in the gross tonnage, are the following:
1. The entire space under the tonnage deck and between the tonnage and upper decks.
2. The space occupied by hatchwhys in excess of one-half of 1 per cent of the vessel's
gross tonnage exclusive of the tonnage of hatchways.
3. Any "break, poop, or any other permanently closed-in space on the upper deck avail-
able for cargo or stores or for the berthing or accommodation of passengers or crew." What
constitutes a closed-in space is defined in the manner explained above. Moreover, the law of
1865 provides that the passenger accommodations in the tiers of superstructures over the
first tier above the upper deck shall be exempted from measurement.
Thegross tonnage rules of the United States exempt the following spaces from measurement:
1. Double bottom water ballast spaces not available for cargo, stores. or fuel and the spaces
between the frames and the floor beams.
2. Spaces under the shelter deck and in the poop. forecastle, anl bridge, when not per-
manently closed in.
3. Passenger accommodations in tiers of superstructures over the first tier above the
upper deck.
4. Hatchways up to one-half of 1 per cent of the vessel's gross tonnage.
5. Galleys, bakeries, toilets, and bathhouses above decks.
6. Spaces above decks occupied by the ship's machinery or for the working of the vessel.
7. Light and air and funnel space over the engine and boiler room to the extent, that such
space is above the upper deck or the "shelter deck" when that is taken as the uppermost full-
length deck, except when special request is made by the shipowner to have the space measured.
8. Domes and skylights, companionways (except port ion used as smoking room), and ladders
and stairways located in exempted spaces.
9. Open spaces occupied by deck loads are not measured under the American rules.










MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL. 59

The inclusion in or exemption from measurement of particular superstructures depends,
under the American rules, upon the judgment of the individuals who measure the ship as to
whether the spaces are closed-in or open. The practice of admeasurers has not been entirely
uniform. The definition of closed-in spaces, as given in the customs regulations and as formu-
lated by the surveyor of the port of New York, were stated above. In general, the American
treat ment of the shelter-deck spaces is the same as that given such spaces by the Suez Canal Co.
The American regulations, however, do not provide that when a shelter deck has once been used
for cargo it shall always thereafter be considered a closed-in space; but if an American admeas-
urer finds that dry cargo is carried in any space he takes that fact as evidence that the space is
closed-in. The Suez and American practice in this regard, as has been explained, differs from
that of Great Britain and Germany, where the character of the openings and the devices for
closing the openings, rather than the use made of the spaces, determine whether the admeasurers
shall consider the spaces as open or closed-in.
Form 5 reproduces the American certificate of admeasurement issued under the authority
of the Bureau of Navigation, in the Department of Commerce. The certificate indicates in
general what spaces are included in measurement, and thus in gross tonnri-t. and states what
spaces shall be deducted therefrom in calculating net tonnage.

FORM 5.-AMERICAN TO\N'.AGE CERTIFICATE.
Cat. No. 1114. Always present this certificate when
entering at an American port.
Certificate of admeasurement of vessel.
(Insert "American" or "Foreign.")
(See. 4149, Revised Statutes, and Art. 84, Customs Regulations of 1908.)
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE,
BUREAU OF NAVIGATION,
OFFICE OF OF CUSTOMS,
PORT OF -
--- -, 19--.
I cet iy that an admeasurement has been made of the- called the of built in the year 19-, at -
of ---, that she has a -- head, a -- -- stem, decks, masts, and that her register length is -
-- r feet, her register breadth is -- feet, her register depth is - feet, her height under spar deck is- feet
an t hat ner tonnage is as follows:
Tons. 100ths.

Cipwiaty under tonnage deck.............................. ...... .... ... ........... ....
Capa ,y [ between decks, above tonnage deck......--...................................................-
Capacity or inclosures on the upper deck, viz (describe each inclosure)...................--...............






.iro tonnage ........-

Deductions under Sec. 4153, Revised Statutes, as amended by act of Mar. 2, 1S95.
(To be made only as provided for by law and regulations.)

Cre w Fpace ---; master's cabin ...- ............ ......
Steering ear (below deck), ; anchor gear (below deck),-- ; boatswain's stores,-- ...............
Chart hou:., ; donkey engine and boiler (below deck), -- ......................................
Storage rf ails, -- ; propelling power (below deck or by permission of Commissioner of Navigation) -- .

To.. l deduc. ions .............-. .....................- ---------- ....... ......................
Total deductions.................. .... .------------------------------- ---- -

Net tonnage ........................... ............ .. .. ....... ...........--.......

Net fonnase is carried on main beam, and name and port are marked as required by law.l
of Customs.
I agree to the above description and admeasurement.o

i endorsement on back:)
Cat. No. 1414. Department of Commerce. Bureau of Navigation. District of- Port of - 191-
- of Customs.
Cert. icate of admeasurement of the called the of -

1 If a foreign vessel, this may be erased.
To be signed by the master, owner, or other person who may attend the admeasurement for the vessel.











MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


COMPARISON OF THE GROSS TONNAGE RULES OF GREAT BRITAIN, THE SUEZ CANAL CO., GERMANY,
AND THE UNITED STATES.

The foregoing account of gross tonnage attempts to explain the leading characteristics of
the measurement rules of Great Britain, the Suez Canal Co., Germany, and the United States.
The spaces included within gross tonnage and those exempted from measurement are enumer-
ated, and the different treatment given to above-deck spaces is explained. To facilitate com-
parison of these four codes of rules, their differences and similarities may well be set forth by
textual and tabular enumeration. The provisions of the several rules regarding spaces included
in measurement are as follows:
1. In each set of rules gross tonnage is assumed to include all parts of a vessel that are
permanently inclosed. The capacity of such spaces is determined by Moorsom's measurement
system applied with but slight variation by the several rule-.
2. In each case the spaces under the tonnage deck and between the tonnage and upper
decks are included in gross tonnage.
3. Hatchways in excess of one-half of 1 per cent of the gross tonnage, exclusive of hatch-
ways, are included in the tonnage.
4. In theory closed-in spaces above the upper deck are included in the measurement. and
tonnage and open spaces are exempted. Measurement rules and practice, however, vary as
regards these spaces. The treatment accorded superstructure- and "ihelter-detk" spaces in
the measurement rules of Great Britain, the Suez Canal Co., Germany, and the United State-
are compared in detail below in Table I.
The provisions in the four sets of gross tonnage rule; under rcnisileration in regard to
spaces execnmplcd from measurement may be compared as follows:
1. Double-bottom spaces used for water ballast are exempted from measurement, uldess
(in the case of the national but not of the Suez Rules) they are available for cargo, stores, or
fuel. The methods of measurement are such as to exempt -paces between the ship's frames
and its floor beams.
2. The same below-deck spaces are included in all four codes of measurement rules.
3. The application of the Moorsom system of measurement varies slightly with the different
rules, and the under deck tonnage of the same vessel might be slightly different when measured
by different rules. The treatment accorded each of the several above-deck structures and the
below-deck spaces is shown for each of the four sets of rules in Table I.

TABLE I.-Measurement of gross tonnage under the measurement rules of tnrcat Britain,. the Sue.: ('a1r l Co., G'rioTny, iand
the United States.


Portion of vessel.

Forecastle...............


United Kingdom. Suez Canal.

Measured if "closed-in" and Measured if "closed- in"
available for cargo, pas- under national and Sue:
sengers, crew, cr stores; rules; partly exempted
exempted if "open" or if "open" under national
not available for cargo, rules, but closed-in under
passengers,crew, or stores. Suez rules. Suez defin-
tion of "closed-in" space;
stricter than in United
Kingdom and Germany.


Poop or break...................do.....................do ..................
Bridge space....................do..... ...... ...... ...do..................
Side houses..... ..................... .. Measured if "closed-in"
under Suez rules.
Deck houses.............. .....do..................... .....do....................
Spaces for anchor gear, Exempted if above decks; Measured................
steering gear, and capstan. measured if below decks.
Wheelhouse................ Exempted.....................do..................
Chart, lookout, and signal Measureddo....................... .....................
houses.
Boatswains' stores.............do.........................do.....................


.rmIrnnip. I nae.i Stare.

nr.. .'s InJred Kaindom Same ,s I. nled K.ngdoni
but v\" li str,..lir dreni.
I po uo f **rl,...-t .-in "


S. ... ..... .
S d ....... .
1L. ...... .


Eil.pu-.. ...

Mea-u "d ...... .. ..

. do ....... .


Do
. D..
Do.


Irs r. is I 'njd KinGdom.

E 'cmpFLtd.
Meai ned

E'a.













MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


TABLE I.-Measurement of gross tonnage under the measurement rules of Great B.;r't,,, the Suez Canal Co., Germany, and
the United Slates-Continued.


Pr.r it.ri of vessel.


Diiie: enrgmne and boiler
rTomi.


Sil room 4i sailing vessel..
i..llyv. c..okhouses, con-
d-n~,r *,p.ces, and bak-
eriei
iksh.:i.iti and domes.......
Light aindl .r spaces above
engan'- r.u-m.






Companion houses..........


Todi :., Ijvatories,
bahlirooru i


Crew ind :ilicers' quarters..
Supcr'iro rres above first
do.:k thia is not a deck
to it hbiul


United Kingdom.


Measured if below decks.
Measured if above decks
and connected with en-
gine room; exempted if
not so connected.
Exempted up to one-half
per cent of gross tonnage;
excess is measured.
Measured.................
Exempted if above decks;
measured if below decks.

Exempted.................
Owner given option for por-
tion of space above up-
per deck.




Measured if used as smok-
ing room or for other
special purpose; otherwise
exempted.
Measured when serving
measured spaces.
Above decks 1 toilet for
every 50 passengers, not
exceeding a total of 12,
and those used by the
crew and officers are ex-
empted. Those below
decks are measured.
Measured................
Treated the same as the first
tier of superstructures.


Shelter; for deck passen- Exempted with consent of
per; on bhort voyages. Board of Trade.


"Sraelter de. I" spaces......












Deck load ................

'aler blast tanks (not
double pertoms).
rDouble bontoms............


Exempted if "open" ac-
cording to court decision
and Board of Trade in-
structions. Shelter decks
are ordinarily exempted.







Added to net tonnage for
tonnage taxation.
Measured ..................

Exempted if used exclu-


sively for water ballast.
Beween-dleck pates .. Measured...................
Space iiurder tonrnag de k ..'


Suez Canal.


Germany.


United States.


Measured................... Same as United Kingdom. Same as United Kingdom.


Same as United Kingdom..



Measured.................
.....do.......................



Exempted ................
Owner given option under
Danube rule, but if meas-
ured he forfeits certain
exemptions; if German
rule is applied they are
measured.
Same as United Kingdom..


Measured ..................








.....do ......................
Measured ii "closed-in"
under the national and
Suez rules; portions in
way of side openings are
exempted if "open" un-
der the national rules, but
"closed-in" under Suez
rules.
Exempted if "open"........



Measured if "closed-in"
under national and Suez
rules; portions in way of
side openings are ex-
empted if "open" under
the national rules, but
"closed-in" under Suez
rules. The presence of
cargo requires measure-
ment forever thereafter.
Exempted..................


..do...............


Measured ................ Measured.
Same as United Kingdom. Same as United Kingdom.


Exempted............
Same as United Kingdom.







.....do....................




.....do ............. .......

.....do....................








Measured.................
Same as United Kingdom.


Exempted.
Owner given option for
entire space above up-
per deck.




Same as United Kingdom.




Do.

Do.








Measured.
Cabins and staterooms are
exempted.


Exempted with consent Exempted with consent of
of Bureau of Registry. Commissioner of Naviga-
tion.
Same as United Kinrid.inr Measured unless "open"
according to rules of
Commissioner of Naviga-
tion.








Exempted................ Exempted.


Measured................... Measured-..-............. Measured.

Exempted.................. -in-...- United Kingdom. Same as United Kingdom.


Measured ................... Measured.................


Measured.
Do.










MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


By applying the several sets of rules described in this chapter to the measurement of the
same vessel, the results obtained indicate the main differences in the rules. In the latter part. of
1911 the surveyor at the port of New York, at the request of the Commissioner of Navigation,
had the British, Suez, and American rules applied to each of eight. vessels, and the American,
German, and Suez rules were applied to two other vessels. In the note appended to this chapter
the details of the measurement of each of these vessels are presented. The following summary
table compares the gross tonnage of the eight vessels whose tonnage was determined by British,
Suez, and American rules:
TABLE II.-Gross tonnage of striiso,,s rnoso,,r,'d ht Brilish, .S,,(:. a ,d .Alterican rIles.

Nameof steaner I Brith sue' Canal Amenran
raIles rales. rules.

Kentuckian... ..... .. .314.59 6. 5Fi. 61 6.515.52
Volla . .. 8.617.65 776.5i 8.017.65
Stephen... .. .. . ... 4 44. S4 5,177.70 5 470.32
i.nla Ro .al .. . . . . 9 43 5 5 17 5, 3.97
Kirkdal .. 4.731.63 5, 1on.7 3 5,352.47
Ikala ..... 1,322.39 4 317.19 4,6 4.97
Tinsulll.... . 5.27 3, 76 3, 939.66
Benwood.................... .................... .' 3.869.40 4 110.% 4 234. 19
I--
Average............... ................ .. 5 213. 5 5 463. s2 3,5S1.i59

The first vessel mentioned in Table II, the Kenhtuian, is an American ship with three
decks, and the second vessel, the Voltaire, is an English steamer, also with three decks. In
measuring both vessels all three rules included in the measurement all spaces under the upper
deck. In other words, the space under the upper deck was not. treated as a shelter-deck space.
The third ship mentioned, the Stephen, is a British vessel with two decks and a third deck treated
by the British measures as a shelter deck. Under the Suez and American rules, however, the'
space under this deck was considered to be closed-in and for this reason, mainly, the gross ton-
nage under the British rules is a thousand tons less than under the Suez and American rules.
The Santa Rosalia is a British well-deck cargo steamer, to which the same below-deck tonnage is
given by all three measurements. The differences in gross tonnage are due to the spaces
exempted by the several rules as applied to superstructures. The Kirkdale and tkala are two-
decked British steamers, the gross tonnage of which, under the Suez and American rules, exceeds
the tonnage under the British rules mainly because the Suez and American rules consider as closed
large bridge spaces which are held under the British rules to be open. The Tunstall is a one-
deck turret steamer built in Great Britain. Its under deck and t.urret tonnage by the three
rules is nearly the same, but the gross tonnage of the vessel is made appreciably larger by the
American rules than by the other two measurements because of the inclusion in the American
measurement of large bridge spaces exempted by the other rules. The Benwood is a British
freight steamer with one deck. Its tonnage undIr the Suez and American rules is greater than
as measured by the British rules, because of the inclusion of superstructures which under the
British rules were considered open.
For most of the eight vessels listed in the preceding table the gro,- tonnage is made least
by the British rules and highest by the Americln rules. The lower tonnage figures under the
British rules are due mainly to the exemption of above-deck spaces which the American
and Suez rulljb consider closed, and thus subjciAl to measurement. The Suez gross tonnage is
somewhat less than the A.n(rican, becaii-r the Suez rules consider open, and thuQ exempt from
measurement, certain above-deck space- that are not exempted by the American rules.
The following table compares the '.ross tonnage of two German vessels as determined by
the application of the Suez, German, ind] Americtin rules. The Patricia mentioned in the
table is a relatively large freight and ipa,-seng,.r -teanmer with four il'cks. The Duvsbuig is a
medium-sized two-deck cargo steamer.










MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL. 63

TALEI III.-Gross tonnage of two German steamers measured by Suez, German, and American rules.

Name of steamer. Suez Canal German American
rules. rules, rules.

Parnr i -.. ............................-........ ...... 14.453 14,466 14,466
Duhurg ............ ............ .................. .... 5,255 4,496 5,156

The measurements of the steamer Patricia under the German rules were accepted by the
American admeasurers at. New York without change. The Suez rules exempted portions of
superstructures that were included in the German and American measurements. The wide
discrepancy between the gross tonnage of the Duisburg, as measured by the German rules and
as determined by the American and Suez rules, is due to the exemption, under the German
rules, of large spaces which the other rules considered as "closed-in" and subject to measure-
ment. The German definition of open and closed superstructures follows the English definition
and practice, whereas the Suez and American rules, as has been explained, consider super-
structures as closed-in whenever they are or may be used for the accommodation of passengers
and cargo.
The effect of the definition of closed and open spaces upon the tonnage of vessels is well
illustrated by the Duisburg. Under the German and British law the bridge house and poop of
this ship were considered as open spaces above the upper deck. The surveyor of New York,
however, considered the bridge and a part of the poop as permanent closed-in spaces, and added
1,817 cubic meters, equal to 642 tons, to the vessel's gross tonnage. When measured by the
Suez rules, the entire poop and bridge were treated as closed-in, and 2,173 cubic meters, equiva-
lent to 767 tons, were added to the vessel's gross tonnage. Other variations in the measured
spaces account for the difference in the Duisburg's tonnage as determined by the Suez, German,
and American rules.

DETAILS OF THE MEA.SDRE~IET AND TONNAGE OF VESSELS TO WHICH THE BRITISH, SUEZ, AMERICAN, AND GERMAN
MEA STR UMENr RULES WERE APPLIED IN THE DETERMINATION OF GROSS TONNAGE.1
V'ESSFLS TO WHICH THE MEASUREMENT RULES WERE APPLIED.
The steamnhip Ktntucklan is an American steamship, representative of the fleet of the American-Hawaiian Steam-
ship Co., the largest American fleet which will make use of the canal. She is described as a three-decked ship, but
Llioyd's Regisit-r deps'ribe? her as a two-decked ship with deep framing and a shelter deck. The hi ip isa freight steamer
with accommodations, however, fr.r a number of cabin passengers. She carries 280,000 gallons of oil as fuel, the daily
consumption being 10,000 irallons at a speed of about 11 knots.
The British steamship Iollaire is a passenger and freight steamer belonging to the Lamport & Holt Line, of the
type in trade between New York and Rio Janeiro. She is a three-decked ship with 1,200 tons coal capacity, and, on
an average daily ronisumption of 60 tons, steams at a speed of about 12 knots.
Th. British -teamnihip Slirphen is a freight steamer, with accommodations for some passengers, of the type in trade
between New York and the River Amazon, owned by the Booth Steamship Co. She has two decks and a shelter deck,
with a Coal capaci' ti ]fl ,100 ion.w, and, on 32 tons consumption per day, has an average speed of about 11 knots.
The steam-hip Sunti Rosalin is a modern British well-deck cargo carrier, steaming 10 knots, on a daily coal con-
sumiplion of 33 tons, and has 1,S9tj tons coal capacity.
Thp British rliams-.ip Krkdale is a two-decked ship (spar deck) cargo steamer, steaming 10 knots, on a daily coal
consumpti,: nu f 30 ton., wiih a cr-al capacity of 1,800 tons.
The Brirish rsnamship Ikal'a is a two-decked ship to which at New York the surveyor of customs appears to have
added the bridge space, making substantially the difference between the American and British measurement. This
bridge space was nmt imn luded in the Suez Canal certificate issued in 1901. If, however, cargo should be carried in
that spaoe hereafter it would be added to the Suez measurement. The steamship Ikala is being converted into an
oil-burning it-amer
The BritiLh istcamship Tueslll is a one-decked (turr-t'i steamer.
The Brirtih steamship LBrn .,nd is a one-decked freighter. The bridge and poop were added to the gross tonnage
at New York on the ground that ihit were permanent closed-in spaces.
The Gernan .rtpa sh ip PFuiria, of the Hamburg-American Line, was built in 1899, and is a four-decked passenger
and freight steamer, steaming frmrn 12 to 13 knots, on a daily coal consumption of 96 tons, and has a coal capacity of
1,620 tons
SThese details are copiEid w iih ceri i m changesand abbreviations from the statement submitted by the Commissioner of Navigation to the
Committee on Inlersiame and Fore ign Commerce of the House of Representatives, Jan. 20, 1912. Consult Hearings before Committee on Interstate
and Foreign commerce, House DUo No 680, 62d Cong., 2d sess., pp. 857-872.











MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


The German steamship Duisburg is a cargo vessel of 12 knots: daily coal consumption, 40 tons; coal capacity,
1,000 tons; built for trade between Germany and Arstiralia Urnder the Germjn and British laws the bridge house
and poop are reckoned a; shelter spaces above the upper deck not permanently closed-in The surveyor at New York,
in November, 1910, treated the bridge and part of the poop as permanent closed-in spaces, adding 1,817 cubic meters
to the vessel's gross tonnage. At Suez the entire poop and bridge are treated as clospd-in with a consequent addition
of 2,173 cubic meters.
AMERICAN-HAWAIIAN STEAMFAnIP KENTL'CKIAN."
[Measured at New York, Nov 22, 1911I Bullr at Sparrowi Point. Md 191u I
Description and dimensions.-Register length, 103 2 feet, register breadth, 53.7; register depth, 28 1; eight under
spar deck, 7.5; tonnage length, 415.4; number 1of di\viions of Ipngth, 16; tonnage depth amidships, 27 7; number of
divisions of depth. 6; number of decks, 3; numb-r i ,f masts, 2, head, plain, stern. elliptic
Tonnage under th minau,rirenint rilF. of tlhi I'nitcd .S'toIl
T uri?
Under tonnage deck i ir,' i.lini feed-water tank: ................... ............ .................. 4, 90,-. 20
Between deck......................... ............................... 1.441. 44
Deck houses ................... .............. .. .......................... ..... 10-1. 24
Sidehouses ...................... .... ....-....... ... ........ 4 -7.16
Sk .li ht .... ............................. ... .... . .......................... .... 08
Companionway.................... ........ .............................................. .-.
Excess of hatchways ................................... ............... ........................... 13.92

Gross tonnage ......................... .. ...................... ...... . .. .. 6.515 .52
Tonnage rind, r itha. ,i of Great Brilanr


Under tonnage deck (including feed-water tank ... ...........................................
B etw een decks -...-.........................- -..-. ............................ .. ....
Deck houses -----------------------------------
D eck houses......... ........... ..... ..... .. ........................................ . . ......
Side houses............................. . . . .
Second tier:


Ton-
4,S25.77
1. 450 24
104 24
-7. 16


Roundhouses ............................... ........ ...................................... t 17
(' ar t. room ................................................------................. ................ ... 7.52
S k y ligh t ....... .. .... ...... .... ... ........................... ............................ 08
Companionwy ................... ................... ....................... .4.
Excess of hatches ................ .. . ..-- -.. ........ .......... ... 13. 93

G ross tonnage............................................................ ............. 6,514.59
To, r,., nd,,.r 1l,. .' ,: ., .l.<
Tons
Under tonnage deck in. llding feed-water tank un1i-r boiler aidJ eninel. .... ............... 4, 5 77
Between decks ............ ---------- .... .. ....... . . ............ 1, 410 24
Deck houses--.....-............-............ ... .................. 104 24
Side houses...... ....... ....... ... . .............. -17. 16
Roundhouses ..... ...................... . .. .... . ........ ............. . 5 17
Skylight and companionway ................ ............ . .. . ... .......... 56
Galley, cookhouses, water-closets, and lavatories, e-x -lu-~ively u-ed fi.r t-ffiLcrs and e-rew ................. l.. 77
Chart house, lookout house, signal house, wheelhbu-e, and stpea i tearing gear........... ................ 45. 90
Excess of hatchways -.. ... ........... ...... ... ............. .... ..................... 13 65

Gross tonnage................................... .... ....... ...... ........ 6.56S. 61
BRITISH STEAlslHIP %OLTAIRE." OF LIVERPOOL
[Built iif t-el, at PIortlck. I'17 )
Descriptions and dimensions.-Number of de, k-. 3; number oif imasts, 2, head, straight, stern, elliptic; register
length, 485.3 feet; register breadth. 58.25 feet; regi-ier depth, 26 2 reet
T.,niriim- stated in the Brr,,,/ r, ;. ir i.-,,I 7al t Li.rrpoi,,, .Mar. I.5, 1907
Tons.
Under tonnage deck .......................... ... .... ....... ...... 6, 023. 52
Between decks... .......................... ... ... 1.956.91
Deck houses-............-................... .. ......... .................... 560 31
Side houses............................ ....... ................................. 30. 02
Chart house.............. ................. .. ............. .... .. ..................... ..... 6.10
Light and air.............................. .. .. ................................... .... 40.79

Gross tonnage-.. .... ... ...... -- .. .... .. .. .................................... ... 8,617.65

'There being no omissions not authorized by the laws of t ne United State, the British tonnago was accepted by the New York surveyor.











MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL. 65

Tounage stated in the Suez Canal certificate issued by the British Board of T'ad,, Mar. 30, 1911.
Tons.
'rider tonage deck' ............................................................................. 6,064.00
Between decks-............--.....-.............. -.....-.......-................. 1,956.91
Roundhouses ............... ----------..... ..--------....-...--... .. -....................... 605:30
S, In hlnu ses .................. ... ..............----..----- --.. .................... 30.02
Galleys,' cookhouses, water-closets, lavatories, and bathrooms ........----........ ...................... 93.14
WHheelhouse, chart house, etc ..............-. --........... ......................... ............... 27.19
Gross tonnage ......................................................... ................ 8,776.56
THE BRITISH STEAMSHIP "STEPHEN."
[Built of steel, in 1910, on the Tyne.]
Domensions.-Registered length, 376.5 feet; registered breadth, 50.3 feet; registered .lepth, 23.6 feet.
Tonnage under measurement rules of the United States.
Tons.
UIilder I.,anage deck. ...... -------------------........---. ----- ........... 3,607.36
Furea.-tle. ....-......-.......................... .................... .................... 84.92
Bridge -pace.---------------..................------- ------ ------ ------------------............ 303. 10
P.- p.................... ...--------- ------------ ..------- -.-- ....... . .. ........... 177.78
Side houses......... ........ .............. ........------- ....... ... .. ...... ... ...-- ......... 7.62
Dec k huses...........--- ..----------------- -- ----------------------- .. ................. 196. 78
Light and air.. ...........-.........---------------------- .. ---------------------------- -..... .. 57.28
' pper between decks added.............................................................. ........ 968.94
Light and air added ..................-- ................... ................. ................ 54.99
Exces- hatchways added.-..-----...------....-..--- ----.-..- ----.------........... --------11. 55
G ross tonnage ..............----.--. .--..-........---.. -.........-------- ....... 5,470.32
Tonnage stated in British certificate.
Tons.
Hinder trnnage deck ... ............ ........ .. .. ....... ... ... ... ...- ................ 3,607.36

Bride -pace ...-....--................-..................-........-...-..-.... .......... .... 303.10
P,.,p. .........~........................................... 177.78

Side hi.uses....... ....................- .. ............. ........... ............. ....-......... 7.62
Dei k h.-uses ------------------ ------------------- ------------------ ---------------------- 167
De k h. .uses................. .................................... ........... ......... .. 196.78
Lighi ad air a...................... ...........--- - .................. 57.28
U ross tonnage.......................... ------ ...................... ..........4,434.84
Tonnage stated in Suez Canal o r"* rhai,
Tons.
Unde-r ronnage deck .............................. ..... ............... .. ................. 3, 607.36
Between decks................... -...................... ........... ....... ...... ....... ..1,256. 41
Bridlce space....... ..-........ ..............-.....-..................... ..............- ... 347.07
Roundhouses ............... .......... ................. ....-- ............ 115.26
Side houses .................... ...... -- -- ----............ .- ........... -................. 2.52
Galle,, cookhouses, water-closet, and bath...................-.................................... 70.53
Chart house, wheelhouse, etc............ ..... -...................-. ...................... 46.68
Exzr ei hatchways.............. .................................... ....... ........... ........ 31.87
G ross tonnage ............. ............. ... ................. ................... 5,477.70
BRITISH STEAMSHIP "SANTA ROSALIA," OF LONDON.
[Built of steel at port Glasgow, 1911.]
Dcdeription and dimensions.-Number of decks, 2; number of masts, 2; head, plain; stern, elliptic; register length,
406 feet: register breadth, 52.6 feet; register depth, 27.7 feet.
Tonnage stated in the British register, issued at London, Oct. 11, 1911.
Tons.
Under tonnage deck ..............................---------.-.. .-... ...... ......-.......- 4,969.98
Houee under bridge ..........................-.....-........ .-.....-......-......................... 50.16
Side houses under forecastle ............................................- ......................... 68. 22
House under poop......................---......-..-..-------------...-. .....................-. 10.85
Sid- houses...........................--..-----.--- ------------------- --.................... --34.00
Deck houses..-................ -..--... ..... ........... ...................................... 96.75
Chart house........................ --......................................... .......... 3. 99
Light and air .................. ..... ....-.-.... ..........- ...................................- 138.67
Excess hatchways...................... --... .- ----- .....-............ ...... ............. 36.81
Gross tonnage.................................................................................... 5,409.43











MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


Tonnage under the measurement rules of tihe (I m, d Stalts.
Tons.
Under tonnage deck ........... .. ................... ....... ...................... 4,969.98
Houses under bridge .............................................. .......... 50. 16
Side houses under forecastle................... ................. .. ... ........ .. 68. 22
Houses under poop............ ..... .... ... ............ .... .. ... . . .. .... . 10. 85
Side houses ................................ ..................... .. ... ..... .3-. 00
Deck houses-.....--.. .................. .. ......... .... .. .. . .-.... .. ...... 96 75
Chart house..............---- ..-- .---...... ---------......... ....... .. 3.99
Lightand air.............. ...-.. -..................... ... .. .. ....... .. .. .. . .. 1.37.24
Excess hatchways .............................. .......... ........ 32. 76
Bridge space added ................................................................. 323. 27
Poop added ................... ................... ....... ............ ...... ..... . 106.75

Gross tonnage .......................... ......... .............. 5,833.97

Tonnage stated in the Suez Canal eertticatie, issued by the British Board of Trade, Oft. .3, 1911.
Tons.
Under tonnage deck.................. ------------------------- ... .................. 4,969.98
Forecastle... .................- .... -- ... .. ....... ... ...... -. ...... ... 6-. 13
Bridge space ............................ .......... ...... ...... .. .... ..... ........ 324.26
Poop.------.....-..----.---... -------... --... -------------.... ......... 16.48
Roundhouses .........-.....-....-. .-............-...-........... ....... ....... 81. 15
Galleys, cookhouses, water-closets, lavatories, and bathrooms ............... .... . ........... 32. 36
Wheelhouses, chart house, house for donkey boiler, and other closed-in spacrs used for working the ship .... 54. 27
Hatchways.......-- ..--...------ ... --------------......... ................. 37.54

Gross tonnage ..... ........................................ ..... . ............ 5, 580. 1

BRITISH STEAMSHIP "KIRKDALE,"i OF GLASGOW.

[Built of steel at port Glasgow, I'wn I

Description and dimensions.--Number of decks, 2; number of ma.t:., 2; bead, plain: atern, elliptic; register length
400 feet; register breadth, 51.85 feet; register depth, 26.9 feet.

To,riagr sftard in British register, issued at Glasgou. Dec 16, 90'9.


Under tonnage deck .............................................
Forecastle and sides .........................................
Side houses .......................................... ...........
Deck houses................. ........................
Chart house ...............................................
Light and air.............. ..
Excess hatches............... ............................

Gross tonnage.........................................


Tilns.
. 4, 491 7
. . 1 .
. 43. 72
.... 53 5

... .... . :3 1. 49
. .. .. . . . .. 3 6 80

. .. . .... ......... 4, .31.63


Tonnage under the measurement rules of tihl ',lld States.
Ton.;
Under tonnage deck --.. .... ... .. ... .... -. ............ . . .......... . 491.77
Forecastle ............. . ..................... ... .. .....- . .. ......... ..... b6. 15
Side houses..................................................... .. .. .............. ... ......... 72
Deck houses...-----....................... ................... ... 5. S5
Chart house .................... .. .. ........... ..... ......... ... . ...... .I S5
Light and air .......................... ................. 34 49
Excess hatches ................. ................ ------------..... ............... .. 2" 77
Bridge space added........................ .......... ........... ... .. .. .. 31
Poop space added ................... ..................................... --- 16.5 45
Light and air added ..... .................................. .. ................ 11

Gross tonnage ........... ...... ....... .... ... .. .... . ..... ................ 5, 15.2 47










MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


Tonnage stated in Suez Canal certificate, issued by the British Board of Trade, Jan. 8, 1910. Tons.
Under tonnage deck .................................... .................. ... ........... 4,491.77
Forecrat le.................- ................... .. ....... ....... .............. .......... 66. 21
Bridlcr -aee .................. ....................... .. ..... ............. 271.50
Poop...................................... .......... .......... .... .................... 48.90
Roundhouse' ........................ .................... ............ ...................... 158.28
Galleys, cookhouses, water-closets, lavatories, and bathrooms........................ ........... .... 22.74
Wheelhou.e, i.hart house, and steering house............................................. .......... 14. 37
Hatchway-.................................. ...... ....................................... 26.96
Gross tonnage...........- -----.. ................ ... ............................. 5, 100. 73
BRITISH STEAMSHIP "IKALA," OF LIVERPOOL.
[Built of steel at Yoker, 1901.]
Description and dimensions.-Number of decks, 2; number of masts, 2; head, plain; stern, elliptic; register length,
385.1 feet; register breadth, 48.7 feet; register depth, 27.05 feet.
Tonnage stated in British register, issued at Liverpool, July 8, 1901. Tons.
Under tonnage deck...................................... ............ ......................... 4,036.82
Poop .... ..................................... ................. ........... ............... 109.94
Roundhouses.................... ... .. .... ................. ....... ........ 85.24
Forecastle .................................. ................... ................. ............ 34.44
Excess hatchways.................................................................................... 26.93
Light and air .......................................................... .............. .......... 29.02
Grnss trmnnage....................................................... .................. 4,322.39
Tonnage as amended by application of the measurement rules of the United States at New York. May 18, 1910.
Tons.
Under tunnaiee deck................................ ....................... ............... 4,036.82
Poop ...... .................. ............... ....... .... .................... ............ 109.94
Roundhuuseis........................................................... ....................... 85. 24
Forecastle...... ...... .. .............................. ....................... ................ 34.44
Excess hatchways...................................... .. ... ..................................... 26.93
Light and air ...................... --- -. ....-... .. .......................... 29.02
Light and air added.................... ................... ........................ ................... 93.96
Bridge added ...........................................-....................................... 268.62
Gross tunnage............................ .. ....... ..................... 4, 684.97
Tonnage stated in the Suez certificate, issued by the British Board of Trade, July 11, 1901. Tons.
Under tonnage deck ................ ............... ..... ....... ....................... 4,036.82
Poop........................... .............................. ................. 109. 94
Forecasle ..................................... 34.44
Roundhuises............................. ................ ... .............. ........... 77. 94
i.illes. .,j: houses, water-closets, and bath ..................................................... 17.42
'Wheelhousei chart house, etc .............. ................. .........-..-... ... ....... ...... .. 13. 67
Hatches ...... ................................................... ............................- .26.96
Gr,.-is Ionnage......... ...... .......... ....................................... 4,317. 19
BRITISH STEAMSHIP I' T.) A I Il OF WEST HARTLEPOOL.
[Built of steel at Sunderland, 1907.]
Dtrnprio.in and dime asions.-Number of decks, 1; number of masts, 2; head, plain; stern, lt.l lii : register 1I-r,.li
350 fee,; register 'Lreadth. 50.1 [fir. register depth, 22.4 feet.
Tcn ioao.e stated in British register, issued at West Hartlepool, Feb. 21, 1907. Tons.
Under t.onnace deck................ .... ...... ...................................- .......... 3, 127.77
Turret ................ .. ............................... ................................. 467.26
Huse in bride....... ............................................... ............ 7. 40
House in bridge ------------------------------- ------------------- ------------------------- 74
Poop ............... ..... ................................................ .............. 65.31
Forecastle- houses in) .... ......... ................................... .............. ... 4. 98
Roundhus ......................... ......... ........... ....... .............. 66.54
Side hus .......................... ................................................... .84
Excess hatcbes................. .................. ....... .. ................. 27.68
Light and air .......- ........ ....... .................. ..... ..... ...-................ 57.49
Gr'ss runnage............................ ...----. ........ .- ........... 3, 825.27











MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.

Tonnanqc as amended by application of the measurement rules of the i iidud StaLt, ul Tamrpa, Fla., Nov. .'. 1907


Under tonnage deck, including turret ...................................... ...
Poop ........................................................ .
Forecastle ................... ...................................
Excess hatchways......................................................
Bridge ............................................... ...........
Less space above engine........................................ .
Less donkey boiler and stack casing .................. ........ .....
Less hatchways.....................................................


. . . . . .





. 20. 22
. . 30 1G
... .. .. 30 16

--68 4


17. b5
Bridge house .................. ... .... ........ ............ ...... ...... ... 7.40
Roundhouses .................. .................. ........ .... ...... . . . t 54
Side houses......... ................... .................... .. .N4
Gross tonnage ...............-.. -........... .......~..----- . ........... ... .. ... 939. 63
Tonnage stated in the Suez Canal certificate, issued by the Brath Boiurld ,, Trade. F, b '". i'',: Tona.
Under tonnage deck ....... ... ---------.. .....--------. -- .. .. ........... .... .. 9. 71
Forecastle....................... ...... ...... ....... ......... .. .. .. 5. 20
Poop .......... .. .. . ....-- ...... ... .........-----.....-- -- ... ... ........... ..... .. 4;5 31
Turret.... .... ........---------------------------. ......... ......... .......... 52. 10
Ri ndlh.ius s ....................................... ......... .. .... .... .7.41
Side houses-..................- ...... ........ ..... .. .. ... .............. .... S5
ia Uleys, cookhouses, water-closets, lavatory, and bath --................... 04
Wheelhouse, chart house, etc..............-........................ ................. 67. 66
Hatches..............................--.-- .....---- ..----.---...... 27. Ah
Gross tonnage ........... ... ........ ............. ... ..... ............. ... .... 77. 76
BRITISH STEAMSHIP BE:NW\A' ,"I OF LI\ERPOOll .
[Built of steel at Stockton-on-Tees, 1,41, ]
Description and dimensions.-Number of decks, I; number of masts. head, plalin-trern, ellipti' rr~i.ser Ipn.th,
345 feet; register brear, rl. 51.2 feet; register depth, 25.4 feet.
Tonnage stated in the British register, issued at Li, ,rp..I 1, 1 :. 1'P. Ton
Under tonnage deck.......... ....... ....... ............ ... .. .. .. .. .... 671.8
Poop.............. ..................... ............... . .. .. ..... 28..90
Side houses.................. .------.... .....- ---------- ............. .. ........ .. 10 62
Deck houses ................--.. -.............- ...... ... ... ........ 0'2. 41;
Trunk hatch..........-..... ..--- --.... .. ..... ........... .... . .24
E xr-,- hatches.......-.....---...------.--..-------------- 45.35
Gross tonnage.-----. --........---- ...... ................. ... .. . .... ... .... . 1 40
Tonnage as amended by application of the laws of the United Sita, ii ',, ..d. .'..; ''. Tc.n,.
Under tonnage deck ........... .. ... ................ .......... .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. 3.671.83
Poop ..................... .............. .. 2. 90
Side houses. ---.............----------- ... . ........ .. .... . . ... .. .. .. .. 30.62
Deck houses........ ................... ........ ------... --. ...... . ..-. 2. 46
Trunk hatch--- ..................... .. .... .24
Bridge, added ................... .................................. ... 253.08
Poop, added ...........----------... ...............-- -------------- .. ... .0.68
Excess hatches .... ....- .. ----.. -----.. ..----. ...--.. .....---....... .. 47. 38
Gross tonnage............--- .....---------... .-- ........ ....... ... 4 24. 19
Tonnage stated in the Suez Canal *, rii6r-a',. issued by rh,' British Board ..I( Trade, at Li. rrpool .1 i Ion-
Under tonnage deck ...------...........-- ................. ......... . .. 3. 671. S3
Forecastle ..............................-------............--...--... 7
Bridge space.. ... ... .. ... .. ...... ......... . .. ... .. . 194 99
Poop ........................................ .... .. ............ .. .. .. .. .. .. . 4 58
Roundhouses-...................... --------- ---- .. .......... 83 79
Galleys, cookhouse, water-closets, etc ............................ ..... ... 17 26
Wheellhb'ice, chart house, etc ..... ....-.. ..........-...... ... ...... ............ ....... 13.20
Excess hatches ................ .. ..................... ............. ................... ... 45 11
Gross tonnage.............. ................. ..... ........................ 4. 110 83


Tons.
3, 595.03
65. 31
4. 98
27.68











MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR PANAMA CANAL.


GERMAN STEAMSHIP PIrI i I OF HAMBURG.1

(Built at Stettin, of steel, 1899.]

Descrplion, and dimensions.-Number of decks, 4; number of masts, 4; head, plain; stern, round; register 1pruer1j,
560.12 feet; register bre.dd 62.25 feet; register del-ph. 44.96 feet.

Tonnage stated in the German register, issued at Hamburg Oct. 20, 1910.

Cubic meters. Tons.
der Tonnage deck.........-.................. .................................. .. 22,938.9
Between deck .................. ................................ ............. 6,700.3
Betr pen decks 1 and 2 ...................................:.......................... 6,828.7
lnder bridge deck............................................................. 1,868.6
Other spaces......................................... ........ .................. 2,645.0

Gross tonnage................... .......................... ................ 41 981.5 14,466.48

Tonnage stated in the Suez I '.:, 111, r ;iir,ii.. issued at Hamburg Oct. 2, 1910.

Cubic meters. Tons.
U'rijer tonnage deck .............. ..........................-.................. .22,938.9
Btwe n deck................................................. ..... .... .... .......... 6,700.3
Betwr,- a decks 1 and 2.............................................. ........ ... 6,828.6
Brid.e houses................... ...................................... .......... 2, 120.1
Hou-e- ................ ...... ........ .... .... ... 2, 189.2
Steering gear, navigation rooms, chart, etc .............................................. 167.1

(ross tonnage.............................................................. 40,944.2 14,453.3

GERMAN STEAMSHIP 'I Fi .i'. OF HAMBURG.

[Built at Flensburg, of steel, 1900.]

DE.scription and dimensions.-Number of decks, 2. number of masts, 2; head, plain; stern, round; register length,
lia.'6 meters=389.2 feet; register breadth, 14.63 meters=48 feet; register <1.-oth 8.67 meters=28.43 feet.

Toniaqi. stated in the German register, issued at 'la nhi.rqi. July 1, 1907.


Cubic meters.
Under ionnage deck ................ ............................................... 12,079.742
Pop. ........... ....-- -............... ....... ... ............................ 117.674
Forecan.Ile .................. .................. ............. ...... .... 210.176
Other spaces................................ 311.936
Excess hatches............................................... ............ ...... 17.852

Gross tonnage............ .......................................... 12,737.380

Tonnage under measurement rules of the United States.
Cubic meters.
Under tonnage deck .................................. ........................... .. 12.079.742
Poop. ................... ................ ................... ...... 117.674
Fore:-.tle............. .. .......-.............. ....................... 210.176
Other spaces .................................... .............................. 311.936
Exe4s hatches as measured............ .................. ................. 69.460
Bridge and part of poop (added).............. ............. .. .. .................. 1,817.861

Cross tonn ge .......................... -.. .... .... ......... 14,606.849


Tons.







4,496.295


Tons








5,156.21


Tonnage stated in the Suez Canal I,, r ;i.,l issued at Ilamb,,rg July 9, 1907.
Cubic meters. Tons.
Under tonnage deck.........-------- ........................................... 12,079.700
Poop and bridge........... ........................................... 2,173.579
Forecastle........................................... ........................ 202.296
Round houses ............................... ............... ................ 274.921
Galley, cookhouse, water-closets, and bath .................. ......................... 59. 723
Wheelhouse, chart house, etc............................. .. ....................... 58.243
Hatches.................................. ......... ...... ........ ........... ..... 40.233

Gross tonnage.............................................................. 14,888.7 5,255 71
SThere being no omissions not authorized by the laws of the United States, the German tonnage was accepted by the New York surveyor.