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Honoring the past by building the future
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00006069/00001
 Material Information
Title: Honoring the past by building the future the Panama Canal 75th anniversary
Added title page title: Panama Canal 75th anniversary: honoring the past by building the future
Physical Description: 32 p. : col. ill., col. maps ; 21 x 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa, Republic of Panama
Publication Date: 1989
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Anniversaries, etc -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama Canal (Panama)
 Notes
General Note: "Commemorative album, 1914-1989."
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 89-229-P.
General Note: "April 1989"--P. 2 of cover.
 Record Information
Source Institution: Panama Canal Museum
Holding Location: Panama Canal Museum
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 19574920
ocm19574920
sobekcm - AA00006069_00001
Classification: lcc - TC774 .H66x 1989
ddc - 386.44
System ID: AA00006069:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 1a
    Main
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text


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such publication in the history of the
Panama Canal. The first was printed
in 1939 on the Silver Anniversary of
the waterway and the second in 1964 on the
Golden Anniversary. The celebration of the
Diamond Jubilee of the Canal is a celebration of
the Canal's ability to respond to change, with
emphasis on today's ongoing improvements that
will extend into the future the Panama Canal's
long tradition of service to world shipping.
The story of the Panama Canal has always
been a story of change: a fundamental change in
the world's geography, the tremendous growth
of traffic through the Canal as international trade
grew between ports served by the Canal, change
in the type and size of ships as shipping tech-
nology advanced and became more specialized,
and responsive changes in the Canal.
Like the ancient Roman deity Janus, god of
doorways and beginnings, this album looks both
backward to the past and forward to the future,
a future the Canal faces with confidence. After
all, what better way to honor the past than by
building the future? This concept provides the
theme for this album as well as for other activi-
ties, as the Panama Canal celebrates this
significant milestone in its history.





SRight: The covers of the commemorative booklets
published for the 25th and 50th anniversaries.


HONORING THE PAST BY


Above: Gamboa Dike, October 1913. The faces in this
dynamite gang, the most carefully selected of all work
teams, reflect the variety of nationalities that worked
together to build the Panama Canal.


HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE


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3 THE FUTURE


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Overall: The Panama Canal's state-of-
the-art Marine Traffic Control Center.
A sophisticated communications
network, and closed circuit television
monitors all along the Canal, provide
controllers with real-time information
on the progress of traffic, and permit
tight coordination with pilots.
Inset opposite: The building of
tomorrow's schedule, with its complex
interactions between northbound and
southbound ships, requires schedulers
with years of hands-on experience.
Inset above: Marine Traffic Control
keeps the pilot abreast of schedule
changes as soon as they are made.


HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE


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The building of the Canal was an unpre-
cedented engineering triumph and
the product of almost superhuman
endeavor. It is conservatively estimated
that at least 75,000 men and women contributed
to the work during the ten-year construction period
between 1904 and 1914. These Canal
builders created:
Gatun Dam, the largest earth dam that had
ever been built.


Above: A Panamax vessel transits Gailard Cut
carrying containerized cargo from the west coast
of Canada to Europe.
Right: Gaillard Cut, June 1911. Dirt trains from the
excavation ran downhill to the Pacific, dumping the
spoil to create what is now Balboa, Fort Amador
and the Causeway; empty trains returned uphill to
continue the cycle.


* Gatun Locks, the largest concrete structure that
had ever been erected.
* Gatun Lake, the largest artificial lake that had
ever been created.
* The healthiest strip of tropical terrain
anywhere in the world.
* A water link across fifty miles that were, in the
words of author David McCullough, "among
the hardest ever won by human effort and
ingenuity."


THE LAND DIVIDED THE


HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE






I.


Above: Gatun Locks, July 2, 1910. Visible in
the first floor section poured are the 5-foot
holes through which water will enter the lock
from lateral culverts under the floor.
Below: Gatun Locks, April 15, 1911. The
18-foot high main culverts in the lock walls
are visible in the completed sections.













Left: A portion
Top: Gatun L
locks towing
Bottom: Augu
WORLD UNITED Pedro Miguel


n of a 1912 lithograph by Joseph Pennell.
ocks, March 13, 1913. An experimental
locomotive gets a trial run.
ist 15, 1914. The SS Ancon eases into
Locks on the first official transit.


HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE







Panama had been a dream ever since
1513 when the Spanish explorer
Vasco Nifiez de Balboa crossed from
the Atlantic and discovered the Pacific. The
Isthmus became an important transit route for
gold moving back to Spain from the conquest of
Peru. In the 1850's a railroad was built, and in
1882 the French started their effort to build a
sea-level canal, but nature opposed them in
every way.


reach its full level, work was moving along on
the construction of the locks at Gatun, Pedro
Miguel and Miraflores. An eight-mile excavation
through the continental divide-Gaillard Cut-
extended the waters of Gatun Lake to Pedro
Miguel Locks.
At the Atlantic end of the lake, Gatun Locks
has three steps, for a total lift of some 85 feet.
On the Pacific, because the underlying soil could
not support a lock as large as Gatun, one step is
at Pedro Miguel and the remaining two steps at
Miraflores, with a small lake between them. The
total lift is the same.
Thus, a transit of the Canal is made with the
help of nature all along the way: ships are lifted
by water from sea level to lake level, cross the
Isthmus on the lake, and are lowered again to
sea level, all without the help of a single pump.


Of the many lessons learned
from the French, perhaps the
most important was the need to
get the Canal plan into harmony
with nature. Instead of digging a
ditch all the way across Panama,
U.S. engineers adopted an idea
that the French had rejected: to dam the
Chagres river to create a high-level lake, using
giant locks as water stairways to move ships up
and down from the lake.
The Chagres was dammed in 1910, and during
the four years required for Gatun Lake to

HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE







































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The geographical change wrought by the Canal
builders also made possible major world eco-
nomic changes. Ideally situated to link the far
coasts of North and South America with Asia and
Europe, the Canal provides mileage savings and
the economic advantages of all-water transport.
Over the past 75 years these savings and ad-
vantages have played a major role in the develop-
ment of today's worldwide economy.
This is especially evident in the trade between
the East coast of the United States and the Far















East, and along routes between the west coasts
of both North and South America and ports on
both sides of the Atlantic.
The expansion of world trading relationships
has been reflected in the growth in Canal traffic
since 1914. In the first full year of operations,
1,058 oceangoing ships transited the Canal;
today, more than 12,000 oceangoing ships a year
use the Canal.

Left: Miraflores Locks
welcomes vessels from all over
the world.







OCEAN TO OCEAN IN 8 HOURS



Each of the three locks has two lanes,
and traffic can go either way in each
lane. Each lock chamber is 1000 feet
long and 110 feet wide. Even after 75
years, they can still handle 93% of the world's
oceangoing ships.
Currently, the Canal's major cargo is grain
(principally corn and wheat moving from the
eastern United States to the Far East), followed
by petroleum and petroleum products, coal,
automobiles, and containerized cargo. Almost
160 million long tons of cargo pass through the
Canal annually.
Because the Isthmus of Panama runs roughly
east-west, ships traveling from the Pacific to the
. .. :.i. ~ Atlantic travel generally from southeast to
:-, northwest and are referred to as northbound
ships; conversely ships headed for the Pacific
move southbound.
On a transit from the Pacific to the Atlantic, a
ship travels at sea level up an eight-mile approach
channel to Miraflores Locks, with Pedro Miguel
-. Locks and Gaillard Cut just beyond.



Miraflores Locks from Ancon Hill,
with Pedro Miguel Locks and Gaillard
Cut beyond.


HONORINGTHE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE












During its transit of the Canal, a ship is under
full navigational control of a Panama Canal pilot.
On big ships, additional pilots are assigned to
help the command pilot, especially in the exact-
ing task of moving the ship through the locks.
Tugs, directed by the pilot, assist in controlling
the speed and alignment of the ship. Panama
Canal deckhands aboard the ship handle the
hawsers from the tugs and the cables from the
lock towing locomotives.
Once hooked to the towing locomotives, the


ship moves into the lock under its own power,
with the four or six locomotives maintaining the
ship steady in the chamber, pulling and braking
as directed by the pilot. A lockmaster moves
along the lock wall with the ship, coordinating the
lock operation with the pilot and the control
house operator.
The largest lock gates are 82 feet high. Each of
the two gate leaves weighs 800 tons, but they are
designed to be buoyant, and they are opened and
closed by a 40-horsepower electric motor.


Left: A Panama Canal pilot guides a big ship through
Pedro Miguel Locks.
Above: A tug gives a helping nudge to bring a ship
parallel to the wall for its entrance into the lock.


HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE













Far left: A hand line is thrown
from the ship to the waiting
boatman, who will tie it to a line
attached to the locomotive
cable. After the center wall
cable is secured on board, the
process is repeated for the side
wall.
Left: Lock towing locomotives
are used to maintain the ship
steady in the lock chamber.
Below: Powered by a 40-horse-
power electric motor, the 82-feet
high gates swing shut behind the
ship.


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HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE


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After closing the lock gates, the control house
operator opens the giant valves that control the
flow of water from the lake into the chamber.
Gauges in the control house show the position of
the gates and the rising level of water in the lock.
Filling a lock to raise the ship takes about ten
minutes. All of the water for lockages comes from
the rain-fed lake and flows into and out of the
locks by gravity, another example of how the
Canal works in harmony with nature.
Once the level of water in the lower and upper
chambers has equalized, the gates are opened
and the ship moves into the next chamber, and
the process is repeated. Each full transit uses
about 52,000,000 gallons of lake water.


Right: Locking up a step. In each
lock chamber the rise is about 27
feet and takes about ten minutes.


HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE





Annual rainfall on the Isthmus provides plenty
of water for lockages, but has the disadvantage of
being concentrated in the rainy season, the eight
months between mid-April and mid-December.
In the early 1930's an additional lake-Madden
Lake-was created to provide added water stor-
age for dry season lockages as well as to
minimize the threat of flash floods during the
rainy season. Created by damming the upper
Chagres River, it is fed by runoff from a vast
tropical rain forest. Because of the vital role of
water in Canal operations, and the direct
interrelationship between the tropical forest and
its rainfall, the Canal's reservoir management
system has been kept continually modernized;
and the Government of Panama has implemented
conservation programs specifically designed to
protect the Canal's watershed.


Left: A ship leaves Pedro Miguel Locks at the level of
Gatun Lake, moving into Gaillard Cut to begin its
journey northbound across the Lake.
Above: Gaillard Cut in the dry season. Little or no rain
falls on the Isthmus from mid-December through
mid-April.


HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE


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Above: An illustration of the Panama Canal
net ton, which is a "ton" in terms of space
only. Under this system, whether the space
is filled with feathers or coal, toll is charged
for a "ton".


On the average, a ship spends less than 24
hours in waiting and transiting time, with actual
transit time averaging 8 to 10 hours. The average
toll paid is about $27,000. For an additional fee, a
ship with a tight schedule can book a reservation
in advance and be guaranteed transit for a
specific day.
Canal tolls are based on the ship's cargo-


carrying capacity, measured in "Panama Canal
net tons" equivalent to 100 cubic feet of cargo
space. Passenger space is charged on a similar
basis. The highest toll ever paid was near
$107,000, by the Queen Elizabeth II. The smallest
toll was 36 cents, paid in 1928 by an American
who was permitted to swim the Canal. Other sta-
tistics appear on page 18.


SAbove: A ship of "average" size. Such a ship
pays about $27,000 in tolls.
Right: The Queen Elizabeth II transits
Miraflores locks during an overhaul of the
east lane.

HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE






On its transit toward the Atlantic, a northbound
ship emerges from Gaillard Cut at Gamboa,
where the Chagres river flows into the Canal.
For the 23 remaining miles of the ship's journey
across Gatun Lake, the channel generally follows
the original bed of the Chagres, winding its way
between islands that once were Chagres valley
hilltops.
An ongoing program to straighten curves and
to lower hilltops for improved pilot visibility is
aimed at permitting ships to maintain maximum
speed across the lake.
When the ship reaches Gatun Locks at the far
side of Gatun Lake, it is lowered to sea level in
the Atlantic.
After leaving Gatun Locks, the ship travels out
a seven-mile long approach channel to the
Atlantic, thus completing its transit.


Left: Looking north into Gatun Lake at
Gamboa Reach, from the point where
Gaillard Cut ends.
Following page: Gatun Locks, with the
Atlantic breakwater and the cities of
Cristobal and Colon in the distance. The
grassy ridge stretching from the locks
toward the left is Gatun Dam. To the
right of the locks, beyond the townsite of
Gatun, can be seen the unfinished
excavation begun in 1939 to construct a
third set of locks.


HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE


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DID YOU KNOW


That more than four and a half million
cubic yards of concrete went into the
construction of the Panama Canal's locks
and dams?
That if the material originally exca-
vated to build the Canal were put on a
train of flat cars, it would encircle the earth
four times?
That 101 steam shovels, 369 locomo-
tives, 6,163 railroad cars, 9 track shifters, 26
earth spreaders, 20 dredges, 553 drills and
51 cranes, as well as numerous other
equipment, were used in the building of the
Canal?
That steam shovel gangs competed to
see which could excavate the most dirt each
month?
That in the record-breaking month of
March 1912, 3,217 trains hauling 65,555 cars
carried dirt out of Gaillard Cut?
That Gatun Lake contains one and a
half million million (1.5 trillion) gallons of
water?
That a ship traveling between New
York and San Francisco saves 7,872 miles
by using the Panama Canal instead of going
around Cape Horn?


That the lock gates are seven feet thick?
That the Atlantic entrance to the
Canal is 22/2 miles west of the Pacific
entrance?
That because of the reclining "S"
shape of the Isthmus of Panama the sun
rises from the Pacific and sets in the
Atlantic?
That the longest commercial vessels to
transit on a regular basis are the Marchen
Maersk and her sister ships, 964.9 feet long
and 105.7 feet in beam?
That the most transits started in a
single day was 65, on February 29, 1968?
That the fastest transit ever was made
in June 1979 when the U.S. Navy hydrofoil
Pegasus traveled from Miraflores through
Gatun Locks in 2 hours and 41 minutes?
That mean (average) sea level for the
Atlantic and Pacific is virtually the same?
But that because the tidal variation
at the Pacific entrance can be up to 18
feet, a sea level canal would be faced with
the problem of a current running north-
bound when the Pacific tide was high
and a current running southbound
when the tide was low?


June 1915. Early morning in Balboa, while the
ice man makes his rounds.


SPECIAL INFORMATION


Additional information about the Panama Canal will be fur-
nished upon request. Inquiries by mail should be addressed to
the Panama Canal Commission, 2000 L Street NW, Suite
550, Washington, D.C. 20036-4996, or to the following offices
in care of the Panama Canal Commission: APO Miami 34011-
5000; by Telex 3034 PCCAMRM PG; FAX 507-52-2122; or by
calling the following offices weekdays between 7:15 a.m. and
4:15 p.m., EST.

HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE


General Information Marine Operations
Director of Public Affairs Marine Director
Office of Public Affairs Marine Bureau
507-52-3165 (Panama) 507-52-4500 (Panama)
Economic and Marketing Information
Chief, Economic Research and Marketing Development Div.
Office of Executive Planning
507-52-7961 (Panama)





A I TE ANLS
'LY rr r eY 13CE


Because the locks look much the same
today as they did in 1914, it is easy to
forget how much has changed in the 75
years since the Canal opened. In 1914,
kitchens had ice boxes, not refrigerators, and ice
was delivered in a mule-drawn wagon. But the
world was already changing: World War I began
in Europe the very same week the Canal opened,
and was followed in time by World War II, Korea,
and Viet Nam.
Perhaps more significant than wars have been
the social and technological changes: greater
equality for women and minorities; a greater polit-
ical voice for millions; the influence of the auto-
mobile, the airplane, radio, television, computers,
and communications. Change on top of change, and
on the Isthmus of Panama nowhere was it more
evident than in the development of Panama City
into a modern metropolis.
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Right: Administration Building
parking, November 1922.
Lower left: PAA sign, Balboa,
1935.
Below: Central Avenue, Panama,
c. 1940. Note trolley cars, cars
driving on the left, and "Gone
With the Wind" playing at the
Cecilia theater.


19 HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE


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Opposite page: Panoramas of Panama City from Ancon
Hill, 1908 and 1969.
Foldout: Panorama of Panama City today.
Above: The Panama Canal Administration Building, with
a section of Panama City in the distance.
21 HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE































As the number of ships using the Canal grew,
they were also increasing in size. After World
War II, the evolution of specialized vessels and
new methods of cargo handling, particularly the
development of container ships, revolutionized
the maritime industry.
As ships were changing, so too was the Canal.
So much work has been done on the channel-
including slide removal and the widening of the
Cut from 300 to 500 feet-that more dirt has
been removed than was excavated to build it.
The Canal acquired faster and more powerful
tugs and locomotives, installed bank lights in the
Cut and stronger lights at the locks, and im-
proved its operating and overhaul techniques.

HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE


I Left: The Japanese general cargo ship Chicago Maru passes a
curve widening project at La Pita, December 2, 1922.
Above: Biplanes aboard the "aeroplane" carrier USS Saratoga in
Miraflores Locks, June 11, 1930.
Below: Considered a giant ship then, a 96-foot wide bulk carrier
passes dredges widening the Cut from 300 to 500 feet, 1968.
Facing page: One of today's giants, Century Hope 105.6 feet in
beam, with 2.2 feet to spare on either side.


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Today's biggest challenge is the growing number
of very large ships transiting the Canal. In 1965,
less than 1% of all oceangoing transits were over


100 feet in beam; today more than 24% are over
100 feet in beam. Often referred to as Panamax
vessels, they are designed to the maximum size
that can safely fit into the 110-foot wide locks.
The advantage to the Canal is that these ships
are wonderfully efficient users of the waterway.


Because of them, increasing amounts of cargo
transit in fewer vessels. If the average vessel size
had stayed the same as it was in 1965, it would
have taken more than 30,000 ships to carry the
tonnage that passed through the Canal last year
in just over 12,000 transits.


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I Left: Locks overhaul in
the dry. Each lock
chamber is unwatered on
a six-year cycle to
overhaul lock floors and
walls, culverts, and
gates.
Right: Locks Division
welders strengthen the
frame of a lock towing
locomotive.




MODERNIZING

TO MEET THE CHALLENGE


skill, more maneuverable tugs, more
powerful lock locomotives, and more
care. The Canal has succeeded in meet-
ing this challenge by investing more than $100
million annually in accelerated maintenance
programs, modernization of the waterway, and
streamlining of operations.
More than 20% of the Canal's annual operating
budget is spent on maintenance: maintenance of
tugs, the locks, towing locomotives, the channel,
the dredges that maintain the channel, and all
other supporting equipment. Everywhere, machin-
ery is so well maintained it could be said that
the Panama Canal runs on oil as well as on water.
A series of innovative improvements over the
years has cut from six months to a matter of days
the time a lock lane has to remain out of service
for periodic overhaul of lock floors, culverts and
gates. During an overhaul, all traffic is funneled
through the other lane using accelerated relay
lockage techniques.


Efficient transit scheduling and control are
indispensable to maximizing the flow of traffic
through the Canal. Because very large ships are
permitted to transit the Cut only during daylight,
and require one-way traffic there, scheduling of
traffic through the Cut is the most critical aspect
of the complex task of transit scheduling. State-
of-the-art computer and communications tech-
nology and closed-circuit television provide experi-
enced schedulers and controllers with powerful
tools to plan, monitor and control the transit
process.
In addition, the installation of high-mast, high-
intensity lighting at the locks has effectively exten-
ded the hours during which daylight-restricted
ships can utilize the locks, and will, when lock
approach dredging is completed, permit large
ships to use all sections of the Canal at night ex-
cept the Cut. The new tie-up station in the
Cut just north of Pedro Miguel adds capacity
for two more ships to wait for daylight or to stand
by waiting for traffic to clear the Cut or locks.

































Above left to right: the
Deputy Administrator and
Administrator are briefed
on an improved design for a
locks locomotive turntable
by the Deputy Director,
Engineering and
Construction Bureau.
Left: Panama Canal divers,
skilled in underwater
maintenance techniques,
practice use of the
recompression chamber on
the Canal's new $1.4 million
diving barge.
Right: Dredging work to
widen the approaches to
Miraflores Locks will
provide additional room for
maneuvering Panamax
ships.
















































SAbove and inset: An innovative technique perfected by Panama canal
engineers is used to replace locks towing locomotive track and underlying
concrete while traffic continues uninterrupted. Part of the work crew has
already moved out of the path of the oncoming locomotive. Some 40,000 feet
of track has been replaced using this "alternate tie" method.

HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE 26

































Above: Track shifter at work,
Tabernilla Dump, August 13,
1907. This ingenious device,
developed by W. G. Bierd,
manager of the Panama
Railroad from 1905 to 1907,
did the work of 250 men.
Above right: A working group
established by the Office of
Executive Planning evaluates
a computerized study it
developed to predict required
year-by-year input to the
pilot-training programs to
meet transit needs
through the year 2005.


Ingenuity and vision have always been part of
the Panama Canal tradition. The high caliber of
engineering and organization that went into the
construction of the Canal has its counterparts
throughout the Panama Canal organization, and
can be seen in innovative solutions to technical
problems as well as in the Canal's continued
operational success.
With the development of a variety of trans-
portation alternatives, the Canal organization
recognizes that the waterway no longer has the
absolute advantage on as many routes as it once
had, and must therefore keep the quality of
transit service high and maintain tolls at com-
petitive levels. At the same time the Panama
Canal Commission is required by U.S. law to
operate on a break-even basis, covering all of its
costs out of Canal revenues. It has done this
successfully since the present, business-type


organization was established in 1951, and is
committed to continuing its present policy of
providing quality service at the lowest possible
cost.
As part of the Canal's commitment to long-
range planning, additional improvement projects
to maintain Canal capacity ahead of transit
demand have been identified up to and into the
21st century. Such projections beyond the year
2000 are in keeping with the concept of the
Canal as an ongoing enterprise, and is
consistent with Panama's goal of maintaining the
continuity of operations after it assumes full
responsibility for the Canal at the end of 1999.
Consideration is also being given to the major
step of widening the Cut even further to permit
two-way transit of Panamax-size ships. As with
all improvements, traffic demand will be a
primary consideration.

HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE


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THE CANAL'S MOST PRECIOUS ASSET

Although machinery is vital, the Canal's
most precious asset has been, and
will continue to be, its well-trained and
dedicated work force.
As the Canal organization celebrates its 75th
anniversary, honor is due not only to the heroic
builders of the Canal, but also to the tens of
thousands of men and women who, over the 75
years since opening day, have kept the Canal run-
ning. It is they who have built the Canal's reputa-
tion for dependable and efficient service.
Today's 7,500 employees, 84% of whom are
Panamanian, are part of an unbroken chain of
pride in the operation of the Canal that stretches
back to August 15, 1914 and beyond, pride that is
passed down from individual to individual along
with the special know-how that it takes to run the
Canal. It is an act of keeping faith with those gone
on: with those who built the Canal and those
whose stewardship has kept up the Canal's
high standards through the years.
A "RDIION O L


A sampling of talent:
(1) Gabriel Polanco, Boatman;
(2) Pablo Gonzdlez, Pilot;
(3) Rafael V. Barnett, Chief,
Pilot Rotation and Schedul-
ing Unit; (4) Frederick
Highley, Rigger; (5) Pastora
Franceschi, Geologist;
(6) Pilots-in-Training,
coming on board.


HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE












































The sample of talent continues: (1) Juan A. Vega, Surveying
Technician and Carlos E. Montano, Laborer; (2) Luzcando E.
Medina, boilermaker;(3) Luis Alvarado, Supervisory Hydrologist;
(4) Patricia Chan, Assistant to the Chief Accountant; (5) Ernesto
Reyes, Machinist; (6) Joseph Whittaker and Jos6 Espino,
towboat engineers;(7) Jose Claus, towboat mate trainee;
(8) Ricardo Clark, Launch Dispatcher.


29 HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE






To assure the continuation of that tradi-
tion of employee pride and profes-
sionalism, the Canal organization
is investing more than $5 million each
year for training in the unique skills needed to
operate and manage the Canal.
Training reaches across the broad spectrum of
Canal occupations: transit operations, the main-
tenance force, electronic and technical support,
computer skills, accounting, and personnel
supervision; and ranges from formal classroom
training to internship and upward mobility
programs, providing employees in-depth, on-the-
job experience.
TR D O O F E


Training experiences: (1) basic electricity for apprentices;
(2) industrial training; (3) hands-on computer learning;
(4) electronic testing techniques; (5) language lab practice;
(6) seminar for supervisors.


- m.:J..---~-- --0~~fl ; 1






- ---- I


Above: Close quarters in Pedro Miguel Locks.
(1) Senior pilot with two pilot trainees; (2) Formal
classes on the dynamics of tug assistance; (3) Starting
with basics: the engine room; (4) Practicing lock
approaches on a computerized shiphandling simulator;
(5) Shipboard fire fighting techniques.


HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE


Panama Canal pilots are the world's
best. Recruited from the ranks of ship
masters, tug masters and maritime
academy graduates with sea experi-
ence, they progress through at least eight years
of additional training with the Canal to qualify to
pilot the largest ships. Formal class-room semi-
nars familiarize pilots with every inch of the Canal
and with its unique rules of the road and
navigating conditions, including the effects of
tides, weather, and the unusual hydro-dynamics
encountered in the narrow confines of the Canal.
Hands-on experience in handling every type and
size of vessel is now augmented by training on a
computerized simulator, bringing high tech to
the training process. As the Canal's Maritime
Training Unit also trains towboat masters and
engineers, teamwork is a major byproduct of the
training experience.
A "ADIT O F







- THE PANAMA CANAL'S DIAMOND JUBILEE CELEBRATING


As a result of its commitment to excel-
lence, the Panama Canal is more
capable and efficient today than the
day it opened 75 years ago. Its
ongoing programs of maintenance, improvement,
HONORING THE PAST BY BUILDING THE FUTURE


and employee training guarantee the ability to
carry on into the future its proud tradition of
providing dependable, safe and economical
transit service 24 hours each day, 365 days a
year, year after year.


Above: The Canal operates under all
kinds of weather, 24 hours a day, 365
days a year.
Facing page:Miraflores Locks is an oasis
of light in the warm tropic night.




75 YEARS OF SERVICE TO WORLD SHIPPING