General Training Manual Handbook No. 2: General Organization and Control of Civilian Defense (State Defense Council)

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Title:
General Training Manual Handbook No. 2: General Organization and Control of Civilian Defense (State Defense Council)
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English
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Florida. State Defense Council.
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Box: 1
Folder: Division II - Civil Protection

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Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States of America -- Florida

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University of Florida
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sobekcm - AA00005471_00001
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Full Text


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GENERAL TRAINING MANUAL LU'4
Handbook No. 2 1 0

GENERAL ORGANIZATION AND CONTROL OF CIVI Ca
DEFENSE / -


Need for Preparation -- :-'

The measures for safeguarding the civil population
against the effects of any possible attack by sabotage, sub-
versive action or air, have become a necessary part of the de-
fensive organization of any country. The need for them is not
related to any belief that such attack'is imminent; it arises from
the fact that the risk, however remote, is a risk that cannot be
ignored and because preparations to minimize the consequences of
Such an occurrence cannot be improvised on the spur of the moment
but must be made well in advance if they are to be effective. It
is essential that a survey of the various measures to be adopted
should be made at the present time, and that all necessary pre-
liminary arrangements should be made to enable these measures to
be put into force without delay.

The protection and instruction of the civilian population
as outlined in this Manual is not only against possible air raid,
but also any form of enemy action such as bombardment and sabotage
(the attempt to damage industrial plants, etc. by an enemy agent).
Attempted sabotage is probably at the present time the most im-
portant aspect of possible enemy activity in Canada. The training
outlined herein for civilian aid and protection may also be found
most useful in the event of any major peace-time disaster.

Forms of Enemy Attack

There are many different forms of enemy attack which
may be encountered. Such will have as a purpose the destruction
of or interference with the output of industrial plants or fact-
ories engaged in the production of war materials and equipment,
the destruction or dislocation of essential services, such as
electric power, water, communication or transportation systems,
or the disturbance of civilian routine. The attack may be by
sabotage or air raid, by means of incendiary fires or by explosive
or incendiary bombs. Any of these methods may be used singly or
in effective combination devised to cause the greatest dislocation
of the war effort of the nation.

Units of Local Organization

The Warning System--The means by which warnings may be
given to the general public of an -pproaching attack is of first
importance. Provision should be made for the giving of a local
alarm by the use of sound or light signals, on the instructions
of the local Police Service. A standard method of alarm should
be used in local areas and a similar method adopted to notify them
when the alarm has passed. Public Notices should be used by the
local committee explaining the alarm system and the signals to
be given, and local warning units prepared.

Control of Lighting--In the event of an air raid, if
blackouts are required by the Department of National Defense, all
exterior lighting of streets,'roads, bridges, radials, buildings,
shops, houses, advertisements, trains, piers, etc., must be ex-
tinguished and remain so during the entire period'of alarm. All
lights in private and public dwellings, factories, etc., must be
effectively screened so that they will n6t show externally. All
windows, skylights, openings of any sort, etc., must be covered
in such a way as to prevent interior lighting being visible from
the exterior.







Air Raid Wardens--There will be a great need during an
attack for persons of'courage and personality, with a sound know-
ledge of the locality, to advise and help their neighbor, and
generally to serve as a link between the public and the authori-
ties. To provide for this, the warden service should be or-
ganized by sectors and posts established at strategic points
in each local area under a chief warden.

The wardens have important duties to carry out, including'
assessing air raid damage, reporting it concisely and correctly,
and giving general assistance and guidance to members of the
public. Their functions are in some respects allied'to those
of the police, with whom they will cooperate closely, and al-
though they are not part of the police or special constabulary,
the warden service is generally under the executive control of
the local Police Services.

Fire Services--Due to the fact that fire offers a simple
and most effective means for the complete destruction of any war
industry or vital services, and that fire through its self-
propagation is almost the only feasible means for wide-spread
destruction from any type of enemy action, the Fire Services
form a most important part of any civilian defense organization.
Therefore the personnel training and equipment of municipal fire
brigades must be such'that they can handle any type of war emer-
gency which may arise, including the fire and'explosion hazards
in wartime industries, general conflagrations, and sabotage fires
with unusual methods and materials. Fire Brigades also must have
some knowledge of the means to combat an incendiary bomb air
attack which would cause a large number of fires to break out
simultaneously.

Gas Identification--If poison gas is used, wardens will
immediately report the fact. They will also warn the public by
means of special warnings provided for that purpose. There may
arise problems in connection with gas warfare, however, which
require the services of experts, and to provide for this a local
Gas Identification Branch'under the Controller of Medical Ser-
vices should be organized, consisting of specially trained per-
sonnel equipped with apparatus suitable for their specialized
duties.

First Aid Parties--There may be injured persons who must be
given attention where they lie; some will require removal for
further treatment. For this work there are First Aid (Stretcher)
Parties, each consisting of four men with a'driver and transport
for themselves and vehicles for the injured, provided by the
Ambulance Service.

First Aid Posts and Hospitals--It is necessary to make pro-
vision for immediate treatment for those who are either slightly
or seriously injured. This treatment is provided through a system
of first air posts, casualty clearing and base hospitals, estab-
lished under the direction of the Controller of Medical Services.
Separate accommodation for treating male and female casualties
should be provided in first aid posts, while both first aid posts
and casualty hospitals should have facilities far anti-gas treat-
ment of casualties who may or may not require first aid treatment.
Supplementary mobile units, consisting of vehicles in which the
appropriate equipment and staff are conveyed, may be organized
to carry first aid facilities to the actual location of the
emergency, thus providing a first aid post on the spot. When
first aid posts are established in rural districts they may con;
oist of a first aid box located in a central building where
attention to the injured can be given. The more seriously wounded
may proceed to casualty clearing or base hospitals either through
the first aid post or directly by ambulance, depending on the
direction of the medical officer. Base hospitals should be located
outside the actual centers which may be subjected to enemy action.


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Decontamlnation--Areas where persistent gas had fallen
are described as contaminated and are dangerous until the gas has
been neutralized or removed. The work of decontamination is under
the Controller of Public Utilities Services and'carried out by
members of "Rescue Demolition and Repair" gangs, who will receive
the necessary instruction to carry out this work and direct others,
in case of emergency, who may be required to assist them.

Rescue, Demolition and Repair Gangs--Those who have been
trapped in shelters or under buildings must be released. This work
requires experience and care, since debris unskillfully moved might
release other parts of the structure, and so cause it to crash
upon both rescuers and those to be rescued. This work is done by'
parties under the direction of the Controller of Public Utilities,
who will also undertake the temporary shoring up or the demolition
of partly collapsed buildings, where these are a source of immedi-
ate danger, and carry out repairs to damaged services, streets,
etc. A number of the members of these parties should be trained
and equipped to render First aid in cases when a First Aid Party
is not immediately available or requires assistance. Detailed
instructions concerning the duties of "Rescue, Demolition and
Repair" gangs will be found under "Utility Services" C.D.C.
Handbook No. 5.

Report and Control Centers--For the operation and con-
trol of all C.D.C. Services, there must be local headquarters to
receive damage reports, and to issue instructions for the despatch
of the necessary parties and equipment to scenes of damage. For
this purpose Report and Control Centers should be established.
These should be manned by telephonists, messengers, clerks and
representatives of the various C.D.C. Services, who are co-ordin-
ated by an Officer in Charge. A Report Center and Control Center
may be combined, or there may be one or more Reoort Centers linked
to the Control Center. The Control Center is the nerve-center of
the local organization and the headquarters from which local
operations are directed.

INCENDIARY BOMBS

Incendiary Bombs and Their Characteristics

Many incendiary agents such as petrol, thermite, phos-
phorus and magnesium have been used in war, but the most effective
as a projectile is the Magnesium Bomb, also called the Electron
Bomb, which consists of a termite composition enclosed in a
magnesium alloy case. The chief advantage of this type of bomb
is that the whole of the bomb is combustible, with the exception
of the tail and striker mechanism. It also remains active longer
than most other forms of incendiary bomb of equal weight, thus
presenting greater likelihood of starting a fire.

The object of incendiary bomb attack from the air is,
generally speaking, to cause many fires over a large area at once.
This may accomplish a threefold purpose, of causing a general
conflagration, of completing the destruction caused by explosive
bombs, or of lighting up the target for explosive bombs to follow,
To do this each aircraft must carry as large a number as possible
of light bombs of a size suitable to fulfill these .objectives;
and for this purpose the "Kilo" or 2 1/8 lb. incendiary bomb
offers bombs which may be of much greater weight, designed to
penetrate certain special targets. A large bomber can carry 1,000
of the 2 1/8 lb. bombs. They may be released in salvos of fifteen
or twenty, and in a normally built-up area, if 15 per cent of the
bombs dropped hit buildings, a reasonable proportion for such an
area, and only half of these started fires, 75 fires could be
caused by a single aircraft.

Protection Against Incendiary Bombs. The light incendiary
bomb has been designed to penetrate any ordinary roof material,
such as slate or tile, and to become lodged in upper stories. Un-
less the bomb enters through a window, it will probably be arrested






by the first boarded floor below the roof. If this is the floor
of an inaccessible attic or roof space, the fire fighter will be
faced with grave difficulties. Inflammable materials in attic
or robf spaces should accordingly be removed and to protect the
floor, if it will withstand the'weight, a 2-in. layer of foamed
slag or dry sand should be laid, or alternatively 20 gauge corru-
gated iron sheeting,'raised upon supports to prevent direct con-
tact with the boards, may be used. Alternatively, a preparation
such as rock-anhydride-plaster may be applied to a thickness of
3/4 in., or household ash may be laid to a thickness of 2.- in.
The protection of the door in one or other of the ways described
is of special value in resisting the burning of the bomb through
the floor and reducing the risk of the fire being spread. Pro-
vided that the floor is protected, protection can be given to
rafters, joists and other constructional timber by preparations
such as rock-anhydride-plaster or by fire-resisting paint. Even
lime-wash will give a certain amount of protection and will delay
the setting alight of timber to which it has been applied. Pene-
tration on impact can, however, in the first instance be resisted
by l'in. of mild steel plating, one layer of closely laid sand
bags, or five in. of reinforced concrete.

On impact, the central thermite filling of the bomb is
ignited and burns at a temperature sufficient to ignite the
electron casing. In the initial period, normally lasting about
one minute, a violent spluttering takes place and molten incendiary
matter may be thrown over a radium of 50 ft. This may cause in-
flammable material within reach to catch fire. After the initial
stage the bomb will burn somewhat less fiercely, probably for some
10 or 15 minutes. Molten metal in a state of combustion will
tend to burn through floor boarding or any other penetrable mater-
ial on which it is lying, and so may start further fires on lower
floors.

For a few seconds after impact, the ordinary type of
incendiary bomb can be scooped up with comparative safety before
the outer casing starts to burn and can be removed to a place of
safety. However, of recent weeks the enemy have started the plan
of using some incendiary bombs the same size and shape which are
mildly explosive. These new types of bombs, will explode in a
minute to two minutes after impact and scatter burning magnesium
within a radius of 20 to 30 feet. Because of the grave danger to
the operator if the magnesium bomb explodes this way, it is re-
commended that the magnesium bomb be not handled immediately after
impact until it is seen whether the bomb is going to explode or
not. During this interval an attempt can be made to smother the
bomb with sand, etc. or the operator can play the hose stream on
the bomb and its surroundings from a safe distance of at least 20
feet and he can protect himself from possible flying fragments by
using a heavy asbestos blanket or an ordinary blanket folded and
wetted as a shield.
Methods of Controlling the Bomb and Incipient Fires

When an incendiary bomb has penetrated a building it
becomes immedin'nly necessary:

To subdue and localize the fire resulting from the bomb
since the main damage is caused by the fire;
To control the bomb and prevent it from burning through
the floor.

Water thrown from a bucket or otherwise projected in
quantity upon a Magnesium Bomb will cause very violent spluttering
and scattering of the molten metal. Even a light jet of water
will cause spluttering, and the direct application of it to the
bomb is not therefore to be recommended. Water may be sprayed
(as distinct from being directed as a jet) upon the bomb from close
ouartcrs after the initial period of violent burning has passed,
Spray increases the activity of the burning magnesium by supplying
it with extra oxygen which it takes from the water. This increases
the rate of combustion and so the bomb will burn itself away in
two or three minutes.


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The applicance specially recommended for dealing with
incendiary bombs and the resultant fires is the stirrup hand pump.
It is fitted with a dual-purpose nozzle which can produce either
a spray or a in. jet of water, as desired. It is supplied with
30 feet of hose. The jet will normally carry effectively to a
range of about 30 ft. and the spray to about 15 ft. There are on
the market five gallon hand water pump fire extinguishers with an
adjustable nozzle for either straight stream or spray. The tanks
of these can be refilled from pails of water. The advantage of
the stirrup hand pump type may be summarized as follows:

It enables the fire to be fought from a safe distance
and away from the intense heat and smoke.
It provides a means of attacking both the fire and
the bomb, each of which requires separate treatment.
To change from a jet to spray it is necessary only
to press a button in the base of the nozzle.
It is economical in water consumption; 6 to 8 gallons.
of water should be sufficient to extinguish the bomb
and any normal fire in a room in about five minutes.
It is valuable means of fighting incipient domestic
fires not necessarily resulting from incendiary bombs.

Using Sand to Smother Bomb--There is an alternative
technique used in dealing with an incendiary bomb. In this no
attempt is made to accelerate the speed of burning of the bomb,
but it is covered with dry sand or similar material and kept
under control so that it may be safely scooped up and removed.
This method cannot be employed when the bomb has caused a fire
so extensive as to prevent a close approach to it being made,
unless special protection can be provided. A wet blanket wrapped
about the operator might offer some protection, but as this'method
does not readily lend itself to working in a prone position, its
uses are greatly restricted. This technique is also less appropri-
ate where the bomb has fallen on a combustible surface through
which it could quickly burn, and in general its use is recommended
only where the bomb has fallen in surroundings not readily com-
bustible or in the absence of a stirrup hand-pump a~d water. An
adaptation of this method is to use a snuffer, an asbestor and
wire cover on a long handle which can be used to cover over the
burning bomb until it can burn itself out.

Chemical Extinguishers of the soda acid type, provided
they are of sufficient capacity, would serve to deal with fire
resulting from an incendiary bomb, but certain other types of
chemical extinguishers designed for special purposes are dangerous
and should not be used. For instance, the chemicals contained in
some types will generate phosgene gas if brought into contact
with burning magnesium.

Handling Larger Fires

If an incendiary bomb is not dealt with at an early
stage and a serious fire is started, the situation will probably
call for the resources of the organized fire service. It is of
vital importance that vc-ryone should know the fire organization
in his locality and'the quickest way of obtaining assistance.
The following notes, however, may be found useful to householders
and members of the'air raid precautions service who might be caught
in a house on fire, or who might enter to effect a rescue:

In searching the house for occupants, a start should
be made at the top and continued downwards,

To avoid smoke and heat, a person should lie down and
crawl with head low. This method applies equally to life-saving
and fire fighting.

Door and windows must be kept closed to restrict the
supply of fresh air to the fire.


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Passages or stairways on fire should not be used if
rescue from the outside can be effected through the window.

When negotiating stairways and passages or crossing
rooms, a person should keep near the walls where there is greater
support for the floor.

If the door of a burning room opens outwards, it is
important to control its swing by placing the foot a few inches
back from the door. The door may then be opened steadily and
used as a shield for the body against heat and smoke, after which
a prone position should be adopted.

To move an insensible person, the body should be laid
with the face uppermost and the wrists tied together. The rescurer
should then kneel astride the body and insert his head through the'
loop of the arms thus tied and crawl. To move the body downstairs,
it should be placed face uppermost with the head down the stairs
The rescuer should then lead downstairs by crawling backwards,
helping the body down with his hands placed under the armpits.

If a persons clothing is on fire, he should clap his
hand over his mouth, lie down and roll. If the clothing of another
person is alight, the rescuer should make him lie down, with the'
burning part uppermost, and then, approaching him with a blanket,
rug, overcoat, or other article suitable for smothering the flames,
held in front of himself, should roll him on the floor after
covering him with the material.

To escape from a window without a rope, the proper pro-
cedure is to sit on the sill, turn round, lower the body to the
full extent of the arms, and then drop with the knees bent.

Precautions to be Taken in Advance

Fire Brigades throughout the country may have to be
augmented for the purpose of dealing with incendiary bomb attack.
In particular it is of the utmost importance to have supplemental
water supplies, various pieces of fire apparatus capable of deal-
ing with several fires at once and an adequate trained personnel,
Very valuable supplemental equipment is small trailer pumpers
that can be towed behind an automobile or pulled by hand. Not
only do these provide protection at low cost, but also they can
be taken to points where large fire apparatus could not gain
access. Apparatus should not be stored all at one point, where
.c .)inf might destroy all the equipment or might block the roads.
Cisterns and water tanks are needed in case of a failure in the
water mains. In spite, however, of everything that can be done
in this direction, the fire brigate service might be severely
strained in the event of a heavy incendiary bomb attack.

It is therefore of vital importance that as many of the
public as possible should be in a position to deal with fires on
their own property before they'become unmanageable. This parti-
cularly important in factories, works, hospitals, hotels, schools,
and other large institutions but there is no household in which
it can be neglected with impunity. Additional personnel may have
to be recruited and trained, and probably additional fire appli-
cances may have to be obtained. In England, Section 23 of the
Civil Defense Act, 1939, requires every person who employs more
than 30 persons in factory premises, mine or commercial building
to take steps to insure that a suitable proportion of the persons
employed by him are trained and equipped for certain ARP, duties
which include: the fighting of fires,

Rules for Householders

The following are the more important precautions which
should be taken in advance in order to deal with incendiary bombs:

(1) In every household, each adult should be made
familiar with the methods of tackling both the bomb and the
resultant fire, and duties should be allotted to each person
in advance.


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(2) The appropriate appliances should be obtained
before they are required so far as possible, and the persons
who will have to use them must know where they are to be found.
Supplies of water, independent of the mains, and of sand or
dry earth should always be ready to hand.

(3) Preliminary drill is essential, each person
practicing in particular the special duties allotted to him.
This is of special importance in large concerns where'they
are organized fire parties using elaborate appliances, but
it is also of importance in every household.

(4) Spaces under the roof, such as attics, in which
incendiary bombs are most likely to lodge, should be cleared
of combustible material beforehand, and ready access to these
places should be provided and made known to the persons concerned.

(5) Roof timbers such as rafters, trusses, purlins,
and most dangerous of all, boarded trimmings below slates or
matchboard partitions can be given a certain amount of resist-
ance to radiated heat and actual flame by treatment with certain
makes of flame-resisting paint, which can be brushed or sprayed
on, or by certain preparations of the plaster type. A cheap
paint which meets the requirements can be made up of the follow-
ing:
Sodium silicate (water glass) 112 lbs.
Kaolin (china clay) 150 lbs.
Water 100 lbs.

No external treatment with any type of paint will render wood
incombustible or protect the timber from the action of the bomb
in actual contact with it. Consequently treating the surface
of the floor with any paint would be of little use.

(6) The magnitude of the fire in the roof space it-
self will depend largely on the'amount of timber or other in-
flammable material in this area, and the time taken by the bomb
to burn through.

It should be constantly borne in mind that every in-
cendiary bomb which is promptly brought under control represents
a saving in water supplies which may be of vital importance for
dealing with major fires and averts the risk of a conflagration
which may end with the widespread destruction of property and
life.

The Refuge Room in the Home

The best protection against bomb splinters is obtained
by having the refuge room below ground-level. If, however, the
refuge room is well enclosed by stone or brick walls very good
protection can be obtained above ground. A room as well pro-
tected as Dossible by surrounding walls of stone, brick or
concrete, including the walls 6f the house next door and by
garden walls, should be chosen, the object being to afford as
much protection as possible against flying bomb splinters. It
is to be remembered that 13-2 inches of brickwork will protect
against splinters, and even 9 inches of it will stop a large
proportion. In computing the thickness of the protection already
afforded, the thickness of all walls within a radius of 30 feet
of the refuge room may be added on to the thickness of the walls
of the refuge room itself. Care should be taken to make certain
that the enclosing walls of the refuge room are of solid stone
or brick construction and not merely wooden sheeting covered
with stucco or weather-boarding, as these latter offer no
protection.

A ceiling of narrow span, which will be more capable
of resisting the force of the falling debris should a part of the
house collapse from a very near explosion, is to be preferred.
Therefore, a small or narrow room should be chosen. If material
and labor for propping up the ceiling over the refuge room can


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be obtained, then it is not so important to choose a small and
narrow room. Rooms with large windows should as a rule be avoided
as large windows, particularly bay windows, require a large
amount of material to block them in order to keep out blasts
and splinters.

The kitchen or pantry of the typical suburban home
will frequently, although not necessarily always, be found to
be the most suitable, especially if well surrounded by brick
walls or if the outer door faces either the next house or garden
walL, Because of the fact that a ground floor room provides
much greater overhead protection from falling shell fragments
and spent machine-gun fire, it should be used in preference to
a room on an upper floor. Another reason for using a ground
floor room is that bomb fragments may strike upwards through
windows and floors. It will be necessary for occupants of
apartment houses and duplexes to come to some arrangement amongst
themselves in order that common protection can be obtained for
all. Occupants on the ground floor or in basements could pro-
vide space in entrance halls and similar places, while upper
story occupants could provide labor and material for blocking
windows where necessary. A very good refuge might be obtained
by the use of the common staircase.

Protection of Windows and Doors of Refuge Rooms

When another house or solid wall does not shield
windows and doors of refuge rooms, protection must be furnished
against bombs. This protection can be furnished by the blocking
of openings or the erection of brick or earth walls outside.
The latter is known as a "barricade." To obviate the danger of
injury from splinters, the protection should be raised to a
height of at least 6 feet above the floor of the room. A small
area of window at the top which can be used to admit light and
air at normal times may be left where a window reaches over a
height of 6 feet from the level of the floor. If it is found too
expensive to furnish protection up to 6 feet above the level of
the floor, protection up to 3 feet 6 inches will do if the
occupants are prepared to sit on the floor during raids. The
refuge room window should be fitted with an inside screen. The
purpose of the inside screen is to prevent light showing during
black-outs, and if the glass is broken, it will stop the flying
fragments and will also keep out gas.

The following is a simple method of blocking windows
used widely in England, and while it does not furnish complete
protection it will stop most splinters: Nail stout boards on
either side of the window openings and fill the intervening
space between them with gravel, earth or sand. The glass in
the window, if not the window itself, should be removed before
doing this. Complete protection by a barricade built 2 or 3
inches away from the wall, is furnished by the use of 2 feet of
loose gravel, or 30 inches of earth or sand. This is equivalent
to a solid brick wall 13- inches thick. The use of heavy boards,
corrugated iron or some other simil method is suggested for
the retention of these materials. Heavy chicken wiro netting
or fencing similar to that used by the Department of Highways
for snow-breaks along the highways between wooden posts spaced
not more than 1 foot to 6 inches apart may be used as an alterna-
tive to the heavy boards and corrugated iron. The tops of the
barricades should be protected by tar paper or a thin layer of
cement mortar to keep them from becoming soaked by rain.


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