Supplement to Commerce reports

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00070
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00076

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text




SUPPLEMENT TO


COMMERCE REPORTS
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS *
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT OF COIMM ERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Annual Series. No. 9b June 29, 1918

NETHERLANDS.
AMSTERDAM.
By Consul -Frank W. Mahin, March 11.
The growing scarcity of commodities and raw materials and the
great increase of prices of all articles of commerce affected every
person and every kind of liisine, and occupation and were there-
fore the most vitally important features of commerce, finance, and
production in the Amnterdamn district during 1917. The scarcity
was due l)rimarily to the war and secondarily to the lack of shipping,
but immediately, as regards domestic products, to lack of feed and
fertilizers for the farms and of materials for the factories.
Increased Prices-Iron Works Prosper.
Increasing prices of commloditie were due generally to higher
costs of production, but in many case? they were due solely to arbi-
trary advances made by dealers wlho had boIuglit the goods before the
war. However, instances are known where dealers did not rdlvance
prices on such goods, though they could have done so and still sold
them without difficulty.
The war-profits class of dealers, whio prospered less in 1916 than
in 1915. were practically put ',ut of business in 1917 by the effective
blockade of the Allies and the increased limitations imps,-ed by the
Dutch Governlnment on exports ti, Germany. Ordinary domestic
trade was fairly good in .sonie rewspects during 1917. It wais greatly
hampl)ered in obtaining stocks, but profits were satisfactory, althfl'ughl
the quantity of goods sold was much reduced.
Iron works of all kinds were particularly pro-pcrous in 1917. so
far as profits were concerned. They paid unusually hiah price for
iron and steel, which they obtained with great difficulty, hut they
charged and readily received for their finiMhel prodlulct still higher
prices, which were more than'uilticient to compensate for the heavy
cost of materials and the trouble in getting them.
Centralization of Industries.
Another particularly noteworthy feature of 1917 was the tendency
toward centralization and combination. In State affairs this tend-
ency was specially marked by the proposition (not effectuated, how-
ever) to assume the management of the insurance business done in
this country and by the estaldishmnient of the Central Export Bureau
to control the country's foreign trade. In other affairs the tendency
was shown in the consolidation of the management of the Hollaindl
and the State railways (practically the entire railway system of the
62282"-18-gbj-. --1


f







SUPI'L"MENT .TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


c( I ntrII f' (lmd including inminy interurban electric lines) utinder one
diiectini. in onelhead(tiuarters, and by the allyidg of interests or the
itiriiiition of working :IIT.reenents between varidlb buliine's corpora-
tions andl between ;,"riCI!IttIriSts. J I
The interriilption o(if cable c,,nimunication between Holland and
ov er-sea cou ntrlis dniring tlhe la-t.,three months of 1917 was a serious
hindrance to foreign transactions.
Althoulllgh some factories were forced to cease operations and others
to work on reduced time from lack of fuel or raw materials, or both,
the Dutch manufacturing industries, as a whole and in certain re-
spects, prospered mAterially in 1917. Excepting tramp steamers and
also some vessels in the British trade, shipping came to a l)ractical
standstill, with a great reduction of imports. However, that was
apparently a benefit to the Dutch industries, for it made their
profits greater and induced enlargement of old factories and the
starting of new ones, as far as was possible with l'the available
facilities.
Stock Exchange Active-Loans.
The stock exchange was again active during 1.117. As in 1916,
interest centered mainly upon shippi))ing securities and those con-
nected with war nece-'Cities. such as oil, tobacco, and rubber.
The finanncial position of Holland. while considered very strong
before, is rtardled a having been strengthened in 1917, with its
capitalizing power limteriallv increa-.ed. The various issues of bonds
were quickly ablorhbed by the public. IMoney was plentiful in 1917,
with rates for call money ra.nglig 61'1(i '' per cent as highest to a
inininiui of 2 per cent. Thru'e-.nitli.- bli;1 ranged from 1.1 per cent
to :)', iper cent. Takijn,2" advaniage of ihis ea,-y money mIarlket, the
(', ,1VrnMI(n.1t made i., :io' of si ort note-, which proceeding culminated
at the end of 1)17 in the large-t loan the Kingdom ever floated.
This loan wva, for .'ii).t0I0.i100 florin. ($S201.00.0000), at 4P, per cent,
one-half being uirdt tu take (lithe outstaninding loan ( 191.) of 24 ,000,000
florins, at 5 pe'r cent. Tlhi- wav- equiviialent to about '$33 per capital of
the populationn Af l-hlland.
In additionn tih' (Government offered 5)0.000.000 florins ($20,100.000)
in 5 per cent Netherlands, India i(lock. This loan wa, floated because
of the ai drge anoIIunt,, u1, from the Dutch colonies to the home Gov-
ineni ." I imRemittance-, from (lie colonies to Holland being difficult,
ti' 1',t cour.N, V w- to floii this loan here. Bothi loans .succeeded;
si-llcriipi ioi to the larger lhuin was in a sense compulsory,. as every
Dutcl.maln wa. -llppo,-.d to dvvile a certain part of his absets to that
purpose.
In addition to this call 11)pon Dutch financial resources, the Provinces
and Inunicipalitie-, i-suld niore than $20,.000,000 worth of securities
and private corporations manufacturing, shipping. etc.) more than
$100,0(00,000 wort.h. The stock of some of the latter was already
far above par, especially of banks and steamship companies. The
issues of corporation stocks in 1917 were more than twice in par value
those of the last peace year, 1913.
Financial transactions have been affected, though not adversely to
any great extent, by the material change in mercantile conditions
caused by the suspension of shipping between Holland an'd the East
Indian colonies and the introduction of direct steamship traffic across







N ETII ERLA N DS-AM sl TERDA A.


the Pacific to the United Slates in place of thfl century-old route via
kAmterdanl. It is probable, that much of the Dutch Ea-t India
trade with America will co itinue to follow the new route when nor-
mal shipping facilitici are re-tored after the close.of the war.
Foreign Exchange Fluctaations.
Quotations of foreign money in 1917 showed fluctuations.. though
not greater than in 1916 and less than in 1915. The Am.erican dollar
reached its uhiuhet ,point at 2.48A (par 2.48,) and its lowe-t at 2.30.
It l)egan the year 1917 at 2.451 and ended at 2.31. This decline is
attrilbuted to the siitVp,.niom of imports from the Unitel States.
The pound sterling rnuiged between 11 and 1l.S:;" (par 12.101).
The rate was 11.',s at the beginning of the year and 1.oi.) at the
close. Presumably this decline was due to the aleiice of -ticli action
as was taken in 1916, when the pound advarcd in value, namely,
offering holders of long bills on London payiiment in treasury bills
to be redeemed at the fixed rate of 12 per pound.
The French franc varied between 40.70 and 42.10 (par 48). It
was 42.06 at the beginning of 1917 and 40.95 at the close of the year.
Flii-,tuationms were much greater in the German mark and in the
Au-trian crown. The peace negotiiatiuni with Russia .aiiuiid active
speculation, which drove the mark up to 47.50 and the crown up to
32.60 at one time; the lowest points readicled during 1917 were, re-
spectively, 30 and 20 (par, mark, 59.26; and crown, 50.41). The
rate of the mark at the beginning of 1917 was 41.19, and at the close
of 1917 it was 45.31"; the rate of the crown for the -ame periods was
25.75 and 27.30, respectively.
Speculation in the German mark was inten-ifi-, lwy a supposition
that it might rise above par. The Dutch export to Germainy has
declined to a negligible quantity, as Holland needs the lecesities
which it produces and can not import from overseas; and, on the
other hand, Holland is just miow entirely dependent upon Germany
for the coal required beyond the product of the Dutch mine.. Con-
sequently, Holland may one day owe Germany more marks than it
can claim in guilders. In that case, the guilder might be at a dis-
count in Gemnarmy, which would put the mark at a pe-.miuin in
Holland. This result would be more probable if a -eparate peace
with Ruiisia should enable Germniany to supply Holland with tuch
articles as petrol and grain.
Bank of Netherlands Increases Gold Reserve.
The positionn of the Bank of the Netheril:nmdi continued very st rong
in 1917. Its gold reserve was 1W,2.000.000 florins (:,;,..124,000) when
the war began. At the end of 1915, 1916, and 1917 the gold reserve
was 429.(1 1.OO)01 florins (172,-I.,00), 507,000,000 florins ($203,814,-
000), and (i.'.S.000.0oi.i florins ( 250.5.91>000), re.pet ively.
More gold than in former years was expomrted in 1917, as the bank,
with thlie con-ent of hle Governmiient. reomitiedl several million guild-
ers to Sweden. to Switzerland, and to Spain. wh 're lihe giuildier was
below plar: and, consequently, Dutelh commneire had to pay above
par for its impport,- from those coutrices. TIis was particularly the
case with Sweden. where Hollahnd has large timbel-, interests. The
normal Swedish exchange in Aiii-terdanii is 66.67, but in 1917 the









4 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

ranite was -ometimes up to I)9, indlicatiniig i heavy loss for Holland in
the lu tlber irade. At the emli of' 1917 the rate was 7770.7
Altogether the g'Ltirld fimotial coulldition in Aitstecrdam was
sound aiid sttroiii- in 1.17. This is attributed partly to war profits.
It is a ,.,,i)dition that, ;:-.'u,,diing to currCenit belief. will be able to
wit.i and niVy liv ,.ueraintics r,..ulting from a sudden peace or a
c lontinllatio)n of the war.

Foreign Trade of Netherlands.
Statistics of illpol'rts and exports at the p)ort of Am-teritdam for the
vear 1917 are not available. However, the )Ublishedl statistics
covering the whole country will apply generally tq Amsterdam. for
the purpose of com lparilg 1917 with 1910 anti with 1915. The fol-
lo\wing are the figures of the quiantite, of the m lore important articles
inmporlited and exported during the three years. The values were
given in these official stati.iivs in 1917 for the first time and tire,
thei ,i h're, not uiied in this table.

Implor Ts. Eqxirts.
Articles.
1915. 1911;. 1 "17. I,!l'. 1916. 1917.

.1, ., tr.'." .If,/r,ti .Iv/r,t A 'fli, .iftlric
Agri -vltilr9l rfind ohl t ri.nalii .i".' ........ 77,228 7.-; 1., 42.175 .',47 2l..2i 909
.\.h: i- ................................... t.. l .. :. 1, 7.- fl. ......... 2 ? 7.,:l ... ........
Bark.....- .................. ....- .. ........ 3,, 11,1 ,71 *.. 47 .I .
Ik.-, and malt extracts ................... 10,703 1, 7. 2'.. 2, 121 21,, .'l 1 lI,74S
Breadstuffs:
Wheat............................... 1,246,785 1,385, ..I lii, 2.') ..1jj, vi') SS. ...4 20,u13
.................................. il. 1 '1 I7 I II; I 21- :?1
Barleyo ........................... 1' ; I I.'' 12 i.i.'.' 12. 7.. 4, 1I .7'j
M az e C . . . 1 -w'','' > .i I 2N .i :.17 'i o l' )l I.J .. 1
.a.. .. ........ .......... .......... :. ".6 r72 7). : 1'.: ,' 7 .i, !. -' 1
*. . . . 14,, ri3 I ;J.', J I 1 .... ... a .2' 12
R ice .. ............... .2... ....-...... l. ," J l I 7 ,:.. 1 .., I
l.t'r I .:1f1 .*n.] lTroken grain ........ '. . . . .
X%' ., I lti 1 ". .N. ..............2..... 2.1 ; 'i 1 ? >. i I3 -:-. l i ,2*1- I 1
I. ( i.-III ............................ '17 1 .2 W 2
------------..... ............I 9,L.' P 211 2
-- .. .. ..
lhiii ..................................... .. 8 ', 14 2 I l : .Nfi, i.,2 '., :
("leSe........ ................................... ........................... '. I '1 7 ,, rlql

BOa Cs............... ...... ........... 41 483 21,.. 7. '. .'?) I 7

Pow.: .n .*uri ............... '"r j I "'-. I i 17 2,2
Loa.es 1 ....................... .......... .. .. ..... .. .:. l i.
Coffee i ...................... ........... *.....IlI '''1 ,, 1 2 7
C o l ra ...... .... ............... ... ... ..... .. i !, ; l., j i I 'M ........ .. ..........
C op ai .1 '1 ........ .. .................... I .'. i ". :11'. i',, I i. .. .....
I :1 'i' l I ... .I I .,. I l . 1:3,2-'l':I .''.
I>r d' .',, t. .................... .......... ', ; : I ,,, ", .i, i lI,,
h'I.t' i. l ii".r ,1: I I11 .............. l.... l. l ,' l., i 7., i l 1.'. .i, ,2 l 4,S1G
I r ... . . . . . . . . . 2 2 3 9 3
I'L. '? 3&
F .n .i l . . . ; 1 4' 70 1''1 1. :l-"i I 'l 1 2`12, 1 '64 .11.;
l n ll .. .7, l .l, ".. ..I :J 1. 7, ? 93 ,714 102. C. 1;.rS,
<;L,.- lil i:1 .'. .............. ........ 7 12e | .' .':11 1 'L2'. i U lV'7 ) 11,199
iro dn t- ............................. ............. ., >' '. 2 7 .1 1 -, 1 11i ..........
i v. 'i:i m .Il k.tlicr ................. 17.-'. .1- 2, 427 7,4'.1l 13,7,j | 1,33)
LM- ln ................................. ..... ', ll ,, 1, !17 l ,.. ,."..hi ]4
Li vi i if k:
; .ri-, I.I.\c'1. ('(o% ';. "it!.j tie .l,-r! ........ -1 I.......... 1* 2 b 2L* 17fr b .l 33, S2 I 1,B693
l' '......................... ... 9 .1 3,9 5 ... 7 .4 0
li 1 ................................. i | 2 b 1i I. z, im l t 47 3
S h eel p ................................ I ..... ... .... .... 1....... < 12 7l | I t .
M anULi,. .................................. -- ,11 17 ,56 55,915 22. 3,,ll)_ 3 5 .9-36 4
MarFm in-.
E d iLh if I'i i'l: 'lJ i :Illin ,I .Il, ,le fo r
blit ltr'j ................. ....... .742 .3 3 l ",il,.-3) 165,70 105,S18
R aw .................................. 39I401 iY.1."I 2.511 3,975 779 ..........
,a I'(I nIld. b Numlher.









NET I ERLAN D AS--AMSTEIIDAM. 5


;" Itruort q. E \ or [t.
Articles. --
I'. 1916. 1917. 1915. 1916. 1917.

r Mdr e Metric Metric Mtric| Metric
Moetal-- a. IOns. fro C to ns. tons, tons.
Raw ..................... ............ 869,955 610,046 155,881 421,000 237,004 4,511
WYro jplit ............................. 310,429 261.321 10,708 154,264 82,285 6,973
Meat ...................................... 31, 1.i 41,.;,.9 4 129,359 102,994 20,660
Mclasases .................................. .1 2,731 186 3,850 i,: i' 4
Oils:
Cotton seed ......................... 2. 102 22,633 P.531 18,497 453 ........
Petroleum............................ I1,849 138,199 72, 23 204 40 3.
Allothier .............................. 139,984 49,088 72,844 131,557 10,833 2,779
Palm-nut kcrnl ....................... 2A 222 31,079 17,911 500 .
T ap or. ................... .........j P ii i Ij 80,125 25,983 2-l.480 245,703 :1.
Rn-3 --.-.- ....... ................. ... 1I.... 4,1
Poaton ftor ...... .......................22,151 6,046 ......... .130,004 90,274 10,363
11 lt ..........4.......................... ... .... ........ A i, 9 1 4,830
Runian for **,indin;: ..... .. .. ir 933 -------- 'i :ri l~i
Small ................................... 1'. 1. 5 7 7. 1 11 42 i ;, 4-'i 1G7, 11 15
10,8 60 4,449 150 : 4,437
......... .. ................... .- ,12) ;.,- J 50,155 17,729 (, 6.7
SP .. .......... ... ..... ...... ......... 4,449 150 4,437
irt-. .. .;........ ............... it7 13,431 5,488 43,081 19,669
itonn ............... .................... 1,! 9,-'.,2 ".. 1',998 291,280 699,555 3,607,315 32
I,.:. lo,.......... .................. 11 312 2 22r3 61 67,OS1 37,69- 16,281
la'., -ne ... ............. ..... 2.1',i4 2 .71- 22 580 22,339 .........
h r ..... ......... ......... S9 103,186 1 14,442
S lh r.. ..................... 1,003 48 116 .. a 1,004
T"ililctw, ,ri.n'..nl jrea. ................ 4I,449 10,792 9,239 24,475 4 02 6
"f .iand f:'-Ori .. ....................... 15,627 14,939 202 20,139 N' 2': 2,446
,Tra, ..a ...................... 24, 091 15, 47 9,101 14,553 9,660.........
1 O".' PJa rid i-r z ....... .................. 126,111 146,410 30,707 118,868 114, S95 34,073
To'.., lr, ii,:i, i ... .................. 66,147 48,948 2,012 50,555 36,293 105
VU'Wr.A .............. ....................... ............................... 2,767 970 161
\ hj: l ... ............................ 5,702 209 41 6,423 1,564 416
W Ilti' :
In ..'" ........... .. P. ............. .036 11,810 6,895 10,866 2,388 255
[li ,..Or l : ............................ 3,726 3,591 1,426 3,031 2,588 1,586
AVI.ud
I ine. .. .. ................ .... 12 .57 5.792 527 4,365 1,795 139
Shpl',il rs' ianl r.arpenters'........ ;.,-'I1 943,026 460,774+ 121,507 120,401 265
l) y ,.'.-,d ......................... 2,833 178 ......... 4,225 1 .........
\oul. .... ....... ......... ... 9,048 7,386 6,444 382 424 .........
I. .................. 44,111 34,995 17,503 6,85G 1,695 539

a Pounds.
Although the-e statistics are s:iid to include the most important
articles, (lia:iinil(d and bulbs are not specially nientioied. The value
of exports of d1lim tmd- amounted approximately to $15,000,000 in
1)15. $.25.0().1iI in 1916, and S.02i100,000 in 1917. The value of the
hil-), expWortel is not definitely known, but it probably averages
$1.000,0'),00 a year. ,,
Nearly all Items Show Decreased Trade.
very'e impor)wt item shovs a decrease in 1917 as compaivd with
1916 and 1915, except coco butitter, calve,, hogs, and potatoes. Of
these articles the increases in 1917 are obviously immaiteriil and
negligible, especially in cLimlpaii.son with the gre:nt c neral (ldeline
throughout the list of imports. The deciea-e of ilniorts, has ca' .-ed
entire deprivation of some coin modities. In the main, howucv, r, it
has been l)ossilile to economize to such an extent as to confine con-
sumjption within the volume of iinmpoit.s, a.- in the case of coal; in
many ca-es there was a suirpllui fi,in former years, as in wheat, to
make up the import deficiency tenq)porairily.
As the table shows, the qnitntitv of every export itemn declined in
1917 compared vwithl 1)16 and 1915), except eg -,, and potatoes. Tlie-.
exceptions are only apparent, fur in fact eggs and pot:itocs were









6 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

among 1he articles not lpecinlly nimled amongg the exports of 1916-
andI 1915, prlh;ip. included with other articles.
Imports and Exports by Countries.
It is practically iiup(.;ilble to make a cinpl;urison of imports and
exports by Coiiiitl'uiO- IctweenT 1917 aMid the two preceding years, as
a ievw vsytem of g.rouping the varioiu-. articles in the statistics was
ado(itedl in 1917. However, a general iiipection of the figures for
thie three ycais -ihow's a decline in the trade with all couintlie -. Ap-
1arently tI-e' i'CiT:',': of trade was riel-ilivcv, less with tlhe countries
of the Central Poveri-, than with other countries because of the
greater intitiruliptioti of sea transportation with the latter than of
land tran.lpor{t:itioii with the for-ier.
Tmp:ulIs to HIollai.l from Germany anl Austria in 1917 were of a
total value of 178,4109,000 florin, ($71,7-20,418); exports from Hol-
land to those iiiuntries were valued at 226.5.)2,000 florins ($91,-
073,904). lost of these iuiports were coal and iron, and most of the
exports were fiod articles, clhi-fly butter and chlieese.
The imports to Holland in 1917 from France, the British I-]es,
and the United States amounted in value to :,34.314.00 florins
(.34 ..94,__ ; the exports thereto 1.s3,005,000 Inhrins $T3.5;S.(10).
Tilh chief imports were grain and textile iaterialsk. the t\vwo groups
including iiinore than half the total import value. The chief export
was food articles, 'uiipr.,-in_ more than Itwo-third-( of tlhe total
value. It is to be r iiiiiilhe il, however, that th6e-e :tatitics do(1 not
in,'lud diuii.,inuLs, of which the export to the United Stote- ;lone
in 1917 'xc't'e'id .16,000(, Exports to United Stazi.s and Possessions.
Thle declared value'of the exports fi om Amsterdiai to the United
5tatez and its p( --:.--ion-, diiring the past four ye;ar, va, a-', follw.vs:


Articles.


1914


TO UNITED STATES.
A li~ii iii ... ..:... .. ......... $ 0,68
l ljiit ................................ .......... .. ...... ... ............

kc.nit r..i ll. ...... ...... .. ....................... ...... ......... ..
i ,i : .. .. .. .. .................................. ......... ..
Biscuits and sugar wafers..............................I 19, W4
I ,., ............................ .................. .. ?n
Bottle caps ............................................ ,
l i . .... . . . . 7 ..' -
Buttons .............................................. ;
Cheese................................................ 90,475
Chocolate ....................... ....................... I C -"
Cigar boxes ........................................... ............
Cinlchor. L..irk .. ................................. .;. ii''
Cocoa ..................................... .. i .. .. .:
C ocoa b uit .er ...... ..................................... I .
Coffee....... ........................ ........ .. r7
(Condcuens.ed tujill............ ...................... .. :.'.l
C o p .dl *iu rn ... ... .......................... ........... .. f j2
('ol toll .' ........ ................................ 1 L
C 'oll I qon k ........................................... .. P'3 -
'oli ,' i ........................................... *, !' -7,
r ou i ... ....... .............................. -1 47, ",!' 1
Drugl h rid homir c.. .................................. .1 P.3. H' 2
E arlho ilv. ar ..................................... .. 2,
E b o n .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .
S," ....................................................1 1I
F i l ms ................................ .............. ... .. ... .
Fly cahr. .. ............................................. ..
F I y> ca t O cr~s .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ........... .......
G lov .................................................. .. ....... ..


I t'I


I.
. . .







,' 7. 4- ;

51.. '.'1 I



17, i1 ;
"1.., '.1 ,





3J12 319J
.... ......



1.137
'... .;.74
I1 I7;,rL







1,476
............'


S72. ". 'Q%5931
r,'.4. -,,29:
-' : "25 ?-
14, ''4 49, 5.3
2.. '. ...... .317
1-'. '-'1 I 3,175
~i... ., 24,07S
14 6 "' 74, 6T7
i;.?; 11, 74
'.r.r i 2''lG
i.-! 1,017
.n .141 A 1-, 1%)3
*. .4 *.1i 1" t -' jiw
41,',,;. l!?Ulj3
7 .. .. ... ..
*. 1 . .

l. 1l 144,820
'., ,'M..93S
2U. 5. t51 It',, tN32,5540.
1S.^ 3?M .-O
16...iJ9 i 5, 70X
2, 91 l 2,70 1
........ ........
2,0,10 l*2,171
'. ............
1 7. ......
l4i ............
t' I-,-1 I ............










NET IIER LANDS-AMSTEP D, T.


Articles. i 191 1915 1916 1917

TO UNITED TATES. Crfltlilhic 1.
G lue ........... ... ........ $5,739 ......... ..............
1 :ri m. I rcoC ..... ...... .................. 7,719, 1,499 82,426 $12
Harn i Iacon .. U .. o. 44,809 12).012 ..... ......
..... ..... ..................
Hanr .'.................... (i ........... .. ..1 39,I 1 15,741 3,792
Hid-c. and skins .......................................- 1,109, 1,113 *40 2,087,560 63,32
Hlops ...... ........................................... 7, ,.'i ........ ................
Household effects ....+................................. 21,.;!') ,,- 13,151 1,274
Ivory ........................ ..... ..................... 1,353 ....................
K apok ............................ .................... ,. 013 9,167 ........... ...........
Lamps, electric ....................................... ,9W3.............. 23,731......
Linoleum ............................................. 52,142 331,792 5, 693 ............
Liquors and gin ...................................... 3 ,233 37, (3 102,032 ,,2 9'. I
Leather ................................................ ,. 017 121 ...... ............
atnc i .. ............ .............................. .*.,; ."! ,. ... 1 4,4 3 .........1...
MiIk pod% r ..r ......................................... 7, 211 1,931.....................
Milk Siir ................................................. 28,368 5,692 .......................
T icr.dl v ji.t r ...................... .................... ............. ..... 1,662 ............
MT,-,thL-r-0 '-p.:- r il shells .................................. 19,772 3,631 .... ............... ...
Essential .......................................... 125, 108 106,S.77 129, 1(5 69, W0
Haarlem........................................... 28,770 37,398 4, 4X1 37,361
P int .. ... ................ ............ .... 7 47 120.f7 172,92 A 40,413
T'P:i in, l'........................................... ;.. 1, 112,923 27.793
r jkp. r. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ; '^ 1" nt ." "- (* l, ; 2",ni 1
1''lt ni .n,. and diist .......................................... .. .727 ............
l.int................................................ 1 i i4 i i,.;i 122,989 42,140
l' ................................................. ... ....... ..... ...... 102,3 19 ...........
Potato lflor....................................... i..1 '.31 678 ...........
Pr afftin' w a .. .. .. .. . .. i .. .. .. .. .. ... I ", I' '''** .. .....-. .......----
..................................... ......................
Paraflin wa' . ... . 2 "'.,4 .. .]. .
I ; ;2",'1. 7536.33 79,351
Q uininc ............................................. ... '- ." [1 I r? -3- (1>, 33 79,351
I? a I n' ............................... : ............... ,P1 2 60 5
112. i .r:.i. 111'. 'l.. 318,216 102,650)
eRattanis .....'........................... .......... .. ........ .. 2,614 ............
Teu S .................................... ............. .... ... l ............. ... ..........
rice .................................................. .......16....... 4 ...........
R ice flour ....................................... ...... '2 1 .. .. ..... ....... .. .. ..........
'R h ..b.r ..... ..... ... ......... .. .. '. ,i 164,689 ............
Sar elles ................................................ ..... .......
Saw d ,n .t ............................................... ........ .... i :' 12' 1,196 ............
Se. m os _";, ............................................... ............ 7 928
S. ........................................... I" i, .' ", 319,816 C3,333
............... .............. .
Spioc ... .' 4r. j ..- ^,1jr, 178,811.....7,690
^-tTW \^\ lll.;. ......................................I :11I 3.13') 2.967
Sheep e utwir.....................
Sirw plpF .................... ........, 1. 17 1 i""' 5,589 2,804
Straw I ,-i.r r........................................... 3,15. ....I
St rw pi lp ............................................. ':,l 1"l t1,1',' 5,589 2,804
T p ioi l ou r ...... ........ ..... ................... -1',.,14 .. l ............ 1............
T ea .. ..................... ........ ........ l ........................
T k i h>;*. .1 ....... Il. IN 4 1-\ 16,462 ............
T I|P .l r .. ................................... ............... ...... .1 ...... ...... 0
Tin ................................................... ........... .... .. ........... ...........
T .................................................. 17..... -..1.
TIohnci.,T 9, ) .7lj .T'-^ 4, "'.: ;. 1"3 S ,' ;4,'+74 l.'. .-, $',*<
U oraIlrell.s .............................................. ..... .... .. 1, 2. 1... .. ..........
V iet hb les .... ........................................ 2,1 .... ........ 1 ...........
'Vi ne .................. ................................ .. .. .... ............... ............
WV0oo ............................................. ..... .......... .. ............
-o,,den s ,J ................................................... .... 36 -'-- -
.',r.ii ............ ...................................... ",'71
('us. er Ia...................................... .. .. 5...............2 ,4
A ll other artH. It-, : ,*--, I'".. i 5 8 6S (

T total ............................................ 2!. r -. 3, l', N7, ').. ... .1, 1.-.,. i.. i .1. :I.
TO rPOnro ricC. I
Biuittr .................... s...................... ........................ ............
Cheeseo ............. ... ............................... ,' 3.; 2,549 ............

C oc Jra ............... .................................. .... ... .. ... ......... ... .... .... 1,292

Com ato ngl.o n r .................................. .. .. ... ..l 112 1 5 2


Bisc sm an"u..a. ..r............................................ ..... .... .0 .........-
Oils. eu en.ad .................................... ...... ........ l'.. 54.. ....... 1275
C I o th e r a rt! o es ..................................... .. '... i ..41 7 ,542
Total ............................................ 33, S' 1 1:- '. 2. ",1,.4 5,620

To pa [PP. ... IN L.. .llND. .
Bis uis nd su arx fe s ............................. 1,9 ... ... ... ... ... ...
Cheese ................................................. lt,,1S1 I..........5,.
C ocoa ................................................... . ... ... ..
Cotton goods ........................................... 7,, ;.-A 2 0 6,
G as m antle .................... ,........................ ............ ............ 2 .. .. .
Liquors and gina ........................................ 1, il I ............ I I,0 Im 127








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Ar Iir, 1914 1916 1916 1917

TO PHIL.'rI r. I.* .\ c --con jnucld.
NM '- i ................................... ....... S1...".s tI,797") $26,6S4 $11,319
S i.. I 1 .. ..... ............................... ...,1-,) .. .. .. ... .................
1 il0, 7 ill .......................................... ............ 4,979 *-.it 11,33
l'a1 1 ................................................... ...........169 1469 10,697
Tob.ic, ............................................... 7,753 46,013 42,117 1,877
All o ih r ..i- w-l- ............................. ........ 91.) \ I NA.730 s70 ............
Tor .............................................. 752 107.2 5 S1, 170 42,928
... TO II \W. II \N I'LA .. .
iEt,., ..... .. ... .. ... ............. ..... ............ ......... ....3
Liquors fnl ,- ............................... ......... ................. ...... .
Totlu ............................................ .. ....................... 350

Decline in Trade-Market for American Goods.
While (i total value in 1917 was a marked decline in comIparison
with 1'1(;. it was ibut little below normal. That, however, was only
becau,., the value of the dianuonds was above the peace level, which
wias allout $10.000.0(000. Every article exported decreased in value
in 1,17. except intiquitie.s beiad triminiInus, and ('ott4in textiles, and
these are ninll)portaiint in coimpar.'ison with diamonds, tobacco, hides
and -kins, cocoa products, cinchona bark, quinine, seeds, etc., all of
which greatly declined in value. Several articles, such as cocoa but-
ter qnd rubber, were entirely eliminated from the 1917 list of exports
on ac This dt-cline in tlhe exports was due in some cases to partial pro-
lii.iition. but in the main was due to scant shippingg facilities. The
intei 'ul)ptio of commnierciail cable communication with the United
Statit,- during the la-t three monthlis of 1917 al-o hid some detrimental
effec.t.
Tl'w inir-ket for American gocids is practically unlimited. but the
lack of slippingg maidi it almost iin pis4iblle to do business in 1917.
:lindl that onlition i-. likely to continue during 191S. Little, if any-
tliin,. can lie done at pje.ent Ib.-ides lavin"g thle foundation of trade
after the wvar. Iron and steel will then be in very great demand.
Autoinohlile-, biceycle-., -hoe, hardware, men's and 'women's furnish-
in r oVoodd. .a1riultlal machinery, petroleum, lumber, chemicals,
fruits. cotton, l'Irealstuffs, and nuianv other articles will find an active
market here.
The Diamond Trade-Unemployed Workmen.
SThe ,,ro,-perou-, and generally satisfactory diamond trade of 1916
(continued only n month into ll17T. when it was summarily checked
,v tlie inauguration of the unrestricted (German submarine warfare.
Sailins for the United States became so infrequent and irregular
*and inqnranee rates roa- to -ucli a great height that. the trade was
almost paralyzed. Then the Dutch Government intervened and
somewhat relieved the situation by insutinLr. at reasonable rates,
diamonds sent by Dutch ships to the United States.
However, the lack of shipping continued and grew still worse.
Fortunately, diamonds were so light, that the mails could carry them,
so they were sent. in large amounts by parcel post via England.
This worked quite satisfactorily, until, at the beginning of October,
1917, the British Government stopped all commercial cable communi-
cation to and from Holland. However, on February 9, 1918, it was


-------.--------.*_







NET IERLAND-. AMSTE. IDAM'.


announced that til embnrgo wa: entirely remn-ir;cl ftr all cm:nniT'ial
cab!le-
When cable conim:i;!ieicol v,in < "I oppe'd llie n;;l',ieer of IIn,:n-
ploved diamond workers; inciiIast,1lo ;' iiltt 1..sii1 iOv. wl:iii I:.,
been considered norinal siiC lte ";v r ,it I. ,n. IResinlpti'M of tel,-
graphic' coumn.Iniittion with (inl.i Britlain l iwered tlh numlbller
somewhat. but. it still continued atlv,, tl-' wlr normal. TFIu iull'.r
of totally ulneniployed w(,i'kmenl in t! ii:ini'il traiile :.t ilu- he.,iI-
ning of l17 i vwais 2,7.':I., incr.a-in,'u I,, ;5,3721 in April, or -,ll 1pe' it.
(if the total rniinhlcr ,)1.o vorlinen. Tlriv, 'a, a ; de cline Ib, 2.5-12 inll
October. lwhen thlie cablk. cInl'Iar o ';:,is-,.Id a ill i,_ra-.e to Ii.'.in De-
ceII!-.er, the ye- r endin wv.itli :3,,7 uintIlplljye,1.
United States Chief Purchaser of Diamonds-Prices Hig-Ih.
Thliere was little delniallnd for large diziiniild l iuirin," 1'117. Tlhe
ITnited Sliato. bIu ii'lt -iniall ;ton!I-, 11dPnrt entirely. Tile trade in
roses contin-uel dler sscl, as it lJts beeon 0on-tanzltv -in t tile \vW; i'
begin.
The shortage of coal e-naued tile c enccntriation oIf ;all the di.ain.:l.
cutting and jpolisin"iis in 25 of tlhi most noL,'1rnilv x.'liiipld c-:tl-d-
lilshnments. Tlii,, closed ;iah)ut 50 inills an ti lus ei',.-te(di 'na ,ree t -.:IV-
inl of ro.01. g-as, 1nd cietri'itY.
Din-nond bu'usinr,:s w itli otilier 'ounntric.. tlian tlo Unite.l -1 Statiie Na-
negligibly small in 1917. In nio-,t of thr Eiiripean 4iinntries tie
iInlportaition of diainioni-l. living a luxiirIV, \V;i. pirohliili'id. inif,-,
special p'ermnits were ol-taiined. Altlion '2lih tlie hii,'l ei re of tIi" [)ucli
guilder in tihe U[Tnited Stnt.-; waIs a di-.;i .,re'!T i'lle feature andl lie vailuo
of the dinimond (:xpurt-. thiitnher \ 2a-. -)per 'ucont .le.ss than in l1916, vet,
tlhe trade altogether was considered rather good in 1917.
Prices steadily advanced during the veal r and reachedI n leig-iht
never known before. The year clo-,.ed with Ino ,iln whatever of anuv
decline in prices, but rather with indication thliat the advance would
continue duriIng 11S.
Shortage of Cotton for Spinning Mills.
Thle 14 cotton-spinninig mills in thii; di,;tridt operate abrulit (1-20.O)1
spindles and in nornial years u e about liS0.0 Nl halc-. of ci'ttoil, mostly'
American, the rest being East Indliain and Brazilian. Tile inmport.s (of
American cotton during the fir-t -ix iontlis oif 1917 were about 40,0)1i)
bales, as the shippingg facilities; fr< nl thle IUnited States were very bad.
The exportation of cotton from ELIgland to holland was prohiblited
after March, 1917, and about tIhe middle of tlie year the exports of
cotton from the United States were also stopped.
Imports of cotton to Holland during thlie last six months of 1917
amounted to less than 15.000 bales, and the pinning mills which had
to work short time during thle firt half year were obliged to curtail
their production even more during the later months. By agreement
among thle mills, working time was uniformly reduced to 24 hours a
week, lesu than half time, but even with this air tile cotton on hand
was exhausted by the end of 1917. Thle mills ceased operations pend-
ing 4he arrival of more cotton, but there was little Ihope of further
imports because of thlie lack of shipping.
The production of the shipping miills in 1017 was only 50 per cent
of the normal quantity. By the end of thIe year the stocks of yarn
622820-18-9b--2







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


were almost exhausted, with the propect of a complete suspension
of work unless supplies arrived very soon.
Textile Materials in Demand-Freights High.
The demand for cotton goods was excellent during 1917. owing
to the smaller production of the mills, the great decline in the imports
of cotton goods, and the Government orders for army purposes.
The great number of Belgians and interned soldiers also stimulated
the demand. Prices for cotton goods for home-trade purposes
reached a high level, and many firms that usually work only for
export. sold the greater part of their production in Holland, owing
to the shipping difficulties. Most of the regular steamship lines
stopped their sailings, and the enormous charges for sea freight ahd
insurance made it extremely difficult for the Dutch manufacturers
to compete on the over-sea markets with the goods of other countries.
Many of the employees in the cotton factories were without work
at the end of 1917, and it wa, feared that most of the 26,000 textile
workers in this district would 1)b6 idle in a short time. Many of these
disengaged workers found employment in the German industrial
centers, which can be reached from this district by rail within a few
hours, and it, is expected that this number will rapidly increase as
more mills cease operations.
All textile materials reached unprecedented prices in 1917. The
cost of freight was a large element in this advance. For instance,
the charge on yarn from England is stated to have been 260 florins
($101.52) per ton, against S1 florins ($7.24) before the war.
The Hide and Leather Trade.
The sear 1917 was an off year for importers and exporters of hides
and leather; for the general trade, however, it was a satisfactory one.
Owhig to the lack of shipping facilities caused by existing war con-
ditions, imports of hides, especially from the Dutch East Indies and
North and South America, :is well a., exports, chiefly to the United
States, decreased considerably. During 1917, 31,036 salted, 3,862
dry, and 638 dry-salted hides were imported from South America,
and 34,512"hides from the Dutch East Indies, making a total of
70,048. In 1916 the imports from these countries were 340,000 hides.
Dutch importers purchased 37,000 American hliides, but shipping
space was obtainable for only 7,000. As prospects for further ship-
ments are not encouraging, importers are lowing part of their profits
by having to continue to pay high storage charges, and there is even
the possibility that they may have to sell these hides again on the
American market, where prices under present conditions are under-
stood to fluctuate considerably.
Prices obtained were very high in 1917, varying from $0.22 to
$0.30 per half kilo (1.1 pounds) for cow hides. In June the Govern-
ment fixed maximum prices at $0.18 in order to provide leather to
the trade at more reasonable rates.
There is a large supply of calf hides on hand. Prices therefore
dropped from $0.48 per half kilo at the. beginning of 1917 to $0.18
in August and September. This decline is accounted for by the long
delay caused in exporting to the United States lArge quantities loaded
for shipment.








NETHERLANDS-AMSTERIDAM.


Small Trade in Cocoa.
In peace times tilhe Dutch cocia trade i' f" in uch illhp t:'rne. Co-
coa and cocoa product ets a 1re41 exported to n :iy llpais 1f the worl.
The raw mate rialh. however. are imported t. rielv fitn1 Li-i ,L:,
Havre, and Livel pool, while considerable quantities coim ir,.,t frotm
Venezuela, Brazil. Ecuador, thle West: Indies. and.l tlhe Dultclh coloni-.
The only itnports of 'eloa bIeani' dutiring 1'17 were lIj.1i1i tons, tlie
quantity allowed Holland lY the Allied 1 t9ern atnt.l. In ll the
imports amounted to 21.030 tons and in 1912. to 411,4'-3 tons. As ; a
result of the limi iitd c urtity received l:v-t yv;alr' Ind a lsi owing to I the
lack of fuel, -evera l c.woi fahictori-t., lilid to s.lillt diiwni, while others
curtailed their production inmateriallyx'.
As Enr'1ind and France pro!liiited the exportut of ci'.,, llbans and
as shliiing s.);at( on stteamiers frolll Aiierir;an p )orkt ws nolt avail-
able, the 11.000 il tins received were imported largely froin St. Tliomnas
and alhiin. via Lisblon, and fr 'in Ja;v;.I All shipljments. were con-
signled to tlie Netherhmlids (O)verseia Truii.-t, i hicli di-triibuted them
direct to especially selected nmianufat--tiirers. I1y this miei ns tlie <'oii-
lmi.-sion and JIJ)o'ler bit-i ne.sses wvere entirely at a statnd-ltill.
Prices filleCtiliated Conlsideranbly, va ryin i for St. Tllin,-is ;aitl Baliiha
cocol fronl $i.l.-1 to )C2. er lihalf kilo 11.1 poIlinds) f. o1. 1). Lislt>on,
and for Jai\a cocoa pril ia ) from ',i i.22 to $0<.41. f. o. i1. porit of stfllp-
n ient.
According- to reports thlie crops inl most cocol-lprotducin(_g ci ullntries
were plentifitl, and of ,-olte the quality was even bewtte!r Ihtiin in ll i'.
Exports from thlie Netherlands of cncoa andi cocoa p)roliucts were .'r-
intted only bv special license. The record.:,s of this 'oInPuIllaite show
thliat during g 1!.Y17 cocoa valued at $1..l9,1i3.5 was hhippedl to, thle United.
States, as coamplareal with $744.S0O in l1916. There were no -hiilpments
of cocoa butter to that country in 1917; in 111; they amtlouinted to
$294,411.
The Rubber Trade at a Standstill.
The embargo on rubber iinports, whicli went into effect November
26. 1915, and on rubber exports, which became effective January 26,
1916. remained in force during 1917. Leadiipg brokers report that tih
stock onl hand, with the addition of a few .shiptlents permitted to
come in from the Dutch East Indies ( the steaiters having left prior
to the d(late of the intport prohibition), was sufficient to meet the do-
mniestic demand not only for the year 1917, but alto for 1111S and pos-
sibly for part. of 1919. Exact figures of the stock on lihan:id ar'e not
available. An Advicory Committee of tlie Netherlahids Oversea Trust
for the Distribution of Raw ul-btmr, consisting of seven members,
was established in Februmary. which, in conjunctionM within tie Amster-
danm Society for the Rubber Trade, is. to supervise and control the sale
and distribution of all rubber to thle domesticc trade. Two sales were
held, the first on March 1, 1917, and price's fixed on that d.ite remained
in force for a period of six months. On September 1, 1017, the second
sale was held, and new prices were establishlied. The price fixed at the
first sale, covering the period March 1 to September 1. 1017, for Hevea
Standard Crepe, best quality, was 5.10 florins per kilo ($0.93 per
poundd. At the second sale. covering the period September 1, 1017,
to March 1, 1918, thle price was fixed at 6 fluorins per kilo ($1.10 per








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


1)olundl) for thlie same quality. During the previous year the prices
varicdl f'rori $1.(G0 to $2.0S per kilo (2.2 pounds). Approximately
4SO) t',n. of rubber were sold and distributed by the committee.
In normal time.-, rubber armntulnting in value up to about. $1,000,000
is shipped from the Amsterdam mnarke't to the United States. There
were no ,shiplmentt.s during the past year. In 1916 these exports were
valued at $164.6S9 and in 1914 at $535,000.
Tea Transactions Smallest in Years.
The total 1hilpments of tea from Java average 100,000,000 pounds
per year, the bulk going to the Amsterdam and London markets.
In normal time-e the arrivals at this market amount to about 25,000,000
pounds, Ibut have declined s-ince the war. According to official statis-
tics, 22,S.15,209 pounds were shipped in 1915 direct from Java to
Amsterdam, in 1916 only 16,762,449 pounds, and in 1917 none what-
ever was shipped. Holland itself consumes annually about 8,000
tons, or 17,600,000 pounds, of tea. The Netherlands Oversea Trust
held in reserve '2),000 tons of the 1916 imports, and, in order to have
the quantity needed, arrangements were made at the beginning of
1917 for lthe shipment of 6,000 tons. But, owing to the announce-
ment of unrestricted submarine warfare, all shipments except those
that had left the Indies prior to December 1, 1916, were stopped.
It was po,-sible, however, to make up for this unexpected shortage by
taking over considerable quantities of Java tea awaiting transship-
ment froni Holland to the London market, but which were not for-
warded owing to lack of shipping space, when England placed, early
in February., an emil)argo on tea other than that of British origin.
Tea i,( disposed of in Amsterdam at public sales, of which S were
held during 19E17, as compll)ared with 16 in 1916 and 21 in 1915. At
these sales 7,330.400 pounds were sold at 6S cents, United States cur-
rency. per pound, 163,761.800 pounds at 46 cents, and 22,815,100 pounds
at 4S cents per pound. On August 30, 1917, the Government took
charge of the distribution of tea, and on November 7 and December 13
regular allotments were made to the wholesale dealers at fixed prices.
The Government fixed, the retail price at 54 cents per hlialf kilo (1.1
pounds).
During the last year 3.148 chests of Sumatra tea were offered at
the sales, and all but 24 chests were disposed of. Among the 3,148
chests were 1,728 chests containing a new brand introduced by a large
Dutch trading company. It is claimed that this new brand of Suma-
tra tea, by means of its excellent aroma and other superior qualities,
will doubtless prove a strong competitor to the Java l)roduct.
The Grain and Flour Trade.
All grain and flour imported into the Netherlands during 1917 was
consigned to the Government, having been largely bought by the
Department of Commerce and, in smaller quantities, by the War De-
partment. The imports during the second half of the year were
negligible.
There were but two arrivals of American and Canadian wheat
flour during 1917 (in January and February), amounting"'to 200,000
sacks of 50 kilos (110 pounds) each. During the full year of 1916
the imports were 840,000 sacks, and in 1915, 1,624,420 sacks. Ordi-
narily, the flour is sold by the Government, partly by tender and








NETHER LANDS-AM ISTERDAM.


partly by auction. Eleven auctitiIns were held in 191) for brokers,
dealers, and bakers. During g 19117, however, tie Governnient deliv-
ered the American anl (Canaliian flour frori its .-tock ,direct, to the
domestic flour mills to be miixed with fHour ground froin wheat, corn,
and potatoes before being distri)iltid to thlie haklers for collslIllption.
The price charged( by the Governnent was fixed chiefly in accordance
with the rates at which the mills had to dii.,pose of thii-, mixed product.
to the baker,, while tle general situation of the Amnierican wheat
market was also taken into con-,ideration.
Decrease in Cinchona-Bark Transactions.
There was a dcelino in thle imports, sales, and1 deliveries of cin-
chona bark, an important product of the island of Java, during
1917, as compared with thle previous year. Only 24.126 colli (pack-
ages) were imported from Java, of which :3,;.0s ,olli were from
Governmnent-owned p)lantations and 20.4410 colli from plantations
owned by private parties. The 1916 import., amounted to 92.759
colli, consisting of 5.44-11 colli from (-overnmnent plantations and
87,314 colli from individual plantations.
Cinchona bark is. dispo-ed of at public auctions, of which 10 wer..!
held (during 1917. At these sales 5.S;21,25:0 kilos (12.5;00,750 pounds),
containing :355,674 kilos (78S2.4S3 pound(ls) of sulphate of <|uinine.
were sold. In 1911, the -ales amounted to 7,S93,352 kilos (17,36-5.374
pounds), containing 4s8,J94 kilos (1,075.127 pouiind-) of silphliate of
quinine. The average selling price remained the same a-. in 1910-
$0.40 per 1.1 pounds, per unit.
The 1917 shipments of cinchona bark from this consular ,list-riet
to. the United States were valued at .-214,190, as compared with
$962,941 during 1910. This decrease i_ attributed to the fac< that
considerable quantitiess we-re whipped d direct from Java to tihe United
States. owinz to better and mor; frequent shipping facilities thither
than to Holland. England alko imported directly from Java. which
partly accounts for the decrease in the spilplenits to tills country.
Kapok Trade Unimportant.
Kapok, a product of the Ja\va Islands, is a sort of cotton so -horL
and fine that it can not be spun and is ,sed1 chiefly in tlie m111uf;lac-
ture of mnattresses and also for filling life 1,elts. Imports into
Amsterdam during 1917 were tlie smalles.,t Mon record, aim intinil io
6,326 bales, as compared with 31.860 bales in 1916 and 7,S bales
in 1915.
Tile supply on hand January 1, 1917, was 7.)0 bale:-.; the imports
were 6,326 bales, making a total of 7.070 bales. Thi, va. with
the exception of a few small lots. diposed of dllring tlhe first half
of the year in the open market, the quantity being too small to
arrange public sales, which were periodically lield in former years.
Unusually high prices were obtained for kapok. \'arving fi'rom
$0.'27 per half kilo (1.1 pounds) in January to $0.42 in July. The
small lots referred to were resold at the close of the year at $0.76
per half Iilo. Amsterdam brokers state that several large kapok
shipments on Diitch steamers from Java having been detained in
American ports since the spring of 1917, they directed that new
shipments be made to Liverpool, but that route brought nothing
after September, 1917. All these circumstances explain the sminall







SUPPLEMENT "(0 COMMERCE REPORTS.


import. II in'.g 1917 and t lie ig' I prices offered for the quantities

Smaller Imports of Spic2s.
Trade in pi'e- drin ti rh pI:a-t year wvas far from satisfactory.
Ac' Ord-Ili i. to -,l(i I I a i-tii io e sock (Ii of I) )l'ppcr on hand Decem-
Ier )81. 1 )1';, vwas l.:"A4 tons. Tlere were no arrivals after Fehruary,
l9lG;, ail d. a. i e.porls were p pro liliited, trans.aetions were confined to
the liulme tirade until .lune. 19!17. when ain order \\wa, issued stopping
all .s.ales. L Itr.r ile tle year tli- ordhr vaia.; inmlitied and ,mnll quan-
litles WilT l-[1i, t ,,lP t, 1 l l S1 d .isp ed of. As a; re'lIllt of tlheoe restric-
io61ns, i 1r'1t's f'ii, lilto Mlntk \vveinit up) from s0).3-I to p$<.S per half
kilo (1.1 1olild.s), an:id l)lark LI.;nm)onZ, advanced from $02.0 to $0.30.
Ti1 0-liJly Of pOfper. ,1f wxxliiI dInrin 19.17 only s.34 packages
"were imn)orltd, \vas uine(uail to the dmnndanI. But two public sales
wvere li'ldI il.-tea;I1 of tin' e;i:-toiuaryv four. Prices for the better
quality wa-.:H.7 per lialf kilo at thlie Ibe.zinning f the year, rising
ti' $1). ,s in ,utly ul Aiugst. anid droppinpg to $0.70 toward the end
olf tI i yet;]'. Tlie stork oti'er 1 at thle I)uIl.lic' aIle conS-isted of 683
pat.kage- (,of Bainla and Siamv, 111 packages of minxeL and 1,317 pack-
;ages (if ollier kinds-in aill. 2.11l packagcs, iLagins-t 12,43.5 in 1916.
Tlieie were no arrivals of Zan;ziibar clove., in 1917, and the small
lot-' left oe\(.r from the l['v\ io.s e' atl were di-po)'sedi of at prices rang-
in!L from tn 1.2) to $1.8; pr" liaIlf kilo. (O)f Amboina cloves, 2.900
piac(kages were r'tI.eived in ll6. and arc still being hlield in res,-erve by
thle Netlieraind,- Oversea Trl'-t.
Little interest wvas shown in tlie sale of mace, of which 259 pack-
:ii'es were imported.
Shortage of Rice-Copra.
Thle numerous rice mills in this r'onsidi'r district were closed during
'3917. and 1Ilolhind rl Ihas practically been without rice since the end of
Septeml'er. (nl" two slhlipment-, amounting to 16.000 tons, arrived
inl 19)17 for (lomeiitil' cOnlsl q1)tinn. During tlie previous year the ar-
rivals were 157.219 tons., wlilr-ih, however, included thle imports by
thle Belgian Relief Committee for transshipment to Belgium, reported
to have been about 110.000 toilN.
Thie Government took clhirge of thle rice '-tcck on hliand at the be-
ginning of tlie year. as well as of thle 16,000 tons imported from
British Burma. anild di-tri,-1ited tle supply to thle )publlic through the
municipalities. Each pers,,n recr.ived weekly a card g,'od for 1 ounce
at the nnIminal charge of :. Ditch cents (le.s than U1 cents American
:cu rreney).
In normal time.- rice i-i imported to the Netherlands chiefly' from
itq own and thlie Briti-li cilonie,; minor ,|uantitie-' come from Persia,
Jap:an, 'and( Siam. Exports are practically to all European countries,
as well as to North and South America and Africa.
C'opra. the dried kernel of tie coconut., is a product of Java, aind
more than 211.1000 tons are slipped annually to this market in normal
times. The 1917 imports amounted to 28.141 tons, against 94,000 tons
in 1916.
All copra shipments are consigned to the Netherlands Oversea
Trust and Iy it are referred to the Bureau voor den Coprahandel,
established in Am-terdamni in August, 1915, which controls all sales.
I.*







NETHERLANDS- AMSTERDAM.


In view of the small (iantitie-. on landI l an:i1 ti li I ite,1 :i1iriva:l.-
prices advanced during 1!17. the average I'ein" h Lg22. '.!) |22 l9 r 1 Ii kiD i
(220 p)iouinds) for snimlo ke-dried copra andl $2-'.2 for .-.il) Irie I. :ia iiid. -t
$18.63 and ,1 .2,, rei pectively, in 191';.
Raw Wool-Tin Market Closed.
The Amsterdain wool market, estalslished on a slm]l ..ale a.ljout
ihree years ago, suffered consi(lerab)ly tlhroiutglh \arioul:_ war ie-trietious
in 1917. Imn)ort. from England, the chief ourc.e otf su pp-ly, \vcre
impossible, freight shipping ha\ ir, g iicen generally SLISI)Oendl. Frilil'l
Australia and Ilie ('ape tof (1ood Hope I lit liminitcd quiintiti(t, c ild
be had with the consent of the Britih Government, which in the
j)pring, of 1017 proliib)itedl e()xplOrt entirely. From South Anierica. to)
which Holland in recent years has turned fr supl)plies. the desired
quantities could not lie imported, owing to lack of -,ttiliemlt .'lii)ppinli
facilities. It is reported that 6.570 bales arrived during the year from
Buenos Aires and Montevideo. as compared with 10,50i) in 1916. At
two public auctions 804 bales of South American wol were di,)posed
of. The prices offered were s-aid to be close to 100 per cent above the
normal rates.
The Dutch tin market, of considleral le importance in normal times.
remained closed during 117. as in 19113 and l1915. The Dutch East
Indian Islands of Banka and Billiton practically supply the demand
in the Netherlands. The import- during 1!-)17 were the snIalle-,t on
record, amounting to 14,040 slab,-, which were consineml to the Nether-
lands Trading Co.. of Amsterdam, and intended for domrestic con-
sumption only. The average price was $5S.9 per 50 kilos (110
pounds). During the previous year im Iports were i,.:(0 slabs and
the average price $50.5 per 50 kilos. To show the large decreace in
the imports since tihe war, it is stated that during 1913, the year before
the war broke out, iml)orts amounted to nearly .00.000 slaI-. There
were no tin exports inll 1917. During 1916 but 37 tons weiXi (.xp)rted.
of which all except .s tons were shipped to Germany.
Tobacco Imports Decreased.
Amsterdam is recognized as the world's principal tobacco market,
and the amounts annually realized from the leading grades of tobacco
have been as high as $50,000,000.
According to official statistics the 1917 imports of the various kinds
of leaf tobacco into Holland amounted to 30,256,955 kilos, or 66.-
565,301 pounds. The tobacco dis,,posed of at the Amsterdam market
comes largely from the Dutch East Indies, l)rincipally from Sumatra
and Java; minor quantities are imported from North, South, and
Central America.
The 1916 Sumatra crop, placed on the market in 1917, was of
exceptionally good quality. Climatic conditions were most favorable
throughout the season, so that the tobacco was fully ripe and the
leaves were rather large, although the colors were not, altogether
clear. Experts are of the opinion that tobacco not entirely ripe is
ordinarily of clearer color. The Java crop was about the same as
that of the previous year, which was considered of fair quality.
Practically since the outbreak of the war local firms importing
from the Dutch East, Indies enjoyed the privilege of regularly obtain-
ing tobacco and selling or exporting it, without any restrictions. But







16 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

(during tilte latter part of 1916 an,l the first half of 1917 the Nether-
lands s.t team-liilI c jo)ip:lniies wer, oblig'ed to (irry first (if -ill food
priiutIs, wi'ch were 'lidllI neeleid in Holland1.'and tlierefore but
]i m itcl sp;.l w:w. 'a;i il:alle for c.Urrying tol,:'cc Tile last ,hiilimient
frotI I( e Dut'l I'-'J t Indie-' dlin.-t to Anim-tcrd'ii, arrived in June,
1917, ind alti'r Iinit time fhler,, a\s pllaetieallv no shipping at all,
owing" io tli." l;ik (if lai unker coal. Foreign *.lis wetre, ot Coinr.-e, not
avail;mllh. Tihe tt,':Il arri\als fl'ro)i the Did eh E;st Indies and British
B3rite10 duirin" 1V !7 a.le e; v tiain ted b leading ,Irokeir- at; 17.,s41) bales,
as colliarni, vwitih 7,l .1 ;- ldle,, in 191(6I tlio bI:le avertiting llabout
171 I)ounds) To Ihe--e nust be addcd 5"2.;30 bales, thle :tock on
lihand Decei. l.r '31, 1916(;.
Prices of Tobacco.
Tobulacco is dislpoWd.l of in Am nsterdam in at public sale, of lwhiclh there
are tiriuad]v l0 or 12 eaiclh year. During 1917, hIowever, only t]iree sales
were lield, ;t whi.ht S7. -.'A i balei, of Java, :,2,1O2 Ib-les of Suimatra,
anld 797 1 );i les of Borneo t(l_-Iicco were old. As-ide from this, small
(quiiantities of Brazil, Doi) into, amnd a few other brands \\ere offered,
f'or witich it w\a; psible to ,Iltain .AhiippinZ -parce I) sp:-ial arrange-
nient. The .s,7.',; lIales of Java were di\ ideil into .'(,0'30 bales free
tolancco (t(tbcico allowed to be exported). which realized $0.45 per
lanlf kilo (1.1 poundss. and 37.326 hbales of N. 0. T. tobacco (tobacco
con-igneI to thi' Netlierlands (Oversea TrusI t and intended for home
cIi-uti pti)on o lv ), rea lizing $0.'2-.s per half kil. (O)f the (;2,102 baIles
of Smimatra, .59I).7S bales were free toliacco, selling at $1.05 per half
kilo, anid -2.:'14 lmltis were N. (0). T. tobacco, .elling at $0.40. The 797
1inal... of lJ,neoI t ii c'o ( N. ). T.) realized $1. 29 per lihalf kilo. All
these prlices were I lie lIig'he..-t on record, and were due to the limited
(jilantitie., received and to tlie exceptionally goud quality of the
tol ceo.
In order to protect the domes-tic industry tihe Dutch Government,
on April 020, 1917, prohibited tlhe exportation of tobacco. The Alge-
ineaen Tzibak Syndicanit (General Tobacco Syndicate) was organized,
which succeeded, after placing a (juantity smificient for a long period
ait the disposal of the domestic trade, in having the restriction
rellioved.
Shipments of Tobacco to United States.
American are always welcome lniyers in the Amsterdam tobacco
market. But owing to lack of shipping facilities in 1917 fewer buyers
than usual arrived, and they were able to place only limited orders.
Tle exports from the Amnstcrdai consular district to the United
States therefore declined greatly. The official records show that in
1917 only 1.4139,261 l)ounds, valued at $1,96S,358, were shipped,
against 5,772,7(>3 pounds, valued ai $8,634.974, in 1916. A large part
of the tobacco puiircha-e(d by Americans was loaded on the Dutch
steamers Manadyk and Pocldqlc for shipment to the United States,
but these steamers, ready for sailing for many months, were detained
by the Dutch Government, and, according to reports, the American
buyers preferred to unload and dispose of their tobacco on the local
market, making good profits.
During 1917 larger quantities than ever before were bought and
shipped from the Dutch East Indies direct to the United States, there
being plenty of shipping opportunities. Both the Sumatra and Java








NFITI ERLA NDS--AMSTEIDAM. 17

crops conthinwd tol)acco, .*. lJ.,'ally \vr'.ippcr le:f, which was iid-t
suiiable for the American inirirki- and for which tlHir is an iiicrets-
iug demannd.
The Sugar Market.
HIllIfd's .lIgnr imports and .ext:rts diring- 1917 are the -iiti!..i-t
,1 Vc,2lr1l. The lih'Lt'es for the last four years are given in order to
:,how the la rire decline in the -igt:' trade di ring ithe war:
Kini. 1914 1915 1916 1917

IMPORTS. 1. Tons. 1, .' .o,.
Raw beet sugar....................................... 2'2. 21 19,312 2, 2S3 60.5
aw cane sugar....................................... i, i '. 1' J 22.718 21.5
All other............................................... 4., ', 25,7$9 589.0
Tom l............................................ 255,058 31,212 50,769 671.0
EXPORTS.
1I3 w bre' ."i7ir ........................................ 1I.*'r 67,081 37,G91. 1"'. I)
{riw c:.ur ii]jr......................................... ",'. 580 22,339 .......
AJl cii.'r ............................................ l._2.: 103,186 32,281 14,442
Tl' i............................................. 291,678 170,817 92,314 30,722

Thie 19'17 imnpor(ts of raw beet ugnar were exclusively from Bel-
giium exports were chiefly to Germany (11.809 tons) and to Great
Britain (4,,'_':3 tons). Raw <-';>ie Su'ar was practically all imported
t'roin tl:- Dutch East and West Idtlies.
There wia. an increase of 1.,o00 toi-. in tlie total prodi-tioii of 1 ',et
sugar in the Netherlands during 1916-17 ot.-" the period 19!5-16,
wlien it was '42,',i') toni. The tiitput of the local sui,.ir refineries
dtiriiil' 1917 wa..- ,-omewliat larg't-r than durin,.,' the pirvious Ne,.:', and
the iaxinuiii whi.-.sialc price. fixed by the Goverri'nim.ii. was 50.25
florins per 100 kilos ($9.18 per 100 pouinds), as coiii.irled v:iI h l51
llorins pur 100 kilos ($9.32 per 100 pounds) ,iiniiLv, 1:116.
Govern mient Control of Sugar lu,.,ry.
Tv,.) years ,',. f,. !,i,'i. a shortage in .';n, the G(,icrww!"Y. or-
(iered(l thiit 40 per cent of flie Dutch raw : for hdomietic si-c. In 1910, tlhe qui!tity was raised to ,,0 p'r cent,
and later in that yeatr, when home consunmption had in'r,'.-ei'l con-
siderahlIv and there was :dlso a notable increase in the manufathire of
gouodls cmtia innir," S'igr, all expwort, of sugar and "g',' pirodlics were
proiilJiited. A :-iigzlr society (Sui 1;eerec ni,,'iii:,;) -,;.s i-illi1hd to
control ;ill sale;,, and pirciaes. Lather a l;irgc -i4Ciilus was the result
from tlie.e. ais well as certain other ime:l-ies, and the trade ii_,lIred
tliat frotu a2o per cent to I0 per cent of the stock could be exported.
The Suiker'ereclniging. after many efforts, ..iicceedle,1 in obtaining
the (Governmnent's con.-ent, ind in SeptvnlbcNr, 1917, :0.),Ui>H touil were
sold to Germn:nry aind 25,000 tons to Engldand,; a mnontih later 2,.'>Oi tonl-;
were slipped to Sweden. Thle e\;i-t price ohniiaineO for thlce ship-
ments is not known, but it is generally believed that the tranis:lctinis
were very satisfactory.
It is reported that the total si1g;r consumption in the Nethlerlanids
during 1917 amnounted. to 163/,;s7 tons, as compared with 151,S94 tons
in 1916.
The Java sugar crop for 1917 is estimated at 28,000,000 piculs
(1 picul=-136 pounds), which is about 2,000,000 piculs minore than the







18 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

1916 crop. The prices remained high throughout the ve:ir, varying
fronii $4.02 to $5.22) for No. 16, and from $4.4 to I.S2 for superior.
Distribution and Rationing of Coffee.
Coffee imports into the Netherlanls aver:lage :.000.00) bags per
ye:ir, of which intore thnl two-thirds are credit(d to Amsterdam.
Brazil and Venezuela are iusiallv the chief supplying countries, while
smaller qiu;iutities are received from Java. But d.urilg 1917 nearly
oje-third of the total coffee imports, which amounted to 1.OS,39 tons,
w ere from the Dutch East Indies, and Brazil a;ind Venezuela were the
!-c.ld and third largest suppliers.
The Netlike'l:imls Ov\er-e;i Trust was anxious to hlve as large
illport> of coffee as po(ilile and therefore readily granted the neces-
sary pei.,irits both for free and for N. 0. T. coffee. Thle first named
i.- coffee imported exclusively from thw Dutch East Indies aznd per-
milt-.,d to be exported. N. 0. T. coffee is imported from foreign
countries with the (c,,nfent of and con-.igned to the Netherlands Over-
sea Trust and intended for domestic consumniption only. Thliroughout
the year shipping conditions were such that but limitedll quantities of
coffee wer-l'e rFcAiv.'d. At the end of Felbruary, 1916, the )Dutch Gov-
erninent put an embargo on coffee exports, granting permits only for
small quantities of free coffee. In the spring of 1917, however, in
view of the rapid decrease of the supply on hand, exports were
stoppe(l and all coffee was reserved for domestic consumption; early
in November, when expected shipments failed to arrive, the Govern-
ment was o1lioed to release for consumption 25 per cent o(if the free
coffee. The goveie'n ment:il Distribution Bureau for Tea and C'oflee
was opened Aigu4t 30, 1917, which established maximum prices for
impfirters, brokers, wliolesilers, and retailers. Shortly a afterwards
coffee eonumners were put on a ration and c:ardls were introduced.
The retail selling price was fixed at $0.40 per half kilo (1.1 pounds),
and later advanced to $,0.48. During 1917 coffee prices fluctuated
materially, varying from $0.18 to $0.4s per half kilo.
Petroleum and Other Oils.
The total imports of petruleum during 1917 amounted( to 113,031
barrels, of which all but 13 barrels were from the United States. In
1916, 413,000 barrels were imported; in 1915, 4-90,601 barrels; and in
1914, 719.3:'T;7 barrels. Before the war the imports were close to
1,000,000 barrels annually, chiefly' from the United States. Russia,
Gaflicih,, andl Amm. tria. At the 'e"'i"
Glici, and A ria. At the eginning of 1917 the a'erag'e selling
price was $6.21 per barrel. Later in tlhe year the Government fixed
the price at $14.17, which was increased to $32.72 per barrel toward
the end of the year.
In addition to petroleum there were received at the port of Amster-
dam :>l,,464 barrels of gas oil, against 74.3,"5 barrels in 1916.
Arrcanginiets were made in 19)17 by which machine oil was to be
re'.eived frimn Austria-Hungary in exchange for IDutch products.
According to current report, s-ome of this oil was received in 1917
but it dct's not appear in the official stati.-.,tic,.
Shipping at the Port of Amsterdam.
Various imiiprov(ments and enlargement-; of Amsterdam Harbor
were projected in 1917, but nothing minateri:al could be done on account







NETHERLANDS-A:\j TI:'I:T '!I. 19

of the scarcity and very hiog'h price of ;11 the i-rili i,, i,.il ,iiA]-.
Practically nothing was (lone excep)f ing to 11.tl.:. ;i1,'-JlI1l\- V ,' C-. y
repairs.
Shipping trnflic in this harbor in 1917 w:i- at the !-,v, .-t ,,id, *-i,.-P
1S7S. lwhen it bccari to Srow into thi impnrtliir,, wh-li, ,'illilin..ti,! in
1913. Thie total cilpa'ity of the Thi,- lea in:.i the port of Amsterld:ii>
during that year was 1-2.3(3,000i ,-lbic intiei' : in 1917 it was only
)2,02G.,7S cubic meters. The following table. ,*!n,- the nii iber and
nationality of vesel leaving Amsterdam duringg the past five year.,
repre-'ents ;il-o, in effect, those arriving:

.li .ndii,'. 19i3 1914 1915 1916 1917

Dul t (tib ............................................... 1,473 1, r57 1,389 1. 1n 7 C8S
British............................................ 601 421 15') -2 22
Germ-n ............................................. 255 157 ..................... 6
Swvu.liN1 ................................. ........... .. 100 104 106 122 33
Danish............................................. 30 9 8 14 1
Nor'. v i- in .................................................... 132 149 86 11
Belgian.............................................. 7 12 ....... ................ ."......
Austrian................... .....................4 3 ....................
Fwrnch ............................................ ................ .............I ..
It di:, ............................................... 1 3 ........................... -..
United iac-................................................. 1 ........... I ..........
G ?, C ............................................... .......... 2 1" .......... ..........
Spin-h ................................................ ......
Por,,i,, ,. ........................................... .........- 1 ...
l ............................................ .......... .......... .......... ..... ..
Ch(ilr n ........................................................................ ...1 .............
Argentie.................. ...................................
Total .....1 .................................. 2,472 2.403 1,820 1622 758

The inm'li greIter de4line in 1'17 than in the prie',lliig yeat-. was
due to the inten'ificud Ge-nni'. submarine wt, ifar The Rhine ship-
ping., from A! i1,4:tr1a0,1 via tle .I.'-v...le Cin;al to a junction with a
br iiin*h of the Rivc' V llinc iu Iiic ,':,! il Di .L! in rea-..,, ijn 1917 '-,i-
paired with 191(.; .,id 191.,. 9but du.'l9in, l in ,oii), rii.,! with 1914.
The !ii'iiiber ut \esseL ;r iviij (-l: ..t:,iitially the same 4,-lai ina)
and cap1':-itV in cubic me in 1917 were, r,.-i'tvely, 1.210 and
St;'.:S(;: i~u pK. 1.8 and 719..,1.: in 19!.5, 1.,:,n ;ui:ni -;,s.;>5; ;ind
in 1,114, 1..i, nd 1,11.4,.'):z which was f:ii rlyi1 niirn):l.
Steamship Toii:,--..e from Ar.tcrdar:.
T lie G'-ner:Il I ,.itu.- .i i" l 1 i 'lr, l.. I, ; [ '.ii 1tl, p ,.on:,',iies :l),-'a1t-
in,, fi'iv ilit -tertILL is -hov..I n by V h.c i'iloviu,- pa rr i,.-i iar':
.V, /,i.., ,,i D',/,i ., J. t _n Z ic,.-Total inllI! if ships De:.-lei-
ber :'.I. L ..117, with a gr,',s toilna.,' of ".7.-," One IwW fi'vii'lit
steainier iwas liit. hait.," ia ., : -. toniac'e t. _., c i
Imi,,l I),fth If',., I Ip.d;a .fl /,ft 'l t .;*c(..-Total nIii6b.'r of .hipi .
DIcV,'1lhr .'1, 1917, 7. with a total -ro-s6 tonn'i.,e if 1S..'. Three
new steioniers aiv 1eia built and wvill pr.iblil. y be delivered in 1.91S.
Royial Pei, Akh .hA 'ti, ,. ; op ('.t, ltlh amh Archtj,,hi~aqo.-Tut:il n1in-
be"r 'f ships.) I)ce'lr ( 31. 1917, 'i3, with a total g'ro,s. toninnage of
16.,39S. No .ilip, v.i. 1), built or lo.-t in 1917.
Royail Ilol,,ii Lh,,ii'W. to ,mith A mrricun ports.-Total number of
ship)S December 31. 1917, 11, with a t'tal grons tonnai e of 67.S97.
None built in 1917. Four steauniu'rs were lost in 191IT; three were
torpedoed, and one sank by explosion. Total gruss tonnage lost,
16,7GS.








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Hoflliid St< 'm.in^;7 Co., to Br141sh ports.-Total numniber of ships
D'cebiler 31, 1917, 7, with a total gross tonnage of 0,000. One
.'Nim iliec Tas W ,,' r '.hoed in 1917.
Royal Netlerl,tid. ,', Sw,,i,./p Co., to Mf<1f"f'(inean and other
,ur'f>-Total number of .1ips December 31, 1917, 47, with a total
gross tonnage of S:9,!.5. Three new steamers were delivered in 1917,
with a total gross thinnage of 5,116. Two steamers were lost in 1917;
one struck a inine and the other was confiscated by the Germnian prize
('l ir1t.
Tramp Steamers-Motor Vessels.
There are, be-ide, se,.eral Arsterdam co mpanic. operating tramp
steaners in all parts of the world. They have been mnorp I)rol]talble
as resl;e.t, dividends paidl, since the war began, than the regular
line-.. It is probable that none of the colijianies paid such large
dividlend, in 1917 as in the two preceding years, their ve-el., being
rarely employed, but the results have not yet been announced.
At the end of 1917, Amsterdam companies operatetl 21.!5 s-teamers
and 5 motor vessels, with a total tonnage of 17S.'243. During 1917.
the additions were 19 -taniers and 5 motor vesels. totaling 41.821
tons; losses and transfers inulmbered 14 steamiers, totaling .9, -2.,3 tons.
At tlihe end of 1917, Amsterdam companies had in proces- of biiild-
iW,2', or cortnrartedl for, 0"; steamers and 4 motor ve-sel., totaling
120,000 ton,.
The vessels built in 1917 were generally small, antil 1o demanild for
motor craft (always small ves-M.ls) was unuii-uiialy active. TiN wai .
attributed to the fact that when the intensified G(-rmian .submiarine
" warfare begnii the Dutch Government decided to make use of a law
which authorized it to requisition, at lower freight charges than
-were prevalent, all Dutch ve.sels of more than 400 gross tons.
Marine insurance on ve-.els cro.:.ing the North Sea va" ahiout 2
per cent at the beginning of 1917, but the unlimiited submarine war-
fare quickly brought it as high aq 10 per cent. However, at the end
of tlhe year it had declined to 7 or 8 per cent.
Other Harbors-Shipbuilding.
iHarlingen, near the entrance of the Zuider Zee. is a busy port in
1.11':1. times,jhaving direct shipping connection-. with ( Great Britain,
Scandlinavia. Germany, etc. But its business was practically at a
stand Iill in 1917.
At D)elfzyl, a port in the northeastern part of Holland. 2221 sea
ve-Stl.s arrived in 1917. These are understood to have been engaged(l
chiefly in trade with Germany', which is near by. The 1916 arrivals
were less than in 1917, numbering 211.
Two shipyards were engaged in shipl)building during the year.
One of these completed three freigliht steamers, each having a total
rosas-r tonnage of l,4--2; the other, two freigliht steamers, having a
to'da gross tonnage of 5,787 and 6.535, respectively. The other 15
Shipyards in Amsterdamn and vicinity were engaged chiefly on repair
~v:ork.
The principal 'shil)pyards liad far more orders than they could
execriute in 1917, even without thie great scarcity of materials, which
p'evejited full operation. It would require a year or more, working







NEIIiERLANDS-AMSTERDAM. 21

full time and with -.bunidanice of ia'aterial.-, to e npletv the o'der-
now standing oni the books of several Ai\tc-tev] t: ,, Coi ll ,ii'-.
Fisheries-Submarine Interference.
The receipts and sale- of fi-h at Ymuiden, at the ,iitr'ainr, of the
North Sea Ca;i11l. wlIere, it is .aid. 97 per ,ntit of tit, pi duct of all
the Dutch ea;t fisheries is marketed, were verv small in 1917 as rim-
pared witlh 1916, owning to the ditll-i'liies re-ilting fir'mn the war,
which pe vented con-t14ant work. In fact, Wirk was the ex,,,ption
in 1917. The 4eva;n iirawlers averaged only 40 fishing days e;iclh la-t
year. wliihi nm.anls that each one s-pent `2-.1 days in port, ton the aver-
age. 1Ho\\eve, the :ailing ve-sel- and small co:-t-fi-in, ,oats
worked all nIo c(onst.i4.n tly.
Tie ruthle-- German sultinar'inie warfare was the in,-'t -eriwus ob-
staiRi' to fi-hing in 1917. A considerable number of Dutch ti awlers
and sailb,-.ats wevi-.niink on the pretei-e that they were in the dao ng'r
zone. ihi.'li, the fishermen knew the contrary. Tley were yei-V
carefI filid ,.i,-citcentios in. working. only in wAiter.-, where tlhey had
been l.:l'IeI1 lnt they would not lie dist i' iedl.
Profit- were rel;iti\ely -niii:ill in 1917 brca.ii.-, of the light catch,
altlio hli priice-. were hi.h. The total catch wa. .-old at Ymuidlcn
for lO.s 'o2 firins (4,(;:.l60)., le.^, than one-third of thie prii-e
obtai ei',l f'i the 191(6 ,.i i-l. di il4ie the price obtained for the 1915
catch, and five thile-. thit for the 191-1 catch. The 1917 sale was
large in al.ii. ,,,npaved wiii ii<,rnial ti!iU-, but incrI a-eil cex.'i-'s
IPrevevitcd -i'1-t;!iiiin1 l.1 ft.
The vaio", parts of tle Zuider Zee fli-lervy pi-i.cl a >'rinalm
course in 1917. The war affected it only ii, idu-ntally, -I it all lie-,
within the land b('i,'!s of illaiol. TIv- fish vaii':it are -tly
sinall. ,'-on. ihr:iblA. part is always -ilte,1. ],ut in 1917 the ,ivitY'
an!d !iil jii-i' of salt miui.t inui:l. ddilt-i-iilti,.- for thl -e fishermen.
'I. lie niuit, ,r of i,, .t., a ,ld m en ',,,,.',eil in i.e Zuider Zt._ f-i.,r1y
an,1 the '.,li, [Vf tin' catch.was about as usual, na,,uly, :.',.0, v.-s,..
7,11( t nilen. airt. n)!).1,^!! \l;ilt!t.
Agricultural C ndiion-,.
:iri1'i"-. did vell in 1917 in ri.-rib, to ,Icuninul for and prices of
pr,'l.._"i LXc,-.ive raiii- in .,.ngi-t injured p,'. ti:flly all ,.ri ,.-,.
'ledu(cin-" (ii qiantit of li duct illn i-.t cases a;id 1 ,ii;ilitv in other-1, but
])OtatoL. vN%\e 1ti Al C.|c)tlilt. l-..;c A-ugust riin. d(id not seem to af-
fect tlh.1,i adv,.i -v1.y; the crop was v-vt ,ri_, and1 no complaint has
liein l'.inl as to the gti'i~ul tjiialitv. (rai a_1nd taix were li,,-.t
afl'eltel I)y the Agi-t ramin; as a re.-ilt. the yi-ld i i, .-;i'aw was qiite
siinall
The fi-iit crop wv.-,. exceelk-it in i117, especially ',;ivr, and apples.
The vielid of pcact.,he. grajapes, and apriLcot was' ver* '. god, in both
quality anid ini!intity. Owin llto the \wavri weather in the '.l'ii aind
early uiinlner ot' 1017, much more uf thit-.e three ftruits was gr, n in
the opiien air than i- ui.ual in Holland.
Cost of Living-Unemployment.
The ri.e in the cot o \f living was greater in 19!17 thaln iln aenv other
of thle V'e I. since Iv, .;tr .iga i. ZSome prlirc: a(Idnccd ,t1 little;
others from 100 per cent to 200 or 300 per .,cent. Some alitcltS.- dis-







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


appeared completely from the markets, with no expectation that they
would reappv:ir till after the war. It is moderate to estimate the
average increase in the cost of living in 1917 at 50 )per cent over the
cost in 1916, bringing the iIIlT.Ise over peace prices to at least 100
per cent. Various important articles have advancedI much more than
that average, for example, shoes and nearly all clothing.
Increased prices of foods are variable. linpoited fruits, such as
oranges, bananas, etc., have disappeared fron the m irket,. Occa-
,-ionally a lemon niay )be bought, but the price is nearly a dollar-
50 time the price a year ago. Altogether, leaving out stich extremes
as lemnos, prices of food advanced fully 50 per cent in 1917 and at
least 100 per cTnt conipared with peace times. Sugar is one article
which'had practically the same price as before the war. Its retail
price then and in 1917 was from 10 to 12 cents aI pound. The evi-
dent rea-on is that Holland has produced in recent years nearly
twice as much beet siigar as it consumed.
Wages did not increase in 1917 at any such rate as p1)rices of coinm-
modities. The average increase is estimated at -20 to "25 per cent. In
some large e:-tablishminents wages were not increased, but a special
-llowanice was made on accoilnt of the increa-e.l cost of living. By
this method, the difficult proceeiling of reducing wages on the return
of normal times would be avoided.
Unemililoyment at the end of 1917 wvas 11 per cent of the total num-
ber of workinmen included in the reports. Exclhdling diamaonl work-
ers, of whom about 30 per cent were uneioployed, the percentage
wa.- 9.1, about the same as at the end of 191.) but considerably more
than at the end of 1916.
The City of Amsterdam-Strikes, Finances, Rents.
The population of Anisterdamin at the end of 1917 was (40,996. an
inerea:-e of 12.61)2 during the year. One-half lhi, iiwrease was due
to the excess of births over deaths. Before tlhe wair. Amsterdam was
growing at the rate of about. 7,000 a year, hi t dliring the last two
years the rate of growth nearly doubled,. Thie Iirthi rate per 1,000
of tlie population wias 22.1 and the death rate 12.3 in 1917: in 1916,
2:'.05 and 11.9, re-pectively; and in 1915. 21..) aind 11.22. re.slpectivelvy.
While the number of strikers involved in labor difficulties in 191i7
was unusually small, working-class trouiilles of other sorts caused
,rio0tus disorder several tine, during 1917. This related especially
to the s:hortage of potatoes, which, as it afterwards seemed, was
caused by faulty distribution.
The citv finances were not very satisfactory y on account of the
growtlh of experimes. which exceeded the growth (if revenues. Always
before a substantial balance remained to carry' over into the next
fiscal'year; but the fiscal year following 1917 niist start with a de-
ficiency of 4,500,000 florins ($1,S09,tUJiN0). Taxes were increased.
street car fares raised 50 per cent, and all sorts of economies were
introduced in 1917, but still tlhe revenues wuuild nuit cover the ex-
1en-es. Thei street railways carried 1` 9,,,' i.01ii i pa.ssenIers. in 1917
against 127,641.9 'L in 1916. TIhlie number of guests at the principal.
hotels was ,,0o(; in 1917 and 119,917 in 1!1t. Only 197 Americans
registered at the-e hotels in 1917.
Tlre growth of the city being p)roportionately greater in 1917 than
the erection of new dwelling-, rents increased from 25 to 100 per








NETI EI ELAN DPS-.\MSTEIDA M.


cent. even morel' in -.eio ;i-.-.. M ..,t of' tiit 11wellin,6'-. bilt in 1917
were f'or -i' iin1l were -idd nldim1i,+iit.,l\. y tu people fori'll to iNmy
iecciu-i- the\, co'lill iiot fiiid I siit:millh Imiise to rent. The few nvewv
Iih- .-e-e '1r qj rent werl t; iklCn 1,,l12 Iii 'el 'r', tilcV \\I er'u Hli-Il-dn, and V.er1-
generzflly 4I'ciilpioel 1lIefore tlie pl)lster vw- i ', dry on tilt, wills and ceil-
i :'.1 T li nc i l''(-; o-io rerls \\':o.f I-T> \ix --- oili tilt' Wh' ole. (1i;ii the
(Goe'rniimelli M;"I is iio ilinedl t toike nivitl-iir-b toj limit the increase
whiili lm ii'ilit lIw'fiilly be n.ii.zdt.












































WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRIXTI\G OFFICE 1913




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

III11111111 1 lll o111111
3 1262 08485 1012








nC


St.




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E3055JLEX_FGF1OD INGEST_TIME 2014-04-09T22:42:30Z PACKAGE AA00005307_00076
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES