Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00065
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00065

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text




SUPPLEMENT TO


COMMERCE REPORTS
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Annual Series No. 60c July 12, 1915

AUSTRALIA.

NEW SOUTH WALES.
By Consul G. B. Killnaster, Newcastle.
The increase in the quantity and value of the exports from New-
castle other than coal last year shows that this trade has materially
increased, it having grown from $2,870,440 in the previous 12 months
to $4,589,581. The exports that show material gains are metals.
The gold and silver exported amount together to '2!'2,11S ounces, as
against 158,755 ounces in 1913. Exports of lead and copper also
almost doubled. Meats, frozen and preserved, also show advances.
Otherwise there were no noteworthy increases, and some decreases,
which are to be expected under existing circumstances. The reason
for the large increase in the export of bullion has not been disclosed.
It may have been found advantageous last year to treat a large
quantity of precious metals at the sulphide works at Cockle Creek.
The industry is one that is a valuable addition to the Newcastle trade
and tends to give a large amount of employment, both at its works
at Cockle Creek and in Newcastle.
Owing to its proximity to producing areas, the facility of com-
munication, and the advantages of its harbor, Newcastle should have
made far greater exports of wool and wheat than it has done. The
quantity of wool exported last year was only 21,764 bales, while no
wheat was shipped. So far as wool and wheat are concerned, it may
be assumed that Newcastle will be passed by so long as the zone rates
of charges on the railway continue.
Increased Imports into Newcastle for Last Year.
The value of the imports into Newcastle also increased from
$5,229,455 in 1913 to $6,348,537 for last year. This increase is dis-
tributed over the majority of the various items and affords evidence
of the steady growth of the population in the district, and the main-
tenance of their purchasing power. The establishment of great works
in the district largely accounts for this, and there is every prospect
that the avenues of employment will continue to increase.
The iron and steel works alone will largely increase employment
and exports, and in many ways will prove of advantage to the port
and district. In connection with the imports it should be remembered
that they only include those brought overseas, and do not include the
large quantities brought from Sydney and overland from the other
States.
9019"-60c--15









2 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Shipments of Coal from Newcastle.

As would be naturally expected, owing to conditions prevailing for
the last five months of the year the export of coal decreased. There
were increased shipments to some over-sea points, however. The total
amount of coal exported to places beyond the State for 1914 was
4,753,505 tons, as compared with 5,236,621 tons for 1913. The total
value of the coal thus shipped was $12,110.036 as against $13,264,233
for the previous year. In the interstate trade there was a slight in-
crease in the shipments to Victoria over 1913, but the exports to all
the other States and New Zealand fell behind the previous year's fig-
ures. The shipments to Chile decreased 256,468 tons, but there were
good increases to the Philippine Islands, Java, and the Straits Settle-
ments, and slight advances for the Sandwich Islands, United States,
Fiji Islands, New Caledonia, and Japan. There were 18,000 tons sent
to Guam against none for 1913.
The shipments of coal to places beyond the State of New South
Wales during 1913 and 1914 were as follows:


Destination.


Victoria..................
Queensland...........
South Australia ..........
West Australia...........
Tasmania.................
New Zealand........ ......
Chile.....................
Peru....................
Sandwich Islands........
Philippine Islands.........
United States............
Hongkong ............
Strails 'etltlements........
Gilbert Ilands...........
United Kmngdom.......
Fiji Islands.................
India ....................
Ecuador..................
New Caledonia ...........
Java......................
Me.xicn ..................
New Hebrides ............
Canada....................
Germany..... ............
Solomon Islands..........


1913


Tons.
1, 10.1. N30
13. 4698
799,46232
264,960
182,476
625, 287
812, 899
54,124
111,75
5.1, 472
112.090
10,1- 1
189, 445
3.621
25,6f12
61,9.
91,056
84688
17,927
326, 219
57,427
1,445
45,410
50,545
3,752


1914

Tons.
1,144,6t.2
97,430
Co.5,367
199,115
13.3.862
536.799
556.431
26,107
123,344
96,S7.5
157,330
8,515
223, M33
2.962
30,615
64,246
75, S9
30.634
20, 41
361,579
43,634
1,459
21,43S
20,197
1,169


De;tination.


British New Guinea.......
Mauritius...............
Slcein Island ..............
.'ai alvad\ or......... .....
Belgium. ..............
South ea Islands........
Argen ina.................
L ruguay. ................
Guam .....................
Autria ....................
Cape Colony ...............
Friendly Islands...........
Japn ......................
Alaska. ...................
Natal.................
Society Islands...........
Bornci ....................
Nauru....................
rTance .................
Other (ountrie3...........
Total quantity, tons.
Total value..........


Exports Other Than Coal-Over-sea Imports.
The following table shows the quantity of the
export other than coal (not including interstate
1913 and 1914:


Items.


Bullion:
Cold ............... nz..
Silver .............. oz..
Lead .................. ewI..
Coke................... ons..
Copper ingors..........cwt..
Glyrerine, unrefined.... bs..
Horses .............No..
Tallow.................cwt..


3,098
155, R57
38,704
1,901
6,744
9,.751
1,270
19,618


5,073
287.015
69,270
4.082
12,669
79,277
3,76.3
29,840


Q quantities.
Items.
1913 1914


Meats. frozen..........cwt..
Rabbits and hares... .pairs..
Mea s, preserved. in tins. Ibs..
Railway sleepers........ No..
Timber, rougn.superficial It..
Wool:
Greasy........... bales..
Scoured........... do...


101,341
105,227
60,854
24,738
3,311,332
12,814
285


1913

Tons.
7,035
23,223

6,899
6,371


1,712
2.255
5,172
2,558
21,315
1,431
3.466
735



5,236,621
513,264,233


1914


Tons.
10,627
1,430
8,719
1,018
2,051
1,214
915
18,239.

6,191
8,646
8,556
1.218
2,113
7,267
567
10,388
4,753,505
112,110,036


principal items of
transfers) during


110,926
49.648
137,705
7,641
3,002,131
21,112
652









AUSTRALIA-NEW SOUTH WALES. 3

The total value of the exports other than coal during 1914 was
$4,5,58,581 compared with $2,870,440 for 1913.
The following table shows the principal items of import overseas )
and their value during the past two years:

Items. 1913 1911 Items. 1913 1914

Ale and beer................. 37,519 5:14,97 Oils......................... 107,199 .375,717
Apparel and soft goods...... W07,133 32.711 I'ainlK ani varnishes........ 6', 184 F1.163
Glasware ................... 50,737 39,092 Timber ... .................. 4.i)201 476,371
Iron: W lines and spu its............ 7,564 59,974
Galvanied ............. 438,899 493,909 All other ai icle- ............ 1,93'S,627 1,951,521
Bar.................... 171,37 15 r146--
Machinery.................. 393,626 1,399,784 Total.................. 5,229,455 6,348,537
Manufactures of metal....... 315,3s9 443,250


Exports for United States.
The value of the exports invoiced at the consulate -it Newcastle for
the United States and possessions increased from $618,389 for 1913
to $1,025,527 for 1914. The articles, quantities, and values were ..s
follows:

1913 1914
Articles.
Quanti- Valucs. Qnanti- Values.
ties. ties.

TO UNITED STATES.
Coal....................... ..............................tons 100,418 $2;, 532 140,327 $359,673
Meat (frozen).............. ............................. bs.. ........ ..... ... ,j, 00 131,451
Precious stones.......................................... ozs. I642 lio 358
Timber (hardwood) ..............................p. ft.. ........ ........ 10.500 715
Total.............. ........... ...... .. .......... 7,17 .......... 495, 197
TO PITTLPPINE ISLANDS.
Coal ................................. ... ............ tons.. 49, 157 157,9.9 100,GS6 70, 081
Coke ................................... .... .... .. .do .... 193 1,53 ,S 3 5,370
Live stock............................................... ......... 1,3 0 ...................
Produce (hay) ...................................................... ......... 27 937
Total...................................... ...... 160,36 .......... 276,3 S
TO IAW. fn.
Baskets.................................................No.. 73 513 24 30)
Co l .................................................... tons.. 90,575 219,N t,6 5',9'4 253,642
Total............................................ .... .. ..... 220,379 .......... 253,942


Revenue Collected at Newcastle-Shipping.
The amount of revenue collected at the Newcastle customshouse
during last year was $1,566,309 compared with $1,119,650 for 1913.
These totals include the duties, pilotage, harbor and light dues, etc.
Due to the unsettled conditions on account of the war, the number
of vessels arriving at Newcastle decreased from 5,481 for 1913 to
5,152 for 1914; of the total for 1914, 3,427 vessels were in the coast-
wise trade, 826 in the interstate trade, and 899 in the foreign trade.
The net tonnage of the vessels arriving during last year was
4,429,103, of which 2,130,865 tons were in the foreign trade, 1,300,976
tons in the interstate trade, and 997,262 tons in the coastwise trade.








4 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

QUEENSLAND.
By Consular Agent J. W. Collins, Brisbane.
According to invoices certified at the American consular agency at
Brisbane, Queensland, the exports to the United States increased in
value from $460.44S for 1913 to $3,713,657 in 1914. This large in-
crease was due to the greater American purchases of beef and by-
products (including corned beef), wool, and hides and skins. The
exports to the Philippine Islands decreased somewhat. The follow-
ing were the articles and their value invoiced for the past two years:

Artirel.s. 1913 1914 Arricle.. 1913 1914

TO UNITED STATES TO PHILIPPINE ISLANDS--COn.
Beef and by-products ....... 9259 $1, oo....................... ..... 292
Comed beef ................. ......... 301,902 Dairy products............... $67,9 2 71,399
rnsings ..................... ..... 35.0 5 Flour ...................... ....... ... 5,895
Fruit.......................... ..... 1,217 Hog and by-products ....... 114,546 100,452
Gems ....................... 3,974 ....... Live stock.................... 23 458
Hides and skins.............. !S9,7.1 349,72S Mutton and by-products...... 11.149 25,555
Tallow...................... 24,163 2. 00u- producee ...... ............ 20J 2,031
W ool ...................... 14, 155 1, 170, '91 l) : ap ....... ............... ............ 121
All other articles ............. 777 734 i 'urgical instrument s......... .......... 138
SAll other articles............ 17 47
460.-44 3,713,657 -------
T0o PHIPPIINE ISLANDS. Total................ 776,462 738,G50
Amm onia .................... 1,428 ..........
Beef and by-products........ 5S0,30S 532,272

Banking Operations.
The banks of Queensland at the end of 1913, being the latest statis-
tics available, showed assets amounting to $116,037,289, of which $25,-
450,538 represented coin and bullion. $78.S4S,398 advances, and $11,-
738,353 other assets. The total liabilities amounted to $114,331,438,
of which $110,758,860 represented deposits and $3.572,578 other lia-
bilities.
The Government Savings Bank had 154.957 depositors out of a
total population of 660,158. The total value of the deposits was
$40.538,514, an increase of $4,235,344 over the same time the preced-
ing year.
171 JOR P.
Shipping at Queensland Ports-Government Railways.
The total number of vessels entering Queensland ports during 1913
was 974, of 2.247,431 tons, compared with 1,020 vessels, of 2,024,732
tons the previous year.
At the close of 1913 there were 4,663 miles of Government railways
open, an increase of 290 miles over the preceding year. The number
of miles under construction at the close of the year was 319. The
total receipts from the Government railways for 1913 were $17,181,-
501, and the total expenditures were $10,458,064. Up to the close of
1913 the total cost of construction to date on lines opened was $160,-
535,551. The Queensland private railways at the end of 1913 had 288
miles open, and the total cost of construction was $3,741,958.
Mineral Production.
In mineral production the yield for Queensland up to the close of
1913 was val ted at $526,222,063, of which $18,769,575 represented the








AUSTRALIA-TASMANIA. 5

production for 1913. The following table shows the total aggregate
value of the production of minerals in the State of Queensland up to
the close of 1913 and the amount for that year:

Minerals. Total. For 1913. Minerals. Total. For 1913.

Gold.................... 371,539,OS7 .5, 48 ,2'& 2 Coal .. ................ .?2, 133,2-15 $1,964,931
Silver................... S, i, 374 333,024 All other................ 13,35J, 12 1,231,618
Copper.................. 63, 3G, 39 8,079.256
Tin ....... .......... 41,143,206 1,672,464 Total.............. 52, 222,063 1,769,575

Crop Statistics-Live Stock.
The latest crop statistics available are for 1913. For the year the
yield of wheat was 1,769,432 bushels; maize, 3,915,370 bushels; barley,
115,975 bushels; potatoes, 30,975 tons; sugar cane, 2,085,58S tons; and
hay, 103,935 tons.
At the end of 1913 there were 707,265 horses in the State, an in-
crease of 32,692 over the preceding year; 5,3222,033 cattle, an increase
of 111,148; 21,786,600 sheep, a gain of 1,476,564; and 140,045 pigs, a
decrease of 3,650 compared with the close of 1912.
Exports from Townsville for United States.
The acting American consular agent at Townsville, Queensland,
reports that the articles invoiced at the agency for the United States
increased in value from $136,054 for 1913 to $1,118,274 for 1914, due
to the large gain in the exports of ments and blister copper. The
value of the exports to the Philippine Islands also increased. The
items and- their value for the past two years were as follows:

Arti les. 1913 1914 Arli le. 1913 1914

TO UNITED STATES. TO PIPFLIPFINE 'LANDS.
Beer, frnoen ...... ............... $45, ?' Pork. frnr n .................. S20 ..........
Meat, pre r\ e.J, in ceaPe..... 919,279 54.5 S6 P.(efl. i frzn .................. 06,025 $02,91
Meat extrarc ........ ....... 121 .......... M i o Ir en ............... 17.079 911
Bone .... .......... ..... T.ll.w ...................... 6,36 1,402
Glue stock piec ............. 4,27 ..........s........ ....... .3,.9 ........
Copper. blister. ............. 1!2,.3 607.71 Dos. ................. 122 ........
Tall ow.......... ......... .. ...... 29al-- .
Tota----- 1Total................... 52 S,17 605,231
Total............. ..... :,054 1,11S, 274


TASMANIA.
By Consul W. A. ickers, Hobart, April 20.
In the first half of the year 1914 commercial and industrial activity
was very marked in all branches in Tasmania except in that of
mining, which was adversely affected by the low price of tin as well
as by the exhaustion of the richest ores in sume of the gold areas.
There had been a fine clip of wool, which was eagerly bought at
prices far beyond the normal. The fruit crop was a record one,
though on account of the small size of the apples there were a few
minor complaints in regard to prices, but shippers on the whole
fared well, and while the average price per case was not so high as in
former years yet the net income from this source was much larger
than in any former year.







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


When it is considered that grazing and orcharding are the two
leading agricultural pursuits in Tasmania, it is evident that the
rural population of this State was in a far better position in regard
to finances than usual, and this reflected in increased purchases in
all lines, which created unusual activity in commercial lines.
Effect of Drought on Crops and Live Stock-Mineral Market.
But even during this time of prosperity a tone of uneasiness made
itself felt, as there was a decided lack of rainfall, which continued
even into the present year, and long before the outbreak of the war
much anxiety was expressed as to the future as pasturage was be-
coming inadelqualte to the needs of the flocks. So severe did the
drought finally become that in many sections of the island the lamb
crop was an entire failure, as the pastoralists found it necessary to
kill the lambs at birth as the mothers did not have sufficient strength
to feed them.
Likewise other agricultural pursuits were adversely affected, so
the outbreak of the war in August found Tasmania in an unfavorable
position, which position was immediately accentuated by the fact
that Germany had been the principal market for many of the
minerals of Taslmania, which market was immediately closed. This
loss of a market threw the mining districts into chaos, and if the
Government had not made advances on ore mined there would have
been an immediate cessation of work in many mines. These Govern-
ment advances were a material help in keeping a certain degree of
activity in the mining districts until new markets could be found
for the output, but up to the present mining has not recovered its
former vigor. This Government assistance was rendered primarily
for the purpose of keeping labor employed, as the lack of employ-
ment was assuming large proportions.
Projects Undertaken to Relieve Unemployment.
While the Government did not directly give aid to other private
enterprises, yet in view of the cessation of business activity which
brought on a weakness in the demand for labor, the Government took
upon itself to find employment for as many idle laborers as possible.
With this end in view it increased materially the new railroad con-
struction program, and likewise employed larger numbers of men on
the highways, while work upon the hydroelectric plant at the Great
Lake, which was purchased by the Government after the company
had failed to secure money to carry on the work, gave employment
to a large number. By these various schemes and others of lesser
importance it was brought about that there was never a time when
unemployment became critical, though these schemes are not sufficient
to accommodate the entire demand for work.
Fruit Raising Replacing General Farming.
Agriculture shows a decided inclination to be of less importance
from year to year. This is caused by the fact that farmers are
devoting large areas to fruit, which on the whole is considered more
profitable than general farming, and likewise because local farmers
find it hard to meet the competition of the farmers of the mainland
of Australia where conditions are more favorable for the production
of the staples. The season 1913-14 showed a decrease in the yield of








AUSTRALIA-TASMANIA.


grain from 3,636,719 bushels to 2,433,870 bushels in comparison with
the former season, while the crops for the present season, 1911-15,
are almost an entire failure. T rhis reeuced yield was caused by a re-
duction of area planted as well as by the much less yield per acre.
Similar results apply to hay and root crops. The yield of hops did
not suffer so severely, as many of the hop fields are irrigated, and the
yield for 1914 was about 1,500,000 )pounds, which was 400,000 pounds
less than for the former year. The crop for 1915, which is now being
gathered, is estimated at about the same as for 1914.
As mentioned before, fruit raising is rapidly becoming one of the
leading industries of Tasmania. New orchards are being planted
here at the rate of about 2,000 acres per year, and in addition large
areas are devoted to the production of small fruikr and berries to
supply the large jam factories. The staple fruit crop here is the
apple, of which there was a surplus last year for export to the main-
land of Australia and foreign markets of 2,000,000 cases, while large
quantities were used in the cider and jam factories and found foreign
markets in the form of manufactured goods. Various other fruits
are extensively raise 1, though pears is the only one to show a surplus
for export. The crops of fruit of all kinds were seriously affected
by the frost and droughts this year, and while it is too early to esti-
mate the yield, yet the apple crop will not be more than half that
of the former year. while many small fruits suffered a far greater
loss. So far the over-sea export of apples has amounted to about
250,000 cases, while such shipments at this time last year aggregated
600,000 cases.
Live Stock in Tasmania.
As stated, the shortage of pasturage became so acute, owing to the
drought, that pastoralists found it necessary in many cases to kill the
lambs at birth, as no provision is made here for feeding stock when
pastures fail. The losses have been especially severe in this industry
during the past two years, and when the statistics for the year end-
ing June. 1915, are available the losses for the present year will
probably be much larger than heretofore.
The following estimates of the live stock in Tasmania on June 30,
1913, and June 30, 1914, show what losses in this industry were sus-
tained, especially when it is remembered that new areas are being
opened to grazing each year:
Livestock. 1912-13 1913-14 Live stock. 1912-13 1913-14

Horses.................... 44,039 4139. 1 Sheep................... 1,862,669 1,7-5, 356
Cattle ................... 222, 11l i.' 74.3 F ii ..................... 49,153 37,990

Manufacturing Industries-Mining.
As the factories of Tasmania are almost entirely occupied in con-
verting local raw materials into such articles as supply the primary
needs of the people, production shows a tendency to gradually in-
crease as the needs of a slowly-increasing population grow. The
value of the factory products amount to about $18,000,000 per year,
which is for the most part the product of the sawmills, flour mills,
jam factories, breweries, butter and cheese factories, tanneries, print-
ing plants, gas and electric plants, and many minor industries,








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


which usually flourish in a country in its transition from a producer
of raw materials to a greater industrial development.
Mining has long been one of the main sources of wealth in Tas-
mania, but for several years the production has been showing
heavy decreases, and for the past year the decrease in yield was very
marked. This large decrease was almost entirely due to the losses
in silver-lead and tin. The losses in silver-lead are mainly attribu-
table to the war, as the bulk of the ores were sent to Germany for
further treatment, and as this market is now entirely closed, and they
have not been able to find another outlet, the production naturally
fell off at an alarming rate; activity will not be resumed in this field
until an outlet is found for the ores. The reduction in the output
of tin was not due to the war but to the low price that commodity
brought on the market during the past year, at which prices the
local mines could not be worked at a profit. Likewise there have
been rumors that some of the richest lodes of the Mount Bischoff
mine have been exhausted, though the report is not confirmed by the
company. If it should prove to be the case it will have an im-
portant bearing on tin production in this State, as this mine produces
the bulk of the whole output.
While the production of most minerals showed heavy decreases the
production of copper showed a substantial increase, due to the
activity of the Mount Lyell Co., which has recently installed an
up-to-date mining plant and which, under the management of an
American mining engineer, has revolutionized the copper-mining
methods formerly in vogue here.
The Tasmanian gold mine at Beaconsfield was given up by its
owners early in the year. The Government, however, took charge
and kept the mine running for several months, but as all efforts to
make it a paying proposition were futile, the Government finally
withdrew its assistance and it is now practically abandoned. With
the loss of this mine, which was the most productive in the State, the
gold yield has suffered a serious loss.
Of the other minerals mined, attention is called only to osmiridium,
which before the war was sent exclusively to Germany. But after
long negotiations an offer has been received from an American firm
for it, and it is thought that the bulk of the future output will be
sold in the United States.
Mineral Production of Tasmania.
The following table gives the mineral production for 1913 and
1914:

Minerals. 1913 1914 Minerals. 1913 1914

GC ol ........................ $6.0,439 $542, 93 Co ...................... $123,448 $135,547
Silver-lni. or. .............. I,5"7,2t.5 4- 17 I Wolfram .................. 34,200 21,057
]lislir corner ............... 1,774, 9%, 2,3'-3,077 BDi.muth ................... 7,917 8,108
Copper and cu[, r ore ...... 3,20 90, 90 Osmiridium ............ 53,476 49,035
Tin ore ...................... 2,53j ,895 1,26i1,S3 Shale........................ 632 365

Tourist Traffic.
On account of the cooler climate of Tasmania in comparison with
the rest of Australia, thousands of people from the mainland visit
Tasmania during the summer months to escape the extreme heat.







AUSTRALIA-TASMANIA.


As Tasmania is a country of beautiful scenery, considerable atten-
tion is devoted to providing facilities for these visitors to see the
many scenic spots with comfort. So important has this work become
that the Government has opened tourist bureaus in the large cities
of Australia, where full information can be obtained regarding the
scenery and attractions of Tasmania and the ways of reaching the
various places of interest. As it was anticipated during the present
summer, the number of visitors was much less than in former years,
,nd, as large numbers of people devote their entire attention to cater-
ing to the wants of the tourists, these people have had an unprofit-
able year.
Government and Municipal Works.
The State government has been active during the past year on all
kinds of public works. Special attention has been given to extend-
ing the railroad system and in improving the highways. This is an
important work in Tasmania, as large sections of the island are not
yet available for settlement on account of the lack of transportation
facilities. The most important tramway under construction from
an industrial point of view is that from Devonport to Melrose, by
which means the large deposits of limestone at Melrose will find an
outlet.
By far the most important undertaking in charge of the Govern-
ment is the hydroelectric plant which is being constructed at the
Great Lake, from which point electricity will be transmitted to all
parts of the State. This work was undertaken by a private company,
but when the company found it impossible to obtain money to con-
tinue the construction work, the Government bought all their rights
and property and proceeded with the work, which will be com-
pleted in about a year. The plant will generate 10,000 horsepower,
and it is the intention of the Government to sell power to industrial
plants at cost, as it is anxious for new industries to be located here.
During the past year the city of Hobart completed Ocean Pier,
which can accommodate any ship that visits Australia. Work was
pushed on the city market building, which is a two-story building
and covers an entire block. The lower floor will be used for shops,
while the whole of the upper floor forms an auditorium. Much at-
tention has also been given to the tram lines, which have been ex-
tended and improved. The city of Launceston has not made much
progress on the Tamar improvement scheme, as the dredge was
sunk while on the way here from England, so the work is held up
until the new dredge arrives. The town of Burnis is making fair
progress with the large breakwater that is being constructed in order
to give that town a better harbor, but it will be several years before
this work is completed.
Decreased Imports for Last Year.
The value of imports from the United States for 1914 was slightly
less than for 1913-$57-G,7S2 in comparison with $600,592. The total
imports into Tasmania also showed a slight decrease, being valued
at $4,989,140 in 1913 and $4,947,235 in 1914. It would naturally be
expected that the stoppage of imports from Germany would have
proven an immediate boon to American trade, but for several months
after the opening of hostilities large quantities of German goods,










SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


which had been ordered and were in transit, finally reached the local
market, and these supplies tended to reduce the number of emergency
orders. At the same time the various boards of trade and publica-
tions throughout Australia started a propaganda for British goods.
This propaganda was instrumental in diverting a large volume of
business from all neutral countries.
Goods in far greater volume, however, are now being purchased
in the United States. So apparent is this increase in purchases of
American goods that a conservative estimate would place the value
of imports from the United States into Tasmania so far this year as
equal to the imports for the whole of 1914.
Over-sea Imports and Amounts from United States.

The following statement shows the over-sea imports into Tasmania
for 1914 and the amouInts from the United States for 1913 and 1914:


Articles.


Apparel and soft goods .................................................
Hoots and shoes ........................................................
J rushware ..........................................................
Cement....................................... ............
Clocks and watches ............. ....................................
Cordage and tw ins. ................... ... ......... ... ..........
Dnz g and chem icals................. .................................
Earthenware and china ....... ...............................
F ish .....................................................
Furniture................. ....................... ..
G lass and glassware......... ................... .........
Jiops. ....... ..... .................. ............. ...........
Impilemi'nt. ain mi.cllilery, lag;r llurii l, i................... .......
Instr im enit m dical ..................... ... .........................
Iron and steel.......................................... ........
Jew elry ..... ............................................
Lamps and lampware ................................................
Machines anil m iclhiner, ....................................
M etals, m anufacture .............. ...................................
Oils:
K ero ne ................................ ....... ...............
T urpent ine.........................................................
O lher.............................................................
O ilm men's lores........................................................
Paints, \arniahes, etc ........... ...........................
Paper:
Prinling...... ............. ................................
Olher..................... ..............
Railway material .............. .. .....................
Rubber goods .................................. ...........
Soap ................................... ..... ...........................
Spirit....... ................... ................... .....
T im b er.... ........ ........................................
Tobacco, m3 nu ifactured .. ....... .................. ..
T ools ol I rade... ........................ .................
V\'hicles and parts, automulili:.,, lIL(ccl ic. ...........................
Wax:
P araffin ...........................................................
O lier ..... ......................................... .......
All otler articles........................ ...................


Tolal............................................................ ,


From United
States.
Tolal, 1914.


$1,3












3
3
















1,3


1913 1914

;n0,015 17..542 I 21,019
CO, .20 2,297 95'
1. tH!, 7,)3 334
37.1 ;0 .w .......
7, 1.4 5,121 2,871
9'.'. 3)1 2,014 656
54, 3., 2 ,097 242
4",'". 3 4 333
4). 1 't)1 7,411 5,9.0
I -.,714 5,372
'*3. .i 1,174 1,90W .
1.7.'3 7, .:' 1,094
:.P'..1' .3,..3210 3,719
T7.1j 1,9 '0 2,073
2i. 374 316
I,. .29 ,5 316
S1.770 ?2,,45 3,299
i4 .'9- 01,0"3 127, 62
tiJ, ,'J7 2'7,6 07 33., 10
39,1''9 3, 7-.9 39,399
1,4-71 3,07 j1,474
.r.I. 1! t 7, ._64 5 5 0,469
1., 31 1, 9.5 1,103
55, .'J' 12,7i10 13,659
3;.. ;.3 J1 ,r(c2 0, 91
47, 0iV ",r F96 ',J
t'.1,34 10,.15.i ]2,133
44,11U0 i,',i4 10,307
.4,1*-I *-*, 7 2,344
7,, 114 '119 433
i,'",n 24, .4(0 52,02t0
', j 19 -'2,343 37,253
13:l.Ol6 7, 39 31,296
"4, (J' & 5,0016( 52,378
10,370 12, 31 10,370
2,177 949 1,810
I-1.JUl9 C3,095 9,807
47, 5 C3 00,592 576,782


The most striking feature of the above frll'es is the predominance
that a few classes of goods bear to to Ii total direct imports from the
United States. Machines and machinery, oils, timber, tobacco, tools
of trade, vehicles and parts, metal manufactures, and implements
comprise nearly 80 per cent of all the goods the United States ex-
ports direct to Tasmania. But if an accurate account could be ob-








AUSTRALIA-TASMANIA.


trained of the consumption of American goods in Tasmania these
articles would not make nearly so large a percentage as they have
in the direct imports, as local dealers order a much larger proportion
of these goods direct from the United States than goods of other
classes. In fact, many articles of American origin are freely sold
on the local market which are not recorded in the import statistics
of the customs department of Tasmania, as local merchants find it
to their advantage to procure such goods from the wholesale mer-
chants of Sydney and Melbourne, and they are credited to the im-
ports of those cities.
Increased Sales of American Machines and Machinery-Motor Cars.
In no field of imports have American manufacturers made greater
progress than in machines and machinery. In this field the increases
of sales have been all that could be desired, as last year showed an
increase of sales over 1013 of more than 50 per cent and over 1912
of nearly 100 per cent. This is a good index to the regard in which
American machines and machinery are held, and there is no reason
why American goods of this description should not find a still larger
market, as at present the United States furnishes only about 35 per
cent of thee imports, which proportion could be doubled by careful
attention. The American trade in vehicles and parts leaves much
to be desired, as these imports showed a decrease in comparison with.
1913, in which year there was likewise a decrease from 1912. Auto-
mobiles and accessories are by far the largest item in this class, and
while the American low-priced automobile is without competition,
the higher-priced American cars are practically unknown here.
While the present year will not show a large demand for cars, yet
dealers are more inclined to study the qualifications of American
high-priced cars, as they are not certain to what extent they can
obtain such cars from Europe. There is a high specific duty oi
bodies, which is a decided disadvantage to the cheap car.
The other items enumerated call for little attention, as the figures
show that the trade is about normal. The losses in watches and
clocks is to a large extent attributed to the local craze for wristlet
watches, which demand dealers could not supply from the firms
they had been dealing with in the United States.
Exports from Tasmania.
The chief exports from Tasmania to over-sea countries are wool,
apples, lumber, jam, and hides and skins. The exports to the United
States are small and irregular. The bulk of the exports goes to the
United Kingdom, though in normal times Germany is an important
purchaser of Tasmanian products, while Tasmanian wool finds a
market in several other countries. The total exports for 1913 and
1914 were as follows:

Articles. 1913 1914 Articles. 1913 1914

Wool...................... 1,401,2.S4 $1,364,059 Tin.................................. $129,249
Apples.................. 800,135 1,105,124 Allother ................. S13,603 107,940
Lumber................. 143,163 190, 59
Skins..................... 48,636 44,563 Total............... 2,544,523 3,047,957
Jam..................... 12,702 106,133








12 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

The articles invoiced at the American consulate at Hobart for the
United States during 1914 were valued at $56,890 compared with
$16,157 for 1913. The items were as follows:
Articles. 1913 1914 Articles. 1913 1914

Jam......................... ...... 20,516 Wool............ .................. 8,435
Shell necklaces .............. $1,3'9 924 Curios................................. 146
11ides and skins............. .......... 107
Timbelr...................... 14,75' 26,542 Total ............. 16,157 56,890
Tree ferns............................. 220

There was also $4,683 worth of jam invoiced for Hawaii, compared
with $3,157 worth for 1913.
As with imports, the direct over-sea exports of Tasmania form a
small proportion of the total export trade. In 1909, the last year
in which a record of the total imports and exports of Tasmania was
kept, the statistics showed that the value of imports was $15,221,527,
while that of exports was $16,664,867. In comparison with this,
regardless of the fact that the trade of Tasmania has made a gradual
advance, the total exports of Tasmania, as recorded in the custom-
house returns for 1914, were valued at $3,047,957, while the imports
totaled $4,947,235. Therefore little reliance can be placed on the
trade figures of Tasmania, since records of the tradr with the other
States of Australia have ceased to be kept. While ilrge quantities
of this trade between Tasmania and the other Australian States are
composed of the products of the various States, yet it is particularly
true in the case of Tasmania that foreign countries buy from and
sell to Tasmania large quantities of goods that are credited to the
exports and imports of the other States.
Buying on American Account at Wool Sales.
During the local wool sales this year buying on American account
was very active, and it was estimated that not less than 2,000 bales
were bought for tlie United States, but none of this wool was invoiced
to the United States in Tasmania. It was shipped from here to
Sydney and Melbourne and invoiced from there; likewise with the
minerals. Practically the entire output of the State finds its way to
foreign markets, but it is always sent to the larger commercial cities
on the mainland first.
This interstate trade plays a prominent part in the economic life
of Tasmania, as this State, on account of being much cooler than
the States of continental Australin, produces and sells to the rest of
Australia large quanttities of its distinctive products, while it fur-
nishes an excellent market for many foodstuffs and manufactures
of the other States.
Considerable quantities of Tasmanian wool and minerals are
shipped to Melbourne and Sydney and from there sent to foreign
countries. Aside from these articles which are reexported, Tasmania
finds a ready market in Australia for apples and other fruits, lumber,
jam, hops, potatoes and other root crops. The value of manufac-
tured goods shipped from Tasmania is practically negligible, as this
State has made little industrial progress in comparison-with the large
centers of the mainland.







AUSTRALIA-TAS MANIA.


Market for Foodstuffs and Manufactured Articles.
Tasmania is dependent on outside sources for a large quantity of
foodstuffs as well as for most of its needs in manufactured articles.
Continental Australia sells large quantities of grain, butter, sugar,
coal, boots and shoes, cement, machinery, implements, tires, and other
articles of local manufacture in addition to various classes of goods
from all parts of the world. Tasmania produces fair quantities of
low-grade coal, but all coal for steaming purposes is obtained from
Newcastle, while of late small amounts of iron and steel are being
obtained from the plants at Bioken Hill. The large implement. fac-
tories in Victoria tind an excellent market here for their goods and
are the keenest competitors of American goods of this class, while in
machinery many factories in Sydney and Melbourne are making ap-
preciable gains in the local markets. Most of the lboot and shoes on
the local market. are obtained from Melbourne, and Australian
woolens and soft goods are finding an increasing market.
As this country believes in giving ample protection to all manufac-
tures regardless of cost to the ultimate consumer, foreign goods will
find it more and more difficult to meet local competition in such manu-
factures as will command a large local demand and for the produc-
tion of which the raw materials can be procured locally. The cost of
labor is too high for industries to make any efforts to meet foreign
competition except in those lines where there is an ample local market
and in wilich they )po-sess cheap raw materials, even though they
have protective tariffs that in most countries would be prohibitive.
Banking and Credits.
Most financial transactions between Tasmania and the United
States are negotiated through London. This has proven very satis-
factory in the past, as, regardless of the fact that exchange direct
with the United States could be procured from the local branch of a
large Sydney bank, yet very few merchants avail themselves of this
convenience. This was not entirely due to habit, but it to be ac-
counted fur more by the fact that Londron has always acted as the
financial center for this country, and that under normal conditions
better terms were usually obtainable by negotiating exchange
through 4Lopd!,on-
Regardless of the fact that many American exporters give liberal
credits to local merchants and have built up strong connections, yet
the disinclination to give credit on the part of the majority of
American exporters tends to discourage trade with this country.
The merchants here are averse to paying cash with order, as it often
happens that goods are unduly delayed in transit for as much as six
months and even under the most favorable conditions, goods will
not be received for several months after the order is sent. As
merchants here give liberal credit to their customers, merchants with
limited capital are not in a position to pay cash with order. On the
other hand, most of the merchants are willing to pay for goods upon
receipt, though more favorable terms are enjoyed by many of them
with European firms, and likewise by some firms with the United
States where there has been a long connection and the reputation of
the house is beyond doubt.





1

14 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.
Lack of Transportation Facilities with United States.
The lack of direct transportation facilities between the United
States and Tasmania is a heavy handicap on trade, as there are two
regular direct lines of steamers between this country and Great Brit-
nin, which give the British merchants cheaper transportation and
quicker connection with this market. American goods, with few
exceptions, intended for this market are sent to London, Sydney, or
Melbourne and transshipped, which adds to the freight as well as
causing only too often injury or delay to the shipment.
The trade with Tasmania direct could not justify the installation
of a line of vessels, but the large trade between the United States and
Oceania should recommend the opening of freight lines between the
cities on the Atlantic and the Gulf with this part of the world via
the Panama Canal, and such lines could include in their ports of
call cities in New Zealand, Tasmania, as well as the large commercial
centers on the mainland of Australia.
Investment of Capital.
As Tasmania has not made much progress in industrial lines and
as most public utilities are owned by the State or municipalities, the
opportunities for the investment of American capital are rather
limited. The State at present is floating a loan for over $4,000,000
locally, in which without doubt American participation would be
acceptable. As the London market is practically closed.to foreign
loans, Tasmania would find it convenient if it had assurance that it
could obtain money from other sources in the future, likewise the
various municipalities of this State are being considerably hampered
in making needed improvements on account of the lack of funds.
Money is cheap here and public loans are floated at interest ranging
from 31 to 4 per cent. At the present time the latter figure is about
the usual rate offered throughout Australia, though the various
public bodies are not inclined to offer more bonds carrying that rate
than is absolutely necessary.

















WASHINGTON: GOVZHNUMNT PRINTING OFFICE: 19


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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
I 3Il 1 62 0iil ll i1 1 ulli ilIiilli11111
3 1262 08491 1295


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