Supplement to Commerce reports

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Material Information

Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00062
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00062

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text






SUPPLEMENT TO

COMMERCE REPORTS
y' DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Annual Series No. 23b December 10, 1919

CANADA.
By Consul General John G. Foster, Ottawn.
In Canada, during the year 1918, there was a steady maintenance
of business at a high level, and while the foreign trade of the country
showed a decrease both in imports and exports, as compared with the
figures of the previous year, there was a substantial balance of trade
in Canada's favor. General progress in all branches of the banking
business was reported and the record of failures in the Dominion was
the most favorable in a long period. The total value of field crops
was the highest on record and mineral production also showed a large
increase. In most of the Provinces the production of lumber was
less than in the year previous, but the decrease was offset to a large
extent by the increased prices received. Owing to interrupted trans-
port facilities the market for fish was restricted, but the catch from
sea fisheries showed some advance over that of the previous year. In
manufacturing, activity was marked, the iron and steel, pulp and
paper, munitions. and textile industries all making great strides.
Toward the close of the year, however, with the shutting down of
munitions factories, a number of workers were being released, though
there was no acute situation in regard to unemployment. Trans-
portation conditions were satisfactory. There was an ilmrovem\lent
in building and construction, and on the whole Inbor conditions were
favorable, though there was an increase in the number of strikes re-
corded, as compared with 1917; the time loss in working days-, how-
ever, was less. Prices of commodities entering into the general cost
of living continued high.
Foreign Trade in 1917 and 1918.
Canada's foreign trade in 1918 showed a deien -e over that of the
previous year in imports and exports. Total imports in 191S were
worth $906.954.900 as compared with $1,005,071.711> in 1917, a de-
crease of $98,116,816 or 9.8 per cent. Total exports for 1918 were
$1,229,708,244, as compared with $1.547,340,S),5 the year previous, a
difference of $317,632.611 or 20.5 per cent. There was, however, a
substantial balance of trade in Canada's favor. exports amounting
to $322.753,344 over imports, or 35.5 per cent.
1511900-19-23b











2 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


The following statement gives a slunmary of Canada's trade for
the calendar year 1918 compared with 1917:


Items.


IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION.
Dutiable goods.........................................................
Free goods ............................................................
Total imports....................................................

Duty collected .........................................................
EXPORTS.
Mineral products....................................................
Fishery products....................:....................................
Forest products.......................................................
Animal produ e .................................... ...................
-c ricultural product s.................................................
M anuffa tures ...........................................................
Mis,.llineous...........................................................

Total exports .....................................................


$557, 636, 509
447,435,207
1,005,071,716
167,041,330


77,389.963
28,323, 877
52, 20, 875
170, 56 1, 894
531,300,259
68,2, 4.11,1692
5,052.305

1,547,340,855


1918


$511,125,417
395,829,483

906,954,900
15, 849,472


75,708,425
33,577,772
65,436,204
176i,407,332
320,524,859
552,683,692
5,369,960

1,229,708,244


Foreign Trade by Countries.

The next table shows the import and export trade of Canada in
1917 and 1918, according to countries of origin and of destination,
respectively:


Countries.


IMPORTS.

United Kingdom......
British possessions:
Australiia..........
British East Indies
British Guiana....
British South Africa
British VWe-t Indie4
Hongkong.........
Newfoundland.....
New Zealand......
All other British
possessions......
Argentina............
Brazil.................
Chin.................
('Cub .................
France................
Italy ...............
Japan.................
Netherlands .........
Unted States ..........
All other countries.....
Total............


1917



$91,136,728
879,018
13,311,740
8, 120, (09
510.,7.5
11,117, 3
1,712,9'20
2,74.?., 597
3,351,394
1.' 91, 579
1,711, 799
1, 036, 7SQ
1,26%,6 62
1.017.,11 .2
5,71.5,770
MS. 900
II, IBM). 45"
1, 1.0, 5.oA
12,&'SG, 594
17,72, 1091


872, S79,109

6,0 4,963
17, 02i6,095
5, 0S, 972
1,331, 42
S,930,109
2.34.3,95s
3, 2.7,310
7,014,313

1,371, n69
1,7-,.,, 4 9
1, 12;, 616
1, S67,405
2, 034, rf5.4
3,7.541,761
142,071
13, 1,-4, 9.;
.2, 5)07
73', 142,0641
IS, 5..3, t.70


1,00, 071,716 9111 ,95-.4900


Coun tries.


EXPORTS.

United Kingdom......
British possessions:
Australia ..........
British East Indies
British Guiina....
British Sout h irica
British West Indies
Honekonc.........
Newfoundland .....
New Zealand......
All other British
possessions .....
.reenlins...........
Brazil ................
China................
C'uba..................
France................
Italy................
Japan................
Netherlands...........
United States.........
All other countries.....


Total...


SS73,706,892
145, 426
4,131,651
2,070, 09
4,. 81, 526
6,319,644
1,0.00,475
',723, 489
4,181,290
1,519,281
1,51t,914
1, 0.',, 269
471, L13
:t, tI0. 7-1
20M, 2B, 2'N2
2.3:s 1 <,3
3, 76,2j67
2, 1. 428
401,479,27
11t, 96,500


$594,250,690
11,169,474
2,814,378
2,216,001
9,704,215
8,352,253
968,766
10,877,766
4,605,115

2,505,588
2,683,179
3,825,859
2,934,663
4,879,779
101,.50I,396
9,510,642
10,62 ,274
1,026,052
43.3, 232,149
12,020,005


......... 1,547,310,85 1,229,708,244


The following statement shows by penrenlta,2es the share of the
Uniited State-., IT ted Kiing.dom, British possessions, and all other
countries in C(anada's foreign trade in 1917 and 1918:

Import E. Export.
Countri.c.
1917 1918 1917 1918


Per cent. Per cnt. Pfr cent. I'tr cnt.
United State. ................................................. 82.4 81.4 25 9 35.2
United Kingdom.................................... ....... 9.1 8.0 56.4 48.3
Briti h dominions and colonies................................. 4.3 5.8 2.7 4.3
All other countries ............................................ 4.2 4.8 15.0 12.2












CANADA. 3


Principal Articles of Import.
The following statement gives the principal articles imported into
Canada for consumption during the 12 months ended December,
1917 and 1918:


Articles.

Animals, living.........
Articles for army and
navy..................
Asphaltum and asphalt.
Books and printed mat-
ter...................
Breadstuffs............
Bricks, clays, and tiles..
Butter ..................
Buttons and materials..
Cheese................
Clocks and watches.....
Coal:
Anthracite..........
Bituminous ........
Cocoa and chocolate....
Coffee.................
Cordage and twine......
Cotton..................
Curtains and shams....
Drugs, dyes, chemicals,
etc...................
Earthenware and china-
ware.................
Eggs...................
Flectric apparatus......
Fancy goods...........
Fish.....................
Flax, hemp, and jute...
Furs........ ........
Gloves and mittens.....
Grasses and fibers......
Guita-percha and rub-
ber.................
Hats and cap;...........
Hides and skins........
Jewelry...............


1917

$2,606,343

163,364,709
40)0,04-1

3,602,527
18, 087,837
4,015,3355
137, 8rg
943.021
135,714
3,321,227

28, 19, .5S6
42,452,771
3,024,705
2,291,173
9,813,62t?
57.387,175
391,0 6

26,102,3355

2,.'f54, N92
1,.31, 41S
1n,33), .12
3,4 '9, F641
2,21.,74S
10, f77,0ns0
4,1146,241
1,843, 603
6,123,726

14,070, 12
4,703,373
11, 0.1',, 437
850s, 4.88


Art iile-.

Lard ................
Leather................
Meats...................
Me als:
Bra;s ...............
Copper .............
(oldd and ilver.....
Iron and steel .......
Lead ............
Tin.................
Zinc................
Ot h'r .............
Musical instruments....
Oils.......... ..........
Paints, colors, and var-
nish........... ......
Paper..................
Pickles and sauce;......
Ribbons...............
Seeds...................
Settlers' effects.........
Silk................
Soap...... ...........
Spirits and win'".......
Stone, marble, and slate.
Sugar and molasses.....
Tea..................
Tobacco..............
Tobacco pipes, etc.......
Ve petables..............
Vehicles...............
Vessel ................
Wood ..................
W ool ......... ........
All other articles ........


1918

$1,706,790

61,471,486
3S7,556

7,058,214
28,186,195
4,570, 626
290,516
1, -12,9f62
81,529
2,367,591

26,007,S89
45, 642, Ftil
3,91., 229
1,89W, 289
6, I?2, .29
70, i64S, 'I;
332, (165

33, G51, 352

2, 13,455
913,746
11,161,94-
3,01n,041
2, 6'9,155
13, 981,707
4,. 4i,4i'4
1,041,3, 61
S, 63, 7135

12,06.5,653
r5, fig'>, ., 6
5, 4 19,13
771,413


Principal Articles Exported.
The following statement gives the value of the principal articles
exported from Canada during the 12 months ended December, 1917
and 1918:


Articles.

Animals, living........
Butter................
Cheese................
Clothing..............
Coal ..................
Cartridges.............
Explosives, n. e.s.....
Fish ...................
Furs ...................
Grain:
Oats...............
Wheat............
Other.............
Gutta-percha and rub-
ber .................
Hides and skins.......
Leather...............
Meats:
Bacin.............
Beef..............
Canned meats.....
Pork..............
Other.............
Metals:
Aluminum, ingots,
ett.............
Asbestos..........
Brass, old and
scrap............
Copper............


1917

$21,227,151
1,740,152
36,452,149
10,356,,3 14
7,3S7, lu2
390,774. 53)
44, 9Iti, 390
27,557,374
6,898,753'

3S,235, 864
347, 095, 186
10, 5.34, 63

2,999,6 9f
8, 93, '35
10,647, 42S

55,261,3S7
12,116,793
4,2'90,378
2,811,44-!
2,560,755

7,260,953
5,334,282

9,615,627
23,256,278


1913

$26,437,952
4, SI1", 0 ')
37,9q, 5.5S
15,35, 361
9,405,4'23
232,634.97.1
40, 1S, 3%.31
32, 7iV, 54.
10, 026, 24
29 161,1,.34
129,071,2953
9,661,571

3,S57,229
5,100,350
13,370,371

37,351,324
25,030,951
3,22-,7,-)9
11,:333,511
2,216,l409

7,223,570
8,014,769

1,454,451
20,772,109


Articles.

Metals-Cont inued.
S;.,.l.Id ..... .........
Irn n ari'n .el .....
N ickel .............
ithvlver.............

Milk and -ivea ........
Paper:
Printing...........
Other.............
Seed';: Flax..........
Tet tile Vecet tb'es.............
Vehicles:
A.\ut im' i ile ... ..
Ant in -.ji'! pai t .
O. tiher............ .
Wh t fln.ur... ... ...
W,,od, and iianul.eC-
ture- (,[:
Plank a._:a 1J ...
either irin un-
lactui rfd .........
Word pulp......
Other, mninufac-
tured ...........
A. I other ai r ii: .......

T o It l ..........


1917


1t5,929,0511
43, -20,ii0'0
71A i.','l
17, 621. '"
I I, 7 "..', <.3'1
4,70.,.'9 29

3?.''.1,0;0
3.37 .',0.31
IS, "s1. 1,1) 1


l4 l.I h75
8, 92 ., v.ol
16i ".:. 51i
7'.I, 1 I *.")


1s19


S11 79, i' 13
50, 7). 71i

7 1, 11 7'l





17-,. -,1'7
II,.>. 7.3S
.,. '7'. 71
9I. 1',. 17.1
9 1l4, 73.R

Il'l il.,. 10


2, 177, 4l 21 34. 1 ,I...S

2-1,7 3, -,V .131, 1 7, ,i8
2r, 192. 0,1 3:;,3:.., 923

714'. 511 ...N, 48S
83, ..9",.329 93,.4 775

1, 547, 3 ). 3 '1. 1,229,70Q,211


1917

s.'91,811
9t;, I;, I Ali
3 '1,)1 Sr

51, q ,2" 9
9 _. t s"., '_ l
.122. :132
162, tai., 7117
1,3 -" .:2. i
!"3, .-12, 2'-.i
2,21".. 773:
14. '75, 1%.3
3..5t;, 181
32,572,014

3,32". 2S)'
7, S7,.11 5
4 3?, 1'l
1, t.1 17'I
1, 5.3,212
6,31,.,i 55
13, 4-4, LI',;
I, i. 4044
3,, ,-1S)

3',3 '4, ('31
12,312,2-17
7. 144, 115 I
s71'.. '21
4,57"-,6'17
22,7854., 17
l, M S,;, ',
14.S,6;r, 3$1
37, 13' F:,'.33
87,123t, 25t.


1918

Si29, 275
11, 1ll,276
5, 812, S12

5,31,, 192
., 131,541
"31,472
119, 121, AN7'
1 .2, 424
1". 6inl, 170
1,333, 744
12,(1 1.84')
3.2"ii 021
'1. 727, 175
31. 4,2,1214
N, 1S. 494

1,, ., 1.32
2,4-1.3, I4q



12, 17 -. L70i9
1,121,227
3", t' ,77
tt. '7,..3q
l i.'lq,.17I
71" .i4 )

19, 1".4, 431
3, 0"4,,272
1i, 74.1, .211
), i137, l .')3
9'.!, 1:12, 297

1),, 0 -, 900


Total............. 1,005,071,716


~---









SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Restriction of Imports Partially Lifted.
The Canadian Trade Commission, to which has been transferred
by order-in-council all functions, powers, and duties formerly vested
in the War Trade Board, has approved a general license permitting
the importation of all commodities restricted from importation by the
War Trade Board during the war, except foodstuffs. Except for
iviacaroni, vermicelli, spaghetti, wheat flour, wheat and oats, and
suar. the general license covers foodstuffs from the Western Hemis-
phere. Great Britain, British possessions and protectorates. China,
Jap1lan. and other Oriental, East Indian, and African countries,
France, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Montenegro, Serbia, and
their )pssessions and protectorates. Importers are required to obtain
a license from the Canada Food Board for the conunodities above
mentioned, except for wheat and oats. Importers of wheat and oats
are still required to make application for license to the Board of
Grain Supervisors. Importers from Norway, Sweden, Denmark,
Netherlands, Roiimania. Russia. Switzerland, and Spain still require
import license for all foodstuffs. This modification changes only
such restrictions as were imposed by the War Trade Board; regu-
lation- governing prohibition of imports such as liquors, still remain
inl for-e, and the Enemy Trading Act precludes the importation of
all comnnmodities from enemy countries or enemy traders.
The trade commission has also approved regulations by which col-
lectors of customs at. ports of exit may, by endorsation of the usual
Shipper's export entries, license shipments of all commodities except
the following: Gold coin, gold bullion, fine gold bars, Canadian silver
coin, silver bullion, fine silver bars, cinchona bark and products,
quinine and its compounds, cocain, opium, opium gum and its prod-
ucts. wheat, wheat flour and farina, butter, cheese, sugar, sirup and
molasses, mill screenings and screenings of grain, and canned salmon.
For the foregoing individual licenses are required to all destinations.
Tariff Changes.
By an act which came into force May 1, 1918, the customs tariff has
1.(et:n changed in respect to chicory, coffee, tea, and a few other items.
The schedule in respect to these items now reads:

Brit;sh Intermediate
Tariff items. preferential I trm ite General tariff.
tari f.

24. Chbicorv, rwn or 'ren, per pound................... cent ........ 7cents........ 7 cents.
25. C'hi.cr', !-!n-il ri.d, ruastei l or rniund, per pound.... ci nts;........ 10 cent s....... 0 cents.
2'.a. Coil'e-., ,: r er a:', i n. p f and substitute thereof 9 cents ........ 12 cents....... 12 cents.
".- nI l lU iii. l ,per ['-,Jir ni .
2i I'h'r r.ilrld t r .r-rnund. and all imitation. thereof S cent.......... cents....... 10cents.
.i1i :,llb tilti[t thertior, including acorn nut,
r',' Iiiin lt
27 ('CoiT.., rn-cted or roundni, when not imported direct 8 cents and 7; 10cent and 10 O centsand 10
trlll i he counlltry of gro ',It and productwion,'er per cent. per cent per cent.
'2 Cr1.',. i, n imporlt.'i direct from the country of 5cents........ 7cents....... 7 cents.
vr. thi liiin production, antd Treen coffee pur-
cht It ill birind in the United Kingdom, per
2 pr.-.ductT! n, andl tea purchased in bond in the
lintied litupdoim. per pound.
W\\hon in wrappmin', cartons, or other packages
wei-'hul] 5 pounds or Irc<, the weight of the
wrappings, cartons, or other packages to be in-
cluded in the weight for dury.
29. Coffee, green, n. o. p. i., per pound.................. 5 cents and 7i 7 cents and 10 7 cents and 10
per cent. per cent. per cent.




r: .


CANADA.


Tariff items.


29a. Tea, n. o. p. f., per pound.........................
When in wrappings, carlons, or other pacl-ka'
weighing 5 pounds or less, the weight of the
wranpings, carton, or olher packages to b. in-
cluded in the rwe,-ht for duty.
143. Cigars and cigarette, the weight of cicar. to in-
elude hauds and iiblions, and the wive.hi of
ciL'arrttes to include the paper covering, per
pound
144. Cut tobacco, per pound ............................
145. Manu[acturcd tobacco, Ii. 0. p. f., and siuif, Iper
pound
147a. Beveraces in the manufacture of which m.nlt, r ic',
or corn is used when containing not more thl.ii
2, per cent of proof spirit.
657a. Cinematograph or movi~L-prictirc films, positive?,
I inches in width and over, iecr liiirai fool.


Britih ntermiat
plrefeent. Interim
tari tariffT..


IIU nit ;nil i
IT ''0',lit



n4 I ian.l *"-'
I' r cr'lt.


10Conllt aid 11)
per c.-nit.



$1.10 dl 2i'.
pe[ Ceit.


i C ii S ...... l .. ......
901) Cens........ i 9 ......


2-1 p'r ceni ....


11) t..- I I. .


2 cc lt; ....... 3 rintil ........


e General tariff.


I.__
10 cints and 10
pir cent.



I4 1I' and 23
per Cc-nt.


L1 cuts.
I' l .-r i t.i .


3 uil:.


NOTE.-It is provided Ihat the ronds specifRed al'ove nrm e .cinpt Ir'om lth rit. of duiitw mentlll i .' in
sec. 3 of the Customs Taritf War Re. iiul.' Act, 1915.

Prance Renounces Trade Treaty-Revenues and Expenditures.
It has been announced that France has renounced its trade treaty
with Canada, with the provision, however, that the preferential
tariff rates established by treaties shall remain in force subject to
three months' notice. It has been pointed out that the French (Gv-
ernment has taken thiC course to secure liberty of action in view of
negotiations at the end of the war. The Dominion Government has
agreed to the proposals of the French Government. Two treaties
are affected, the trade convention of 1!07 and the supplemental con-
vention of 1909.
According to a statement issued by the Finance Department. the
net debt of the Dominion at the end of December, 19189, wa, $1,-
330,228,898, compared with $)97(,428,504 at the end of 1917, an in-
crease of $353,800,394, or slightly over 30( per cent. The statement
given below shows the details of revenue and expenditure for the
nine months of the present fiscal year (Apr. 1 to Dec. 31, 191) :

Revenue and expenditure r.n account Apr. 1-TIc. Rev'nuei and e\pen.liture n ac' Lint .Apr. I-r'ec.
ofcmnsilidated fund. 31, 191. rf c ns ,lid:.ted fund. 31. 191,.

Revenue: Exp..n litiure ......................... $ 1 ,..3 199
Customs........................ 113,2'4,0 19
Excise.......................... 22, .] ), S,7 Exppn t liti o rn :;i pit l .ico iill :
Post of ................... .... 14,00. ,000 \\ :r............................ '2!. r1 ,
Public works (in Iludin: railways llli':..r I't hn rnlw.y,
an i canils).................... 31, N 9, 176 an I vi-nil'). ................. II 42i
Mis :ellaneous ................... 40.(372, !711
Tot 1 ........................... 3. '; '7
Total.................. ...... .. 222,-1 .5,,5:.2

Bond Sales-Victory Loan.
The following table shows the value of bonl sales in 1918 com-
pared with the figures for 1917:


Dncnei-.

Government bond..................... ........ ............ .........
Municipal ................ .......................................... ....
Railways .................. .... ..................... ............
Public service (including Canadian companies operating in rather cluntrieFl .
A ll other.......................................................... .....
Total ........................... ... .. ............... ........ ........


1.' I4. S12, in
2li;, Ifi'. Iin7
I 2' -', 0 ill
17, ni.7, SiL
775, 3456,033


1915

?731. 4, 72q
4"i, A.5, 72?0
5,.1 o0,n no
2,375, NOW
5,155. 000
791,981,419


----








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


A recent table of subscriptions to the Victory Loan shows a total
of $695,389.227. Taking the Dominion as a whole, 1 person in every
7.08 subscribe(1, as compared with 1 in every 9.02 in 1917. The
Dominion averaged $88.91 per capital compared with $53.37 the pre-
vious year. It has been announced that of the total subscribed the
Dominion Government has accepted $660,000,000, the balance to be
turned back to some of the largest subscribers.
Progress in Banking Business.
General progress in all branches of the bankingbusiness is recorded
1b the figures given in the Canadian bank statement issued by the
Finance Department to the end of December, 1918. The following
is a summary:
Items. 1917 1918 Items. 1917 1918

D-epi.irin lem ,n i S1.569.441,871 $711,034, 060 Loans to mimicipali-
PD r,,,] .ft.:r ni c.'.. 995,97',013 95S, 473.557 ties;................. 36,353,039 $30,684,052
Cu'ii.L1t 1.'Jn in I .in- Call loan; in Cmnida.. 71,779,020 89,120,423
- i ... ............. 855,533,29S 1,075,640,003 Call loansolsewhere.. 134,4S3,482 150,248,322
I-'rrn]I luii.u .lw- Circulatinn........... 208,753,337 240,705,540
when................. 11,5S1,098 119 ,13,,21 Totalassets........... 2,323,163,7s3 2,689,835,181

Bank Amalgamations, etc.-Insurance Companies.
Two important bank amalgamations took place during the year,
the Royal Bank absorbing the Northern Crown, and the Bank of
Montreal absorbing the Bank of British North America. This re-
duces the number of Canadian banks to 19 and eliminates 2 more of
the smaller ones.
Total hank clearings in 1918 were $13,448.158,683 as compared with
$1.2.5 06S,537 in 1917, a rise of 9.7 per cent. The rise represents in
large part the influence of high prices and the extraordinary activity
in war work. All cities for which figures are reported showed in-
creases over the previous year, except Winnipeg, Calgary, and Sas-
katoon. which showed slight decreases.
During 1917, the latest year for which figures are available, the
number of insurance policies in force by Canadian companies was
7-44.2_,. by British and colonial companies 36,408, and by United
State-, coinlpanies 1,681.102, a total of 2.461,749 for 1917 as compared
with 2.18.3S2 in 1916. The net value of policies in force was: Cana-
mian companies, $996.699.292; British and colonial companies,
$.s;7,7.$'; ; United States companies, $529,725,775; total, $1,585,-
112,446. a-. compared with $1,423.179,632 in 1916.
Fire-insurIlance figures for 1917 are: Gross amount of policies-
C'ianailiIan companies, $819,328.8.51; British and colonial companies,
$19,L' .i.s .TS1; United States and other companies $1,311,166,450;
totil, $1,039,4S5,061 as compared with $3,418,238,680 in 1916. The
net nont111 paid for losses was: Canadian companies, $2,411,791;
I'riti-h an,1 colonial companies, $8.379.236; United States and other
co0ll)pniets, $,636,502; total, $16.427,529 as compared with $15,114,063
in 1916.
Fire losses in Canada in 1918 were $31,815,844 as compared with
$20,0,s6.I S5 in the previous year.
Fewer Business Failures Reported.
The failure record in Canada for 1918 is the most favorable in a
long period. The number of failures, 673, is the smallest for any,








CANADA.


year back to 1882 and compares with 1.097 in 1917. Liabilities
amounted to $14,502,000 as against $18,2-11,465 in 1917. Except in
Prince Edward Island, Alberta, and Sa-katli-ewan, where there were
small increases, every Provin'e reported a de tease, the most notable
being 19 in Ontario. 125 in Quebec, 25 in Briitih Columbia, and 29
in Manitoba, as compared with the 1917 figulre~v. On the other hand,
owing to several large manufacturing failuiIre tihe ind'ebltedness ex-
pended $2,823,532 in Ontario. $i8.21 in Bvitish ('olibia, and
$417,857 in Nova Scotia. This increase, however, was outset by the
falling off in Quebec of $3,618,300. The grea;te.-t inuni.it r of failures
occurred in the trading group.
Grain Crop Returns.
According to a bulletin is-ued by the Dominion BiiuIre of Statis-
tics the total yield of wheat for Canada in 191sl i- returned as
189,075,350 bushels from 17,353,100) sown acres. an ave rag. yield per
acre of 10.8 bushels. In 1917 the corresponding fi.zures were
933,742,,850 buhels from 14,7055,850 acres, a yield per al-re of 15.7
buhels. The yield of oats in 1918 was 42 .312.51)1 bushels from
14,790,336 acres, an average of 28.8 bushels )pe acre, ; s compared
with 403,01,0.00 Ibushels from 13,313.400 acres in 1917. an average
of 30.2 bushels per acre. Of the remaining grain crops the total
yields in 1918, with the figures for 1917 in parentheses, were, in
bushels, as follows: Barley, 77.287.240 (55,0,7,750) ; rye, 8.504,400
(3,857,200) ; peas, ;,300099.400 (3.026,3-140) ; beans, 3.5,"3,380 (1,274.000);
buckwheat, 11.375,500" (7.1409,-00) ; :itx, 6.055',.200, 1 5,03.000) ; mixed
grains, 35..662.300 (1o.157,080 r : corn for Ius]ing, 14.214,200 (7,-
762,700) ; pctatoe-, 104,364,200 (70,8902.0i0) ; turnips. etc.. 122,609,600
(63,451,000); hay :-id clover. 14,772.300 tons, (13.6084.74 ); fodder
corn, 4,787.500 tons (2,600.370) ; sugar beets, 1P40.)100 tons (117,600);
alfalfa, 440(,400 tons (262,400).
Root and Fodder Crops.
The area under root and folder crops, conisting of potatoes, tur-
nips, etc.. hay and clover, alfalfa, foddler corn. and sugar beets,
amounted to 12.321,351 acres as comnlpared witli 0.5)i,.5S8 acres in
1917, all these cropls sharing in the increase. The tttaI! area planted
to field potatoes was 735.192 acres, as compared \vitlh 151,93.',8 a're in
1917, both years establishing records. The estimated vi-ld per acre
for Canada is 112 bushels, as compared with 121.5 I,-liels in 1917,
and 150.25 bushels, the average for the 10 years, ~ !,.-1l17. The total
estimated yield of potatoes for 1918 is 104.(304.2100 Iflsltl.-, as com-
pared with 79.892,000 bushels in 1917. The yield fnr 1918 is the
highest on record, the previous reIcord being ove oeo < ir l iI)0 bushels
in 1909. By Provinces tlie avera e yielM per a,'re i-: Brit ish Colum-
bia, 228 bushels; Nova Scotia, 190.75; Manitobl., 1s. : Prince Edward
Island, 170; New Brunswick, 158.5; Quebec, 147; (nt:'rio. 116.6; Sas-
katchewan, 116.25; Alberta, 70.5 bushels per acre. Tle largest acre-
age and production of potatoes this year are in Quebec. the total yield
being 38.936,000 bushels from 264,871 acres, Ontario bein- next with
19,376,000 bushels from 166,203 acres.
Turnips, mangolds, etc., yielded 122,699.600 bushels from 323,037
acres, an average yield per acre of 377.4 bushels, a, compared with
63,451,000 bushels from 218,233 acres or 290.7 bushels per acre in
1917. The yield of sugar beets grown for beet-root sugar was 180,000








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


tons from 18,000 acres, all in Ontario. Hay and clover in 1918 gave
a record yield of 14,772,300 tons from 10,544,625 acres, as compared
with 13,084,700 ton, from 8,225,034 acres in 1917, the yield per acre
being 1.4 tons as against 1.6 tons in 1917. The previous record was
14.527.000 tons in 1916. Alfalfa yielded 446,400 tons from 196,428
aces. an aveirag- per acre of 2.2 tons. The estimated yield of fodder
cor) in 1!lsi is 4,7T7,500 tons from 502,069 acres, an average of 9.5
)tns pier a're.
Values of Field Crops.
The average value per bushel of grain crops in 1918 according to
tihe prices returned by the crop correspondents of the Dominion
l31uri'au of Statistics is: Fall wheat $2.0b as against the same price
in 1017: sprling wheat $2.02 a a against $1.93; all wheat $2.02 as
against. $l.1;: oats $1.T78 against .0.9; barley $1 against $1.08; rye
$1.49 against $1.62; peas $2.54 against $3.34; beans $5.41 against $7.45;
bIIuckvlI.e:t $1.58 against $1.46; mixed grains $1.14 against $1.16; flax
S:.13 ;iainst $2.05;: corn for husking $1.75 against $1.84. The price
for 11potatoes was, $0.98 per bushel as compared with $1 in 1917, and
for turnips, etc., $0.43 per bushel as against $0.46. Hay and clover
have tihe record price per ton of $16.25 as compared with $10.33 in
1917. For alfalfa the price was $17.81, also the highest on record,
as ag.ain.-t $11.59 in 11117. The price of fodder corn is $6.15 per ton
against $5*.11, and of sugQar beets $10.25 against $6.75.
Tli- total farm values of the principal field crops of 1918 are esti-
mated as follows, the corresponding values of 1917 being given in
Iparentheses:- Wheat, $381,677,700 ($453,038,600); oats, $331,357,400
($277,01U).'),300); barley, $77.37s.i;70 ($59,654,400) ; rye, $12,728,600
($';,2;i7.200) ; peas, $7,873.100 (, 10.7'24.100) ; hbens, $19,283,900 ($9,-
493,4110); buckwheat, $18,018,100 ($10,443,400); mixed grains, $40,-
72-,...( ( .$1.801,750) ; flax, $18..-,1,000 ($15.737,000) ; corn for husk-
ing, $24..$021,00 ($11,307,200); potat oes, $102,235,300 ($80,808,400);
turnips, etc.. $5-2.52,000 ($29,5:3,000): hay and clover, $241,277,300
($141.371.700) ; fodder corn, $29,439,100 ($13.834.900); sugar beets,
$1.8,45,0U0 ($793,800) ; alfalfa. $7,963,500 ($3.041,300).
The total value of the field crops of Canada in 1918 is estimated
at $1.:';7.909,970, which is against the highest on record, and com-
pres with $1.144,636,410 in 1917. The total includes grain crops,
$:3.'.7.77ii ($s.75.532,350) ; potatoes and sugar beets. $104,080,300
(.s1.:3i!s.200) : and fodder crops, $33I.931.900) ($187,505,900).
In tho three Prairie Province--Mannito)l, S:skat.hewan. and Al-
).'rta---the production of wheat in 1918 is estimated at 164,436,100
1,ilisels as compared with 211,9'53.100 bushels in 1917: of oats, 222,-
(li:1,00, ;Is compared with 254,877.2_00; of barley 47,607,400, as com-
p.ared witl 40.384,100; of flax 5,776.000 bushels, as compared with
53.8:.9000 bushels. The estimated wheat production of Manitoba is
t1.191.100 Ibuwhels from 2,963,702 acres. in Saskatchewan, 92.493,000
bu,,lhls from 9,249,260 acres, and in Alberta, 23,7.52,000 bushels from
3.892,489 acres.
Mineral Production Increases in Value.
According to a preliminary report issued by the Department of
Mines the total value of the metal and mineral production in 1918
was $210.204,970. Compared with the production of 1917, valued at
$189,646,82_1, an increase of $20,558,149. or 10.8 per cent, is shown.





..... .... :I










CANADA.


During the past three years greatly enhanced prices of metals and
mineral products have contributed in large measure toward increas-
ing the total value of the mineral production, but out of 45 items in-
cluded in the mineral record, 18 reached their highest production in
actual quantity during 1918 or 1917. The production of centmnt, clay
products, stone quarries, and other materials of construction, com-
pared with maximum production before the war, was reiluced almost
one-half because of the enforced cessation of building activity,
whereas the output of metals and of various nlnmetails and fuels,
most of which entered directly or indirectly into the requirements of
Ihe war, was greatly increased. More than half the total increase has
been due to the higher prices obtained for coal, and a consihlrable
proportion of the remainder of the increase to higher pri'-es of silver,
cobalt, and asbestos, though each of these products except silver was
also produced in greater quantity than in the previous year. The
wetal output in 1918 was valued at $113,563,111, an ill; r.aSe of
$7.107.9 4. or 06. per cent over 1917. The total value of the non-
metallic production, including clay and (quarry products, in 1918
was $96.041.859. as compared with $83,191,674 in 1917, showing an in-
crease of $13.-40.185, o'r 1, per cent.
The refinery erected at Port ('olborne, Ontario, by the Interna-
tional Nickel Co. of Canada started operation, on July 1, 1918. All
the buildings of the new refinery of the British America Nikhel Cor-
poration at Deschenes. Quiebe,. have been completed, and it is ex-
pected to have the plant in operation before the close of 1919.
Mineral Production for Two Years.
The following is a preliminary statement of the mineral production
of Canada in 1917 and 1918:


19
Products.
Quantity.

META LLIC.
Antimony ore (exports) ......... .... ...... ton, s .. 361
Cobilt, metallic jnl contained in oxide, etc...pountl?.. 1,079,5 72
'or er. ........ ...... ................ ......... .. 0 227. 3.1
Gold .......... ............... ......... ounc-;. :3, h31
Iron, pig, from Ca n:-di in ore.................. .tn. 4t..n 22
Iron ore, sold for export .... ............. ... .. do. ... I'.i, '.2
Lead ................. ................... pou in ls.. 32,576,281
Molybdenite.................................... do 288,705
N ickel .......................... .. .. ......... d ... 82,330,280
Plate in .lm ................. ......... ... .olinc t 57
Silver... .............................. J 22, 22 ..'
Zinc .......................................... pound 29I ,, .7,,4
Total.................................. .. .. ...... .........
NONMETALLIC.
Actinnlire ................... .............. tons.. 120
Arsenic, white and in ore .................... do .... 2,936
Asbestos......... .......................do ... 135,502
Asbestic .................................... do.... 18,279
Chrom ite................. .... ..... ..... .. do 36,725
Coal ......................................... do.. 14, nf'..759
Corundum .................... ...............do 188
Feldspar...................................... dn... 19,462
Flourspar.................................... ..do.... 4,249
Graphite .................................... .do.... 3,714
Grindstones ........................ ....... ..... .do.... 2,523
ypsuMn.........................................do.... 336,332
Ragnesite ...................................do.... 5, C,090
Magnesium sulplhae ..........................do.... 1.'"
a Short tons throughout.


17 1918

Value. Quantity. Value.



$22,000 26 $1,430
1.727.315 1,347,544 3,368,860
29.667.959 118.415,829 29,163,450
15 2- .2, 710,526 14,687,875
76q.783 47,444 1,204,703
.".J,695 112. '5 469,352
3,628,020 4.3,I. '. 4,055,779
288,705 ::: 434,528
33,732,112 92,076,034 36,830,414
3,823 39 2,560
18,091,895 21,284,607 2:i, "-.9-1..0
2. 141. S17 33,663,690 :-', :4., :20
106, 4...147 ............ 113,563,111

1,320 228 2,508
669,431 .498 561,128
7,183,099 141,462 93tJ,SU0
47,284 16,734 .13,974


4'04, i.'
43,l19. 1
.32,I1 .I
89,826
Gj,, ~; "
| i2, _'G
4.5,7.4 I
881,984
728,275
4,645


21, 04
14,'.; '1, 2.1
137

3,051
3,072
52.12,2s.
39,3h.5
1,910


867,122
55,752,671
26,118
117,379
135,712
270,054
83,005
821,006
1,016,765
11,460


.MR, r












SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


NONC'MET. LL I:-c'nI inued.
M anc3an, .. .c ................................. .....
M ica................... ................... .... tons.
Min:ril li:m,'ni s:
S rvre.- ................................. .0do....
Silx ul.. .................................. .. .do....
Mineral atir. ..........................................
N-turil e. ............................. M cubic feet..
Petr-leliu ................................... barrels..
Pho phale ....... ...................... ......... ons..
Pvi is .......................................do....
Quartz.................. ....................... do....
Salt .............................................do....
Tale .......... ................................ do....
Tripolite............. ....................... do....

Totial............................................


Quantity.



158S
1,166

3,490N
9,490

27,408,940
213,832
149
416,649
216,288
138,909
15,803
600


Tr.l'CTLT r.A L MATERIAL'S .\ND CL\ PRODUCT;

Ccmcnt, Portl-nd .............................barrels.. 4,768,488
Clay proielulct-
Brick, ommon...........................number.. 210,630,576
Brick, pre '-ed ...............................do.... 46,408,946
Drick, n:,ilded and o-n imrntal ................................
Fii el y in d tir,-.clay products.................... ............
FirI-proofin-, terra cot ta.....................tons.. ............
Hollow building: blocks.................number.. ............
Ka.nlin....................................... tons.. 533
Pot terv. .......................................... ...........
R,.fr.citori's. fire clay, etc ........................ ............
Sewerr iip" ......................................... ............
'rile, drain .............................. .nunber.. .........
Lim e ........................................ bushels.. 6,567,170
Sand-lime biick.............................number.. 18,001,990
Snrl and gravel (not complete)................ ton S.. 9,1S2,417
S] 11 ............................ ......................... 1,422
S-one'
;rinite ........................................................
Lim e' tone................................... ...... .............
M .rble ....................... .... ................ ...........
ainds tone.......................................... ............

Total .........................................

Grand total ..................................................


n Excluding S537,339 from imported.


- ~ I


Value.


$14. 16
358,851

54,027
87,605
141,814
5,045, 298
542,239
1,486
1,610,762
495,1 2
1,047,792
76,539
IS,000

63,354,363


Quantity. I


640
17,317

20,140,315
304,741
140
413,698
224,116
131,727
18,190
500

............


Value.


268,375

10.165
112,440
155,855
4,370.622
866,554
1,200
1,688,991
708,026
1,285,039
112,727
12,500

78,230,195


I I ________________


7,724,246 3,591,481

1,999,465 171,921,837
653,153 38,317,751
541,234 ............
326,.l11 ............
394,733 27,912
...... ... '.. ......... ..
9,591 863
122,s78 ............

7 3,762 ...........
434,708 19,616,261
1,55S,487 6,2-;0,666
201,335 16,824,858
2,326,249 5,b85,334
7,783 ...........

639,412 ...........
2,283,659 ............
55,820 ............
261,256 ...........


7,076,503

1,915,490
626,311
43,442
............
224,587
43,087
19,299
a 131,242
b 397,458
699,784
499,135
1,856,819
213,680
1,786,528
5,124

645,850
2,134,283

93,042


19.837,311 ............ 18,411,664

189,646,S21 ............ 210,204,970


b Excluding $81,018 from imported.


The next table indicates the fluctuations in quantity and value of
the principal minerals in 1918 as compared with 1917:


Principal products.


In,.rea-e (+) or
decrease (-) in
quantity.


METALLIC.
Cobalt........................................pounds..
Copper...........................................do....
Gold. .........................................ounces..
Pi:: iron from Canadian ore.......................tons..
Lo. ... ............. ..................... pounds..
Milvd,,ii; k t. ....................................do....
N,, kl .......................................do....
Silver ........................................ounces..
Zinc.........................................pounds..

NONMETALLIC.

Asbestos and asbestic...........................tons..
Coal ............................................ ....
Graphite........................................do...
Gypsum ................................... ...do....
Magnesite...................................... do....
Mica................ ...........................


Per cent.
21 8
S 1
"..S
3. 1

30. S

4.2
13.4


2.9
f,. C.
17.9
54.7
32. 2
.. ....... .


Increase (+) or
decrcase (-) in
\alue.


+$1,641,5145
- 521,539
- 5 13, 117
+ 435,920
+ 427,759
+ 115,023
+ 3,0 ., 302
+ 2,505,615
+ 105, 503


+ 1,740,396
+12,552. S40
- 132, ;38
- 58,978
+ 2S, 410C
- 90,476


Per cent.
95.0
1.8
3.8
56.7
11.8
50.5
9.2
13.8
4.0


24.1
29.1
33.0
6.7
39.6
25.2


~----~-- I










CANADA. 11


increase (+) or Increase (+) or
Principal products, decrease (- in decrease (-) in
quantity. value.

NONMETALLIC-COntinued.
P(r cntl. Per cent.
Natural gas........................... M cubic feet.. 7,26S,t)23 2J.. Fr.74, .76 13.4
Petroleum.................................. barrels + t *', i' + :32.41, 519.
Pyrites ......................................... tons.. 2. '4 1 0 7 + ;. 2-. .1.
Quartz.................. ......... ............do.. + 7, + 211, 11 42.7
Salt............................................ .do.... -- 7, 1',2 :. 2 + 2.37,17 22.
Cement .................................... .burrels.. 1, 177, )U 2l4. 1,17.-;1 8.2
Clay products............................... .... ....... 17', 2'13 3.,
Lime ..................................... bushels. 29o, .01 4 3 + t'' ,.H.: 19.1
Stone...................................... ...... .. .......... .. 11.3

Mineral Production by Provinces.
The mineral production according to Provinces i-, given below for
1917 and 1918:


Provinces.
Valli- .r ..I)[nt ai e. I'-tr ,r"nt
OJfi" of totl. oJ total.

N ov S ora. ............................................. .. 1,101, 12 J 13 22 7 4, 10. 3
New Brunswick................................................ 1,433, 'l 71 2, 11i1. 1.0
Q .............................................. .. .... ..... 17, 01.1,177 9.14 19.' i, 4' 9
Ontario.............. .... ............. .. ............. ... 9, 0( ', 1000 46.9 94, I 0 42) 44. 7
Manitoba ................................................ 2, 2 ,214l 1.39 3, 1' ,. 7 1.52
Saskatchewan...... ...................................... ,.A t31 'i Sjl, '1i 43
Alberta................ ......... ........................ .1 27,3 535 8.71 23.24, 11 11 0
British C'olImbi ...... ........ ..................... ... 31,14 1,9 19.03 42, l0-. 741 20.02
Yukon ................................................... 2,202 2.31 2, 2 ,.. 1.U7
Total............... ............................... I .11'., .21 100 '10 210, 2'01. 'J7i 10') W

Slight Decrease in Lumber Production.
No official statistics of lumbering are available for the pas-t vear,
but from information published by the Canada Lumiberiman it would
appear that production during 1918 was les, than in the previous
year. In the Georgian Bay and Northern Ontario districts the pro-
duction of lumber in 1918 shows ai decrea.-e of 107IO7.)1,2(2 feet board
nieasure as compared with the production in 15)17. The totta;l cut ac-
cording to the Canada Lumberman amounted to 514,118.-55 feet
board measure, as compared with (621.41.s(57 feel board in'asilre in
1917. The decrease in the cut is attributed chiefly to un-ati factory
labor conditions. The high cost of production. absence of export,
and frequent embargoes upon the. railways were also dI.terrent fac-
tors. A contributing agency was the sudden break-up if winter in
1918, which left in the forests many 1lo._'- which had not le'n hIauled
to the banks of the streams. The production of laths ini tith dli-trict.
was 109.441.720 pieces, as compared with 22(;.28:S.71)() in 1917. ; drop
of 116,842,040 pieces. The shingle production wa;. 11. :S(;.750 pieces
as compared with 16.240.250 in 1917, a -lhrinkage of 4.s'.,.c. f pieces.
Production in the Ottawa Valley declined Iv 7.TsN.32.9., 7 feet as
compared with 1917; lath was 34.17-12.0 '( pieces le-s. ;and shingles
dropped 16,510 pieces. The total lumber output here in 1918 was
349,978,000 feet, compared with 420,330.987 in 1917; lath 40.294.000
in 1918, compared with 74,466,250 pieces in 1917; shingles, 1(,815,000
compared with 33,325,000 pieces in 1917.









12 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Timber Trade in British Columbia, etc.-Fisheries.
The production in British Columrbia showed a gain, the cut being
1,761,184.000 feet in 1918 ;Is compared with 1.647,275,000 feet in 1917.
Reports from tlie Provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in-
iecated a falling off in lumber production as compared with that of
the previollu year, contributing factors being scarcity of help, heavy
--nowfalls. and low water.
The total value of Canada's sea fisheries for 1918, according to
preliminary figures isueld by the Marine and Fisheries Department,
was $31.017.-208 as compared with $28,934,24C6 in 1917. Lakes and
other inland waters are not included in the statistics.
The, following statement shows the value of the catch by Prov-
inces for the 12 months ended December, 1918:
Nova Sr.i'ria ___-_----------------- --___---------------___ $10, 230,775
Prince E.1 lnil Island -------------------_______ ---__ ------687,159
Ncw P.-rui1i vick-----------------_--------------------- ____ 3.767,479
(,iIl.e------------------------------ ------------------ 2, 097, 306
British Co'luli ------------------------ -----_- 14, 234,489
Tontal -------------------------------------- 31,017,208
Statistics of Manufactures for 1917.
During tho year the Dominion Bureau of Statistics completed its
cCensus of manufactures for the year 1917 and has issued the pre-
liminarv figures. The returns cover 34 380 establishments and show
a remarkable development when compared with the census of 1915,
as indicated by the following table:

Items. 1917 1915 Increase.

t'-pital invested ........................................... 2,772,517, i0A) 11,991,10 272 3778:414,408
Employees on ilir; ...................................... a 73, 5U a 52, iS3 a 20,915
S l-.,rif. plid .............................................. 93 i, 0 3, 05 CO, 30(,303 35,675,213
F rl rlove.' on wages, in-luriing piec.enwork.................. .a i19,473 a 41.2,200 a 157,273
S pi .............................................. 57.245,45 229,45, 210 227,789,246
(C'., o t eri nrl ......................................... 1, (l2, S?0, 131 802,133, 42 SO, 6R6,769
\'-ilu:. of produl t ....................................... .. 3,015,50t;,8.9 1,407.137,140 1,603,369,729

a Number.
The gro-s value of goods made in Canada in 1917 amounted to
$3.015.5Ol;.;. and the cost of materials was $1,602,820,631, leaving
a net value addled 1by the process. of manufacture, of $1,412,686,238 or
$...,549,098 more than the gross value of production in 1915.
The total capital invested in Canadian industrial plants in 1917
vas $2.772,517.00, of which (a) land, buildings, and fixtures
amounted to $998.351,070, (b) machinery and tools to $567,262,538,
(-) materials on hand, stocks in progress, finished products, fuel, and
miniscellaneous supplies to $745,546,310, and (d) cash, accounts, and
bills receivable to $461.357,76.
The amount of capital invested in the leading industries was:
Electric lilit and power, $356,004,168; pulp and paper, $186,787,405;
log lprodtctN $149,2I;6l,019; cars and car works, $98.274,585; steel fur-
naces and rolling mills. $91,894,777; flour and grist mill products,
$72,573,982, agricultural implements, $70,493,801; foundry and ma-
chine-shop products, $6:1,915,032; car-repair shops, $68,763,298;
slaughtering and meat packing. $68,145,347.








CANADA.


Transportation-Building and Construction.
The operating mileage of Canadian railways was increased by 270
miles in 1918, bringing up the. total to 38.875 miles. Capitalization
advanced by $15,000,000 to $1.000,000,000. There was a slight falling
off in the number of passengers carried, but this was counterbalanced
by an increase of nearly (6,000.000 tons in freight inoed. Gross
earnings amounted to $330,000.000 and operating expenses to $223,-
000,000, the latter showing a large increa-se over the pre,'cding year.
Notwithstanding the larger volume of traffic the railways were not
able to add to equipment. Accidents caused the death of 32 passen-
gers and 154 employees.
According to statistics published by the Department of L:lior for
35 cities with populations of 15.000 or over, the estimated cost of
building work in 191S was $36.83S.270 as compared with $Y3,.i!;;.426
in 1917, an increase of $2.901.S.44 or 8.55 per cent. Increases were
shown in all the eight Provinces (no figlres- being presented for
Prince Edward Island) except New Brunswick, Quebec, and Mani-
toba. The greatest increa-,e, 149 per cent, was shown in N\ a Scotia,
and substantial increases were also reported in Alberta and British
Columbia. Of the larger cities, Halifax, Ottawa. and Calgary showed
marked increases; Toronto, Vancouver, and Victoria also reported
increases, and Montreal and Winnipeg showed slight decreases.
Labor Conditions-Government Employment Bureaus-Strikes.
Employment during 191S was on the whole well maintained, though
at the close of the year. with the signing of the armistice and the
consequent shutting down of many munitions factories, large num-
Iers of wnag nre earners were being released. IMany of these. were being
absorbed in other industries but there was some unemployment and
the situation at thie close of the year was becomliing more difficult
owing to the 1num11er of soldier returned from -ervice overse:li. It
was estimated that the number of war workers who would be re-
leased would be about 225.000, half of the nuniber being in Ontario
and perhaps a quarter in Quebec. The West. with small lal:nu ;ictur-
ing industries, was expected to have comparatively few workers s to
place, and in British Co(lumbllia where perhaps most of the western
war workers have been employed, it was expected that (xpansion in
the shipbuilding and limnibering industries would reduce the po -i-
bilitv of much unemployment.
To assist in solving the question the Dominion Government has
established a system of eliployinent offices. It is proposed to have 60
employment otlices, including provincial offices that were in opel:ation
before the act came into effect. Provincial offices are alre:,ay estab-
lished in the large cities in Ontario, Manitoba. Saskatchewan, Al-
berta, British Columbia, and Quebec. In the Maritime Provinces_ the
provincial governments were not prepared to establish offices and the
Federal Government is undertaking the work. Tlhe provincial gov-
ernments will operate clearing houses at Vancuv(er, Edlmitnton, Re-
gina, Winnipeg, Toronto, and Montreal, and the Dominion Govern-
ment will conduct interprovincial clearing hoiises at Ottawa, Winni-
peg, and Halifax.
The work of the employment service is also being assisted by the
Repatriation Committee and the Soldier's Civil Reestablishment De-









14 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

apartment. The latter body will maintain a representative in each
c.lmployvnIc t ottice who will lrok after the interests of soldier appli-
ca its and arrange for vocational training when necessary. Preference
in llouploy'i lnt will be extended to returned soldiers.
Tliv total -nunber of strikes in 1918 was 19G, involving 68,489
emplloyiees and a time loss of 763,341 working days. Comparative
i o'stre for 1917 are: Number of strikes 148; employees involved
4-'.329!; tilIe los-es 1,134.970 working days. The class of industry
1!1(mot aIf''rttdtl by i4trikes was the metals, machinery, and conveyances
grIoui: the other industrial groups chiefly affected were mines,
seiIlter-. and (quarries with 36 strikes, transportation with 16 strikes,
and the food group, where S strikes were reported. It. is stated that
36 per cent of all strikes were due to demands for increased wages
and h2, per cent to demands for increased wages and other changes.
In 7 per cent of the cases the dispute was due to the discharge of
employees. Of the total,number of strikes, 57.6 per cent were ter-
minated in favor of the employees and 20.9 per cent in favor of em-
ployers. In 10.7 per cent the disputes ended in a compromise and
about the same percentage was indefinite or unterminated.
Living Costs-Immigration-Homestead Entries.
According to figures published by the Department. of Labor, the
aver:;ge cost of a budget of 29 staple foods for a family of 5 averaged
for December, 1918, $13.63 as compared with $12.24 in December,
1917. The index number of wholesale prices was 288.8 in December,
191f, as compared with 253.5 for December. 1917. The index num-
bers are based on 100 as the average price of 272 commodities in the
decade 1890-1899.
Immigration to Canada during the calendar year 1918, as com-
lared with 1917 is shown in the appended table:

Percentage
Countries. 1917 1918 o nrease
(+) and de-
crease (-).

Uniiril KIinIl .om............. ............................... .... 2,.?38 4,480 +85
Uniled SI te ......................................................... 79,271 40,194 -49
All ot her rountrirt .................................................... 4,541 5,590 +23
To: l............................................................. 86, 451 50,270 41

Homestead entries in Canada by Provinces during 1918 as com-
pared with 1917 were: 1017 l118-
Muilitol:, ------------------------------------------ 1,61S 873
Saskatchewan ------------------ ---------------------- 2,966 1,272
Albert ------------------------------------------- 3, 95 2,163
British Coluihinipin------------------------------------------- 209 69
Total ------------------------------------------8,778 4,377
Federal Aid to Provincial Housing Schemes-Plans for Reconstruction.
The Dominion Government by order-in-council has authorized the
Minister of Finance upon request of the government of any Province
of the Dominion, to make loans to such government for the purpose
of creating better housing conditions for the industrial population of
the larger cities. The aggregate amount to be loaned to the Provinces







081


CANADA.


is to be not more than 0-.'..I) 1).1)00: In;anii may be for a period not
exceedling 20 years with intele-t at the rate of 5 per cent; advances
are to be made as -,oon a- tih ge nweral -clhenl. of hoit-ing hall have
been agreed upon between thle )Dominion Gove(rnmenit and the gov-
ernment of the Provin'e.- app)lyin'jl- for a l(;n.
Canada early bl)elgin )preliziarti Cabinet \v\a.- ilivied l1 into two iliin ll' br.nil1'w or committo'-. the War
Conmmittec. to (eail with tlie iminnijelia to problem of the war, and the
other lknow, ;I- 1rlt RW'l-t lltion and Developllint, C(,io ittee,
to con-ider thle !)rublhli- whlichl would accompany the return of pi-ae.
ThiI body m, titaken up i;nd 01,'ntint11- to deal 'with -ili iii~t-,tions as
land .ettlimint. tho retiurni of -,old ier- to civil life, inmit-trial changes,
laIln)r rcondition l-. relati on Ir.twe\ en employers.~ and employees. A
s lbcoininitloe wl o triilil in Mi:iy. 1918, ]nldl.r the 'l1:irniln-hlip of
the Mini-ter of .Labor. ti kee ip the main committee in touch with
lahor -onidlition, thri iutifil tit- imintlr\. A body known as the
Sldie'r Setttli-i]!innt l,1 nd i ti 1: lin. ', rI.d1 for the i'iirpose of settling
sJldier., 1on ti.: 1 in1l ;nI l to iicLci. -.- i, ri:''tltural production.


GTON; GOE N PRINTING *:





WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OF1ICN: 191




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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