Supplement to Commerce reports

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Material Information

Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00061
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00061

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text




SUPPLEMENT TO

COMMERCE REPORTS
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Annual Series No. 22a January 20, 1919

BRITISH WEST INDIES.
JAMAICA.
By Vice Consul Davis B. Levis, Kingston.
Kingston, the capital of Jamaica, has a population of about 80,000,
including the people of its environs. The Kingston con,'ular district
comprises all but the northeastern part of the island, which is cov-
ered by the consulate at Port Antonio. The conlimer-ial activities of
Kingston, which is the chief port and wholesale center of the island,
cover practically all of ,Jamaica, and the trade -tatitics obtainabl:le
from Government sources are not generally clasified by sections.
Accordingly, the comparative tables of imports and exports and the
other statistics given are those of the entire island. All conver.ion.~
have been made at the rate of 4.L8665 to the pound sterling.
Economic Conditions in Transition Stage.
The economic condition and future trade of Jamaica are in a tran-
sition stage, owing principally to war conditions, but partly to a
succession of hurricane- in the pa-t three years which affected every
phase of the life of the island.
Jamaica is an agricultural country, the most important, export
crop until 1913j being bananas, for which the United States was the
chief market. However, with the disappearance of European beet
sugar from the world's markets, the price of cane singr hlas so in-
creased as to make its production here again highly lucrative, and
cane cultivation is therefore engaging more and more the attention
of planters and of local capital.. The developmetint. of this re-ourc e
can not fail to be beneiicial.
In addition to bannanas, sugar, and rum, there are also cultivated
coffee, ginger, pimento, logwood, cacao, coconluts, and other products
in sufficient quantities to co..ntribute to the .umi total of the exports
but not separately of such volume or value as to affect appreciably
the present condition-. The markets for Jamaica coffee, ginLer,
pimento, and logwood are so uncertain that the handling of these
commodities does not always prove rellluneraitive. To this draw-
back must be added the destruction of large nllumbleri of cnrcnut trees
by the latest hurricane, which greatly redLiced the output of the most
valuable of these minor products.
A considerable amount of the poorer lands at present is covered
with underbrush, but the area unler cultivation is steadily increainfg.
There has been in the past two years a tendency to devote b1anan:
lands to the growing of cane, and if there were rea-onable certainty
that the sugar planters of the British colonies would be accorded any
preferential treatment, there is no doubt that an incre1aied area
9795G"-19-22a









SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


would be cultivated. Even as it. is. there has been a very marked
augllentation in the vale1 of lands. and agricultural wages have been
niised to sie extent thirolluhout the island. This increase has,
Lower. b n largely otff-et by a corresponding increase in the price
of fool-tlufft.. I)botl home grown and imported.
Distribution of Foreign Trade.
The f ,orei.gn commerce of Jamllaica. after a decline of $4,500,000 in
1.15 from the value in 1914. more than recovered the loss in 1916 and
practically maintained its gain in 1917, making several years of ,the
lIire'-t forlei.iLrn trade turnover in the history of Jnmaica. There was,
hi',wver. ;niil unfavorable trade balance of about $1,500.000 in 1916
nil mu imre than $4,000.000 in 1917. This difference is accounted for
lv the largely increased. price paid for imported merchandise and
(.,intii 'licie-. and by the curtailmnent in shipping space and markets
fnr cxl. iuitation of native products.
The followv.ing tialle shows the distribution of the trade of Jamaica
with other countries in 1916 and 1917:
Imports from. Exports to
1916 1917 1916 1917
'1niit, KinOdl ... .................................... $4,90s,9 $3, 16.1,4 5,9i64,971 335,412,113
Cant)ada..... .. .................................... 1,132,479 l, .l6, 1977 I 1,'3,170 1,825,142
(Othbr BrUit:h I.-loni.?.. .......... ............ ..... 1.,1S l 47,'.7 247,0-12 349,967
rlnited Stat s..... .......................... ....... 8,677.251 11,3.13,'514 1 4,40.610 3,381,060
Irlemnh ril ............................................ 12,, 567 .
rI rl ... ............... .......................... 1. .3. ,4 i 13i ,'1 ..... 12 ,09
N .:t h -r I ,i ....... ....................................... ..W '-, :0 ............ .............
1ani m ......... ......... ............................. 4, 1.37 2, ,33 18. 036 178,065
St Th m a irgin I island ............................. 24,2'4 1 .705 ....... ... 1,357
aSv.lr ........ ...................................... 11,1 14 ,. ? .
All othc r eonl tries ..................................... 17,1)1. It;, 43 121,4'33 166,103
T'lta ...... ............. ...................... 1.5, 1211,234 16,173, t1' I 1,72.9,534 12,064,574

An analysis of the figures for 1917 shows not only a decided in-
crease in imports from, but a large decrease in the exports to the
United States. Imports from the United Kingdom fell off heavily,
and exports to that country were reduced, although in smaller degree.
Trade with Canada was practically the same as in 1916.
Imports and Exports by Commodity Groups.
(Comprarative tigiites showing the fluctuations of Jamaica's for-
eign trade fromll 1913. the last pre-war year, to 1917, by groups of
allied commodities ( exclusive of specie and bullion) are given in the
following" table:

1.\rt'.1 .. I 13 1911 1915 19!6 1917

IM'OR -'.
Fo. Jr.l. rilk, aiui ul .n- co ........... .. ." i,'u7,n 4,4 9 s'.I,.004 'i6,017,132 .$6,'25,044
R.1:. m' l'.ri'als a d rtile mainly no-
maniufltuedi. ......................... i .2 1i .1.6, ; S6,52 1,546, 768 2,035,267
Art iclec '' holl or m inl' inm .i,f., i i .,i ..i ,244..'1-2 6,0 1, 4'2 3.7S1,i 35 7,233,303 7,092,071
T,.t....... ........ .. .. ....... i, 7l'.,'12 12,421,240' 11,32,,421 14,S52,205 16.043,282
1 ------------
EXPORTS.
Food, drink, and tobacco ................... ,9s, 1) I' 1.;790 :.0; S.,37.1.0(s2 S, 01., 43 ,4 06,051
Raw materials and .irticl,.; mainly un-
manufactured.............. ....... -f. 'S.90 U..22 1,204, ,,2 2,540, 237 1,4681,215
Articles rhollv or mainly miuf hined .i li.i51,1l l,04l '1,-0 1,2335,Si34 2, 1'1,:309 2,157,582
Total................ ...... ...l 0.'i.:1. 051 1 i,.'.9.'5 10,&3.,794 13,036,.39 12,026,848








BRITISH WEST INDIES-JAMAICA.


The import of food, drink, tobacco, raw materials, and articles
mainly unmanufactured incrca-ed, whereas that of articles wholly
or mainly manufactured decreased. While the per capital pulrcha-e
of imports from all countries rose to $19.03 in 1917, based on an
estimated populationn of 850,000, plurchases of goods from the United
States amounted to $13.33 per capita-nearly double that of
1914--15-illustrating the growing value of Jamaica's trade with its
American neighbor. Thel e imports covered the widest possible range
of commodities, although in many lines merchandise of a cheap
quality formed the bulk of the goods, on account of the -umall pur-
chasing power of many of Janmaica's consumers. With increa ced
wages and [hinme production of food supplies, the shift to manu-
factured prod ucts from comestibles should be noticeable in the f utllure.
Purchases from United States and United Kingdom.
The imilport trade of J~muiaica for 1917 reached the record sum of
$16,175,'6;3, an increase of more than $1.000,000 over that of 1916,
which was the largest in the history of the island up to that time.
Analysis of the figures for 1917 in comparison with 1916 shows the
shift of commerce to the United States, the percentage of Jamaica's
import trade supplied by that country increasing to more than 70
per cent of the total.
The following table shows the imports into Jallaioi from the
United States and the United Kingllom during 1916 and 1917:

From United States. From United Kingdom. From all countries.
A r. ir it --------------------
1916 1917 1916 1917 1916 1917

Bnooks a.ni priTianI m ller..... $6,745 S7.977 r$3i 22 2W.951 $48,125 $37,871
Builmin, m itron l ............ 529,388 ."'12 ."'* .3, 2 'i 4-,(36 587,075 370,091
Clothing !vi `i.. ........ .. 1,526,392 1,913,712 1,383,244 1,009,181 2,915,033 2,930,295
Coal and .' .............. 453,884 852,041 1,017 1,012 454,949 853,054
rolton nj.l''l [ir. r ....... 937,390 1,346,760 1,000,976 762,955 1,939,227 2,112,037
E utale m irlinr ............... 93,933 128,959 134,267 122,319 231,193 2i0,781
Foodsl urlt..................... 3,114,166 4,202,549 930,441 332,718 5, '?, f47 5,857,908
Hardv.arT andf ir. mnig.iir -.. 341,915 411.149 166,809 93,918 32,017 527,031
Housrehl- furLniiitrr.......... 19,840 lb,556 4, 94 1,129 25,303 20,921
Liqu ors....... ............... 99,924 127,745 277,127 136,919 407, 47 295,728
Machincry anrd li .i.......... 132, 07 121,526 18,765 36,786 153,095 1(0,142
Oili........ ... ......... 395,340 580,865 27,773 18,021 42, 846 (43,517
Tobacco .v.i1 (jla-, r ........... 45,059 109,647 38,737 15,646 84,010 125,380
Allothe: .irtln-' l ............... 980,668 1,008,879 845,695 555,457 1, 90,187 1,980, 07
Toil .................... 8,677,251 11,335,904 4,968,849 3,16-3, 48 15,120,234 16,175,963

The import trade with the United States in 1917 in-'rcn.-ed
$'2.6.j';>:3 ove.r 1916, while the gain in the total import trade was
only 1.0i55,729. The increase noted was principally at the expense
of the United Kingdomi and is :acouniited for by the lack of shipping
to Iand from (; great Britain and by the turning of many British manu-
factories to \war purlposeA.
Opinions differ as to the perr-m:nent holding of Jamaica's tr.idl
by American concerns after the war, lbut the pro-pective activity in
sugar r prod auction, the rehabilitation of public utili t ie, the beginning
of entellprises delayed by the war, and-the natural replacement of
worn-out machinery should assure an excellent buiine.s with the
United States for the future, in addition to a continuance of the
comn)Iercial as-nciatins formed in the past four year-.
Without doubt, a determining factor will be the satisfactory deal-
ings with American exporters in the past. Facilities for direct and











4 u IL'Pi.I-.IEI'NT TO COMMEIl'E REPORTS.


uliicki trl';lp-lJ~rttiti in and tli' :aeiit-ne of coimplint., as to packing,
Ct(:.. are alo invaluable aids.

Detailed Inmports from United States.

A driili,.1 list of ilnp'rll- flroin the United States for .19I17 is coin-
par..' below with that of 1916:


19
Articles. ----
Qunutity.


Ale and beer........................................ .............
Apparel .......... ................................... ............
Arms and ammunition................................. ............
Bacon.................................... pounds.. 41,164

:i; i._ r. -I I, L I ....................................................
".A. 1 l, I l: i i h......................................... ............
u1 ....1 .l ..l *i l... ........................................ ............

Bread and biscuits ............................pounds.. 1,224. 7.45
Butter ..............................................do... 122,642
Butter substit utes ...............................do.... 322, 825
tih ........................................do.... 17,071
I .r i... parts ........................... ....... ............
('.I l 1 I, i.. ................ ..... ................. ............
Cement ........................................ barrels.. 43. '92
Cheese..... ...............................pounds.. ]Y,', ',P)
(h micals ................................... ......... .......... ..
China and earthen ware............................... ............
.;'... .. ......................................tons.. 33,985
S. .. ...... .............................................. .. ...........
C.onfectionery.......... ............................... ............
{ il' '.- I ll '.1[ t Ill '; ..... .. ... ... .. ...... ........... ..... .... ...

orn..........................................bushels.. 1 140
Cornstarch.................................... pounds.. 11,075
Cotton manufactures:
Hosiery.................... .. .... .............................
Piece goods....................................... .. ..........
Ribbons........... ............................... ............
Other................... ................................. ......
Cutlery............................ .................... ...........
Felt r ocaL i ......... ................................... ............
Fish:
Canned............................................. ....
Dried and salted.......................... pounds.. 440, 326
Alewives............................... barrels.. 1,027
IT-i rin:. :.... ..................... .In 2,204
ii I IfI -moked ........................pounds.. 384
M.j.' ki I. ...............................barrels.. 338
Salm on ............................... .... 99
.Ini,!,, tiiok. l ......................... p.'iinds.. 682
Flour .......................................... I rrels.. 244,834
Fi ilit-, lied .................. ................. ... ... ...........
S- .- ul glassware.................................................... ..
i I i. ip'r.aed.....................................................
S ms ..... ................................ ..............
i .ia I.t-rd rA. le i ii ............................ ............
1iabe.rdashery............................................ .. ..
ams n .... ................................pounds.. 12", .
Hardware................................ ...L... .........
H natss......... .......... ...... ............... ... ..........
Jamsand jellies ...................................... ........
SIard. .. .. .................................. piiL.I1 333,485'
Leather:
Dressed............................................. ..........
Manufactured..................................... ............

.\cli l iijl .................................................
I .11 lr". ..... ....................................... ............
Machines, -cwing .................................. .. ..........
Manures, chemical ................................. ..........
Matches........................................gross.. 10,220
eal.......................................barrels 47,711
Meats:
Canned........................ ............. ...........
SIlt'd..... ...........................barrels.. 5,066
Medicines and d rugs........... ............... .......
Metal and implements:
.\Arii ullurfal iuujrlpenimrn, and tools............................
.\ppr-stusl Ir aj .. ......................................


16 1917


Valiiu.


$88, 293

11 t;55
1l '. 42

1.102

40li, ".,
74. 412
.1,2 '22
1.5. % I
.), 11
,5 I17
I..i 1

1I., t
F3'. il

453r106

,i. '111
.1.71'

171 ?1.


1, 193
'21 "17

24,021
5,811
1 G90


Quantity


I----[-- I


37,441


.. ... ..

194,629
S5 707
irani. V;7
12, W


31. 293
l .: 'I13


7. ..



70, 75(i
38, 418


. ...........
, .007 .. .........
:l. 426 2;-. 772
6, 2S2 962
13, 12 823
., 27,% 1
11., 12
SO0 194
, I) 7 | 19 52 2
li 5 .4 .............
.il, .i ............
17.2oT ............
11, t ll ............
13.242 ............
.j7,111 ............
13.004 .I 129
1:3J,..12 ............
I. 197 ............
1 17 ; ............
7, .)7.' 213,444

19,08 ............
12,011 ............

93,933 ............
120,599...........
1 ,0 3 ............
14.463 ..........
4,832 8,798
232 fi, 57,396

t, ............
130,105 2,161
115,2'JS ............

24,557 ...........
4,180 ............


$109,871
l.5, 977
15.202
1.. 16
75., 710
9, 232
U. 321
7, i7i
:1.7, 410a
1'. 742
4.3 441
A9, S73
2.35,:1
21". 0!-
4,761
119, 4091
.11,537
1,4. 17-
I-;, Sit




1 ., 147l








32, 926
2,l 99i
1 1. 136i








9..'41
1,4712


80,983
:1 0, 021

1, 709



21, 755
1,470)




73,5
1, 716

21,753


41, 173
.12,532
159,675
5,61 "
21, IS
43, 8i

21,267
9, 964

133, 49
15, 950
17,947
56,32.
4,911
530,707
8,663
87,69.5
121,604

21,236
3.,33-












BRITISH WEST INDIES-JAMAICA.


Articles.


Metal and implements-Continued.
Artisans' tools .....................................
Br ;. :an.1 innufartures ...........................
Coipp.r.nn i manufactures.........................
Iri-in jul At i, and manufactures...................
Iron-
I'i ............................................
IjI r............ ...............................
Lead-
Pi?! ...........................................
Manufactured ..................................
N ail<, i rs '-w t ...................................
P'r llin-i' rpr Tri- ar nd t, )L.' ..........................
Hontmn.. ,l\v iii -. di-r. ..........................
St h_ i'i. fjr I nii m .................................
St ..,I .ar ..................................... .
Tin, and manufactures ...........................
Tubes and pipes.................................
Wire-
Fencing......................................
N .-i tin .......................................
Zinc manufactures ...............................
Mill condensed.............................pounds..
M otlr cars and parts...............................
Motor cycles and parts................................
IM lsi ,il in truments .................................
iat .. .......................................... b shels..


1916


Quinniiy. Value.



............ $3q,567
........... 3,470
............ 12,921
............ 19,237

...... ...... 730
......--- 7,695


............

............
............
............
............
............
............
............

............
............
............
290,457

............
............
22,758


''ii;
Bean ....................................gallons. 11,532
Corn....................................... do... 121,899
('ntr 1 i-;.. 1 .................................. do.... 74,907
L iulri- ,i;n ...... .................. ..........do... ........
Naihl I .i- n .1 _.l ':l.nr .......................do.... .2 W
I' t : lI-ttli I ... ....... ....................... d o... 1, 1 1, t..l
Other.................................... .... .. .. ..
-;l1 I,-.tli and linoleum.............................................
Paints and colors.................................................
Par or:
Pi l in ............................................. ...........
W rit ing ........................................... ............
Irlier ................... ........... ........ .... ...........
Pe.i and beans.............................bushels. .1 244
Per lumery ............................................. ...........
P h' -1tI i I p i 11-1 i C I- I. ..ii ; ................... ....... ............
Pr visions n. e. s ..................................... ............
rite ....................... ................pounds.. 85,910
S-1. Idlery and harness...................
Sail..... ....................... ............. ounds.. 211,016
S.i ire ( t.. Il~iun i and pickles....................................
Silk m,.n i.l 'i .. ......... ...... .......... .......... ...........
Slit os and pencils........................ .............. ............
sni p...................... ...... .................. ............
Sp ( -. .. .... ........... .................... .........
St 111rl .compo nds......................................... ...... ......
Sl i i i ........compo.nds................................. ............
Sugar, refined.................................pounds.. 484,380
Tec ... ....................................... do.... 26,176
Telpr il .h and telephone apparatus.................. .......

'irrettes.............................. ri' in; 4,750
it i I r in 1in.factures............................ .do.... 6,341
Raw......................................... .. 28,327
T i',- iand : i ( .. ... ....................... ........ ..........

.I.l.- I ........................................... ....
Potatoes................................. bushels.. 5,496
SVoo d:
Flirnrr ................................ ... ............ .
Hoops and shooks..............................................
Lumber-
Pitch pine......... ......................feet.. 6,171,205
W hite pine ................................... .,.1.121
Sllngll,. ,- } I.- ......................thousand 6S3, 033
Plnql r If- 11m.i' I iI r e ............................ .............
W'o lr',e .ilanufactures.......... ....................... ..... .....
W\ini... .........................................................
All other .r ri le. ............................. ............


433
2, 253
41,701
2,424
58,642
4,614
12,902
31,602
8,429


Qu i;i v.


35,915 ...........
6,4!)7 ...........
944 ...........
31,194 1,248,885
357,343 ...........
1 "'7I ...........
N "- .'7 ... .....
25,749 35,276

10,521 30,460
103,496 34,404
68,350 42,062
17,276 ...........
11. 7.I 465,293
-':, 2 1,101,223
9,213 ...........
4,2 38 ............
26,888 ...........

57,255 ...........
12,594 ...........
56,189 ..........
V, ?.2. 1,113
552, 1.11 ...........
6,015 ............


12,774 .....-------...
2,054 505,159
2,940 ...... ....
10,443 ...........
5,719 ...........
37,087 ...........
11,845 ............
3,246 ...........

?* 616 300,553
22, 629 ------

1.60) 26, 607
4,638 ...........

4,623 33,567
1, 96 2,883
38,200 41,08S
7,203 ... ...---. -


24,742 2,194

17,811 ............
307, 5 ---...----...


225,241
29,632
!9, 22
22,7312
4,412
14,7!i9
131,653


5, 737, 219)
44;), 735
490,903

----------..
............


-...-......--


Total................. .................... ........ .... 8,677,1


Value.



$48,928
4,010
29,194
14,517

613
6,375

1,445
1,966
58,704
16-516
20,984
2,312
9,198
20,161
2,789

20,765
9,076
195
103,165
393,472
8,751
17,465
40,767

43,234
48,266
59,702
13,758
23, 492
312,609
27, '30
6,522
46,836

53,644
24,084
111, 19
10,969
48, 50
5,023
12,784
647,731
9,437
5,222
4, 13
6,604
5,456
34, !49

4,644
26, 129
24,684
12,945
16,692

32,143
1,t65
75,840
8,038

11,295
15,358

18,522


223,363
18,100
9, 35
24,791
3,178
13,412
4'11. 785

II, J".,'n.U


............
............
............
............
..........
...........
............
.. .. .
.... .. .










(6 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Analysis of Export Trade.

RIlatively few commodities and groups of articles comprise the ex-

- Iprt, of J;lnli(iia, all of them being products of the soil and to a
;larg d,.ri exported in their natural state. The large decrease in
imli,,utai'- of the fruit trade is due to the loss of three successive
bainMina i rlps l- hurricanes, which caused the exports of bananas to
decline from $7,500,000 in 1914 to about $1,000,000 in each of the
\yore.; 1916 and 1917.
SThe following statementt shows the value of the principal exports
from Jamaica for 1916 and 1917, also the share taken by the United
StAt-; and the United Kingdom:


Articles.


Cacao.......................
Cattle........................
I ltt io ............... ..
Svewoods .......................
Fiuit.......................
,;ingerr.etc...................
II.r r- .....................
Pimento.....................
Rum.........................
1utI'11 .. .......................
I fl).cII :, a l cigars............
All other articles..............
TO.i t ] ...... ..............


To .United, States.


1916


A$262, O0O
677,972
307,845
1.223,511
1, 051,397
7 ,, 02...

50,757
13,427
S. 122
', 142
131,402


4,480,610 1


$137,371
5r,7, 2&
21S,068
4423 5'7
929,302
832,371
14 1.S3
"11,984
77,859
905
42,656


3. 3S1,0',0


ToIrniled Kingdom.


$472,629
113,881
129,337
370,438
118,523
1,S32,690
147,747
1,641,339
1,067,326
31,588
39, I7"1


5,964,971


To all countries.


1917 1916


$304,013 $814,340
........... 31,769
97,043 873,001
91;,955 706.177
151,270 1, 93. 614
240,249 1,227,243
1,914,C68. 3, 16f1,308
....... ... 21,970
186, 567 213.157
17A6, N92 1,762,106
2,12, 507 2,447,217
47, 45S 2;2.,255
67,474 232,347

5,412,113 13,729,531


Shipments from Kingston to United States.

Below are given the quantity and value of the chief articles in-
voiced at the American C(-onsulate at Kinu)Iton for shipmentt to the
United States during 1916 and 1917:


Articles.


Annat to.....................................pounds..
Antiqies.............................................
Cacao .......................................pounds..
Ch( mini po ..................................... s.... .
Coee......................................pounds..
Copra..........................................do....
1 i-d( i ...................................... .... ...
I iil ;:I rld I1 A10..;:
1.,in in.lI .................................. -tem s..
Grapefruit ................................. boxes..
Or .i'l~c ........................... ...... do....
Cashew u 1I i.................................punds..
Coconuts...........................................
1I 1i ni ut ............................... .pound& ..
Goatskins.....................................do....
II '. l ...........................................do....
I-.Lath, ........................................do ....
LI II]F J ,l'r .............................................
Logwood extract............................. pound i ..
Mangrove:
ark................. ................... ......
E \I i.a t .............. ...... .............. poun s. .
O r g,. oil ...................................... do....
Ium .............. ........................... gall,.,ns.
Spices:
CGin e .................................... .pouiJds..
Pimento.............................. ... do...
Sugar... .................... ................. do....
Tannin r-\t rlrt ................... ....... ... .


Quantity.


570,901
2,752,041
4,013,499
2b2,342

1,281,392
8,236
8,405
1,689
94,660
131,413
570,109

565,600


84,236
14,630

043, -73
1, N60, ;67
121,. 4W


16 1917


ValnP Quantity. Value.


$73,241 0S,850 S8, 195
............ ............ 5,184
5,136 5,184
3.5,"136 2,115,004 198,321
2 97'


4 7,O031
11,020
2.944

396, 516
13, 400'
10,371
375
406; ,.31
6, %37
73,093
t0, *!0l)
2,170
89,01
32, 4011
115., 477
17,544
84,'599
.57 293 '
4,657


3, 1 S6.697
1, I2S,43
. .1 ....
455, 122
1 R.V02
7,046
S. C99
5, r.99

101, t.67
9'1,. r79
N7,S77
............




1S,715
99., s25
I,51l, ;31
1I.61,023
S2,O7


305,157
78,318

147,695
30,309
8,536
3,004
417,877
7,010
100,296
22,349
43,757
............
G,is6
10,020
3,723
191,322
21,957
131,914
77,382
'9,917
6,697


1917


$573,531
39, 102
721,965
569,264
774,615
1,211,899
3, 56, 310
1,061
348,611
271,234
3,426,259
319,889
241,834


12,064,574


i------------l~i----~r-


" ''


5










BRITISH WEST INDIES-JAMVAICA.


1916 1917
Articles.
Quantity. Value. Quni iy. Value.

Woods:
Bitterwood....... ......................... tons.. 321 $2,326 .................
Fustic...................................... do............... 2,944 56............ .
Lignum-vite ............................ ...... 59 520 201 3,96
Logw juI ...................................do.... 29,752 1,074,732 7,728 257, *;
All ot her :.rir.:ls....................................... 1........... 11,30 ..16,121
Totil .................................................... 3,360,391 ........... 2,335,134

The excess of values in coffee, cacao, rum, etc., from the King--tn
consular district over those of the exports from Jamaica is on ac-
count of gonlt in transit to Canada and the United Kingdom in-
voiced to Ainmerli,-n concerns for transshipiiient; the Government
gives the ultimate do-tination in its customs returns.
Declared Exports from Montego Bay.
The following staleii-'ilnt shows the quantity and value of declared
exports from Montego Bay to the United States for 1917 -on.lpared
with 1916:


Articles.


Annatto............................ ...... pounds..
Bitterwood ............-......- .............-- tons..
Copra......................------......- 1'" -"
Coffee...................................... l".'1ink'
Cacao .......................................... do...
Coconuts.................................. .pckages..
Dyewoods:
Logwood....................................tons..
L.-nf io rn i ............................. .do....
F'l ; ...... .............................do....
Fustic roots .................................do...
Fruit:
Bananas ................................bunches..
<.rIiip frI II .............................. *'. l ,1 :
(l i :L ..................................... do....
Giner ....................................... pounds..
Honc .....................................packages..
Limer juice .....................................do....
Oil, orange .................................... do...
Oil s,'el- ................. ....................do....
Pimento ..................................... pounds.
Rum..........................................gallons..
Srpcie ................. .................. l i.
Skins, goat.....................................pounds.
Sugar.......................................packages..
Wax..........................................pounds..
Tot l ............................................


1916 1917

Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.

47, 765 $5, 227 24, 087 $2,907
605 4,507 807 6,124
...... ...... 1,732 276
75,563 9,184 50,295 5,361
1,770 178 2,452 230
3,020 10,189 1,859 8,105
6,876 273,831 4,301 99,813
4 2''. 149,313 3,710 77,631
122 2,008 484 15,158
64 780 269 6,304
150,457 77,407 11,310 3,427
74 108 48 138
001 548 .....................
282,609 34,342 342,728 58,272
50 1,107 .... ........... ......
24 1,996 105 5,877
4 392 46 3,976
......................... 15 926
382,123 13,443 1,464,316 61,842
...... .... ..... 40 100
1 4192 .. ... .......
36,091 24,789 15,961 16,917
325 3,710 ......................
.......... ...... ... 512 274
............ 613,551 ....... 373,663


Returned American gondi were valued at $14,019 in 1917, com-
pared with $10,160 in 1916.
Maritime Trade Decreased-Nationality and Tonnage of Vessels.
The iI-terrupltion of Jamaica's maritime trade is ri.fifli'cd by the
recrecrase(d nlilller and tonnage of vessels arriving at and departilng
from Jamaica ports since the wnr 1,'gN:1. The large in,'rca(e of
American vessels and tonnage and the more fri:'qllnt appearance of
the United States flHg in port is in I.cpring with the figures of trade
with that country.









8 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Thi ve esrl! entering ilad clearing Jamaica ports, which in 1913
i1,lii,'eir"d S01, with a total tonnage of 5,118,i12, decreased in 1917
to 1,7.75, will a tiiina;ge of 2,064,933. On the other hand, American
t.1-~, ilnini-rin-" 1:2. with a tonnage of 13G.OJ21. i 113. ave more
than tr( llal in nImunber'.
Tie 1 i,;tiInlli(y and toMnaige of vessels entering and clearing Ja-
.ai,.;i porL., during 1917 are given below:


Nationalities.


S t .h .. .. ................................ .......
.rill .a'.... ....................................
S\ w rican. ..............................................
S r ........................................ .....
an ih.................................................
l other................................................
Total.............................................


191(

Number.

3,7
539
452
516
18
33
1, 925


1917

Tonnage. Number. Tunnag,.

I. 166 350 836,99S.
32,'145 623 34, .91
1,07. 17i 371 870.041
4:S4,.77 37 I 28q,877
i, ). .D ,D 7,964
11, 'I 42 26,472
2. '), ".'S 1,775 2,004,933


The comparatively large Norwegian tonnage is accounted for by
the cli:harter of Norwegian botorns by the large Americani fruit com-
p):iiits to replatc vessels diverted fronl the fruit tiriade to other uses.
Agricultural Products Leading Exports.
Pi'a-'tically -,tanding alone amriong the revLiii'c-pruiluI iing items of
Jamaica's r(.c-,iirces are the prodnucs of its soil. Almost all products
grown in tropical count trie- can be raised in profitable (quantities
here, but only a limited number form the money-returning crops.
These crops, together with the natural forest dye-tulf woods. are
exploited to the exclusion of others. even to tlie detriment of re-
tutrn-. in produce and wunge-. In addition, an uiiniiorable trade
balance results from the annual importation of large quantities of
corn, corn meal, and other foodstuffs. A general movement toward
increased production is now in progress under the active direction
of Government officials and agricultural societies.
The prolduts that lead in cu ltivation and return- are bananas,
c.,c olll ts. cacao, sugar, rui, coffee, pimento (allspice), tobacco,
gingel', ann tto (a product extensively used for dyeing), citrus fruits
and their produ(ctL-. orange oil, and lime juice. The outstanding
features of 1917 fl. un an agricultural point of view were the excep-
i finally good -e:l-on* and high prices, which cretedt confidence in
:igricltural pulr-niits; the. revival of the sugar industry: the very
appretcia:ble increie:-e in the cultivation of food i-rops. especially
corn; and the hurricane of September, which by practically wiping
out the binlna industry caused a decidedly serious situation among
I he planters of tlat -taple export commodity.
Compilati ons of returns show the amount of land alienated from
the Crown and re-ited in individual or trust to be 2.209.203 acres. Of
tlii-, 1,0;5,712 ilre-, are returned as being in wood anid underbrush
and 1~,1.0'.', as under cultivation. There has been considerable
reduction in the h;inaiia acreage, but an increase in coconuts and
ground provisions.
Comparison of Quantities of Agricultural Products Exported.
The Royal J;ii,:iica Sc-'iety of Agriculture and Commerce in its
ann1111l report for the year nll(ing May 31, 1917, compared with the








BRITISH WEST )NDI ES--JA.MA1.'A.


two previous years, gi-ves the follojvin-g s;iltemln'l! of( the '. n-itities
of the principal ;gricultllral prodii-i-! and mani f;: ,.,- i, ,. in-
cluding dyewoods and extracts, exportedl friii J1I1 :;i,::i:


Products. --
1915 191 1917

Coffee................... .............. ..... .hundredweiaht.. -.415 7, 64,103
Cacao................................... ................ .. .... ... I.. I j
Coconuts........................... ....................number .. '. I ..' 2 15,. 27,:
Bapna a ....................... ..................... :c 2..i 72 1 '
Orin't ...................... ............... ....... n "n, 1 .'. i .' I 1 560 11 "-.,; 77
G rap:h r it .................... .. ......... ... .. ..... .. n 21, :- .'.1 0194 i ..'5
Cottrn t ................. ................................... p-': l, I.' 'I 6 'i i.' ,?S
Hon t. ..... ....... .................................... a l;.. .1 I'... 1 1. 4
singer ......................................1.. ln. I h h l .O, I',X
Pianger ........... ................................. hL ItIwM i
Rum ....................... .............................. gallons.. t,,, 4 1 l l 1 21 ,868
Dye ood ............................................... ...tn .. 47,836 i7,604
Dyewood e tract ..................................... pac l.a .. 24,988 30,913 21, 85
Sugar........................................................ tons.. 14, 29 22,51 26,715

Banana and Annatto Cultivation Important.
One of the chief exports of Jamaica is bananai;ii- wlilch, beginning
with a value of $100,000 in 1881, increased to 7..~0),oo for a inle
year before the war. On account of severall -ul-'c'--'ive hurrice.nes,
shipments for 1917 were valued at only about $1,000.000.
Exports of banana-: for 1916 were 3,449,- 5 stems, and those for
1917 were 2.>91,514 stems. The average area planted to bananas had
been about 8.',000 a:'re) for the pa-t three year-, 1,i was ielllic'd to
6,000 acres in 1917.
Janmaica. lposes-es- all the reqluiiite- for success in the banana in-
dustry, and is, be'ides,two day- nearer the principal -;i-iteri markets
of the United State- than are Central Ameriean ports. A perfect
shipping and marketing organization riaintanined by American cor-
porations tends to stabilize distribution and assure sale of the fruit.
The export of bananas from other West Indian Islands -except
Cuba is insignificant.
An important agricultural pursuit, employing many women and
children, is the cultivation of annatto, which is c(xter'ivily used for
dyeing silk, cotton, and wool textiles and various other article-. and
also for coloring butter and cheese. After the seeds are gathlredl and
prepared, the waxy test is removed by boiling water and put thu .i,;gh
a process which leaves the yellow and red tint of the annatto of com-
nmerce.
Production of Cacao and Coconuts.
Another important Jamaican product is cac4-ao. the bean fr'Im which
chocolate and cocoa are made, and which i- grown only in di-triets
that. are atmospherically humid and have a rich soil and ample :rin-
fall. The quantity of the Jamaican output does not rank o., high as
that of other countries of the West Indies. It has been pointed out to
ccaco planters the advantages they would derive frn-i organized at-
tention to the requirements of cocoa niInufacturer, which, if met
with, would result in an increased demand and in higher prices.
Jamaica produces an annual average of 3,500 metric tons of cacao
but, with the exception of Haiti, ranks lowest of all the Wet Indian
Islands and near-by South American countries in quantity produced.








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


A small proportion of the output is prepared in Kingston for local
consumption.
Cacao lbrii'ought more than $800,000 to Jamnica in 1916 for more
than 64,.'i1;0 hundredweight, the United States taking about one-third
of the exports. In 1917, the value of the exports amounted to about
$:7.,000 for a -zlightly smaller crop.
rThe' development of coconut growing lias been steady, the returns
havingg increa-ed froin $275,000 about 10 years ago to nearly $875,000
in 191';. In addition to the exportation of whole nuts, a considerable
quantity of the meat is shipped as copra. Present indications are
that an extensive business will be developed for the production of
coconut oil, for which there is now a large demand.
Exports of coconuts for each of the years 1916 and 1917 were about
27,000,000 nuts, shipped in bags containing 100 or 150 nuts. The
value of the exports for 1917 was about $725,000. The United States
has always taken the :i'rger part of the crop, the United Kingdom
receiving the greater part of its supplies from Ceylon.
Decline in Cultivation of Coffee and Pimento.
Although still one of the important crops of Jamaica, coffee has
of recent years decreased in production on account of low- prices and
of competition. The value of shipments fell from about $700,000 in
1916 to $550,000 in 1917.
"'Blue Moluntain" coffee, which grows at an altitude of 3,000 to
4;000 feet, is the most noted brand and is said to sell at the highest
price known to the trade, but the quantity is limited, only about 400
tons being produced annually.
Pimento is a widely used seed product, and Jamaica is one of the
principal sources of supply. This commodity is known in many
markets as allspice, as it co mbines the flavors of several spices in
one. An sci'inial oil produced from the seed is used for nledicinal
and perfuming purposes.
The production of p)imento showed a decided falling off, the ex-
ports having declined from 116,911 hundred weight for the year end-
ing IMay 31, 1916, to 57,284 hundredweight for the following 12
1montli,. However, shipments to the United States rose from 15,171
hunlrrdweight in 1916 to 32,804 hundredweight in 1917. with a 20
to 25 per cent advance in the price. The total value of tlie exports of
piniu_'ito, for 1917 was nearly $3l00.000, against $2153,000 in 1916.
Ginger a Staple Product-Tobacco Industry Expanding.
One of the staple products of Jamaica is ginger, which is exported
in b1,1th a dried and a green condition, the latter, however, to only
a small extent. Jamaica ginger has long been in the lead in the
world's markets and (colmalndls the highest prices. The acreage de-
vot'il to its culture varies greatly in different years; under favorable
conditions, a yield of 4,000 pounds to the acre may be had.
The export of 17.1) huncredweight of ginger, valued at $259,453,
in 1916, incrc.a:d in 1917 to 21,000 hundreds eight, valued at $342.329.
The United States usually takes about 50 per cent of the output, but
in 1917, 70 per cent of the crop went to that. market.
An exl lpnding agricultural industry in Jamacia is the production
of toba.eco, which, in addition to the quantity required for home con-
suimption, left, in 1916 and 1917, enough for'considerable exportation








BRITISH "WEST INDIE--JAMAICA.


of manufactured products. Official figures show a steady growth
since 1909, although the imports of inanufa'tured tob:wl'L., pllil,,ri-
pally cigarettes, average about $75,000 per annum.
Owing to a shortage in the 916-17 crop and a very reiii.ith;ile in-
crease in the sale of Jamaica ciga.rs thro'igllout the world, about
1,800 acres were planted for the 1917-18 crop, which was an in .- :i% -1
of nearly 50 per cent.
The 1917-18 crop was an excellent one, for notwithstanding the
fact that the tobacco was very light, the yield per acre was above the
average. The cost of the crop was, however, incrioI-tl1 cci-idlerably
by higher rents for land, raises in wages, and a general -lioortage of
labor, all due principally to the very material extension of cane cul-
tivation. Practically the entire tobacco crop is iu-ed for local manu-
factures.
Minor Products-Hides and Skins.
Among the minor agricultural products in themselves of lesser iin-
portance than those already enumerated yet C(-stlitHting a large
amount, of Jamaica's revenue-producing export trade are oi-,ngi1-,
grapefruit, limes, pineapples, honey, kola and cashew nuts, beeswax,
sarsaparilla, and cotton. Jamaica can also claim one of the only two
tea plantations on the Western IHemisphere. The product of this
plantation (about 100 acres in extent) is sold for local (.onI mlption.
Although Jamaica is not a cattle-growing co-,unt ry, the export trade
in hides and goatskins forms an important agricultural ally, the
usual yearly return being about $300,000, nearly equally divided
between the two commodities. A newly established tannery in Kings-
ton is using a con-idcernblle number of hildes and is exporting sole
leather to the United State- and near-by islalnd-.
Products of the Forest.
Products of the forest follow those of the field in producing rev-
enue returns to the Jamaican landowner. The exploitation of hard-
woods, which comprise more than 100 varieties of treei in the half
million acres of forest lands, could be made profitable, but it is to
the trees yielding dyeStuffs that the attention of landlowners is rn,-fly
directed.
On account of the difficulty of obtaining dyestuffs fromi the usual
sources of supply, there has been a very great adv:Ince- in the value-
of logwood and a consequent increase in export-. Previou') to the
war. little attention had been given to logwood in the d\e indii sry.
Manufactures Dependent on Agriculture-Sugar of First Importance.
Jamaica has practically no manu facturirng interests, unless the
turning of certain agricultural products into more or less finished
marketable commoditie.- is considered. Thepie are the i-im;1 small
factories making certain articles necessary for local use. but siia ,r.
rum, chemicals for dye.tuff.;, essential oils, lime juice, co(pr1. sole
leather, and manufacture- of tobacco comprise most of the mer'lc:ian-
dise exported.
Sugar is first. in importance on the list of manufactured prodli ts.
Exports rose from 4,891 hogsheads, valued at $-. 3990, in 1013, to
28,329 hogsheads, valued at $-.4-47.17, in 1916. all of which went to
the. United Kingdom. In 1917 the exports rose still further, reach-
ing a value of $3.4'(L6,' 9. Con ifidlr'-' in the future of the indii-try







12 SUPPLI.MENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

is shown L\ the iii,' -ce in cane acreage, tle purchase and renova-
tion of nau'hin cvtab;li- hi.il lnt of centrals, and the demand for
SPLar' properi-0, i at high prices. The need of large government
.ultrals is bing ;'-it:i1ed as :a neans of a.iuring the prosperity of
Jal, iica; for (:i11o lild- ;'re not slubject to total loss from devastating
liirri<':,Ii,- as are lia.ania plantations and coconut groves.
(;ri..i.r acti, ily in slgar production after the war will no doubt
take place as the re-nilt of the climin.ation of trouble in procuring
ii-rgr i,:;!chinery and the lowering of the present high cost of all
necessary ri.e'i ireCmenlts for manufacture.
Kaaniifacture of Rum and Essential Oils.
The rum inlduitry -reflects the nativity of sugar production in
J ai,'a. Prices and shipments which were at a low stage at the
beginning of the war, notwithstanding tjie high qualities and stand-
in i of Janaica rum in the world's markets, have since then greatly
incl'cowl .' d.
From ni',.;>7 imperial gallons, valued at $103,113. in 1913, tlhe ex-
ports increased to 1,.77, 13: imperial gallons, valued at $1.762,10G, in
1916, the price more than doubling during this period. The exports
in 1917 were valued at only $271,234, owing to the law of England
wlir!')vr rum less than 3 ycars old can not be consumed there. Eng-
lish spirit merchants buy the rum and keep it warehovsed here, as
the ci,-i of stora-ge is only 8s. (01.9.3) per pinclieon a year, against
2-1s. ($i.84) in England, and. lje.ides, the climate of Jamaica matures
the rum better. In addition to the (piantity sent to the United King-
domi, which country is practically llie only ciistonmr. the local con-
su!mption is very large. Rum duties collected in 1917 were $315,188,
:arin It $SS.5s79 in 1916.
An industry of comparatively recent origin in Jamni:ica is the
mamnf:'-tuir of orange oil. The making of this commodity, which
was rl, iil after the earthquake at Messina. Sicily. Ihas been gradually
( xtciiled until exports valued at lels tlian $10.(l0(( in 1911 rose to
$141,::.s in 1910 and *$221;,:3S3 in 1917. nearly all of the product going
to the United States. Exports of lime juice, another citrus-fruit
p1rodii't, wvre valued at $3S,134.
Increased Demand for Jamaica Cigars.
Two large tobPac.n factor ies making. cigars and cigarette-; and
gLi \in empl, Iv'ii nt to more than 7010 persons, are a part of King-
ston's manuf:actiiri;g activities. One factory is operated by an
American c(,rplor:tion;; the other is a local concern. A large part
of the production is ciinsiinmed locally, but a con-,iderable export trade
is ca vried on with the t'anal Z one. England. and the Orient. The
.-liii citedd output for 1917 wa-, $Iil :,UI.), an increase of 0o per cent
Over 1916. The world-wide -horta ge, togetliher witlh the tremendous
inicria-c in the price of Sunlatra tobnaco. which i-i used as a wrapper
iln Jamaica cigars, forced several of thie smni1ller manufacturers out
of business and i,'cc.-sit;ted an increase of 13 to 21) per cent in cigar
p ri,.,,-.
There was very little change in general conditions as far as skilled
f: cigars and the lack of cm petent workmen have made it dillicult for
manufacturers to fill orders promptly.







BRITISH WEST INDIES--J'AMAICA.


Government revenue for the tobacco traffic for 191.7 wa-, $116.105,
as against $104,79'. in 1916. The import duty was increased ma-
terially in 1916 by surtaxes.
Banking Facilities.
J:ainica has excellent banking facilities b)cralisc' of the -tiiri_
character of the one Engli-di and the two Canadian banks having
branches here. These institution have their chief offices in Kinl-
ston but maintain branchles in all towns on the i-l;Idl. thus giving
small biu-ines centers the same advantages of banking. capital and
accominodations as the larger cities. Commodious ,iimldrrn Ibildino-g
hoIuse the Kinrgston establishments..
All of these corporations have in many of the large cities in various
countries 1blranch hanks, which are important aids in financial and
cominercial transactions with distant markets. On several occasions
persons connected with American banking interests have lu..ktdil over
the field with a view to establishing banks or branches, but nothing
tangible has conme of the investigations.
The la t i-.-ued public statements of the bank-l doing bilniiinI. in
Jamaica were as follows:- The Royal Bank of Canada-Authorized1
capital. $2)5,00,000; paid-up capital, $14,000,000; reri rv fund,
$15,000,000; total assets, $3t:5,1,00,000. The Bank of Nova Scoti:--
Autlhorized capital, $10,000,000; paid-up capit:hl, $6,.-00,000; reserve
fund. $12,000.100; total a-,its, $140.000,000. Colonial B.ink-Au-
thorized capital, $15,000.000; paid-up capital, $3,250,000; reserve
fund. 1,5-2,000. The total assets of the Colonial Bank are not stated .
The circulation of notes of these three institutions for 1917 was about
$3.000,000.
Clearings and depo.-its of all the-e ins-titutions showed material
increases over those of 1916 and reflected the increased business activ-
ity of the island. As the statements of the banks are issued only as
pertaining to their entire organizations, figures of the local establish-
ments are not available.
The Government Savings Bank, established in 1837, has its head-
quarters in Kingston with branches and suibbranches throughout the
island. The number of depositors on March 31, 1917. was 39,(062,
with deposits of $1,300.000: new accounts opened duringg the y'r;i
numbered 2.379. The present rate of interest paid on delposit- is 3
per cent.
Loan Associations.
A law for the encouragement of agricultural loan -Iuieti-s w;a
passed by the legislative council in 1912. Through the I.l'ciicMlery of
this society, agricultural loan banks have play d an important part in
assisting planters to repair damaged sugar wo(rkl and plantation-
loss of crops, etc. caused by the hurricanes of 1916 and 1917.
The Kingston Loan Board was formed in 1907 to advance monn-y
at interest for the erection of buildings in the di-trict laniaged by
the earthquake or subsequent fire to an extent not exceeding the
amount of such loss or damage. By March 31, 1917, loans amounting
to $1.960,000 had been made, with repayments of 41.300,000.
A number of building and loan societies ionldiilte on the iiml.al
lines of such cooperative a .oc.iations have been uniformly successful
since 1874.








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


A 1di.-:oInt and deposit company providing help for a large class
of industriousi people unable to secure business relationships with
1,:nks \\;is formed in 1879 by several philanthropic citizens of Kings-
ton. This society appears to have been the forerunner of the Mor-
ri* plan" banks in the United States and has been of great benefit
to a deserving clientele.
Vital Statistics.
While the population of Janmaica wai given as 831.383 by the census
of 1911, it was e-iiliated in 1916 at b97,196( and in 1917 at 895,692,
the slight los being accounted for by the excess of emigration of
laborers to Cuba and the Canal Zone and "by military departures.
The nonairival of Ea.-t Indians during 1917 was also a factor in the

Registered llmarriages numbered 2.9(fi) in 1917, practically the same
as in 1916, a rate of 3.3 per thousand inhalbitants. Improvement is
shown in regard to the number of persons signing the register by
mark. Births registered during the year were 30..57 in number,
15,414 being boys and 15.143 girls, with a birth rate (of 34.1 per
1,000 of population. 'In 1916 there were 2,9923 births, a rate of 33.4
per 1,000. Deaths regitAered during 1917 were 24,167, of which
12,312 were males and 11.55 f female.-. This rate of 2".9 per 1.000 of
population has been exceeded only three times since tle inaiulgura-
tion of the prc-cnt registry sys.temn in 1878. Of the total number
of deaths, 7,718, or 31.9 per cent, were those of children under two
years of age; of those 5,644, or 23.3 per cent, were under one year of
age. The corre-ponlding rates in 1916 were 35.1 and 26, respectively.
These facts do not, how"e\vr, signify that there lias been a decrease
in the infantile death rate; on the contrary, there lhs been an increase,
although the rate has not been so great as in tle case of dealths of all

Tariff Legislation-Trade Marks.
The only tariff legi-lation enacled during 1917 w&a- a law putting
an export duty on certain conmmodlities as follows: C'ocon uts, $A.4866
per thoii llnd; dry or dry salted hideu. $0.97;:'2 per 100 l poun ld.- green
or wet salted hides, $0.4-s;t; per 100 pound, logwood extracts. liliuid
and solid, $I8.60.5 on every ton of solid 1'igwood extract contained
fli'wrtin ; and sugar, $1.8248 per long ton.
The increased excise duties on rum, beer. matchls. cigar.-. and pipe
tobacco pa.-s ,d in 1916 were continuede.
Thie Rc.i-trar Gernral of Jmnacia report that there were 64
trile-marks registereld during 1917, while 4 were remi\vedl frou the
Vrei ter on account of nonpayment of renewal fo~;. There were 963
on the i.,gi-ter on Dccmnber 31, 1917, among them a con-,idcrable
number of American trade-ma rk;.
A law vesting in the cusitodian of enemy property certain trade-
mnir1:s rei.'i-tered in Jamaica, together with the gojod will of the
business firim- concerned in the goodi, for which tle tradle-nmarks were
regi.-tcred, was pa.-'ed in May,\ 1917.


WASHINGTON : GC\'i:.iri i :T PAINTING OLFl'l. : 1019

















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