Supplement to Commerce reports

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Material Information

Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00055
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00055

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text





SUPPLEMENT TO

COMMERCE REPORTS
) DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.
r --------- --------------------- ----------
SAnnual Series No. 15e October 16, 1919

SPAIN.
By Consul General Carlton Bailey Hurst, Barcelonn.
The total foreign commerce of Spain during the year 1918
amounted to $280,400,270, of which $109,773,375 was the value of
Imports and $170,626,8953 the value of exports, compared with a
total trade of $473,712,150 in 1917, of which $239.110,0S9 represented
imports and $234,602:,052 exports. Although the foreign commerce
of Spain for the year 1918 showed a great decrease in comparison
with that of the previous year, the balance of trade was in Spain's
favor by $60,853,520, in contrast to 1917 when it \was again-t it by
$4,508,046.
The 1918 imports included $6,094,570 in gold bullion and coin,
against $106,339.379 worth in 1917 and $63,08,257 in 1910. The
export of gold and silver in 1918 amounted to $1,713,254, compared
with $2,389,672 in 1917. Exclusive of the imports and exports of
gold and silver in bullion and coin. the balance of trade was in
Spain's favor by more than $65,)00,000.
Decreased Imports, Particularly of Raw Materials.
Lessened importation into Spain during 191S wa, most marked
in raw materials, the value of which reached the lowet point since
1915. each succeeding year having shown a decrease. Notable among
the raw materials imported in reduced quanttities were stones and
earths employed in the arts and industries, including gypsum in
lumps or in powder, coal, petroleum, lubricating oils. phosphates
of lime. vegetable dyes, nitrate of soda, superphosphates of lime, sul-
phate of soda. feculne for industrial use, and raw cotton. Reduced
importation of manufactured articles became general, embracing
nearly all categories, while the foodstuffs of which the lessened im-
portation became disquietingly apparent, were salt pork, bacon.
lard, corn, barley, and other cereals, sugar, coffee, and condensed
milk. There were increases in the imports of iron and steel wheels,
lead in pigs, lumps, and scraps, ground sulphur, jute, manila hemp,
agave and other vegetable fibers, raw wool, and wheat. The-e in-
creases did not, however, bring the imports of these articles up to the
quantity normally required.
Imports by Principal Articles.
The ensuing table is based on the official Resumenes Mensuales de
la Estadistica del Comercio Exterior de Espafia for D e'elrber, 1918,
130448"-19-15e--1









2 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


and shows the quantities and values of principal articles of import
into Spain during 1917 and 1918 (metric ton=2,204.6 pounds):


1917 1918

Articles.
Metric Value. Metric Value.
tons. tons.


Animals, live:
H orses......................................... a1,4 4 5225,465 a2,067 1318,877
Mules and jcnnets.............................. 7,481 530,322 a 8,338 740,056
Agricultural implement .......................... 3,539 G8S,051 1,879 365,282
Breadstuils:
Maize.......... ..... ......................... 55,357 1,594,272 9,722 280,002
W heat ........................................ 50,570 2,002,56S 125,704 4,977,890
Barley and other cereals........................ 1.01 43,228 13 362
Cars, carriag~s, and other vehicles, and parts:
Automotil ; and parts........................ 2,063 1,635,872 1,251 967,542
Cars, passenger and freight and parts.......... 2,.?q 3 33,344 1,876 235,951
Ilicycles, motor cycles anl parts.............. 16 394,503 105 246,226
Carriages and other vr.hicls, and parts ......... 15 2,636 18 1,719
Chemicals, drugs, dye:, and medicine,:
Dyes, etc.................................. S,313 1,529,496 5,931 1,073,105
Drugs, chemicals, and other medicines......... 19,910 2,649,789 9,500 1,292,619
Clocks, (watches, and parts: Watches................ a418,830 1,447,206 a351,312 1,085,451
Coal and coke:
Coal........... ............................. 1,093, 96 5,119,433 467,459 2,187,708
Coke and briquels............................ 73,362 462,181 60,557 381,491
Cacao, crude ....................................... 8,028 2,841,930 9,049 3,203,769
Coffee ......... .................................. 18,227 6,396,696 16,373 5,746,232
Cork bark, slabs and granulated......... ......... 2,423 117,743 2,039 99,092
Copper wi re ......... ...... ............... 2,630 976,720 1,042 387,807
Cotton, and manufactures of:
IUnmanufactured............................... 06.A71 26,146,267 60,032 16,208,769
Manufacitres of ............................... 1,674 2,921,220 1,428 2.257,009
Eggs... .. ................................ 1,414 414,916 635 186,368
Electric lamps, including bulbs.................. 33 307,254 8 76,652
Explosives......................................... 5 2,840 16 9,197
Fertilizers:
Nitrate of soda................................ 52,324 2,260,413 18,751 810,023
Phosphate oflime, natural.................... 130,323 750,663 115,028 662,563
Other............ ............................. 23,636 609,222 134 5,402
Fibers (vegetable) and textile grasses:
Unmaniu fact ured............................... 31,400 2,236,105 40,019 2,911,517
Manufactures of................................ 1,292 490,050 302 244,M09
Fish, cod......................................... 24,791 3,391,860 28,763 3,934.729
Fruits and nuts ................................... 9,010 1,241,432 16,341 2,253,479
Glass and glassware ............................... 1,516 256,718 1,073 175,702
Hides and s-ins .............................. 11,677 5,68,3,761 11,432 5,364,425
India rubber, gut a-pereha, and substitutes:
Unmanufactured............................ 1,337 1,564,39S 842 985,439
Tires.......... ........ ......... 493 1,730,S23 132 462,263
Other manulactures o ......................... 473 1,066,216 331 676,575
Insecticides, including .ulphatr of copper........... 212 20,650 158 15,384
Tron and steel, manufacrurts of:
Wire, mcluding cables ....................... 2,287 153,410 2,463 152,089
Wire, covered, electric ......................... 102 57342 108 66,981
Machincry-
Electric motors and dynamos.............. 2,397 1,452,565 2,835 1,561,031
Gas and steam cnetnes... .................. F51 221,356 396 139,668
Bydraulic motors. ......................... 552 129,125 470 111,018
Locomotis and tnders. ................. 2,830 701,267 5,IS6 1,131,835
Machine tools ............................. 3,656 872,015 836 205,664
Pum ps..................................... 276 107,721 256 100,155
Sewing and embroidery machines.......... 1,359 454,575 1,534 524,525
Typewriters................................ 132 775,306 69 404,709
Other machinery .......................... 7,029 1,896,542 4,628 1,249,230
Wheels, iron and steel......................... 3,621 213,714 6,565 381,799
Kitchen utensils................................. 276 123,963 135 59,339
Leather, tanned skins, and manufactures of ........ 393 1,353,309 296 945,180
Lime and cement................................ 2,579 25,070 1,493 14,560
Meat and dairy products:
Birds for food ............................... 94 27,126 2 738
Butter and substitutes ........................ 254 124,049 135 66,325
Cheese....................................... 186 72,077 108 41,696
Milk, condensed ............................... 3,030 883685 367 106,924
Sausage casings............................... 2,338 913,169 1,122 402,276
Tallow and other animal fats .................. 8,863 1,387,932 4,687 734,008
Oils:
Lubricating................................... 8,751 677,331 4,404 340,845
Petroleum.................................. 34,800 1,390,838 4,478 137,799
a Number.









SPAIN.


Articles.


1917

Metric \alue.
ton4;.


Pnper nml manuii r:-uic( e.-, including pulp .......... ., 405
Paraffin............................. ......... .1.27
Seeds:
Flaxseed or liinred,, wesame m etd, etc.......... .,. 109
Other, including carols .................... .1.21
Silk and manufactures of:
t nlmanu fact urld ............................... iii
Floss......................................... 171
Fabrics ........................................ :13
Other manufactures of......................... 131
Telegraph and telephone materials ................. 20-
Tobacco, and manufacturer, of:
Unmanufactured ............................. l, 752
M manufactures of .............................. 150
Tin, and manufactures of ......................... ..2,S
Vegetables:
Chick-pcra .............. ................... 1,202
Other, fresh, pl .i .r\ cd, and dried .............. ." 50
Vcssels and dlock..
Steam ers ......... ........................ 13,324
Other ...... .. .. .. ......................... 9.374
"Wood, and manutlacurcs of:
Planks and boards-
Common ................... .......... a 1'9,363 I
Fine. ..................................... 4,410
Poles and postl................................ I 6,773
Railway sleepers .............................. 375
Staves ...... .. ............... ............ 47.10
Wool:
Unmanuuactured............... .......... .3339
Manufactures of ......................... 4.5
Gold ...................... .......... ......... .. ,932.122
Silver ............................. .......... o33,19t)
A ll other articles ............................... ... .... ..


2. '412. 2>.',
71,90S7
.'.02.'95
;.0:. 717
1. 517,01 1
.0f2,? .13
2.'.991.74J
040, :3.'.3
769, '22
111 j70 1
16i4.1 "7

i,17 01)4

I Ij If i
221, li72
121, 91i
I.. 07'I
v3j. U;S7
1,01,7. 226
I, 102..57
2'2, '77
16. 31.'. ',


Metric VaIri.







I .:. 90,36.)
'I.' 767,253
S17 1,475, 1-14
Ins 1,323,5:51
1IQ2 331,573
-.'.. 5. 225, t97
201 t660,207
407 244, 130
217 20,074
2..J39 72, i%66
3.50r, 321,391
i., 234 379. 502


iJ2, 7,0
2,319
S, 111
I. 2';
2G;, 303
12,9'11
4316
I t, 2.1g
f', 6t,i 3

[ 1, 61 1,7-


Total. .. ........... ........... ........ 239,110,0 95


a Cubic vyrd<.


1. 059, .92
115,114
146ti003
30,712
..20, 79'.
4,724,0354
943,431
6,094,5710
51,33S
11,047, 11.3
109,773,375


b Troy ounces.


Decrease in Exports.

The decrease in exports from Spain during 1918 was the natural
outcome of governmentt measilr ;inld of a shortage in freight
transportation facilities. It wavs Ilm-t marked in the exports of food-
stuffs which were more than one-third less than those of 1917, and
is chiefly noticeable in case of sardine-, rice, barley, corn, beans,
lentils, onions, all kinds of green vegetable. ong, olives oranges olive
oil, wines, fodder, tinned vegetables, and fruits. The export of
semimnanufactured and manufactured articles also decreased, among
which may be mentioned cast iron, forged iron and steel, copper
shell, lead in pigs. chemical products, soap, cotton yarn, woven
garments, sacks, and cork goods. Both agricultural and manu-
facturing districts suffered from the lei-ened exportation, upon
whicl a large part of the population i, dependent for support.
The increased exports of a few articles did little, to alleviate the sit-
uation. There was a heavier export of cement, blende, manganese
ore, ordinary salt, almonds, hazelnuts, dried fruitL, fruit pulp, and
raisins compared with the previou- year, but in most case,, the ship-
ments were less than under normal conditions.

Exports by Principal Articles.
The figures tabulated below are based on the Resuinenes Mensuales
de la Estadistica del Comercio Exterior de Espafia for December,


$1, ,6, .79q.
931f, b79










4 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


1918, and show the quantities and values of the principal articles
exported from Spain during 1917 and 1918:


Articles.



Animals. live-
Horses. mules, and jennets.................
Cow s........................ .... ...... ....
Automobiles.................................
Breadstul s:
Rice...................................
W heat Hour...............................
Chemicals. drugs, dyes, and medicines:
Glycerin .................................
Rosin ...................................
Saffron..................................
Tartar, crude ..............................
Copper and manufacturers of:
O re........................... .........
Precipitate of copper......................
Bars....................................
Cork and manufactures of.......................
Cotton and nmnufactuies of:
Knitted goods .............................
Piece goods ..............................
Thread....................................
Fertilizers............ ........ ..........
Fibers (vegetable) and textile grasses and
manufact ures of:
Esparto, unrumnufacturel ................
Hemp shoes ............................
Other m.onufactures of .....................
Fish:
Sardines ............................ .....
Other ....................................
Fruits and nuts:
Grapes...................................
Oranges...................................
O.live's-............................ .....
Raisins.................................
Almonds.............................. ..
Filberts ..................................
Glass and glassare.........................
ides and s Jisn................................
Iron ore.................. .....................
Iron pyrites..............................
Iron and steel minufactures..................
Lead in pigs ...................................
Leather and manufactures of:
Shoe ............. ....................
Ski ns, tanned .............................
O il,oulve.......................................
Paper and manuiactLuesof.....................
Pepper........... ...... ................... .
Pipes and smokers' aricle'- Cigarette paper....
Quic..silver ....................................
Salt ...........................................
Silk and minufactuies of ......................
Silver.
Ilullion and coin ..........................
Jew elr ....................................
Sphale ite or blendle...........................
Spirii';. n ini., and other levrr ieris:
Mineral water..............................
Wine,-
('om lmonl re.l ird l i hite................
Fine. rol .Lid white ......... .......
Sherry an I -im ilar type ...............
Malaga and milar type................
Spirits mal li'iuor. ................ .....
Sugar .........................................
T iles ...........................................
Turpentine............... .....................
Vegetables
Chir-c -pea. ................................
Garlic ......................................
O onions .....................................
Potatoes ..................................
Other.......... ...................
a Number. b Dozen.


Metric tons.


Value.


1918


Metric tons.


- I 1 1 -


a 7,804
a 101
a 43

30,189
311

1,004
9,436
112
5,850

31,326
11,763
18,897
47,045

1,894
13,612
5,064
7,437

23,324
6b 1,475,384
5,776

18,220
18,037

16,790
240, 393
16, ;41
8,563
9, 08d
7,0.39
11, l,49
5,014
5,137,621
1,9-5, 937
7o, 200
154,979

931
4, t64
81,570
6.5.3
5,219
3,004
630
274.394
150
E 2,973,720
c 236. s.2
33, .32

2, 825
156,911,431
d 623, .545
d 2, 747.:3-54
d 5,935,i52
d 62.3.7311
2
12, 812
4,115

8,937
5, ?-t3
19, 732
24,503
11,972


$617,098
4,727
46,440

2,336,632
20,179

216,820
424, 600
2,020,770
494,941
110,582
2,434,985
5,442,402
5,481,964

4,354,881
11,198,078
4,557,304
200,794

461, 809
2,237,338
1,4L8, u58

3,617,366
4,514,026

1,057,750
5,322,092
2,200,046
8-47,751
2,610,610
900,314
1, 147. 10S
2,4.3 ,9u3
10,172,490
4,597,963
5, 100. 019
10,947,'565

2,3)2,442
6,b t, 04.5
14,68l2,527
1, 578, ;;0
7.31,409
1,391,779
613.498
403,909
833,039

2,3S7,464
331,474
301,492

355,909

27.2 35, 35
391,982
1,6ti25, 91X
3.231,42!
1,273,158
415
102,.55.
1,022.237

Ofi3,2.54
.157,l093
3,415,180
651,582
683,591


c Troy ounces.


a 12,616
..............
a 25

16,907
1,642

904
5,346
73
4,974

22,350
9,856
10,570
36,953

1,090
13,831
1,281
1,970

4,340
b515,764
5,131

11,656
18.355

31,071
164,818
11,330
16,,0so
14,020
9, 209
3,814
2,197
4,232, 0.i
1,0.-5,701
2j.013
143, .53

325
2,291
23,149
41,9O
4,124
3,426
703
336,068
191

c2,037,511
c 115,131
47,666

1,215
d 62,32,i, 772
d 188, ;36
d 2,2 0, .33
d4,331.25%
d 676. 716
631
10,391
2.319

102
3,321
123 203
9, ,872
8,335
dGallons.


Value.


3992,596

27,000

1,308,596
106,461

195,288
240,591
1,322,514
420,781

58,208
2,040,189
3,044,184
4,697,271

2,535,317
14,867,369
1,153,043
53,202

85,938
789,119
1,718,745

2,435,212
4,565,771

1,9U3,791
3,560,073
1,529,495
1,661,836
4,439,943
1,249,899
883,616
1,073,767
8,498,964
2,493,740
2,712,888
10,078,400

935,724
2,876,759
4,220,904
1,3j0,040
593,925
1,326,025
697,536
604,923
1,261,345

1,676,973
154,647
428,996

153,118

11,344,799
116,501
1,303,039
2,468,516
1,381,374
102,162
335,710
576,136

11,034
263,991
2,217,645
266,553
443,036










SPAIN.


Articles.



Wood and lnianIufac inL(- of:
os..........................................

Knict.ed o...................................
"Wools:
UInmn.ll.mi~ctu l~ ..........................

Cloth. ....................................
Other manu.nfacturel o ....................


.M-t ric tons.


.1.154
.i. o13
2, It..I


I 7111
10 i
32
2 .11.5


\Valuc.


$39,746
",t7.912
52.' .n
1. 15,120
2',7, Itl.
114,314
3 1'3,3.32


Metric tons. Value.


2,518
%. ,7.1
i. 123
3.730
1,795
1"3
12-4
3,:J32


$.31,731
546,406
i. li S

2,385,123
3, 2311, 45,i
1,967, 2;i
,512, F.1)
6,1211,911


Zinc in pigs anri sheet. ......................... I ,23 911 ,6..3 .1,'" 4.2,33
A llother articles ............................... .............. 3 .. .. 31,762,
Total............ .............. .... ...... .. .... 234,602,052 ........ 1. 0,626, 95


Declared Exports to the United States and Possessions.

The value of Spani.1i good exported to the United States and
possessions from the Spanish Peninsula and the Balearic a;id Canary
Islands aIlmunted i 1915 to $'0,403,33'2 in 1916 to $$:.2.143,475, in
1917 to $3!.02.5,276, and in 1918 to $~1,600,114.
The declared values of export- for the United Sta.tes, the Philip-
pine s, Porto Rico, and Hawaii during the past two years, as in-
voiced at the AiIieriezl con-iu-lar Arices in Spain and in the Balearic
and Canary Islnlams wlere a follows:


To United States.
Consular districts.
1917 1918


Almeria ....................... $2,020,356
Barcelona................... ;A.0.M, 991
Palauos .................. 1,-4, 492
Tarragona ............ 2,472.709
Bilbao........................ 1,360,463
Gijon......................... .5,542
Madrid........................ 7, 1.'
Malaga...................... 4, 1)', 673
Palma de Mallorea ............ :3- ki t,,2
Santander .................... 66,224
Seville................. .. 4,;0'3,314
Cadiz..................... 'u2, 60,
Huelva................... 5,227,572
Teneriffe...................... 2.32,564
Las Palmas ............... 47,365
Valencia...................... 2,429,565
Alicante.................. 2,215,601
Vigo.......................... 129, 128
Corunna.................. 13,900
Total................... 37,044,937


$2,390,670
3,555,202
1,099,016
3,118,463
232,722
...........i
106,073
1,Vi'-, 1. 3
16'), .43,
58,046
1,915,775
473,267
1,6110,5,3
201,171
............"
31)4,671
2,956,473
13,905
3,551

20,357,849


To I'lliippi iiL Islands.


1917


$705,338
1,319
6,765
70,824
7,397
1,606
...........
57,783
60,457
........ ...

1,983
63,530

977,298


1918


.... .,2 .. .
222
378
16,722
1,275
III IIQ1'
255
18,021
4,608
............


3,210
7,136

724,458


To Porto Rico.


1917 1918



A12 9. 1 $181,836
........... ...........
831 999
14,224 224
......1...... .......... .
10,636 5,378
119,391 S1',500
71,417 55,492
......... 106
196,613 211,005
17,132 6,828
26,715 6,098
14,608 ............
26,657 23,593
32,872 4,714.
7,370 ............
15,624 ...........
1,003.041 517,807


Shipping Statistics-Decline in Foreign Shipping.

The number of vessels arriving at Spanish ports, as well as their
total tonnage, was les in 191 than in 1918tn 17, the detroase being
especially notable along .,hil)p of foreign registry. While Spanish
steamers with cargo decreased, this was partly compensated by their
greater tonnage. Vessels of foreign registry clearing were fewer
than during the previous year, but there was an increase in Spani-h
sailing ve sels that cleared. Despite these exceptions, a general
decrease marked the movement of -hipping in Spainhli ports.








6 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

The following table shows the number of vessels, together with
their tonnage and cargo, which entered Spanish ports during 1917
and 1918:

1917 1918
Class of vessel and flag. -
Number. Tonnage. Cargo. Number. Tonnage. Cargo.

WITH CARGO.
Steam: Mark tons. Metri tons.
Spanish .................... 3,770 3,611,70 1,484,226 2,962 4,568,300 1,124,279
Foreign...................... 714 1,1Of, 692 628,457 257 292,284 168,344
Sail:
Spanish..................... 2,011 10, 151 52,044 2,286 146,584 51,246
Foreign.............. ......... 336 83,677 112,916 352 53,769 69,018
'N BALLAST. |
Steam: .
Spanish................... .. 1,686 990,962 ............ 1,496 816,049 ...........
Foreign...................... 2.428 3,659,396 ............ 1,933 2,733,255 ............
Sail:
Spanish ...................... 3,008 93,155 ............ 2,955 76,252 ............
Foreign ........ ............. 251 43,516 .............. 234 58,591 ............
Total....................... 14,207 9,683,257 2,277,643 12,475 8,745,084 1,412,887

Statistics as to vessels, with tonnage and cargo, clearing from
Spanish ports in 1917 and 1918 are given in the following table:

1917 1918
Class of vessel and Dlag.
Number. Tonnage. Cargo. Number. Tonnage. Cargo.

WITH CARGO.
Steam: Metric ions. Metric tons.
Spanish....................... 5,170 4,745,040 2,034,365 4,331 3,493,222 1,408,444
Foreign...................... 2,935 4,081,407 7,031,332 2,105 2,942,507 5,730,672
Sail:
Spanish....................... 5,172 144,125 1 9,953 5,686 177,898 217 592
Foreign ...................... 392 09,345 63,602 473 86,825 107,114
[N BALLAST.
Steam:
Spanish....................... 520 45 ,954 ............. 531 395,222 ..........
Foreign ...................... 217 216,923 ........... 77 .5,688 ...........
Sail:
Spanish ....................... 351 14,606 .............. 572 27,094 ...........
Foreign ....................... 116 11,894 ............ 61 15,387 ............
Total ...................... 14,S71 9,738,294 9,319,252 13,836 7,203,843 7,463,822

Crops Adversely Affected by Drought.
Reports from the great grain-growing regions of Old and New
Castile, Catalonia, Leon, and Aragon, show that climatic conditions
throughout those. regions of Spain were unfavorable to the winter
sowing. The fall of 1917 was characterized by dry, cold weather
instead of the usual rains, so that planting was necessarily post-
poned. From January to March, 1918, abundant rains were bene-
ficial, except in some parts where they alternated with frosts. The
outlook for good crops was banished, however, by the long drought
of the summer.
In Galicia the mild, rainy weather during the fall of 1917 and the
winter and spring of 1918 was favorable to local agriculture until
the drought of the summer, which greatly injured corn and vege-
tables. In the Biscay Provinces the farmers had to contend with
severe cold and hail, followed by long dry weather, whereas in








SPAIN. 7

Cantabrico, conditions were more satisfactory, except for corn, which
suffered from the drought, unusual for that district. from June 20
to September 15.
Unfavorable Weather Conditions in Southern Spain and the Canaries.
In Andalusia and the Levante winter seeding wa- not 1egun until
the 15th of December, 1917, as the field, were in need of riuin. Early
in 191s there occurred lasting stormll thliat caused illnundations, injur-
ing cereal and vegetable crops. particularly rice. In places the floods
washed away the irrigation installations, and an en-iiniii drought
was doubly harmful. Some grain was also destroyed by hurricanes
in the month of September.
Reports from the Canaries stated that after sowing lhad taken
place under favorable conditions, a violent cyclone swept across the
islands on January 3. This was followed by torrents of rain, and
later the excessive heat and dryness threatened destruction of the
crops, but by April ,1 the weather had improved and the harvest was
practically normal. Excessive spring rains followed by a prolonged
hot summer and frequIent hurricanes, diminished the crops in the
neighborhood of lMelilla. Spanish Moorocco. The violent climatic
conditions also affected the grapes and olives in various parts of
the peninsula.
Production of Leading Crops.
The size of the leading crop, in 1!117 and 1918 is showni in the
following table:

Crops. 1917 19IS Crp-. 1: 1'91

.ihtrictris. letrik tIoi Metrne tons. Metric tons.
W heat ..................... 3,.S,3,002 3 3,193, 19 Coit .................... 741-,i023 613,225
Grapes ................... i,0(. ,314 3.1 x',229 \ i .................... 207,209 181,102
Olive -..................... 2,207,7 i 1 ,03,"31 Rice ..................... 236,700 207,648
Barley ................. 1,,97,124 1,970,31.3 Chick-pe ............... 124,385 1H.,727
Oats..................... 47 4 330 i ea ..................... 34,968 32,268
Iye ....................... (414.79 11 773, 339

Government Measures Concerning Agriculture-Price-Fixing Bodies.
Early in the year 1918 the Spanishl (Gove'nient adopted measures
to control the ris-e in prices of foodstuffs. The export of liumerous
agricultural products was prohibited and export taxes were placed
on others.
With the object of stimulatingg the cultivation of wheat, a bounty
of $1.80 was offered for every acre planted in wheat during the agri-
cultural year 1918-19- in excess of that planted in 1917-18. Measures
were taken to obtain exact information in regard to the various
crops harvested in each community. sworn declarations as to quantity,
class of crop, and place of storage being required. The usual tran--
portation tax on wheat and corn was removed from these grains
imported by the (Governmiient.
The selling price of various cereals was, fixed by the Government.
The board of supplies in each Province had already been authorized
in 1916 to fix selling prices on a basis of the price at the place of pro-
duction. But this plan was not found satisfactory in execution. and
it was ordered that these boards request the authorization of the
Commissary General of Supplies prior to scheduling prices, and await






SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


his approbation before publishing them. The Commissary General
was alone empowered to authorize the provincial boards of supplies
to prohibit the exportation of foodstuffs and raw materials from the
districts under their jurisdiction when circumstances warranted.
The Commissary General opened a service in the offices of the vari-
ous Civil Governors of the Kingdom for a period of eight days, in
which all producers and consumers could state their respective esti-
mates as to the just prices at which foodstuffs and raw materials
should be sold.
Maximum Price of Wheat Fixed by Government-Flour Regulations.
The Government fixed the maximum price of wheat, taking into
consideration the price of fertilizers, labor, agricultural machinery,
cattle, and all the costs of cultivation on the one hand, and the
price of bread on the other. This price, until conditions should
justify a change, was put at $72 per ton in warehouses or aboard
cars, and the provincial boards of supplies were authorized to fix
the maximum price in their respective Provinces, provided that the
price should in no case be less than $7.20 or more than $7.92 per
metric quintal (220.4 pounds).
With the exception of flour for so-called Vienna bread, the manu-
facture of only one class of white flour was permitted, and the
maximuni price of flour was fixed at $1.98 per metric quintal above
the price paid for the wheat milled. The price of bread was fixed
at the same rate as flour, except in Madrid and Barcelona where
$0.007 additional charge per kilo (2.2 pounds) was allowed on con-
dition that in neither city should bread be sold at more than $0.0454
per pound. Only 10 per cent of the wheat apportioned to each miller
could be used for making flour for Vienna bread, the price of which
was not regulated. But Inter in the year it was forbidden to bake
more than one kind of bread, and only one grade of flour, containing
75 per cent of wheat, was permitted to be milled. The manufacture
and sale of cakes, biscuits, and soup pastes was subjected to re-
strictions of the Comnmissary General of Supplies.
Soup-Paste Exports-Price and Distribution of Rice Controlled.
The export of soup pa,,tes having considerably reduced the stocks
of that fooldstuff. further exports were embargoed, but in January
the ruling was modified so as to permit the export, of soup pastes
made of wheat imported for that purp)o.-e.
The price of rice was fixed at $111 per ton at the warehouse or
aboard cars at the plnce of production, allowing the local boards of
supplies a margin 15 per cent above the original price for distribution
when fixing the selling price in each locality, after having added the
cost of transportation. In May a rice association was formed to
control the distribution of rice in Spain and the export of any sur-
plus. Its function. were to collect statistical data as to the supply
of rice; centralize the sale of rice for exportation to such countries
and in such quantities as the Ministry of the Treasury and the Com-
missary General of Supplies should authorize; cooperate with the
Commissary General to facilitate the supply in domestic markets
at fixed prices; verify the declarations presented as to the stocks
of rice; and gather any information on this subject that the Com-
missary General might require.








SPAIN.


Sulphur and Fertilizers-Land Drainage-Forest Preservation.
The Commissary General assumed control of the selling price of
sulphur required for the vineyards, following complaints received
from wine growers as to the exorbitant prices at which this much-
needed product was being sold. A Government comunittee was ap-
pointed to regulate the importation and distribution of fertilizers.
A law was passed in July by which the Government. would aid,
under certain conditions, in the drainage of lagoons, marshes, bogs,
and pools when the enterprise involved an area of over 500 acres.
This was done with the dual object of rendering siclh land available
for agriculture and of combating unsanitary conditions.
The production of potatoes in Spain exceeding the requirements
for domestic consumption, a royal order authorized the exportation
of 40,000 tons of early potatoes of the 1918 crop, but the order was
suspended in July, exception being made of -h]ipmlents direct from
the frontier.
Exporters of sweetnmeats were permitted to export, from July 1
to December 31, tlhe s.amie quantities that they had exported in the
same month of 1917. A law regarding forest pre'-evation wa1
passed iii July, it' provisions to cease six months a after the war,
except under certain conditions.
Viniculture-Grape Production Slightly Less Than in 1917.
Although the total yield of grapes in 1918 was slightly over 6
per cent less than in 1917, it wa-. however, 2:3. per cent higher
than the average yield since 1913; and the must produced was 261'
per cent above the average. The total area devoted to vineyards
in 1918 was 3,254,780t acres, compared with 3,198,351 acres in 1917,
and 3,173,404 acres in 1916.
In the production of grapes during 1918 Catalonia -taunds first
with 1,194,186 metric tons, followed by New Castile with 902,885,
and the Levante with 303,126. With the exception of the years
1915 and 1917, which were disaltrotus for Catalan grape growers,
Catalonia has led in grape production during the past five years.
The yield of grapes in Andalusia and the Levante was less during
1918 than in 1917. This was caused largely by the difficulty ex-
perienced by growers in securing sulphur and sulphate of copper
for the vines. In districts where the grapes are cultivated with a
direct view to export, the growers, foreseeing a shortage of seat
freight, neglected the vines, rather than go to the iiusual expense for
labor when the grapes could not be profitably sold. Only about
one-third of the grapes raised in eastern An;dalusia are used for
wine making, in striking contrast to other regions where nearly the
entire production is thus disposed of. Lack of tonnage affected.
in a similar way, the cultivation of grapes for raisins, and although
the consumption of raisins on the domestic market increased, ship-
ments to foreign markets of ipllortance, -mch as England an'l
Canada, were reduced to a minimum. No particular effort is 11iiile
to supply the local markets with fresh grapes, except with those
grown in the neighborhood.
Government Aid in Exportation of Almeria Grapes-Phylloxera.
The effects of the war on the Malaga and Almeria grape industry.
as well as on the Valencia raisin industries, in causing scarcity and
1394480-19-15e---2






SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


high prices of fertilizers, shortage of tonnage, and cutting off of
foreign markets, were disastrous to growers and the various de-
pendent industries. Many petitions were addressed to the Ministry
of Public Works asking that an arrangement for the exportation
of Almeria grapes be made, similar to that provided for the trans-
portation of the Valencia orange crop during the previous year.
Accordingly, the Ministry constituted a board in Almeria to ascer-
tain the number of vessels necessary for shipping the grapes abroad
and the space required during the grape-shipping season, and to
distribute equably that part of the 20 per cent of the freight space
reserved for the shipment of fresh fruit which should be allotted
to grapes. Some American ships partially relieved export dif-
ficulties of grape growers by taking shipments to the United States,
but prices obtained there were not as profitable as those ruling in
Great Britain.
In some districts the vineyards suffered from phylloxera to such an
extent that an assembly of viticulturists was planned, with the special
object of studying, in other countries, the replanting of vineyards
where they have been destroyed by disease, in order to adopt the
best means to save the threatened vineyards of Spain. The wider
utilization of American vines, which have been regarded as the
salvation of the ancient Spanish vines destroyed by phylloxera,
was advocated, as well as the selection, from numerous varieties,
of those best. adapted to parts of the country where conditions of
climate and soil differ.
Wine Production-Heavy Decline in Exportation of Wine.
Of the total yield of 3,818,229 metric tons of grapes in 1918,
3,620,956 metric tons were devoted to wine making, compared with
3,856,691 tons in 1917; and the amount of must produced in 1918
was 596,168,764 gallons, compared with 627,737,238 gallons in 1917.
The quantity of must pressed was greatest in Catalonia, followed by
New Castile and the Levante, although in the two last-named re-
gions a decrease was noticeable compared with 1917.
Reduced shipments of wine abroad told heavily on wholesalers,
common red and white wine falling from an export of nearly
157,000,000 gallons in 1917 to a little over 62,000.000 in 1918. Sherry
wines and similar types were also exported in less quantities. The
common red and white wines are the leading product of the vine-
yards of Catalonia, and the viniculturists of that region stored
large quantities pending a change in the situation.
In August a royal decree authorized the Minister of Public Works
to present a bill to the Cortes regarding the declaration of crops and
the production of wines in Spain. The object of this bill was to
prevent the falsification and adulteration of wines, collect statistical
data covering production, authorize Government inspection and con-
trol, and in general to meet modern commercial conditions, which
have given rise to a complexity of interests in the wine industry and
the trade connected therewith.
Decrease in Production of Olives and Olive Oil.
The total area devoted to olive culture in Spain during 1918 was
3,852,910 acres from which 1,403,831 metric tons of olives were gath-
ered, in striking contrast to the 2,207,700 tons in 1917, the greatest
yield in the last five years. However, as the olive trees bear more







SPAIN.


abundantly in alternating years, the crop of 1918 may be regarded
as above normal, since in 1916 and in 1914 it was less than 1,200,000
tons. Of the total yield in 191S, 1,356.058 tons of olives were sent
to the mills and 255,202 tons of oil were extracted, as against
2,149,914 tons of olives pressed in 1917, producing 427.S3S tons of oil.
The decrease in the olive crop was general thlroughout the 13
agronomnicl sections into which Spain is divided, with the single
exception of the Levante (comprising the Provin'e- of Valencia,
Castellon. Alicante, and Murcia), where there was a .light increase.
Calculated on the )basis of 100 for the year 1917, a comparison of
the 1918 returns show that the superficial area devoted to olive cul-
ture was 104 per cent, the total production of olives 64 per cent, the
average production per acre 61 per cent, and the total production
of oil 60 per cent. In a comparison of the 1918 returns with the
average for the quinquennium 1913-17, taking the average as 100,
the superficial area devoted to olive culture in 1918 was 105 per cent,
the total production olives 90 per cent, the average production per
acre 85 per cent, and the total production of oil 89 per cent.
Eastern and western Andalusia together produced half of the en-
tire 1918 olive crop. They were followed by Catalonia and the
Levante. The olives of the different regions differ in quality, and
the oil accordingly varies in flavor.
Government Regulation of Olive-Oil Exports.
The royal order of July 4, 1917, prohibited until November 15,
1917. the export of olive oil excepting fine oils shipped in bottles and
tins with trade-marks previously registered, but acceding to the
demands of the exporters and coopers, and owing to the scarcity of
tin a subsequent royal order permitted the exportation of fine oils
in barrels and casks and suppressed the requirement for registration.
However, in September. 1917, all export of oil was stopped, and this
embargo was in force at the opening of the year 1918, although data
furnished by the Agronomical Service indicated that the new crop
would suffice for domestic consumption. As this embargo was con-
sidered harmful by olive-oil merchants and exporters who had se-
cured a strong foothold in foreign markets, and, on the other hand,
as removing the embargo entirely might tend to raise the price
of oil in Spain, a medium course was adopted by a royal order pub-
lished in April, 1918, permitting qualified exporters, who during
the five years 1912-16 had exported olive oil to the Americas, to re-
sume exportation in quantities not to exceed the annual average
shipped to each country during that period. In May a royal order
fixed the maximum prices for the sale of olive oil in the warehouses
of producers and dictated further rules regarding exportation.
Restrictions Reduce Exports.
These restrictions reduced exports, while a further obstacle to
the trade was caused by the prohibition of imports of olive oil into
the United States. Exporters were obliged to reserve for home
consumption a quantity of oil equal to that for which export permis-
sion was solicited. An export tax of 30 pesetas ($..79) was levied on
each 100 kilos net.
In August a royal order authorized, in addition to the special
permits previously granted, the exportation, until the end of 191S,
6f 20,000 tons of olive oil, one-half to be allotted to North and South






SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


America.. Of this quantity 25 per cent was reserved for exporters
who had already declared their desire to export under previous
regulations, while 75 per cent was open to all exporters.
The lack of tonnage and the effect of the various measures on the
export of olive oil reduced the quantity exported in 1918 to 23,445
tons, compared with 81,570 tons in 1917 and 88,852 tons in 1916.
Unfavorable Climatic Conditions Reduce Wheat Yield.
The area sown in wheat in 1918 was 10,228,660 acres, a decrease
compared with 10,339,961 acres sown in 1917. Of the area sown in
1918, 9,586,686 acres were unirrigated and the remainder irrigated.
The total quantity of wheat grown was 3,693,429 metric tons in
1918, compared with 3,883,002 in 1917 and 4,145,752 in 1916. The
1918 wheat crop was 95 per cent of the 1917 crop, and 102 per cent
of the average of crops for the five years 1913-1917. The decrease in
the yield of 1918 was general throughout the great wheat-raising
districts of Castile, Catalonia, Estremadura, Leon, and Aragon,
caused, aside from the lessened area sown, by unfavorable climatic
conditions. The crop of western Andalusia exceeded that of the pre-
vious year, more area having been devoted to wheat in that region,
and there was a slight increase in the yield of Galicia, the Canaries,
and Melilla.
According to estimates of the Commissary of Alimentation, the
average annual consumption of wheat in Spain is 3,605,000 metric
tons. Although the harvest yield of 1918 exceeded this average,
Spain's increased consumption of bread in that year was due to a
general rise in prices of other foodstuffs. The amount of wheat
actually consumed as food during previous years was, on an aver-
age, 3,200,000 tons, the quantity necessary for seeding 10,360,357
acres was 561,800 tons, and that used for industrial purposes 60,000
tons, making an annual total consumption of 3,821,800 tons.
Barley, Oats, Rye, and Corn.
The area sown in barley in 1918 was 4,209,557 acres, against
4,006,458 acres sown in 1917. Of this area 3,983,653 acres were un-
irrigated and the remainder irrigated. The total amount of barley
raised in 1918 was 1,970,343 metric tons, an increase compared with
the 1917 harvest of 1,697.324 metric tons. This was the greatest
barley crop raised during the past five years, being 16 per cent above
the average for the years 1913-1917. Nearly 25 per cent. of the barley
was grown in New Castile.
Oats were sown in 1918 on 1,506,820 acres, compared with 1.398,389
acres the year before. The land thus sown was chiefly dry, only
20,070 acres being irrigated. The total amount of oats raised was
442,330 metric tons, a decrease compared with the 479,877 metric
tons of the previous year, notwithstanding the increased area de-
voted to the cultivation of this grain.
Of the 1,818,444 acres sown in rye in 1918 only 1,369 acres were
irrigated; but the total acreage yielded a crop of 773,339 metric tons
of rye; against 614,790 in 1917, when the acreage was 1,804,542 acres.
This was the largest rye crop raised in the last five years, and was
over 16 per cent above the average for the years 1913-1917.
The area devoted to corn in 1918 was 1,169,043 acres, and in 1917
1,175,447 acres. Of the 1918 area 919,782 acres were dry land. The







SPAIN.


corn crop of 1918 was smaller than during any of the preceding five
years, amounting to only 613,225 metric tons, against 746,023 ton-,
in 1917, and was over 15 per cent below the average of the years
1913-1917.
Rice and Other Grains-Peas and Beans-Potatoes and Other Vegetables.
The rice fields in Spain under cultivation in 1918 covered 110,512
acres and yielded 207.048 tons of rice, an increase in the acreage com-
pared with 103,655 acres in 1917, but a decrease in production com-
pared with 230,700 tons of rice harvested during that year. The
more important rice fields of Spain are located in the Province of
V\alencia from which over half the 1918 crop wn;a gathered. Other
extensive rice plantations are situated in the Province of Tarragona.
The export of rice fell from about 30,000 metric tons in 1917 to
less than 17,000 in 1918.
In 1918, 2,757 tons, of bird seed were gathered on 8,050 acres of
land, and 3,033 ton-i in 1917 from 8,495 acres. Sorghium was culti-
vated on 3,820 acres with a crop of 1,098 tons, against 3,708 acres
and a crop of 1,134 tons in 1917. The yield of millet was 2,122 tons
from 5.375 acres, a decrease compared with the year before.
In the year 1918, 555.755 acres- were devoted to chick-peas and
116,727 tons were harvested, compared with 520,316 acres and 124,385
tons in 1917. Horse beans were grown on 492,012 acres yielding
200,606 tons in 1918, against 519,50;7 acres and 211,401 tons in 1917.
The 137,002 acres devoted to growing peas~ during 1918 yielded 32,268
tons, compared with 128,843 acres and 34,968I tons, in 1917. Beans
were cultivated on 785,404 acres yielding 181,102 tons in 1918, com-
pared with 783,316 acres and 207,209 tons in 1917. -
The crop of carob beans amounted, in 1918, to 87,421 tons, and
90,711 tons in 1917; lentils to 19,298 tons in 1918 and 24,589 tons
in 1917; peanuts to 22.067 tons in 1918 in contrast to 12,948 tons
in 1917.
The potato crop of 1918 amounted to 2,600,799 tons, in the pro-
duction of which the Province of Navarre led with 201,000 tons, fol-
lowed by Lugo with 210,000 tons. The average annual consumption
of potatoes in Spain is 2,630,471 tons, so that it was necessary to
check their export.
The potato crop of Spain during 1917 amounted to 2,802,499 tons;
sugar beets 934,410 tons, including the roots, leaves, and sterns;
onions 425,036 tons; garlic 48,392 tons; saffron 16,480 tons, conipris-
ing stigmas, stems, and bulbs; flax 1,449 tons, comprising the fiber,
linseed, and flax for spinning; and hemp 13,333 tonq, including fisher,
seeds, and stalks.
Citrus and Other Fruits-Nuts-Orange Exports Drop Sharply.
According to statistics of the year 1917 there were 14,80..i',-
orange trees in Spain that yielded 839,531 metric tons of fruit;
739,021 lemon trees with a crop of 35,039 tons; 5,207,982 fig trees
producing 202,468 tons of figs; and 1.081,360 pomegranate tree- from
which were harvested 30,433 tons of fruit. Almond trees to the
number of 14,395.200 yielded 100,029 tons of-almonds in 1917, while
6,734,060 chestnut trees yielded 167,685 tons of chestnuts. Beside
these there were e produced quantities of hazelnuts and walnuts not
officially listed.





SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


The export of these crops is an important feature in Spanish trade
and in 1918 shipments were affected by the shortage and irregularity
of the tonnage available. In orange-growing districts, 1918 was an
even more disastrous year than the previous one, England and Nor-
way being practically the only countries of destination open for
export. The year before, an attempt had been made to put Spanish
oranges on the markets of the United States, but results were not
satisfactory. Cases of oranges lay on the docks awaiting shipment
in fulfillment of orders, but despite efforts of the Spanish Govern-
ment to secure tonnage and distribute it advantageously for fruit
growers. large quantities of fruit perished. These conditions resulted
in fruit being left on the trees to save the expense of picking; trees
were cut down and used for fuel, and little or no attempt was made
to keep the groves in condition for the coming season. The lemon
crop, although of le.s importance in the export trade than the
orange crop, suffered from the same circumstances.
Government Regulation of Shipping Space for Fresh Fruits.
In January an arrangement was made with shipowners, which
in a measure relieved the gravity of the crisis under which orange
export was suffering. The shipowners offered to buy the fruit pre-
pared for shipment, assuming the responsibility of transportation
and sale. Freight was fixed at $17 per cubic meter (1.3 cubic yards),
and the Spanish Government reduced the war insurance to 7 per
cent.
In July, 1918, a board was constituted to take charge of the dis-
tribution of the space reserved for fresh fruit on all vessels and to
see that the 20 per cent thus set aside was made available for oranges
during the shipping season. The board was also authorized to re-
port to the Government as to any further needs in regard to ship-
ping these crops, on the cultivation and movement of which tens of
thousands of persons depend for a livelihood.
Cultivation of Cotton in Spain.
Interesting the possibility of cultivating cotton in Spain resulted
in the Provincial Deputation of Barcelona requesting the Govern-
ment to set apart large tracts of land for experiments in cotton rais-
ing, to provide seed of various varieties at half price, machinery,
materials, and necessary ginneries. Government agronomical en-
gineers were requested to direct the experiments, and exemption
from taxation was recommended, as well as reduced railway freight
and a guarantee to refund any difference if producers should have
to sell the cotton raised at less than $0.225 per kilo (2.2 pounds).
According to statements published by La Liga Agraria. next year
a small crop of cotton will be available from irrigated lands in the
Provinces of Castellon, Malaga, Cadiz, and Seville. The planta-
tions cover about 12,355 acres. No pains have been spared to make
this experiment a success. The seed was selected with great care and
furnished gratuitously to the cultivators; funds for the purchase of
fertilizers and other expenses of cultivation being advanced where
necessary. It is expected that the crop will amount to about 3,000
tons, and it is stated that in regions where climatic conditions favor
the cultivation of cotton there are at least 1,235,522 acres available
for cotton culture.








SPAIN.


Associations for the Encouragement of Cotton Cultivation-Forest Products.
A company which has been formed for the cultivation of cottonl
in Spain has purchased 24,710 acres and has an option on 37,066
more, on the Isla Mayor del Guadalquivir, and if its expel inments in
cotton growing prove successful, more land in the Provinces of Jaen,
Malaga. and Cordoba will be acquired. The land is being .li-.tributite
to colonizers, who are helped in securing fertilizers, mIaclinery, Imd
seed.
An association has been formed in Barcelona to encourage the
cultivation of cotton in Spain by publishing bookli, reviews, and
articles in various periodicals, giving instructions about the best
methods of raising cotton, as well as statistical and technical data.
It will place agriculturists in direct contact -with consumrs, guar-
antee the sale of cotton crops at remunerative price,, install experi-
mental stations, and foster all other means that may tend to es-
tablish cotton cultivation in the Peninsula.
The latest statistics regarding the forest product- of Spain are
of the year 1916, and show that the Provinces which led in produc-
tion were Santander, Teruel, Clienca, Sarago--a, Burgo(s, Oviedo,
and Leon. Throughout. Spain that year there was a total of 429"0,42
trees sawn into 7,864,2(8 cubic feet of lumber. With firewood and
rosin the value of the forest products in 1916 was estimated at
$1,807,937.
Mining and Mineral Production-Labor and Equipment.
The value of the minerals mined in Spain during 1917 aimouinted
to $87,923.572 compared with $68,91 4,033 in 1916, and the value of
metals and mineral products from the smelting works amounted to
$157,460,160 compared with $104,258.448 in 1916, a gain of
$19,009,539 in the value of the ores at the pit, and $53,2 01,712 of
products at smelting works. The total value of Spanish mining
products in 1917 amounted to $245,383,732 compared with $173,-
172.48S in 1916, an increase of $72,211,244. The total value of
Spanish mining products in 1917 was three times that of 1908.
The number of mining concessions in 1917 was 2,839, an increase of
308 over 1916, while there were e164,260 laborers employed in the
mines and smelting works, an increase of 8,034 over the previous
year. Mills, factories, and salt works engaged in mining industries
numbered 409 in 1917, an increase of 6 over 1916. Tie nIuimber
of machines in use in mining was reduced by 26, making their
number 2,137, smaller machines being replaced by more power-
ful ones, so that. tle potential horsepower of the .machlinery increased
to 105,500, a gain of 8.309. The machines in the smelting works in-
creased by 66, making their number 1,547, and with an increase of
94 horsepower tile force supplied amounted to 161,922 hors-epower.
The number of accidents to eml)loyees was 24.241. an increase of
3,724 over the year before, serious injuries a mounted to 395, a de-
crease of 3;. and deaths by accident to 254, or 3 more than in the
previous year.






16 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Output of Principal Minerals.
Among the important Spanish minerals are the following, with
quantities produced in 1916 and 1917:

Minernls. 1916 1917 Minerals. 1916 1917

Metric Metric Metric Metric
t,, n.. tons. tons. tons.
Iron............................ S,,SW, 1 5,551,071 Zinc ........................ 166,053 123,846
Softcoal.................. 4,8l7, 47. 5,042,213 Sulphur..................... 4b,923 84,979
Coppera..................... 1,773,922 1,901,341 Quicksilver................. 19,799 18,705
Iron pyrites................. 93,678 376,918 Manganese.................. 14,178 57,474
Common salt 6b........... 8q5,928 781,100 Silver-bearing lead........... 7,371 13,218
Lignite..................... 473, 101 (,37,841 Ocher ....................... 800 780
Lead........................ 2i0,283 240, 3i8 Silver........................ 275 96
Anthracite coal............. 268,087 324,756
a Includes copper ore and ferrocupreous pyrites. b Includes rock salt and products of salt works.
In the value of the mineral and metallurgical products the Prov-
ince of Vizcaya led all others, Oviedo, Huelva, and Cordoba follow-
ing in the order given.
Iron Ore Production.
Iron ore was mined in 21 Provinces of Spain during 1917, among
which Vizcaya led with 2,464,694 metric tons, followed by Almeria
with 834,522 tons. The total output of iron ore in 1917 was slightly
less than in 1916, and far below the average of the past decade. The
total number of laborers employed in iron mining during 1917 was
22,903, a decrease of 861 from the year before.
As a large part of the iron mined in the Province of Vizcaya was
formerly exported to Germany, since the war there has been a notable
decrease in this production, that of 1913 having amounted to over
3,860,000 tons in contrast to less than 2,500,000 tons in 1917. The
situation was also largely affected by the shortage of tonnage. While
large quantities were shipped to England in 1917, the trade was not
highly profitable, owing to the fixed price. The iron ore mined in
the Province of Almeria was also less than in the year before, owing
to the difficulty of transportation. In spite of strikes in the iron
mines of the Province of Santander, the output of ore showed an
increase, chiefly from the mines of Decidl and Setares, situated near
Castro Urdiales. The output of the iron mines of the Province of
Seville showed a decrease, attributed to labor conditions existing in
the principal inning district of that Province, as well as to lack of
tran.sp),ortation facilitie'S. One company) was obliged to store over
200,000 tons of mineral and clo e part of its works, while one mine,
the ore of which is so impure as to render it available only to smelters
in Germany, was closed at the outbreak of the war and so remained
throughout the period of hostilities.
Production of Pyrites-Electrochemical Company Organised.
There was an increase in the production of cupreous and iron
pyrites from the Huelva district, although work was carrie(l on
slowly, owing to the fear that the difficulties of exportation would
force the companies to close entirely. The iron mine situated at
Somaen in the Province of Soria yielded 70 tons of ore. The Prov-
ince of Murcia yielded nearly 74,000 tons more iron ore in 1917
than in 1916, notwithstanding the fact that the important mines of







SPAIN'.


Cehegin, from which more than 200,000 tons of magnetic iron ore
were formerly exported annually to German foundries, were not
worked.
An electrochemical joint-stock company was recently formed in
Granada to extract ferromolvbdenum and ferrovanadium. It aims to
produce also ferrosilicon, and ruolybdic, tungstic. and vanadic acids,
with their derivatives and by-products. This company lias an elec-
tric furnace which is to be uied in connection with the irun and steel
production of the great enterpri-es in northern Spain, and plans
soon to utilize the bed-t of mollbdenum and vanidiuml of Granada,
on which preliminary work has been -tarled.
Steady Increase in Coal Production.
The impul-e given to coal mining resulted in an increne in pro-
duction from Spani-h coal mines, bringing the total output in 1-l18
up to 7.16i;.4t;3 tons of coal of all kinds, a gain of nearly 1.100,IJl),)
tons over the official figures of production during 1917.
Coal production h.as increa-ed in Spain during the past six yearl-
and the amount mined in 191S shows a gain of 6;I per cent over that
of 1913, as may be seen from the following comparative table:

Years. ^ nrhra- S t*o Li -nit- To' It .

JMtric Metric
ltns. fMetri t ,. tons. .Vti tri, s,
1913................. ........ ................... 2. .17 s. .211 27. 791 4 22.
1914...................... ....... .... .......... 2. 2 "f. I. ii +I-JI I ",7 21. 43.'
1915 .............. ............. ... ... ......... .. 2 ; 21 4. I- ..19 32S. 21.3 4. ;. -)i
I916 .................................................. 2 7. 7 .. ,. ", ,) ;74N
1917 .................... .... .. ............... .. 2 7,I; 5,, 42 -1"3 t.l17, l I 1114 .Mi)
19 a ..................................................... IT, '.7 ., 71.I t.27 7..,:. t.-2) 7 164, 4t..3

a .Lubjic, to revision.
Government Body to Promote Coal Production.
In January, 1918, a royal decree constituted the Consorcio Car-
honero with the object of augmenting production of the coal lines
of Spain. This body was authorized to investigate and promote
the employment of mining and extracting machinery; to aid in the
construction of roads and railroads; to amplify ports, depots. and
warehouses: and to promote the development of laborers' institutions
and the construction of laborers' quarters. The holder. of mining
concessions may solicit the support of the consoir~io, which will in-
vestigate conditions and lay them before the. Ministry of Public
Works. A part of the duty of the consorcio is to group various
mining interests in order to serve them better collectively. Such
groups are formed after the consent of those interested is secured
and provisions made for their eventual withdrawal from the
association.
The central committee of the consorcio. after establishing the
need of a road or railroad. may make loans through these grollps
for construction, the acquisition of rolling stock, aerial cables,
port works. laborers' houses, and anything that is found necessary
to the development of the industry. The central committee, as the
representative of the mine owners, can promote mercantile relations
with consumers in order to systematize the distribution of fuel, and
139-148"-19-15e--3





SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


can control embarkation at ports. It may also intervene to estab-
lish such relations between mine owners and exploiting companies
as will insure that no mine will be inactive. Companies receiving the
protection of this committee are subject to technical and adminis-
trative control.
The committee consists of a fixed number of members of the coal
industry if the production does not exceed 6,000,000 tons, and may
be increased by one representative for every 500,000 tons produced.
There are also two inspectors from the Board of Mines, a councilor
of Public Works, and a representative of the Treasury.
The interest taken by the Government in coal production resulted
in another royal decree on March 14, regarding the construction of
secondary and strategic railroads intended to serve coal basins,
and making it possible for such concessions to be granted, subject
to subsequent revision, within two or three months.
Copper Production of 1917 Exceeded That of Previous Year.
The 1,901,341 tons of copper mined in Spain in 1917 consisted of
83,502 tons of copper ore and 1,817,839 tons of ferrocupreous
pyrites, an increase over the past three years, although still con-
siderably below the average annual yield from 1907 to 1913, inclus-
ive, when the production averaged over 3,000,000 tons. The num-
ber of laborers employed in the copper mines during 1917 was
12,364, about 500 less than the year before, the decrease being in the
Huelva and Seville mines.
In the Province of Huelva. where the Rio Tinto mines are situ-
ated, 1,723,242 tons of ferrocupreous pyrites were produced, an in-
crease of nearly 66,000 tons over the year before. although the cop-
per ore mined in that Province fell from 2,89S tons in 1916 to 2,209
tons in 1917. The copper mines of the Province of Cordoba yielded
80,133 tons of copper ore in 1917, against only 21.407 in 1916. The
production of ferrocupreous pyrites in the Province of Seville in-
creased from 91,094 tons in 1916 to 94,597 tons in 1917.
The cupric-iron deposits of Huelva are of primary importance to
Spain. The pyrites are largely worked for the sake of the sulphur,
of which they contain from 47 to 50 per cent. The residue, after
the extraction of the sulphur, goes to the blast furnace.- as iron ore.
The Huelva deposits are among the best. known in the world and
contain a minimum average of about 14 per cent of copper. Much
blister copper is obtained as well as cther products. Extensive
British, French, and Spanish interests are interested in cupreous and
iron-pyrite mines of this region.
Production of Lead and Silver Mines in 1917.
During 1917 there were 407 producing lead mines employing
21,316 lab)orers, an increase of 79 mines and a decrease of 3,756
laborers compared with the previous year, but the production of lead
ore decreased as a whole, although there was a notable increase in the
Provinces of A lmeria and Tarragona. In spite of high prices obtained
for the mineral, the total value of the ores at the pit, was less than that
of the year before. Production in the chief lead-yielding Province
of J'aen was hampered by lack of Scotch anthracite as well as the
scarcity of freight cars to carry the ores to the foundries.
At an assembly of miners and producers of lead held in October,
1918, the difficulties of their situation were discussed. The Ministry






SPAIN.


of Public Works was requested to create a market. for their products
in Spain, to equalize and stabilize quotations, to intervene with the
companies manufacturing explosives for mines regarding the safety
of miners and the quality of the explosives, to assure larger supplies
of fuel at. reduced rates, and to suspend the export tax of about $3
per ton on lead ore. The assembly protested against further taxa-
tion and the tax of 3 per cent on sales of lead ore.
The production of silver-bearing lead ore during 1917 again
showed a great increase compared with 1916, which wa- double that
of 1915. There were "22 productive silver-bearing lead mines in 1917,
of which 21 were in the Province of Almeria, which yielded all but
4S5 tons of the total production.
The yield of the silver mines of Guadalajara, which in 1916
amounted to '275 tons, was in 1917 only 96 tons, coming almost ex-
clusively from waslhing- of ores already mined, as actual miining
operations were temporarily suspended, owing to the financial condi-
tion of the exploiting company.
Reduced Production of Quicksilver in 1917.
Spain's production of cinnabar in 1917 was over 1,000 tons less
than the year before, owing to a decrease in output at the mines of
Ciudad Real and Oviedo. The number of quicksilver mines in-
creased from 22 to 214, but there was a slight falling off in the
laborers employed.
According t tthe terms of the contract with the Spanish Govern-
ment and the firm of Iloth;child for the sale, on commission, of
quicksilver from the mines of Almalen on the London market, Spain
has had the right to retain 500 flasks annually for the needs of
home industries. Tlis quantity has been ample until the present, but
now no longer suffices. The con-lflumJption of quicksilver has increased
in Spain on account of the establishment and development of various
industries, especially the manufacture of fulminate.
Antimony, Sulphur, Barium, and Manganese.
The five antimony mines employing 231 laborers produced 502
tons of antimony in 1917, as against 515 tons in 1916. By far the
greater part came from Lugo, from a mountainous district where
work was carried on with difficulty owing to the snow. The mines
are at some distance from the railroad and the mineral is trans-
ported by pack mules.
Sulphur was extracted from 1- mines and the production
amounted to nearly 38,000 tons more than that of the previoll year.
This increase was due chiefly to n-ines in the Province of Albacete,
where the mines of Hellin, witl their improved facilities, greatly
augmented the output.
The 10 tons of barium sulphate mined in 1917 was less than the
output of 1916. Two mines at Tarrngona yielded over half of the
mineral, while about 1 ton came from the lead mines of Almeria.
There were 77 tons of tin ore mined during 1917, most of which
came from the wolfram mines of Caceres, Carunna, and Pontevedra.
The manganese production of 1917 far surpassed that of previous
years, and was over three times as great as in 1916. The number
of producing manganese mines increased from 22 to 23, besides which
over 3,000 tons of ore were extracted from the iron mines of Oviedo.-
More than half of the manganese output came from Huelva, where an




SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


abundance of the ore exists. The production of wolfram increased
from 455 tons in 1916 to 546 tons in 1917, of which 139 tons came
from the mines of Pontevedra. The high prices obtained for this
mineral were a stimulus to production, which was, however, rendered
difficult by lack of coal.
New Plant for Treatment of Gold-Bearing Quartz.
In Galicin, principally in the Province of Corunna, there are
known to be gold deposits almost unexploited. Auriferous quartz
is treated to some extent. In Corcoesta, Zas, and Cobas from 10 to
40 grams or more of gold per ton is extracted from auriferous quartz.
Formed two years ago, the Sociedad Aurifera de Galicia constructed
in Corcoesta an up-to-date plant to work the numerous veins in that
part of the country. This company has a 600-horsepower hydraulic
plant, a laboratory, houses for laborers, and a full equipment of
modern mining machinery. It has opened new veins which are
already yielding good results and give promise of even better returns.
Indications of commercially profitable gold deposits are numerous
in Santa Camnha. Mazaricos, Arbores, Brandomil, and at other neigh-
boring points.
Government Control of Potash Beds.
In December, 1914, the Government assumed control of the pot-
ash beds in Catalonia for the purpose of prospecting, and a bill was
drawn up regarding the exploitation of the deposits. On May 1,
1918, a royal decree authorized the Minister of Public Works to pre-
sent to the Cortes a bill regulating the exploitation of potash de-
posits in Spain and authorizing the State to control distribution and
sale. Varying slightly from the original draft a. measure was en-
acted in July, 1918, providing for State control of potash beds and
other mineral deposits that can be adapted to ute as fertilizers or
serve as a basis for the manufacture of them. Under the provisions
of the law, the concession, exploitation, regulation, and sale of the
products of such beds or deposits shall be subject to intervention by
the State. This applies not only to concessions to be granted in the
future, but also to those already existing, and embraces contiguous
districts. It was not until December, 1918, that a royal order was
published permitting public competition for concessions to work the
potash beds. A concession was granted to a Belgian company inter-
ested in the project for some years and having other interests in this
country as well. Work has already begun on an extensive scale,
and although no potash has as yet been put on the market, it is
understood that the outlook is favorable.
Fishing Industry Suffers from Inability to Export.
The latest statistics available regarding the fishing industry in
Spain show that in 1916, 14,721 sailboats and 791 steamers were
engaged in fishing, and that the total fish caught during the year
weighed 148,978 tons. The factories for salting fish number 368, for
tinning fish 185, and pickling 124. These 677 factories employed
19,320 laborers and prepared 63,378 tons of fish.
Vigo is the principal sardine-packing market of Spain, and 63
per cent of the salting factories are situated in that Province, as well
as 62 per cent of the tinning factories. The sardine factories of
Vigo employ some 25,000 laborers and fishermen, and altogether





SPAIN.


about 100.000 persons in that Province make their livelihood by this
industry and its branches. Of the factory hand.1 about 8.3 per cent
are females.
This industry passed through a serious crisis in 1918, owing to the
impossibility of exporting to Amneri.a. Exports of .sardines from
Spain fell from 18,22') tons in 1917 to 11,5G36 in 1918.
Permanent Textile Exposition to Be Established.
For many vears there has been recognized in Spain the-need of a
permanent exposition of textile and allied indiutries. As the textile
industries are centered in Catalonia, San Gines, in the ,iulrbs of
Barcelona, was chosen for the location of an imposing building to
be erected for this exposition.
The scope of the exposition as planned is both pra,.tical and
theoretical. There will be offices devoted to raw material-, and in-
formation will be obtainable regarding the markets of the world,
conditioning houses, prices of illaritinie transportation and insur-
ance, machinery for spinning, weaving, preparing, dyeing, bleach-
ing, and finishing textiles, including woven goods and laces, as well
as the utilization of spe,'ial textiles such as sanitary goods, their
preparation and application. There will be space for demonstrat-
ing the construction of textile machinery, the manufacture of chemi-
cals for coloring and bleaching preparations and the like. Also a
department will be opened for instruction in the technical and com-
mercial branches of the textile industries.
IHistoric collections of Spanish textiles will be displayed, as well
as samples showing what has been produced in other countries along
these lines. Drawings, photographs, and in fact everything that per-
tains to textiles and allied industrie.- will find a place in this per-
manent exposition.
Wool Industry-Saragossa the Leading Raw-Wool Market.
The. market of Saragossa occupies a leading place in the purchase
and sale of domestic raw wool, and trade is carried on in wools
originating not only in the inlmediate Province, but also in the sheep-
raising districts of Teruel, Manhela, Castile, and Estremiadura. The
greater part of the wool handled on this market is sent raw, without
any manipllation, to the textile centers of Sabadell, Tarrasa, Bar-
celona, and abroad, only such amount being retained in Saragossa as
is needed for local industries. The spinning mills of Daroca and
Tarazona produce about 60 tons of carded yarn each, annually. In
Saragossa there are three mills, each of which has an output of this
yarn of some 100 tons annually. These are well equipped with ma-
chinery (chiefly English) for washing, dyeing, and combing, and
are provided with all necessary accessories. The yarn is put up in
packages and sold throughout Spain.
Other mills produce on an average 50 tons annually of woven
woolen garments such as shawls, toques, and mufflers. A great deal
of handwork is also done in the Saragos.-a district, where numbers
of operatives work in their homes. An idea of their number may be
formed from the fact that their wages amount to about $5,000 weekly.
The textile industry in that region is not, however, of the importance
that. it was in the past, owing to its gradual absorption by Catalonia,
although as a market for raw wool Saragossa is growing.




SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Tonnage for Wool Imports Apportioned-Mill Equipment and Production.
In July, 1918, the Government appointed a committee, having its
place of meeting in Barcelona, for the importation of wool from the
American and. its distribution among the different manufacturers.
Wool from this source was imported in ships requisitioned by the
Government at a fixed rate. Manufacturers desiring to avail them-
selves of this material notified the committee of the quantities they
had ordered and desired to import; the origin and destination; the
date of embarkation; the Spanish consignee; and whether the wool
wa. washed or raw. The committee laid this data before the Com-
missary General of Supplies, who distributed the available tonnage
for imports.
In the city of Sabadell a new warehouse for storing raw materials
intended for use in the wool industry was completed, with a capacity
of 1,942 cubic feet. At the beginning of 1918, the number of spindles
spinning wool and worsteds had increased from 139,622 to 146,000,
and mechanical looms from 1,900 to 1,950. The number of spindles
for cotton yarn remained as before, 52,300, and the mechanical looms
2.080. There were besides these 235 dyeing plants, 12 bleacheries, 32
steam pre.,ses, 110 carding machines, and many other auxiliaries of
textile works. The gas, electric, steam, and hydraulic power em-
ployed increased from 11,000 to 16,118 horsepower. The number of
operatives employed in the woolen mills amounted to 8,100; those in
the cotton mills to 3.870; and tho. e in auxiliary industries to 2,500, a
total of 14,470 operatives, and a gain of 1,100 operatives over the
previous year. The production of woolen yarn was estimated at
12,000 tons, worsted at 1,375 tons, woolen and worsted goods at 3,719
tons, cotton yarn at 3,000 tons, and cotton goods at 3,000 tons. The
average pri,'e- paid for these leading products were considerably
above those of the year 1iefore. There passed through the municipal
conditioning house 8.372 tons of wool of various classes.
Importations of foreign raw wool by the manufacturers of Saba-
dell during 1917 amounted to 2,250 tons, coming from Buenos Aires
and lMontevideo, and washed wool to 250 tons. In addition, woolen
rags were extensively imported from France. Large quantities of
blankets and shawls were exported to France, piece goods and novel-
ties to South America, besides about 1,700 tons of washed wool and
400 tons of raw wool to Italy. In February, 1918, 17,500 mill and
factory hands of Sabadell went on strike for 13 days.
Cotton Industry Passed a Critical Year-Regulated by Government Committee.
In 1918 tle cotton industry of Spain, located chiefly in Catalonia,
passed a critical year. The imports of raw cotton during the trade
year 1917-1S amounted to 245,737 bales, compared with 424,571 bales
during the 1010-17 season. Imports from the United States, which
in 1910;-17 amounted to 356.840 bales, declined to 226,917 bales, those
from India fell from 53,567 bales to 1.450 bales, while a slight in-
crease in imported Egyptian cotton from 13,617 bales to 16,299 bales
did little to alleviate the situation. For the first, time cotton was
imported from Argentina, about 1,000 bales arriving. Of American
cotton absorbed by this market 161,463 bales came from Galveston in
1917-18, compared with 282,538 bales during the previous season;
31,SS5 bales from Savannah against 12,440 bales the season before;
30,199 bales from New Orleans against 32,873; and 3,370 from New





SPAIN.


York compared with 24.170 in 1916-17. This reduction in the iiii-
portation of American raw cotton was owing to Government war'
measures, and does not, indicate the demand of the Spanish llmalket.
In February a royal decree was issued creating a coiiinittec to
regulate the importation, distribution, ii in, and co(n lption f cotton ill
Spain. This committee, with the approval of the Minister of the
Treasury, promulgated regulations for the inmpirtatioll of cotton;
distributed stocks on hand and new imports almnong merchants and
manufacturers; regulated the hours of work in tlhe spiinning and
weaving mills; settled by arbitration all questions arising in con-
nection with the execution of contracts between cotton merchants,
spinners, weavers, and buyers of manufactured goods; fixed the sell-
ing price of cotton; and reported to the Government, on the regula-
tions to which the export of manufactured cotton goods .should be
subjected. A searching inventory of the supply of raw cotton in
Spain was made, and all cotton merchant-, were called upon to declare
the stocks they possessed, their consumption during the previous year,
the contracts they had made, and the origin of the cotton held by
them.
Cotton Importers Licensed-Restrictions Reduce Exports.
Cotton importers were obliged to secure. licenses for the importa-
tion of raw cotton and cotton manufactures; and a tax was levied on
these licenses, the proceeds of which were used to compensate opera-
tives in the cotton industry for the los of wages occasioned by Gov-
ernment limitation as to the number of days worked per w-eek. The
textile mills were allowed to run only four days a week. Late in
December this restriction was modified so to permit work during
six days, the import tax was removed, and the exportation of cotton
yarns again allowed. The cotton factories of Spain employ some
360.000 persons.
As may be supposed, these restrictions and the shortage of raw
materials reduced the exports of cotton manufactures, which had
increased during the previous two years. In 1918, 1,281 tons of
yarn were exported. compared with 5,063 tons in 1917; and 7,109
tons of white, cotton piece goods, compared with 8,216 tons; how-
ever, tlie exportation of dyed and printed cotton goods increased
from 3.400 tons in 1917 to 0,721 tonsl in 1918. Cotton woven gar-
nlents ldecreaed from 1,396 tons in 1917 to 754 tons in 1918.
Silk Industry Aided by Government Bounties-Jute Industry Active.
The Spanish Government in its desire to foster the silk industry,
which formerly enjoyed world-wide fame, distributes gratuitously
silk-worm eggs, and offers various advantages to those who engage
in sericulture. Bounties are given for the cultivation of mulberry
trees, for fresh cocoons produced, and for each kilo of raw silk spun.
In 1917 the Government distributed 41 pounds of silk-worm eggs,
and 608 tons of cocoons were produced in the regions of Orihuela
and Murcia. This was a decrease compared with 1916, when 814
tons were produced. The average production of cocoons during the
years 1911 to 1917. inclusive, was 710 tons annually. There are 27
schools of sericulture distributed amongst as many towns and
villages.
Spanish importers succeeded, in 1918, in acquiring 38,064 tons of
jute, manila hemp, agave, and other raw vegetable fibers, a con-




SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


siderable increase over the previous year. Jute is extensively em-
ployed in the Peninsula, the manufacture of alpargatas hempenn
sandals) alone requiring some 40.000 tons annually. In Elche about
1(,000 laborers are employed in the manufacture of alpargatas, as
is also half of the population of Castellon, a city of 33,000 inhabi-
tants. and numerous smaller places literally live on this industry.
The imported jute comes almost exclusively from India; and the
iBritish Governmient agreed to an exchange with Spain of ton for
ton of Spanish olive oil and India jute. as was previously done with
JEgyptian cotton and Spanish olive oil.
A comunlittee was formed in August for regulating the importation
and distrlibuttion of jute, fixing the price, investigating the exporta-
tion of articles manufactured from jute, and imposing an import tax.
Metallurgical Industries Prosperous-Government Price Fixing.
The unprecedented returns realized from Spanish metallurgical
industries in 1916, amounting to over $100,000,00, were surpassed in
1917, when the value of these products at the smelting works was
$157,000.000. This increase was due both to the high prices obtained
and greater production. The prosperity of these industries, which
are rapidly expanding, has attracted the attention of investors.
H-owever, labor troubles and the various complications resulting
from the war have affected some branches unfavorably. The rapid
development of Spanish metallurgy has enabled the utilization of
low-grade ores and some of complex composition.
Notable among Government measures which had a bearing on
metallurgical industries were those for the fixing of prices by official
committees. The pri. e of zinc in sheets was regulated by the Govern-
ment, as was lead in sheets and tubes. white lead, and white zinc. An
As-ociation for Taxation and Regulation of Construction Materials
issued regulations specifying the use and regulating the distribution
of certain iron girders for city building l)purpl)oses, by which regula-
tions orders had to be s-ubtitted to the Central Siderurgica. Prices
of iron and steel products, such as girders, hoops, and sheets, were
fixed according to dimensions. The export of some products was
embarooed, and export taxes were levied with a view to supplying
the country amply with needed material.
Iron and Steel Industry in 1917.
The output of -elalilntanlufactured iron and steel increased from
721,746 tons in 1916 to s'27,941 tons in 1917, and the prices realized
were higher than tho.e of the former year. The value of pig iron,
iron and steel sheets, puddled iron, forged iron, cast iron, and
tempered steel at the Spanish blast furnaces and rolling mills was
$(61.300.000 in 1917, comlpa.red with $2'3,500,000 in 1916, an increase
of $37,T.i0,000. The number of operatives in iron and steel works
in 1917 numbered 11,.9S, against 12.571 in 1916, a reduction ac-
counted for by the installation of labor-saving machinery. The 15
iron and steel plants of 1916 increased to IS in 1917, the hydraulic,
steam, and electric machialinery totaling 102,744 horsepower. In pig-
iron production in 1917 the five furnaces of Vizcaya led, producing
216,936 tons, and were followed lby two plants in Oviedo producing
63,736 tons, and one in Santander producing 57,361 tons. Other
furnaces of lesser importance are situated in Malaga, Alava, and
Navarre.


"24





SPAIN.


Scarcity of Fuel-Electric Furnace Proves Satisfactory.
The Vizr.iyan siderurgical industry li;-. inslitalled additional mln-
chinery and raised its productive capacity fwr niaterials required in
the domestic market as well a, for naval and military needs. The
blast furnaces have been reconstructed and new rcke furnace-, and
rolling mills put uip. A Siemens furnace was mounted and the use
of charcoal furnaces was pushed to an extreme. ITnu-.ual difficulty
was encountered in obtaining regular and sutlicient sipplie-, of fuel.
At Baracaldo a furnace with a capacity of 10 tons daily was devoted
to the production of ferromanganese. Trials were made with an elec-
tric furnace of 3 tons capacity for electrical separation of metals,
the current being produced on the premises. The results were ex-
cellent, steel for dynamos and transformers completely free from
sulphur and phosphorus being produced.
Of the three blast furnaces at Sestao of a daily production ca-
pacity of 250 tons, only two were operated during 1917, owing to
insufficient coke to keep them up, and accordingly another coke oven
is being built. In addition to the six steel furnaces constantly run-
ning, there have just been completed two new ones capable of an an-
nual production of 35,000 tons of steel, and it is planned to install
two more. Machinery for the manufacture of heavy pieces of ar-
tillerv and industrial pieces of 10, 20, and 30 tons was constructed,
including a hydraulic press of 2,000 tons and another of 800 tons.
Production of Lead and Acids.
The lead refineries of Spain, the production of which was valued
at $16,100,000 in 1917, turned out 172,909 tons of lead that year,
against. 147,407 tons in 1916. There were 60,503 tons cast in the
Province of Cordoba, 52,330 tons in Jaen.- and '50,796 tons in
Murcia. The total number of operatives employed in the 15 lead
works of Spain was 3,79S during 1917, compared with 3,580 during
the previous year. There were 3,400 tons of antimonious lead pro-
duced in the lead plants of Cordoba.
The quicksilver works at Oviedo produced 60 tons of arsenic
acid; in the Province of Murcia 180 tons of hydrochloric acid and
270 tons of nitric acid were made. The production of sulphuric
acid increased from 140.7SS tons in 1916 to 167,815 tons in 1917,
about one-half of which came from the Province of Barcelona where
the. pyrites of Huelva, containing from 47 to 50 per cent of sulphur,
are treated.
White Lead, Cement, Coke, and Fuel Briquets.
Two small factories, one in Guipuzcoa and the other in Ahneria,
produced 2,691 tons of white lead in 1917, compared with 2,493 tons
in 1916. Of 462,357 tons.of cement produced in 1917, 226,937 tons
were Portland cement. The Province of Gerona fielded over 7..0)00
tons of the natural cement, and the Province of Barcelona produced
92,500 tons of the Portland cement. Notwithstanding difficulties
encountered by lack of fuel, lack of transportation facilities, and
relatively little building, the Barcelona cement works increased their
production; much reinforced cement was required for the building of
a large new hotel in Barcelona, and a shipyard was established for
the construction of cement vessels. The coke produced amounted
to only 542,767 tons, a decrease compared with the previous year,




26 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

largely owing to lessened output in the siderurgical works of Vizcaya
and Oviedo.
In 16 factories employing 753 operatives, 499,447 tons of fuel
blriquets were produced in 1917, compared with 555,975 tons pro-
lduced during 1910. The Provinces of Oviedo, Leon, and Seville-
led in this production.
Copper, Silver, Salt, and Zinc Industries.
The production of semimanufactured copper in 1917 amounted to
38,520 tonsc, compared with 32,880 tons in 1910. The 1917 produc-
tion consisted of 22.493 tons of blister copper, 12.153 tons of precip-
itate of copper, 1,554 tons of ingots. 1,510 tons of wire, and 816
tons of shell. The price of copper fell during 1917, compared with
1916, so that the value of these products at the plant was less than
the value of those of the year before, despite the increase in produc-
tion. Tlhe copper ingots came from the Province of Cordoba, the
precipitate and blister from Huelva, and the wire from Oviedo. A
total of 4,347 laborers, 3,437 of which were in the Province of
IHuelva, were engaged in the copper foundries. Of the 114 tons
of silver refined during 1917. compared with 140 tons in the previous
year, 55 tons were from Cordoba, 34 from Murcia, and 21 from Jaen,
where the silver was obtained in the lead works. Ordinary salt.,
471,693 tcns of which were produced in 1917, against 546,989 tons in
1916, came chiefly from the salt gardens around Cadiz. There were
171 salt-evaporating works in operation employing 444 laborers.
Two zinc factories, situated one in Cordoba and one in Oviedo, pro-
duced 10,155 tons of metal in bars and sheets compared with 8,523
tons in 1916. The number of operatives in the zinc works fell from
909 to 897. The prices obtained at the plant were considerably in
excess of tho-e of the previous year.
Benzol Production-New Installations.
Before the the arthe production of benzol in Spain amounted to
1,150 tons annually, but. during the past four years new installations
for obtaining benzol have been made, so that in 191 some 2,000 tons
were produced. Two benzol factories now (June, 1919) under con-
struction will be able, together, to produce 800 tons. Of the present
production of benzol 600 tons are taken by the Ministry of Supplies
for domestic needs and paid for at a fixed price, the remainder being
sold on the market, principally for motor-car use. Last November a
plant for obtaining benzol from the coke furnaces of Sestao began
operations, though its output did not greatly influence the production
in 1918; but with this and the other new installations the benzol to
be obtained in 1919 will probably amount to 3,000 tons. This quan-
tity is about one-tenth of that required by the automobiles of Spain,
and there are projects to increase the production of benzol extensively
in this country.
Electrical Development-Increased Production of Electricity.
Statistics recently published give the number of electric plants
existing in 1915 at 2,847, producing annually 54,833,514,233 kilowatt
hours of current. Of the total number, 517 plants are in the Province
of Barcelona, 1S9 in Alicante, 171 in Valencia, 142 in Gerona, anld
12 in Saragossa, while the remainder are distributed throughout the
whole Kingdom.






SPAIN.


Hydroelectric plants in Spain in 191S of over S00-horsepower ca-
pacity each, numbered 85 and produced 413:.04t horsepower out of a
potential capacity of 974,473 horsepower. Installations producing
from 300 to 800 horsepower numbered 50., and produced to their full
potential capacity of 23.S90 horsepower. Smlil entterlprises prodiuc-
ing less than 300 horsepower numbered 103, prodlncing to their en-
tire potential capacity of 11,394 horsepower. The total number of
plants increased to 238 in 1918 from 170 in 1917, and the power pro-
duced anlounted to 438.330 horsepower compared witl 384.'297 horse-
power produced in the year before. The difficulties of the coal situ-
ation in a measure stimulated efforts to utilize the power of water-
falls and mountain streams. Plans are being discussed for the elec-
trification of the railroads, and the greater application of electricity
in chemical and metallurgical industries, especially in the production
of soda and sulphate of ammonia, in the refining of copper, in the
treatment of the bauxites of Catalonia, in the preparation of alumi-
num, and in many other operations of vital importance to domestic
economy.
Natural Power Resource of Catalonia-New Electrical Installations.
In the great industrial section of Catalonia hydroelectric equip-
ment already installed produces 150,;500 horsepower, wh ile, there are
works under construction that will yield 12M.000 horsepower. This
leaves 826.000 hore.-power undeveloped, out of a total potential horse-
power of 1.104,5,000,) T-hd preceding figures shlow that only 14 per
cent of the potential power is used at present, that 11 per cent. will
be made available by installation- now under construction, and that
75 per cent is as yet unexploited. Four large companies control the
power in ('atalonia. one of then transmiitting to certain stations
110,000 volts for a distance of 114 miles.
During the past year a hydroelectric plant of 1.',000 horsepower
was commenced in Asturias and one of 12,000 horsepower in Valen-
cia. There were also under construction the Electra de Viesgo in
Asturias. of 18,000I horsepower, and Dos Agun.. in Valencia, with a
potential capacity of 60,000 horsepower, of which only 20,000 horse-
power will be used.
Extension of Electric Railways-Adjustment of Laws Regarding Water Power.
Electric railways and tramways were constructed and extended in
various parts of Spain. Plans to electrify the railway from the A.s-
turian coal fields were discus-sed, and it is quite probable that the
new road from Madrid to Valencia will adopt electric traction.
The laws in force in Spain for the uie of public water power are
the outgrowth of legislation of 1866 and 1S79. enacted before the
advent of the great hydroelectric enterprises. Rapid development
has necessitated numerous additions to the law., which, by their di-
versity. caused certain misinterpretations. Accordingly, by royal
decree the provisions relative to securing concessions for the use of
water power, and the classification of various bodies of water as
public utilities, as well as to adjacent land necessary for construction
work have been coordinated.
Machinery-Importation of Military Material Restricted.
The manufacture of machinery, many kinds of which were for-
merly imported, was active during 1918, progress having been made




SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


in directions not previously attempted in Spain. In fostering these-
growing industries a law was enacted in July, 1918, providing that
all material purIchased in the future for use in the defense of the
country, must, with certain exceptions, be of domestic production
and made by Spanish labor. Under the exceptions are listed instru-
ments, machines, and tools necessary to the production of such ar-
ticles and their repair, where impossible to obtain them at home;
models of patents and inventions when required or their purchase
is considered of value for the manufacture of military material in
Spain; and such material as is consumed with sufficient rapidity to
exhaust, in a long war, the stores accumulated during peace. For a
period of five years, during which time the manufactures of Spain
are being developed, the importation from abroad of indispensable
material for defense will be permitted, owing to the impossibility of
obtaining it in Spain, but such iImports are restricted to the smallest
quantities possible. Foreign workmen and foremen may only he
empllloyed in the manufacture and maintenance of works for national
defense until Spanish subjects can be found to replace them.
New Shop Constructions and Extensions-Shipbuilding Activities.
During 1918 a foundry was constructed at Cadiz with three blast
firntaces as well as a plate-bending furnace, a plating shed, rollers,
planing machines, and riveting machines. The engines and com-
plete plant for this important enterprise came from Madrid, and
when finished the plant will be one of the best equipped engineering
establishment.L in Spain.
In Palencia a company began the construction and repair of
wagons, coaches, and general rolling stock for railroads. One com-
pany added to machinery already installed, so that it. is now able to
turn out 3,000 railroad cars a year. This concern utilizes Spanish
raw materials and its 2,000 operatives are Spaniards.
According to official information, tle tonnage under construction
in the different shipbuilding yards of Spain in August, 191S, repre-
sented 188,1(00 tons displacement, distributed as follows: At the
yards of the Sociedad Espafiola de Con-truccion Naval at Cadiz,
Cartagena, Sestao, and El Ferrol, 86,090 tons; yards of Aviles,
10,000 tons; Gijon, 12,750 tons; Bilbao, 27,000 tons; Nervion, 23,000
tons; Ardanaz, 1,000 tons; Zumaya, 500 tons; Cadugua, 700 tons;
Barcelona, 2,980 tons; Vigo, 3,340 tons; Santander, 1,200 tons;
Gerona, 500 tons; San Felipe El Ferrol, 2,000 tons; Tarragona,
2,400 tons; and the remainder at various small shipbuilding yards in
the Canaries, Balearic Islands, and elsewhere. One shipbuilding
company undertook the construction of reinforced cement vessels,
one of which, displacing 480 ton-;. was launched in September.
Experiments were made in Gijon with boilers constructed in the
lshiplbuIilding yards of that port, and the result was satisfactory.
Extension of Ship-Construction Facilities.
The Sociedad Espafiola de Construccion Naval increased its
capital for the erection of works for the manufacture'of steel and
copper pieces especially needed in naval construction. This com-
pany employs in its five yards 6,063 operatives.
Manyvshipbltl'ding yards, including those of Valencia, Tarragona,
and Gijon, increased their capacity for the construction of larger






SPAIN.


vessels. New shipbuilding yards were constructed, numerous vessels.
were purchased by Spanish navigation companies, and vessels of
Spanish construction were launched.
The Spanish Government owns a shipbuilding plant in Cartagena
which is worked by a company for which three non-Spanish com-
panies, having about a 40 per cent interest in the enterprise, are
acting as technical guarantors. This company, by special arrange-
ment with the State, took over the working of the arsenal at El
Ferrol, the State artillery shops at La Carraca and the Trasat-
lantica's yard at Matagorda. It has built a modern shipbuilding
yard at Sestao, and in its various undertakings employs a total
capital of some $5,400,000, most of which is held by lirms or per-
sons of Spanishi nationality. As far as possible the material em-
ployed by this company is obtained from Spanish sources.
Cork Industry-Cork Interests Form Syndicate.
Early in 1918, in connection with the Government regulations
covering the coasting trade, the ports of'Palamos, San Feliu de
Guixols, Ribadesella, and San Esteban de Pravia were excluded
from the tables of rates. The special category for cork goods was
abolished in the classification of goods, and it was assigned a
numerical category, cork dust, waste, and conglomerate being put
in the third category; cork strips and cork of other kinds in the
second; and cork in small square pieces, cork stoppers, and wrought
cork in the first. The ports of Palamos, San Feliu de Guixols,
Ribadesella, and San Esteban de Pravia were included in the regular
coasting lines with periodic services, in order particularly to facili-
tate the transport of the cork from the southern part of Spain.
The Chamber of Commerce of San Feliu de Guixols, in behalf
of the cork interest of Catalonia, Estremadura, and Andalusia, ap-
plied to the Spanish Government for recognition under the law for
the protection of industries, as an industry which, owing to super-
production of merchandise incapable of absorption on domestic
markets, should be accorded the privileges provided in such cases.
The justice of the petition was recognized by the Government, but
in order to receive the protection available, the cork interests were
obliged to organize as a syndicate. Accordingly the Chamber of
Commerce of San Felin de Guixols called a meeting of the leading
cork interests, which resulted in the formation of the Sindicato
Mercantil e Industrial Corchotaponero de la Provincia de Gerona.
It is hoped, in local business circles, that this organization, with
the aid of the Government, will relieve tle great crisis which, since
the war, has imperiled the cork industry of Spain.
War Conditions Greatly Reduce Cork Exports.
Manufacturers of cork goods in Spain formerly counted upon
German and Austrian markets to take a large part of their exports,
but houses devoted exclusively to orders from the Central Empires
have been closed for a long while. The trade with France, being
chiefly confined to cork for making stoppers for sparkling-wine
bottles, was reduced, as the districts where these corks were used
lay almost entirely within the war zone. A noticeable improvement
has taken place since the signing of the armistice, but restrictions
on the import of corks from Spain and lack of freight facilities




SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


have prevented the full development of the French trade. Ship-,
ments have been made to Great Britain throughout the war, but
on1 a limited scale owing to the Government restrictions of the
liquor traffic and transportation difficulties. The importance of the
United States as a buyer of cork from Spain has been reduced on
account of the lessened demand for corks and cork disks resulting
from prohibition. Manufacturers of medicine corks, cork paper,
cork board, and other specialities still find an outlet for their prod-
ucts in America, and practically all the cork waste has found its
way to the United States, despite high freights and increased prices.
The output of cork waste decreased owing to lessened activity in
the Spanish factories, and was hardly sufficient to meet the foreign
demand.
Production of Cork Wool Increased-Government Loanp on Cork Warrants.
Some firm.- have taken up, on a large scale, the manufacture of
cork shavings, known on the market. as "cork wool." a substitute
for animal and vegetable wool for mattress fillings. Large quanti-
Sties of this cork wool were shipped to France for the American
Expeditionary Forces. The manufacture of cork board has in-
creased, and these goods have aw,,;isted someI manufacturers to keel
their plants running Iunlder more or le,,s regular conditions.
The Spanish (oveirniient. in view of the critical condition of the
cork industry, made arrangements whereby the Bank of Spain,
with the State's guaranty, agreed to discount, for 75 per cent of
their value, warrants i.-ued by the Docks of Palamos for goods
touredd with them up to a stmn of about $1,260,000. From the
value of the stocks held in storage by the Docks of Palamos it is
evident that, notwithstanding the large decrease in the output of
most of the factories, the production is still in excess of the demand.
There hlas been a surpllus of labor and much distress among the
cork workers.
Law Encourages New Industries-Glass-Making and Other Enterprises.
Owing to the benefits available under the law for protection of
industries and to the necessity of producing much material formerly
imported, a number of new industries lave been established and
old industries further developed.
Although glai-. has been made in Spain since the days of the
Roinan ., and the glass industry of Barcelona has existed since the
fourteenth century, optical and special glasses for use in sanitary and
hygienic instruments were not made in this country. After a year
of experimentation, a Spanish engineer has produced a glass which,
after analy.,is in Spanish laboratories and the British War Office,
hais pr'oen entirely satisfactory. A company was formed for its
production and the Ministry of War adopted it for the army, while
England contracted for all the excess for use in its army sanitary
-ervice. Thi-, company now u nkes. a- well, a variety of glass for
use in the mmnnifactulre of abIoratory apparatus. and another kind
especially isuitable for inpullle for serums.
Another new industry of great promise is the preparation of
I.sateurizedl, condensed, and lpulverized milk, for which a factory,
equipped with modern apparatus, has been constructed. In this





SPAIN.


factory, the largest and probably the only one of its kind in the
peninsula, 5,000 quarts of milk daily are used and 50 laborers
employed.
The manufacture of banana fiber was begun in Las Palmas, in
the Canary Islands. This fiber, extracted from the tree trunks,
serves as a substitute for jute, hemp, and other vegetable fibers,
and is especially suitable for yarn. cord, textiles, and alpargata
soles. The machinery for use in the factory was purchased in the
United States.
Spanish Merchant Marine-Heavy Losses During the War.
On January 1, 191S, the Spanish merchant marine consisted of
85 sailing vessels aggregating 31,209 tons, and 495 steamers total-
ing 749,558 tons, making in all 580 vessels and 780,767 tons. This
tonnage shows a decrease of 67,081 tons compared with that existing
at the beginning of 1916, with 155 fewer sailing vessels and 23
fewer steamers. The total decrease in tonnage since January 1,
1914, was 94,525 tons. The port of Bilbao leads in the amount of
tonnage registered, followed by Barcelona.
The Spanish merchant marine was at its highest in 1915, when
the total tonnage was 904,727 tons distributed among 857 vessels.
During the war it steadily decreased until on January 1, 1918,
there were 177 less vessels and the tonnage was reduced by 123,960
tons. Vessels torpedoed from the beginning of hostilities until
June, 1918, exclusive of those of less than 250 tons register, numbered
51 with a total tonnage of 123,176, and vessels lost from exploding
mines numbered 6 with a total tonnage of 16,731 tons, making a
total of losses to the Spanish merchant marine, owing to the war,
of 139,907 tons, consisting of 57 vessels of over 250 tons register.
If to this be added vessels of less than 250 tons register, many of
which were lost, the tonnage destroyed by the war reaches nearly
238,000 tons. Activity in Spanish shipbuilding has succeeded in
replacing some of these losses, Ibut Spain, through no fault of its
own, now occupies the tenth place among great, maritime nations.
Government Requisition of the Spanish Merchant Marine.
Radical measures were adopted by the Spanish Government to
distribute raw materials and finished products where most needed
in the country. Even before the beginning of 1918, shipowners had
been required to place 180,000 gross tons register at the disposal of
the Government. The Maritime Traffic Conmmittee was authorized
to determine the number and names of the ships which should con-
stitute the required 180,000 tons. The position of each ship at sea or
in port was reported, and shipping companies were obliged to notify
the committee of all departures, both prior to booking freight and be-
fore clearing. The departure of ships listed was then authorized by
the committee, provided that the needs of the national maritime
traffic (lid not demand other disposition of the shipping in question.
The owners of requisitioned ships were obliged to order the return
of ships requisitioned whenever called upon by the committee.
Coastwise lines were organized, for which a number of ships were
designated with an aggregate of approximately 250,000 tons cargo
capacity, most of the vessels not being of over 2,000 tons each.




r32 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

The prohibition of the sale of Spanish vessels to foreigners, which
had formerly been restricted to vessels of certain classes and ca-
pacities, was applied to all vessels flying the national flag.
The Maritime Traffic Committee designated the vessels and ton-
nage to be devoted to the transportation of wheat from Argentina
and coal from England. Later, by royal decree dated June 12, the
whole of the Spanish merchant marine was requisitioned to carry
materials, the importation, distribution, or exportation of which
were deenmed of vital interest to the country at large. Freight con-
tracts could be canceled or suspended when slips were required. A
subcommittee was ;)appointed with authority to fix the rates to be
charged for freight and demurrage in the coastwise trade and specify
the routes therefore. decide claims and effect settlements with ship-
owners-. and perform, all duties regarding maritime traffic which the
Government mlright entr'llt to this committee.
New York-Vigo Line of Fast Steamers Proposed.
Considerable interest developed during 1i91.s in tlh project for a
line of fast steamers between New York and Vigo. About two years
ago the Spanish Chamber of Comnerce in New York took up the
question, realizing that sucli a line would appeal to tourists visit-
ing the peninsula. The Spanish Direction General of Commerce,
Industry, and Labor secured in January, 1017, an Ilappropriation
from the Governlient of about $450,000 as an annual subvention for
the company that should .secure the concession. Since then the situ-
ation has changed, the val ue of vessels and demand for tonnage have
increased, and tle sublvention no longer appears adequate. By royal
order published De)cember 20, 191,, a commission consisting of the
three leading steamshlip owners of this country, was appointed to
study the establishment of such a line. the number of voyages that
it would be desiraable to miake annually, the tonnage of the vessels
required, and full details as to a through, express-train service be-
tween Vigo and Madrid.
The contract for the steamislhipi service between Santa Isabel, other
ports of Fernando Po, neighboring islands, and the Continent of
Africa proper, having expired, the Spanish Government asked for
the submission of new contracts for maritime communications with
the Spanish possessions in the Gulf of Guinea, offering to the line
accepted a subvention not to exceed $63,000 annually. The Spanish
Royal Mail was authorized, in cases of necessity, to make stops at
Port Harcourt and Winneba (G uinea) on return trips of the vessels
of the Fernando Po service.
Railroad Earnings-Heavy Expenses Cut Profits.
The vear 191qS wvas not favorable, financially, to Spanish railroads.
Althoughi the receipt, were. in general, greater than during the previ-
ous year'. tlihe lh;vy running expenses cut down the profits. The in-
crieasen en ciipts wa., par tly owing to an gmented traffic and partly
to higher transportation rate-. Under normal circumstances these
increased receipts \would have helped the financial situation of the
railways, but 4iat this \va, not the c;i-e is shown by the fact that most
of the companie-, will not be able to distribute dividends for the
past year.





SPAIN. 33

Compared with 1917, the receipts of the eight principal railroad
companies of Spain in 1918 were as follows:
Railroads. 1917 1018 Railroads. 1917 1918

Nortede Espafia......... 130,994,089 $31,064,605 Oe;te de Espafia......... SS20I,035 51,140, O3
Madrid-Alicant e .......... 27,239, 18g 33,70f,80 0 Medina-Orcnse........... 8 33,244 1,132.500
Andaluces ............. 6,403,723 7,095,06. Olot-Ger'ona.............. 121.341 152,959
Madrid-Caceres........... 1, 9, 876 1,611,350 Sur do Espafla............ 902,270 1.250,543

Extension of Railway System-Increase of Rates.
During 1918 the railroad system of Spain was extended by the
addition of a little over 14 miles of new road. This consisted of 7
miles, opened on February 15, on the section from Escoriaza to
Mondragon of the line Estella-Vitoria-Los Martires, which was built
by the State; 4 miles, opened July 13, connecting at. Baeza with the
railroad from Puente Genii to Linares; and 3 miles of the Barcelona-
Tarrasa electric railroad, opened September 13 from San Cugat to
Rubi.
The railroad question in Spain is of transcendental importance.
Double tracks from Madrid to coast points such as Barcelona,
Valencia, Cartagena, Cadiz, Bilbao, Irun, and other places, are con-
sidered indispensable. This construction, it is estimated, would re-
quire the expenditure, in five or six years, of more than $600,000,000.
In December the companies were authorized to increase their exist-
ing rates by 15 per cent per unit and kilometer, even though such
rates should exceed the maximum rates established in the original
concessions. These increases will cease when the price of coal in
Spain falls below the price prevailing in 1913 plus 50 per cent; when
the net profits of the railroads are equal to those of 1913; and will
automatically cease three years from November 11, 1918.
Proposed Railway Construction Under State Guaranty.
A new railroad is proposed from Zafra to Villanueva del Fresno,
-ia Jerez de los Caballeros, thus forming a junction at Zafra with
the lines from Zafra to Huelva, and Merida to Seville. Bids for
concessions were solicited for a secondary railway from Calanmocha
to Vivel del Rio, the capital for which is fixed at about $1,100,000,
on which interest up to 5 per cent will be guaranteed by the Govern-
ment. Initial rolling stock of 6 locomotives, 10 passenger cars, and
47 other cars will be required. Bids were also asked on a secondary
road from Palencia to Guardo, the State to guarantee interest at 5
per cent on a capital of about $2,000,000. This road will require 10
locomotives, 16 passenger cars, and 133 other cars.
The laying of the tracks of the first three portions of the road
across the Pyrenees from Ripoll to Puigcerda was authorized by
royal order promulgated on March S. Bids were invited for the con-
struction and operation of a secondary railway from Calamocha to
Vivel del Rio, for another from Blanes to Vilajuiga, and for another
from Palencia to Guardo, the State in each case guaranteeing a
maximum of 5 per cent interest on the paid-in capital. Concessions
were granted for a strategic railroad from Puertollano to La Caro-
lina, a secondary road from Munguia to Bermeo and Pedernales, and
a double line from Palencia to Leon.




SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Government to Facilitate Construction of Coal-Carrying Railroads.
Referring to the necessity of increasing the production of coal in
Spain, the Minister of Public Works stated that much depended on
the construction of railways. and that the Government wished to
curtail, as far as possible, the formalities concerning concessions and
stimulate private enterprise in order to get. the work quickly under-
way. By the law of 1912 the requirements to be complied with in
securing concessions usually occupy two years, and a summary pro-
cedure wa.s sluggested which would not require more than two or three
months. It was estimated that the total cost of these proposed new
lines- would not exceed $20,000,000. which is less than the annual ex-
pense of transporting coal from abroad. Accordingly, a royal de-
cree was proniulgated on March 17, providing that either the Min-
ister of Public Works, the coal owners, or any other parties may
submit plans for secondary and strategic railroads to serve coal
basin-. The project presented must be complete and explicit, setting
forth the reasons for the choice of the line and the total estimated
cost. Such project, are to be submitted to the Department for the
Concession and constructionn of Railways, which will render de-
eisions. All estimates in connection with concessions granted under
these exceptional conditions will be subject to revision.
Port and Harbor I:nprovements at Barcelona and Vigo.
In DecIn .ibc:. 191S. the Julinta (el Puerto de Barcelona completed
the :Iith li year of its exi-stence. At that time the port had an area of
741 acres, with a; line of quays ., .i miles in length, in addition to a sea
wall. During the year 1917 the receipts of the Board of Harbor
Works-, of the port of Barcelona were about $621,200 and disburse-
ilents $i'2 2,(i(00. Ibut at the opening of tlie ye-ar 1918 its credit balance
amounted to about $400,000. Although this port is fully equipped
with all modern appliances for loading .ships and conveniences for
pa'senigers. additional improvements are under consideration, such as
the electrification of apparatuif now operated by steam and the ex-
tenion of some of the breakwaters.
The port of Vigo is situated on a bay capable of accommodating
vessels of greate-t draught, and is protected from rough weather by
the Cies Islands. The inner bay, sheltered by a natural promontory
cin which a lighthouse is located, varies from 30 to 60 feet in depth.
This port is considered of great international importance, especially
as it is the nearest. European port in direct line to New York, the
,lisitance being 2,SS3 miles. A plan for the improvement of the har-
bor proper, in order to render it available for large transatlantic
vessels, has been drawn up. This plan includes new piers and ex-
tensive harbor works.
Dry Docks for Almeria and Cadiz-Other Port Improvements.
The port of Almeria. lying in the Gulf of Almeria, is protected
by a solid wall of rock and cement extending for a distance of
4,3"27 feet and a freight pier of 1,345 feet, inclosing a harbor of 18
acres. The harbor has an entrance of 984 feet in width and a clepth
varying front 22 to 48 feet. Important improvements are under
construction at this port, including a dry dock with a capacity for
vessels of",000 tons.





SPAIN.


The port of Rosas, in the Province of Geronn, was opened to the
importation of certain articles including potato starch, wheat flour,
and fertilizers.
Cadiz is a highly important point, for distributing goods for
Spain, Morocco, and Portugal. A dry dock is being constructed at
that port to acconunodate ships of 375 feet in length, as well as two
slipways for wooden ships.
There are extensive port works at Corunna. Santander, and Valen-
cia, besides many others at the 130 ports of the Spanish Peninsula
and adjacent islands.
Creation of Free Ports or Zones-Governing Regulations.
Cadiz was the first city of Spain to which the privilege of a free
port was granted. A concession for this deposit franco, managed
by the Sociedad Credito y Docks of Barcelona, was authorized by
royal decree in 1914, for warehousing goods from abroad. As soon
as this zone was conceded to Cadiz, other Spanish ports petitioned
for a similar privilege.
By royal decree the concession for a free port at Barcelona was
granted in 1916, and ground along the outer harbor, with 1,722 feet
on the quay line, is devoted to this purpose.
In July, 1918, the right to establish a free port was granted to
Bilbao, and in August of the same year Santander was accorded the
same privilege. Other Spanish ports, especially Corunna, Vigo,
and Palma de Mallorca, are demanding like privileges from the
Government.
The regulations prescribed for the working of these free depots
are identical. A governing body is empowered to engage, inter alia,
in the work of construction; to contract for the supply of materials;
to accept subsidies and raise loans; to issue receipts for goods; to
lease various branches of the depot: to control the installation and
management of the depot: and to hire and purchase buildings and
machinery. Its financial resources comprise State, provincial, and
municipal subsidies; the proceeds from leases of premises and in-
stallations; and the dues and tariffs received either from the depot
proper or in connection with the goods in storage.
Government Revenue and Disbursements.
The revenue of the Spanish Government during 1918 was less
than that of 1917. the chief decrease being in the amount of Treas-
ury bonds sold, while reduced importations brought down the cus-
tomhouse receipts. The disbursements show a decrease, chiefly at-
tributable to payments on the public debt, pensions, etc., nearly all
other items in the list having increased.
The receipts and disbursements of the Spanish Treasury for the
year 1918, compared with 1917, as published in the official gazette
of Madrid, were as follows:

Items. 1917 1918

REVENUE.
Taxes on real estate, crops, and cattle....................................... $35,836,457 $35,831,357
Taxes on industries and trade.............................................. ,583,396 8,889,587
Taxes on profits derived from movable property ........................... 31,434,405 36,590,629
Royal imposts and property transfers ................................... 14, 785,201 14,701,004
Imposts on mines.......................................................... 1,879,244 2,051,777




36 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Items. 1917 1918

R EVENU E-cont inued.
Personal tax regiltrallon certificates................................... $1.223,206 $1,223,827
Imports on payments made by Slate, Provine.s, or municipalities......... 1,057,474 1,161,410
Impostz on private carriages .......... ................................. 42,150 45,440
STax from the Biscay Pro\ inches and Navarre ... ...................... 1,661,797 1,753,393
Customs duties .... ...................... ............................... 2 4,640,471 21,541,732
Imposts on sugar .......................................................... 5,307,W56 6,636,991
Im posts on alcohol.......................... .......... ................... 2, 2,267 3,232,257
Tax on interior consume option of beer ........................................ 150,798 179 026
Consular fees ......................................................... .. .. 176,915 194,807
iOctroi imposts......... ................................................... 6,S01,037 6,473,375
Imposts on passengers and merchandise tr,-n'portei h ndor a............ 5,834,129 6,510,983
Stam ptax ......................... ............ ............ 19,553,668 21,004,480
Imposts on gas, elecLricity, and calcium carbide .......................... 2,25,677 2,355,477
Tobacco monopoly............................... .................... 30,446,703 29,214,990
Match m monopoly ............... .... ...... ....... ......................... 4,509,.35 4,886,909
Lottery monopoly................................. ..................... 25,41, 116 26,493,825
Monopoly ofmanulactiir- and 'ale ofexplo;sies ............................ 1,322,852 1,193,214
State-owned mines:
Almaden ........... ........................................... ........... 1957,92 1,454,681
Linares ............ ............... .................... ...... ... 916,047 ......
Revenue from religious sources ............................................... 410.600 480,600
Paym.ents for exeniiprti:i from military irv ice, and fines .................. 1404,857 3,682,489
All other sources o' in onme .................................... ......... 7.371,377 7,949,573
Sale of Treasury bond- i i:- i\.s of tDc. 14, 1912. and Dec. 26, 191411............. 11i6. ,33,979 72,000,000
Sale of food products acquijerl by law\ of Feb. 1s, 1913 ..... ............. 2,133,721 10,550,453
Sale of sulphate of coppr ................................................... 415 ..............
Collect ion of prepayment s made to daily newspapers...................... 99, 705 155,697
Benefits on \\.ir Insltanel ................. ................................. 415.'135 834,166
M municipal surlaxe-. ............ ......................... .............. 1. 82,22, 2,008,718
Total ............. ........... ......... ................. 409,059,190 331,263,367
SI'ilih U I': M L NTS.
Then Royal ilol Le1Irlator ...................... ... .................................. ... 07,780 466,665
P'lilie debt pn-ion' tc ........ ...... ............................ 198,419.926 87,427,242
S'nemploye, cla .. .... .. .................................... 15,447,326 15,529,845
l'rsidencv of tihe oun'il of Ministers ..................................... 2,630,312 3,986,532
.Mnis'lry ofStat ...e. .... .. .................................... ....... 1,525,671 1,830,403
Ministry of .race and Jus! ice:
Civil obligations......................................................... 3,523,923 3,644,814
Ecelesiactical obligation.............................................. 7,978,032 7,567,277
Ministry of War ........................................................... 4.3,903,415 57,159,445
Ministry of the Navy.... ............... .............................. 12,208,168 14,912,962
Ministry of the Intelior. .. .......................................... 18,211,217 19,541,618
M ministry of Public Instriici ion.............. .. .................. ....... 14,768,329 14,740,558
Minist ry of Pulblic Works, .... ..................................... 30,848,205 32,452,822
Ministry of the Treasury. .................................................... 3,575,24 3779,896
Expenses of the Treasury foi collecting r.\nVLues ........................... 35,211,569 44,531,530
Spani3hl possessions in the i L11 f o Guinea .................................. 342,000 342,000
Action in Morocco. .............. ........ .............................. 20,4181,622 22,661,130
3Municipal surtxes.......................................................... 1,832,622 1,976,399
To l................. ................................................. 413,049,441 331,181,563

Proposed Economie Reforms-Government Appropriation of Railroads.
In April, the Spanish Mini,,ter of Public W orks published an out-
line of the policy of the Government- for the social and economic
reconstruction of the country. This comprises an extraordinary
plan of public works including roads, hydraulic works, and refor-
estation. The execution of the plans will require appropriations of
some $200.000 000. One of the projects is the construction, by the
State, of a vast system of seolndary and strategic railroads. The
Milnistry regard-, tils as indispensable to the increase of production,
and calls attention to the issue of special railroad bonds to be guar-
anteed by the State, and which are to receive the same support. as
Government securities.
In Spain railroads are constructed on concessions of 90 and 99
years, and the great Spanish lines are operated under a system of
concessions. In about 25 years these lines will begin to revert to the'





SPAIN.


State and the Minister of Public Works has considered a bill in
anticipation of this time of reversion. The project proposes that the
State take possession of the railroads, offering compensation before
the expiration of the present concessions, becau.- e th c)lmpanies are
financially powerless to execute the very extensive work necessary
for the adequate development of the. svsteml. Under the plan in
mind it is expected that an impulse would be riven to railroad con-
struction, double-track lines be laid, and road-s penetrate districts
essential for the exploitation of natural re.oIm-rc' If taken over,
the State would not run the roads, but the Minister v.ould organize
two great. exploiting ccmpanics to operate the round for the State
according to tariffs fixed by it. Tle present companies would go
into liquidation the moment the State took possession of the lines.
Proposed Nationalization of Water-Power Resources-Mining Law Changes.
Another proposed reform is the concession of water power and
construction work thereon. Statistics prepared by Spanish tech-
nologists showed that in 1917, hydroelectric power to the amount. of
500,000 horsepower was being utilized in Spain, stated to beequal
to 2,000,000 tons of coal, which would cost at present over $80,000,-
000. Owing to the shortage of coal it is imperative to exploit the
water power of the country and thus reduce the necessity of import-
ing fuel. The Minister proposed to reframe the law nationalizing
construction work in connection with water power, giving to the
State the right of appropriation of all unworked concessions. It is
proposed to divide the country into zones and require the companies
in each zone to form an association, the object being to nationalize the
water power now under the control of foreign capital.
It is also proposed to recast the mining laws and devise a plan
for the exploitation of the potash deposits, concessions for which
are now chiefly under the control of Belgian capital. It is stated
that all concessions for the use of watei power and mines must be
limited to private individuals and companies domiciled in Spain.
While most Spaniards do not obje t to foreign capital being in-
vested in the country a minority finds it unnece-sary.
Principal Objects of National Reconstruction.
The seven principal objects of national reconstruction officially
proposed last year, are as follows: (1) Nationalization of the trunk
lines and modifi'atimo of legislation concerning se.ronlary railways;
(2) regulation of the concessions of large watercoulrses for the pro-,
duction of hydroelectric energy; (3) a generous appropriation for
public works; (4) modification of mining regulations; (5) creation
of agricultural credit: (6) organization of the agronomic service
and the vital work of reforestation; (7) the creation of an organiza-
tion which will inmed-iately shape the course of the economic life
of Spain duringg the transition period from war to peace, and lay
down the lines of police to be followed after the war.
Among projeI-ts already presented to the Cortes are the electrifica-
tion of hle port of Pajares and the railroad of Villablino, the drain-
age of swamps andl marshes, and the preservation of forests and of
potash salts. The railway problem is regarded as of fundamental
importance because the increase of the army can not be really ef-
fective or the metallurgical interests develop as they should without




SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


a better system of roads. The development of the railroad system
would open a field for mining industries, and the ore now exported
as raw material could be treated in Spain. It was urged that the
State shoulId is, undertake. during the next few years, the complete
electrification of new industries and somei railroads. Concessions
for mines and water power which the State authorizes, should be
reserved to individuals and companies domiciled in Spain.
Operations of the Bank of Spain.
A general survey of the business of the Bank of Spain shows that
during the period 1914-1918 operations increased in nearly every line.
The gold reserve increased 248.07 per cent, bank notes 68.75 per cent,
current accounts 92.72 per cent, while only the silver reserve and
loans on personal credit decreased. The gold reserve rose from
$370,117,0s0 at the close of 1917, to $415,772,820 at the end of 1918;
the silver reserve fell from $127.896,840 to $115,588,260; bank notes
in circulation increased from $504,000,000 in 1917 to $596,918,700 in
1918, current accounts from a value of $172,000,000 to $207,668,160;
deposits from $1.607.220 to $1,711,440; and the value of discounts,
securities, and loans from $131.000,000 to $205.178,400. The advance
in this last item was chiefly due to loans negotiated with the United
States and France according to commercial conventions with these
nations to Iprevent tihe ilelpri'oi:tion of their exchange. Thle increase
in gold was les, during 1!1 th11an in 1917. amnunting to 12 per cent
as against 53 per cent. n cn ecminber. 1918. the bank notes in circula-
tion approached the limit authorized by law, and a question arose
as to altering the regulations of IIhe bank .in this matter. In August,
1918, the bank was authori;t.ld to incr'ease- its bank-note issue from
$540,000,000 to $630,000,000, provided the additional $90,000,000
should be guaranteed by the gold reserve.
The balance at. the close o)f 1918 showed profits of $17,348,386. of
which after deducting taxes and expenses of ;3,825,724, there re-
mained a surplus of $13,522.,;62 for dividends, which were paid at
the rate of $19 per share.
Proposal for Gold Standard and Redemption of Extericr Debt Rejected.
The question of gold circulation \was aiain agi;tated but \\as finally
dismissed. A bill was introduced in May providing for the gold
standard and redemption of the exterior debt. By its provisions the
silver 5-peseta coin (worth about $0.90) was to be made legal tender
only up to 50 pesetas (about $9); a mint was to be established to
coin gold, and. until it was running, foreign gold coins were to be
put into circulation after their value in pesetas had been stamped
on them; surplus silver was to be demonetized and sold, and the
expense of its redemption was to be met by an appropriation from
the State of not less than $1,800,000 annually. The Government was
to be authorized to amortize the perpetual exterior debt, and the
proceeds of the .ale of silver abroad were to be devoted to the re-
demption of that portion of it not held in Spain. Gold coins were
not to be minted for le.,s than 20 pesetas during the period of silver
demonetization, and the 25-peseta bank notes were to be withdrawn
from cjrctulation. It is interesting to note that the gold in reserve
is chiefly American gold, of which there is $146,253,600 worth, Eng-
lish gold $7,S,7;4.000. and French gold $38,604,600, beside which there





SPAIN.


are some $81,000 worth of German marks, as well as gold of other
countries and bars of gold.
Reform,, in the bank';s regulations are likely to be nmade as soon us
the present privileges exlire in 1921. The increase in the bank',
capital by the suppllementary profits realized in 19117 wai- not :ilthor-
ized by the Cortes, but a temporary solution wa;s reached lb, the
issue of $5,400,000 worth of bonds at 4 per cent. which were dlistrib-
uted to the stockholders pro rata.
Banking Conditions-New Credit Establishments and Banks.
In 1918 there were no great lohmni tloated by the State a- in 1917,
but important operations necessitated the a.ssi-tance of credit estab-
lishments, and there resulted the organization of a Consurcio Ban-
cario Espafiol, which negotiated loans to the French Government,
conducted financial operations with the United States. underwrote
bonds of the Rio Tinto, and formed the bank of Credito Industrial
under the royal decree of November 5.
The negotiation of foreign loans gave rise to a situation among
Spanish banks which favored their federation. While their total
capital amounts to some $56,214,000, they also operate with the
current account deposits of private banks, aniounting to some
$250,740,000. In May the Consoreio Bancario Espafiol was estab-
lished with a capital of $9.000,000. of which one-half consisted of
securities deposited in the Bank of Spain. The banking associations
of Catalonia and northern and central Spain participated in this
organization. Notable among the new banks and branches formed
were the Banco Industrial Minero at Guipuzcoa, with a capital of
$1,800,000, under the auspices of the Banco Urquijo, which also
founded the Banco 1Urquijo Catalan at Barcelona with a capital of
$4,500,000: the Banco Urquijo Vascongado at Bilbao; the Banco
Industrial de Espania with a capital of $900,000; and the Banco
Hispano-Africano. established in 1917. but. commencing operations
in 1918. with a capital of $900,000. The Banco Hispano-Americano
established 8 new branches, making 20 in all.
The profits of these institutions were in proportion to their activ-
ity. The Banco Urqiluijo during its first year as a joint-stock con-
pany paid S per cent; the Banco de Cartagena 5 per cent; the Banco
Castellano 0 per cent, its profits being 50 per cent. greater than those
of 1917; the Banco (iuipuzcoano 9 per cent.; and the Sociedad de
Credito Mercantil 10 per cent. The profits of the Banco Hispano-
Amnericano increased 5.0 per cent, as did also those of the Banco de
Barcelona. which increased its capital from $4,500.000 to $9.000,000.
Foreign Banks and Their Activities-Government Regulations.
There were fewer foreign banks established in Spain in 1918 than
in the preceding year. The Banco Hispano-Austro-Hungaro. with a
capital of $1,800,000, was founded in Madrid in July, 1918. Toward
the end of the year the establishment of a branch in Barcelona of
the Societe Generale de Paris was considered. The Bank of Athens
also planned opening a branch, as did an American banking cor-
poration.
Foreign banks in Spain, and particularly in Barcelona, have done
an increasing business. At the beginning of the war there were 9
operating throughout Spain with a total capital of $9,597,979, of





SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


which $2,:0'3.497 were invested in Catalonia. At the end of 1918
these foreign concerns had greatly increased in number, and their
capital exceeded $17,100,000.
In Augiiust. 191S. the Spanish Government amplified the regula-
tions in forc c since 191;,. regarding the circulation and negotiation
of foreign bec'irities. objectingng all to certain restrictions, and
creating the '" ,tai pillage" of securities, in force at present in the
country. Conditions with regard to the public have varied little,
although Spanish hanks have inaugurated .,omne conce.isions owing
to foreign competition. Notable among these are special rates of
interest, given on deposits of 3, 6, or more months, and changes
regarding the custod\ of securities.
The Stock Markets-Prices Advance in Madrid and Barcelona.
On the SpaniIsh security markets, prices did not experience marked
fluctuations during 1918. Operations were reduced in volume but
prices remained firm, as shown by the year-end quotations of public
-ecurities and those of the majority of important enterprise On
the Madrid bours te e average quotations show an increase compared
with 1917. Interior 4 per cent bonds averaged 78.09: exteriors, 88.19;
anmortizable'4 per cents, 86.76: amortizable 5 per cents (1900) 96.27;
and anmortizable 5 per cents (1917) 95.32, these quotations having
been highest in August. The amortizable 5 per cent bonds, issued
the precede ing year. reached 99 at one time. Treasury bonds remained
-tatiomary. There was a notable increase in quotations of certain
bank stocks and industrials, as well as of railroad stocks.
On the bourse of Barcelona. Treasuiry bonds were not a., active as
the exterior 4 per cents, which came in large quantities from Paris.
Municipal bonds were stronger. more than $7,200.000 being invested
in them. Capital was readily available in the Barcelona market, and
local bond is-.ues of over $27.i0,000,000 in value were floated during
the year.
A characteri-,tic of the Barcelona market, as well as that of
Madrid, was the slight rise in local securities, municipal loans
advancing 7 per cent, while bank stocks and industrials increased
proportionately.
Bilbao and Other Markets-Speculation in Foreign Exchange.
The Bilbao Bourse is interesting in that it is the principal market
for shipping securities. Sales there increased from a total of about
$40,000,000 in 1917 to $80,000,000 in 1918. While shipping securities
decreased in value, banking and industrial securities advanced
slightly. On other Spanish markets, such as Saragossa. Santander,
Valencia, and Reus, bourse transactions were chiefly of a local nature.
A marked feature of the mIoney market in 1918 was the speculation
in foreign exch:angii, infl1uencedi by foreign developments. The sign-
ing of t1h ari i-tit. cc c':mILld :a Iise in November. Quotations on the
dollar fluct in;( cl It.tw'en a Iminimum of 3.00 peseta, !$0.69 at nor-
1mal exchliang. ) :n111 :1 iIax111inm111 of 5.05 p):setas ($0.9i. normal).
Bond Issues Increase S!ightly-Interest Rates.
Bond i-sc.su ini Spain in 1918 aggregated $114.739.830, a slight in-
crease compared with 1917, when they amounted to $114.236,319.
Nearly half of hli.- amiioiunt represented Treasury bonds, as was the
case the year before. Issues by local governing bodies, harbor boards,







SPAIN.


and the Banco Hipotecario showed an increase, but railroad-bond
issues and industrials decreased, compared with the previous year.
The bond issues of 1917 and 1918 were as follows:

Bond issues 1917 1918 Bond is-ues. 1917 1918

Treasury.............. $55 5,0, 3 $55,257,120 Railroads .............. $ ..'41.N l S'',831,270
Municipalities.......... 4,34-14,660 7, S6,250 General indusmtal ..... 2,3 1. ,1 ) 3j,979,800
Harbor boards.......... 443,206 72,), 000
Banco Hipotecario...... 3,491,100 4,065,390 Total ......... 114,23h,J319 114,739,,30

General industrials comprised banking issues of $12,913.'20, min-
ing companies $98288,000, electric enterprises $9,675.000, the re-
mainder being divided among various industries. During the war
Spanish capital subscribed to bond issues amounting to $470,412,000,
of which 69 per cent was for issues of the State and municipal corpo-
rations, and 31 per cent was for industrials. The greatest industrial
issue was that of the Rio Tinto which contracted a loan of $9,000,000.
The prevailing rates of interest on the issues of 1918 were 4 per cent
on Treasury bonds, 5 per cent on municipals, and 6 per cent on
nearly all industrials.
Increase in Organization of New Joint-Stock Companies.
During the year 1918, 366 new joint-stock companies were regis-
tered in Spain, compared with 270 in 1917. The capital thus in-
vested in 1918 amounted to a total of $80,369,587, compared with
$26,096,000 similarly invested during the previous year. Of the
joint-stock companies organized during the year, 281 were in Bar-
celona and 13 in other cities of Catalonia, making 294 in that active
industrial section of the country; 46 were in Bilbao and 4 in the
remaining cities of the Basque Provinces, 12 in Valencia, 2 in
Madrid, 2 in Asturias, 2 in Galicia, and the remainder scattered
throughout the other districts. The Biscay Provinces led in the
amount of capital invested in joint-stock companies with $36,864,000,
followed by Catalonia with $36,6.85,000.
Of the newly organized companies 125 were commercial, 83 manu-
facturing, 32 agencies and representatives, 19 mining, is insurance,
14 navigation, 13 machinery, 7 banking, 6 construction, and 6
agricultural.
The largest amount of capital invested in any one of these activities
was $18.900.000, devoted to banking. Metallurgical and 4idlerurgical
enterprises followed with $18,360.000, while important inums were
devoted to manufacturing, food products, transportation, ;iand other
enterprises.
Labor Conditions.
The year 1918 was marked by numerous strikes in nearly all
branches of Spanish industry. An attempt wV:s iilade 'to improve
the condition of laborers by many manufacturing and c.inmerlcial
companies who voluntarily increased wages, shortened hours, and
introduced a Saturday half holiday. In April a senatorial conm-
mittee authorized the reduction of the mercantile workday from 11
to 10 hours. The Instituto Nacional de Prevencion drafted a law
for laborers' insurance, with the concurrence of the National Asso-
ciation of Laborers. Unanimous approval was given to a proposal
to establish annual pensions of $65.70 for intellectual and manual




SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


laborers over 65 years of age (with obligatory aid from employers
and the State) for all whose pay is less than $720 a year.
Spanish Zone in North Africa.
The Spanish (;overiinent. disbursed $22,661.130 in Morocco during
1918, an increase of more than $2,000,000 over the preceding year.
Military operations consumed the most of this outlay, while soie
$533,)0) were devoted to public works.
Comnliercial activity increased through the Spanish Zone and the
demand for Spanish products was greater than before. In 1914
Spain'- exports to the Spanish Zone in Morocco amounted to $7,846,-
920 in value; in 1915 to $9,'290,700; in 1916 to $9,690,300; and in
1917 to $11,994,300. Exports from the Zone to Spain amounted in
1914 to $647.280 in value; in 1915 to $820.980; in 1916 to $1,065,420;
and in 1917 to $1,430,220.
A Spanish Clham ber of Comnmerce was organized in Tetuan under
favorable aunspices. The ('eita-Tetuan Railway, begun in 1914, was
completed and formally opened in May, 1918.
Tariff Legislation-Serums in Containers-Automobiles.
Until recently c'Nltoins duties in Spain have been levied on im-
ported serulimi. l)put up in hermetically sealed tubes. under two classi-
fications, namely, paragraphs 217 of the customs tariiff, which refers
to medicalnents for subcutaneous injection., and paragraph 521S,
which refers to apparatus for use in medicine, surgery, and labora-
tories. Owing to the impracticability of separating the pharmaceu-
tical product from the container, a royal order published on Sep-
tember 10. 1918. authorize, that tubes containing serum, other medi-
caments, or vaccines of tile Mulford or similar types, shall be duti-
able as inedicaments under the paragraph corresponding to their
contents without reference to the container, which may be employed
as a syringe, lance, or needle for their application.
Imported automobiles are dutiable under paragraphs 579 and 580,
by which the duty is collected on the gross weight. These para-
graphs, by royal order published September 10. 1918 ,are altered to
read net weiglt instead of gross weightt" Forged or cast pieces
for the construction of automobiles, which are imported as they left
the forge or foundry, shall be dutiable as forged or cast pieces under
the paragraphs Iunder which they come by reason of their weight;
and other parts, finished or partly finished, shall be classed as
automobile parts. The di,,mounting of automobiles in the free port
of Cadiz is not permitted. On leaving free ports duty on auto-
nmobile part-, will be collected proportionately as on automobiles.
Another royal order, published September 10, 1918. provides that
flour and other products made from bananas in the Canary Islands
shall pay the customs duty applicable to such products.
Development of American Export Trade-Suggestions.
In this period of commercial reconstruction Spain is destined to
be the field of a keen trade contest. The conditions which obliged
the Spanish importer to draw supplies from the United States arc
rapidly changing, and an attempt will doubtless be made by former
competitors to resume their former position in the trade. The ad-
vantages on the side of the American exporter are, however, numer-
ous. American goods are well known and liked in Spain; Spaniards






SPAIN.


are familiar with the articles produced in the United States and
already accustomed to their use. Moreover, it is generally recog-
nized that to-day the United States is in a better position to fill
orders than other countries that heretofore supplied large quantities
of merchandise to Spain.
When import and export. restrictions are removed, and tralnsporta-
tion facilities become normal, the American exporter will find in
Spain a ready sale for most of the merchandise he can spar'. With
these advantages on their side American shippers should study the
needs of this country and adalt their products to Spanish dlemandls.
Well-equipped agencies should be established, full lines af goods
carried, ample advertising matter in Spanish furnished, weights and
measures given in the metric system, terms quoted e. i. f. Spanish
ports if possible, and reasonable credit allowed. Much can be done
by catalogues and correspondence, but a local representative is
preferable, and tle market is well worth the most intensive cultiva-
tion.
Spain a Promising Field for American Capital.
A Spanish commercial expert has stated that Spain offers pecu-
liar advantages for the investment of American capital. There is
now comparatively little American capital invested in this country,
while some foreign countries have important interests in various in-
dustries, having established factories and being now engaged in
manufacturing goods. Spain, with a population of abotit I22,000.000,
has numerous seaports, and the Iberian Peninsula is the nearest
point in Europe to our eastern shores. The prosperity of the
country creates a demand for goods of the highest class, and Aleri-
can products are much sought for. What problems are to be over-
come in securing the trade with Spain permanently should be
studied with care. Many sources of information regarding Spanish
conditions are available, among which may be mentioned the Bureau
of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, United States DepartmCenet of
Commerce, h- ich has recently sent a commercial attache to Spain
with an efficient staff, the American Chamber of Comnierce in IBr-
celona, and foreign and domestic banks.
American consular officers are located in 20 cities of Spain, and are
fully informed as to local conditions, as well as desirous of extend-
ing American interests abroad.


WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1919




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IIlIli IIIBUll lt 1U1IHBUlll IllII
3 1262 08485 1939







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UNIV. OF FL LIB.
DOCUMENTS DEPT

ADD .

U.S. DEPOOTOMY