Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00054
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00054

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text






SUPPLEMENT TO MR955
22 MAR1955 -0

COMMERCE REP TS A
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMER
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D.C.

Annual Series No. 15d October 6, 1919


SPAIN.

CORUNNA.
By Vice Consul A'. Bruce Wallace.
The four years of war Ihave left the C(oriunla di.itrict in a state of
great economic depression, tihe immediate cause being the lack of
shipping. Although there are important industries ill the district.
the city is directly dependent on shipping for its prosperity. There
was almost a complete Inck of foreign shipping in 191s, and there
were no war industries to relieve the situation.
Prices of all articles increased during the year and there was no
corresponding increase in the earnings of the people, in coniiequence
of which the general unrest all over the district was, quite marked.
Emigration, which was heavy in ifo mer time,, greatly decreased
owing to the lack of transportatioil facilities. This resulted in n
further economic depression, as there was a superabundance of un-
skilled laborers and at the sanie time a general curtailment of pro-
duction on account of the lack of raw materials.
War-Time Increase in Cost of Living.
The following table of food prices prevailing in 1913? and 1918
shows an average increase in the prices of these articles of T7 per
cent :


Per-
rticle. Price in Price in centage
Article.1913. 191. of in-
crease.


Per-
Prticle rice in Price in centage
Article 113. 191S. of in-
crease.


Bacon.......... pound.. 0. 19 $0.32 GS Lard...............do.... r0.23 $0.40 71
Beans............ do.... .00 .08 33 Olive oil........gallon. 1.11 1.56 l41
Butter .............do ... .25 .40 6) Macaroni ........pound.. .07 .11 57
Candles............do.... .05 .17 240 Rice.............. do.... .04 .11 7
Chick-peas........ do.... .12 .16 33 Sardines......... dozen.. .0 .14 ..
Chicory..............do ... .08 .11 37 Soap............pound. .09 .16 7S
Codfish............do.... .12 .18 50 Sugar:
Coffee: lGood quality..do.... .23 130
Raw............do... .42 .61 4 Inferior q ua li y,
Roasted.......do.... .56 .82 46 pound............. .O .17 112
Flour..............do.... 04 .06 5 Star ........do... .07 1.7
-Ham...............do.. .32 .57 7S

Causes of Economic Depression.
There were two serious disturbances in the Province in 1918 on
account of the scarcity of food and the resulting high prices, and
there existed a state of unrest due to the general economic depres-
139448-1--15d--1





3" -b :


!







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


sion. Owing to the lack of shipping there was a great shortage of
raw materials for the factories, and foodstuffs and fodder could not
be imported in quantities sufficient for the needs of the Province.
Moreover, as the majority of the people of Corunna are intimately
connected with shipping, or the trade resulting therefrom, the abso-
lute withdrawal of foreign ships from Corunna caused great losses
to the people.
The extent of the economic depression in 1918 may be judged by the
customs receipts for the Province, which in that year amounted to
only $156,098 in comparison to $337,913 in 1917, a decrease of
$181,185, or 53.S per cent. The total receipts of the Provincial
TreaIury in 1018 were $10,725,313, and the payments $10,734,663.
The textile, tobacco, match, and a few other factories were com-
pelled to shut down several times during the year, owing to the lack
of raw material. The laborers of the Corunna textile factory in a
protest to the Civil Governor, on August 1, 118, stated that during
the preceding three years they had been able to work only 15 months,
and that on that (late they had been without employment for 2
months owing to the lack of raw cotton.
There was general unrest among the laboring classes, but no
strikes of importance except one at the cotton mill at Jubia-Ferrol,
where over 400 women demanded the recognition of their union,
which, after a strike of two days, was granted.
Further Decline in Shipping.
There was a further decrease in shipping at Corunna in 1918 in
comparison to 1917 and the last normal year, 1913, as follows: Num-
ber of steamers (in 1913) 1,644, (1917) 718, (1918) 556; number of
sailing vessels (in 1913) 546, (1917) 630, (1918) 562; making totals of
2,190 in 1913, 1,348 in 1917, and 1,118 in 1918.
The number of Spanish ships entering the port during 1913, 1917,
and 1918 were 1,678, 1,319, 1,104, respectively; while the number of
foreign ships were 512, 29, and 14, respectively.
Of the 1,104 Spanish vessels that entered the port during 1918,
1,060 were vessels engaged in coastal and 44 in foreign trade. Of
the foreign vessels there were 4 English, 3 Norwegian, 2 Danish, 1
French, 1 Greek, 1 Portuguese and 1 Dutch, but the greater majority
of these vessels put into port only to repair damages or on account of
stress of weather; none of them came to Corunna for or with passen-
gers from or to Spain. There were only 386 vessels of 100 tons or
over, and of 1,118 which entered, 1,091 proceeded from Europe, 4
from Africa, and 23 from America.
Increased Activity in Shipbuilding.
The activity in the construction of wooden sailing vessels in 1917
continued in 1918 to an even greater extent, owing to the extremely
high freight rates. A number of vessels of 500 tons were launched,
but. the great majority were schooners of 250 tons. The prices ob-
tained by the yards varied, but the average price was about $200 per
ton, decreasing toward the end of the year to $150.
All active yards were fully occupied, and old yards were either
reopened or fitted for the construction of this class of vessel. In
April, 1919. the largest plant in the district was engaged in construct-






SPAIN-('ORUNNA. 3

ing a 10,000-ton liner, but the construction had proceeded very slowly.
During 1918 the company undertook reconstruction and repair work
and complletely recons-tructed ;nd fitted i .),0(00-ton wooden ship and
also fitted an old ship with engines.
Another shipbuilding plant at Ferrol laid keels for a 2,000-ton
wooden -,ailing vessel to lb fitted with two auxiliary motors of 400
horsepower, and for another wooden ,ailing vessel of 3,000 tons. The
majority of these smaller vessels were. intended for the coastal trade,
and the larger ones for the trans-Atlantic trade.
Fisheries an Important Industry.
The results of the year 10~1 were satisfactory for owners of the
fishing boats and for exporters, notwithstanding the .,-arcity of fish.
There were no reports from other than Corunna fisheries, but the
profits of the industry in general were probably lIrge. Fishing, next
to agriculture, is the nlost important industry of this district, and
many thousand.- are engaged in it. The industry is not centered in
any one place., but is to be found in every village along the coast,
Corunna being the most important center.
The steam ve-e-el- engaged inl the industry at Corunna during 1918
consisted of 3 trawlers, 14 small trawlers engaged in sardine
fishing, and 24 small vessels fishing in pair-. These vessels consumed
7,739 metric tion of coal during 1!s, valued at $28' ,500, and employed
452 men whose .salaries amounted to about $173,700 during the year.
The value of the fish caught by the Corunna boats is estimated at
about $2,0000,0, and the amount of ice consumed in exporting fresh
fish at. 3,500 tons, valued at $40,000. The above statistic. do not in-
clude the large number of fishermen who use small rowboats and
sailboats. These boats are, however, gradually disappearing, and
the men are going out more and more Ias members of the crews of
the steam es.-el..
During 191 abi it 14 factor es were engaged in packling fish, prin-
cipally .,ardine-. While these concerns published no reports it is
stated that tlie year was a good one. but the packers were greatly
handicapped )by the lack of tin plate for making cans. For a num-
ber of years it has, been advocated that the Spanish Government
found institlut ion., for the scientific ,tudy of the fish inhabiting the
waters adjacent to the Spanish coa.-t. Lectures were held in Corunna
in 1918, showing the great importance of the fishing industry in the
welfare of Spain, and it was decided to found schools for the study
of fish in several cities of Spain, Corunna being selected as one of
the cities.
Production of Cigarettes, Cigars, and Tobacco.
Notwithstanding the difficulty of obtaining raw material, the Gov-
ernment tobacco factory had a fairly prosperous year in 1918. It
had, however, considerable difficulty with the laborers and was
compelled to close several times, principally owing to differences
among the workmen themselves, which were settled only through
the intervention of the Civil Governor. Tie factory employed
2,120 women and 77 mechanics and boys, and paid $324,240 in wages
during 1918.







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


The production during the year was as follows: Cigarettes-Supe-
rior, 248,000,000; iedium,4.180.000,000; strong, 90,000,000. Cigars-
SFarias," 4.300,000; large size, 2,700,000: small size, 1.800,000; com-
mon, strong. 1(0,100,000. The amount of tobacco used in manufac-
turing was 62.l31 pounds, designated as fine cut, smooth," and
2,437,188 poutlnds common cut. strong." The tobacco used was of
Spanish, Cuban, and American Oregon, all of which is purchased
through the central purchasing commission.
Great Falling Off in Emigration.
The business connected with the emigration and immigration at the
port of Coruina probably affects a greater number of persons than
any other. Not only are the steamship companies concerned, but
many other activities, such as those of lodging houses, hotels,
restaurants, shops, banks, and boatmen are involved, so that many
hundreds of people are directly affected by the condition of emigra-
tion activities. In normal times there was an annual emigration of
about 50,000 persons, and although the immigration was not quite
so large it was still of great importance.
The year 1918 was the worst year for the emigration traffic in over
20 years, there being only 5,970 emigrants during the year, a decrease
of 6,203 from 1917. The chief cause of the great decrease was the
lack of transportation facilities, principally due to the absence
of foreign shipping, which in pre-war times carried the greater
part of the emigrants. No foreign boats called at Corunna to take
emigrants during 1918. Another cause was an outbreak of influ-
enza in the various Provinces of Galicia and other parts of the north
of Spain, from which the emigrants come. Owing to the quarantine
in the various Provinces, the boats were not permitted to take emi-
grants in the months of October and November, and in December
only 50 per cent of their capacity. The emigration was divided as
follows: Argentina. 1,001; Cuba, 4,829; Uruguay, 107; Brazil, 20;
and Mexico, 20. All of these emigrants were carried on Spanish
boats.
Emigration to United States.
The congestion of traffic existing in 1917 continued in 1918, and
1pasage had to be engaged months in advance. There were no boats
sailing direct from the northern ports of Spain to the United States,
so that emigrants desiring to go there took the boats to Cuba.
There is, therefore, no means of determining how many of these
emiligrants came eventually to the United States. There would be,
however, a great emigration to the United States, if shipping con-
ditions were normal and other conditions would permit, since there
are thoulannds of Galicians in the United States who have been
receiving high wages and have lately sent home more money than
ever before. This has become well Imown and the great desire of the
people is therefore to emigrate to the United States.
Banking-Corunna Branch of the Bank of Spain.
The Corunna branch of the Bank of Spain reported that during
the year 1918 the same abnormitv in the operations of the bank
was noted that existed in former years in consequence of the war.







SPAIN-CORUNNA.


The diminution of the operations of the bank were ascribed to the
war, 1but the termination thereof (lid not bring economic conditions
back to their normal state. The total business of the bank during
1918 amounted to $209.405,000. The net profits were $37,110, a de-
crease of $6,01.5 from those of 1917, the expense-, having amounted
to $19,813. The business in accountt, current amounted to over
$56,000,000, with deposits of $2s.5)7,849 and withdrawals of $28,-
267,282, the total transaction, exceeding by $9,572,849 those of 1917.
In the report it was concluded that a great credit stringency
existed, judging from the decrease of $234,534 from 1917 in the
amount of credit granted to tlose having accounts current, while
the number of the accounts remained the same, namely 324. There
was also a decrease in the loans, on personal credit and guaranties,
of $273,674. On December 31, 1918, the balance of the accounts
current amounted to $1,533,929; bonds of the Corunna branch, $1,872,-
003; balance of deposits, $22.712,433; deposits of drafts $24,417,501;
cash on hand. $2,796,(55. of which $12,405 was in gold coin.
The Newly Organized Banco de la Coruila.
The Banco de la ('Crufia was organized in December, 1917, with
a capital of 5.000,U00( peeetas ($!)t(;,000), of which 50 per cent has
been paid in. The bank was opened February 1, 1918, and the first
year's report shows quite a successful business year and that a divi-
dend of 5 per cent on the paid-in capital could be distributed.
The special purpose for which the bank was founded was to de-
velop the industries of the city and other parts of Galicia, and to
offer better facilities to local commercial houses for borrowing
money needed in their business. The capital was subscribed almost
entirely by local business men, an important shipowner alone sub-
scribing over 1,000,000 peseta- ($193.000). The Banco de la Coruiia
has also taken part. in proportion to its capital, in the negotiations
of the Spanish banks with regard to their conventions with both
France and tlie United States.
Ferrol, a city of 40,00( inhabitants, with important shipbuilding
establishments and the naval base of the north of Spain, had, prior
to 1918, been without a bank, although several private individuals
were engaged in the banking business. The Banco de la Corufia
opened a branch in Ferrol on Aiigust 20, 1918, and, as was to be
expected, did a very large and successful )business.
Gas Works Changed Hands-Declared Exports to United States.
The Corunna ga. works, owning also an electric light and power
plant, which was established many years ago by French capitalists,
and the great majority of whose shares were owned in France, was
purchased in August, 1918, by the competing firm La Cooperativa
Electric, a Corunna-owned concern, for $347,400. The purchasing
company's intention is to install modern machinery so as to be able
to furnish better service and at the same time reduce the price of gas
and of electric current.
The only declared exports from this district to the United States
and possessions in 1918 were 23,670 pounds of gentian roots, valued
at $3,551, which were shipped to the United States, as against none
in 1917.









6 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Corunna's Foreign Trade-Further Decline in Imports.
The statistics of the foreign trade of the port of Corunna, pub-
lished 1b the Board of Publir Works, show that the imports during
1918 anmiouted 1to 2t,641 metric tons, which figure is 7,387 tons less
than that (if 1917. and 'hom\is a decrease of 97 per cent from the im-
ports of 1913, the last normall year. This great decrease was due
solely to the lack of shipping caused by the war, for even though
goods might have been obtained in other countries, there were no
ships available to transport them. The following table shows the
quantities of the principal articles of iniport at Corunna during the
years 1913, 1914, 1917, and 1918, together with the principal sources
of the 191.O imports:

Arti le:. 1913 1914 1917 1918 Sources.

Mlric Mtlric Metl i Metric
tonu. tons-. IJn.s. s I,ns.
Cacao...................... .... ... 50 124 94 Al W est Africa and Cen-
Cem ent.......................... .. trial .m prica.
Coal ............... .................. 2, 22 1,6S2 ....... .......... RelTi. m .
35,?314 5% 426 1,4i si3 Great Britain.
(odlish ............................... 1,222 1,342 44 241 Norwa\.
Cnffee ............................... 2. 1:6 355 220 Pcto Rico.
Cotton, r w ............... .......... 2 9 331 14-1 .......... U united States.
Druci and cl chemicals .................. 136 161 8 I Do.
Fertilizers ............................ 5,912 2,902 .5 ........
Hardware and tools.................... 135 116 .5 72 Germanx and United
State.
Iide................................. 54 51 100 39 Uruinlay.
Tron and -teel.......................... 961 631 21 3 United States.
Iron wiire. ....... ...................... 150 10 2 .. ..
Macliinery........................... 42S 219 3S 3 Dn.
Ma i.. ...... ....................... 40, 090 11,722 2-17 814 Areentina.
Od, lubnric tin ......... ... .......... 5 53 .......... 2 M exio.
Petrolimn ...... ..................... 1,7'2 1,016 700 I United States.
Porcelain and gla34.................... 245 152 1 .5 Germany.
Rope; and cordage .......... .......... 9 14 4 .. ....
Sij2ar................................. .. .......... 1,325 253 Cuba.
Textiles .................. ............ 2 2) 12 .........
Tim ber .................. ............ 2,127 4,491 S 2 .......
All other arlcle;.................. .... 510 1,116 4,090 4.5
Tutal......................... 92,217 85,048 9,02' 2,611

Maize and Coal-United States the Chief Source of Manufactures.
Maize was the miio-t illmortant article of import in pre-war tines,
the principal source of supply being Argentina. The importation
depended to a great extent upon the condition of the local crops; it
reached 44,000 metric tons in 1912. There was a great.demand for
maize during 1918, but on account of the lack of shipping, there
were only 8~;34 tons imported, which by no means satisfied the
dina nd.
In former years coal was imported entirely from England for
bunkering. The imports for 1914 amounted to 58,426 metric tons,
gradually decreasing during the war to 833 tons in 1918, the esti-
nlated values in those years being $310,810 and $31,484, respectively.
Germany is credited with imports of 59 tons of hardware and half
a ton of porcelain and glass in 1918. These were part of the cargo
of the German refugee steamer Belgrano, originally destined for
South America. Tie United States was the chief source of supply
of all manufactured goods, and the 1 ton of drugs and chemicals,
3 of iron and steel, 3 of machinery, and 12 of hardware, officially








SPAI N-L'ORUN NA.


credited as imports from the United States, were merely the direct
imports, and by no means give a correct idea of the actual amount
of American-manufactured goods sold in thi-; district. England
was the principal source of supply of manufactured goods in former
years, closely followed by Germany, which wa,- increasing its hold
on this market year by year. In 1014 Germany supplied 52 per cent
and England 31 per cent of the textiles imported. e-timnated value
$39,554.
Principal Sources of Manufactured Goods.
The following table affords a coml~pari-in of the quantities of
goods imported from "various countries:

Count riec. '914 1017 191A

.M! tifc Mitric Mfi ic
I i71. (,iS. ton I.
U united K ingdom .............. .... ...... ...... .... .. ... ..... I, l. l 1,5. 7 .33
Argentina.... ......... .............. ........... ..... 10,2.33 290 Sit
N orw ay .............. .... .. ........... ........... .... ... .. 1,2u .......... 337
United State..................... ..................................... .. ISs 770 21
Germany............................... .............. ......... 1,.111 111 61
Belgium ................................ .... ....... ,12 ....................
Sweden..................... ............ .................... 5 ...... ........

Exports-Importance of Lace Exports.
The exports from Corunna in 191S amounted to 030 metric tons,
in comparison with 3,124 tons in 1917 and 4,133 in 1914. The cause
of this decrease was the lack of tonnage during tile onion-shipping
season.
The principal exports from Corlunlna are foodstu ff and lace, the
latter being the mosl t valuable item. Lace is nlade in the western
part of the district, the center being Camiariiia-, near Cape Villano.
There are about 10,000 women engaged in lace making. generally
as an auxiliary activityy to houn-ekeeping.
The principal market for the lace is Cuba. which take, about 90
per cent of the exports, the remainder going principally to South
America and Mexico. It is stated that large quantities of the lace
sent to Cuba is reexported to the United States.
Exports of Onions and Sardines.
Owing to the lack of shipping, the exports of onions, tile export
of greatest. bulk, decreased from 1,803 metric tons in 1917 to 447
tons in 1918. About 80 per cent of the exports-, are sent to Cuba and
10 per cent to Porto Rico. The onions are of the common, red, gar-
den sort. which are grown in the United States. so that it does not
pay to ship them there.
The exports of tinned tish decreased from 246 ton, in 1917 to 32
tons in 1918, on account of the lack of tonnage and the difficulties
in exporting.
There are two articles manufactured in the Corunna di- strict the
export of which could be increased, namely lace and canned sardines.
These articles, however, would not offer much tonnage for American
steamers calling here. The most important article as to tonnage
would be onions for Cuba. The average annual shipments have
heretofore been about 2,000 metric tons.




;I1


SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Pre-War and War-Time Exports Compared.
The following table affords a comparison of the exports from
Corunna (luring the years 1913, 1914, 1917, and 1918:


Export_. 191.3

Mdtric
Itos.
1 e an............................................................ 56
B 'l. : ....... .. .......... ................. ................ 9
('. 11. rTtl ; .................. ................... ......... 7 39

Sa i l :.... .... ................................................ 132
T itlim d .. ............................................ 210
Sa ................ ........................... ........ .........
alic ........................................................... 39
Il. t I n r ... ..... .................. .............. ....... .. ....... .
NIro.n ad 'tl .- r ...............................................
OLaB I ...... ...................................................
l I 'a TtI oui ..................................................... ...

Iiar m :rit a l ......d. ....... ............ ................ .. ..1 .
lPr -trv?(d ................................................... US
1aj a .. ................... .................................. ,100
N uth o ........... ........................................... ..... 21
O Tni, .. ..... ................................................ 1,S 2
Plharrm aceitkal I products.................................................
\W' ie ...... ............................................. ...... .. .100
O the a tictle .............................. ........................ ..........
Total -.................................................... 3,505


1914 1917 1918


Mi Iric
tons.
:AJU
,-95
7%
3
F.'2

22J
3
52
7.5
64
103

31
2,-1S9
1.5
111
S3
4,133


.Marfic
ton S.
2
270

$9
2*46
0.5
61

14
14



0.75
1,S933
4.5
390
140
3,124.75


Metric
Ions.
......... .
24


32
0.5
14

IS
0.5

..........

447
369
25
930


Sales of American Goods Increasing-American Hardware Dominant.
The sale of American goods in this district is steadily increasing.
The statistics of the direct imports show that only 21 tons of these
goods were imported in 1918, but this gives an incorrect idea of the
actual amount of American goods sold here. Many American manu-
facturers and exporters have established branch houses in Barcelona
or Madrid, and American manufactured goods are, to a considerable
extent, purchased from these houses by firms in the district.
Germany, before the war, supplied over 60 per cent of the hard-
ware imported at Corunna, England 22 per cent, France 11 per cent,
and the United States 4 per cent. The 59 tons of hardware, credited
as imports from Germany in 1918, should be classed as iron and
steel manufactures rather than as hardware. The American product
really doiiinates over all foreign manufactures. and walking through
one of the leading hardware stores of the city gives the impression
of being in an American shop.
American Automobile Sales Increasing-Good Market for American Tires.
Although in the majority of other cities of Spain large numbers of
American automobiles and trucks are to be seen, this is not the case
in Corunna. There are a few American cars here, but French auto-
nmobiles predominate. Before the war, the French manufacturers
had paid particular attention to this territory and had found a very
good market, so that most cars seen here are French; but there are
also a number of Belgian. British, and Spanish makes. The later
purchases have been either American or Spanish, and the American
car is coming ever more to the front, most of the new purchases hav-
ing br-en of these cars.l
This market was neglected in pre-war times, by the American
minanufacturers of automobile accessories, but during 1918 there was


i









SPAIN-COR.UN NA.


a noticeable increase in the amount of such goods offered for sale,
and the present outlook is that American automobile accessories will
take the same place in the market as has been gained by American
hardware. Tires made in America were almost unknown before the
war, but this branch of the automobile trade has also made great
progress and the American tire is now able to compete successfully
with well-known French and Italian makes. Thi. lnrg.l'-t garage in
the city ha.-, a i igi stock of American tires.
Motor Cycles, Motor Busses, and Trucks-Office Supplies.
But few motor iyle-, were purchased before the war, so that there
was virtually an iopen field in this line, and as a large number of two
well-known makes of American motor cycles have been sold, their
makers have ;i control of the trade from which it would be hard to
dislodge them. What has been said regarding motor cars is also true
of motor hussis,. that iK. that Spanish and other European manu-
facturer.- have heretofore secured most of the orders. There is, at
present, but a liltmitc ll market for trucks.
Although a great number of the various kinds of office supplies are
of Amleric;in m1i;anulf;ctire, this trade could be greatly increased. It
i.s very dilificiilt to ob tainl manifold typewriting paper, and the qual-
ity of tia (iot;ainable i.s extremely poor. No American paper is
found on -:il(. Amcerican typewriters, a:J well as lAmleri'an ribbons
and ca'rboJn )pai''m ;re on sale in Coruinna. The carbon paper is the
standard weigh t on(l, although there is a considerable demand for
the lightweight Iap)er. These articles are seldom imported direct,
but are obtained thri ,o h houses in Barcelona or Madlrid.
There are many other articles of American rmanufaciture now of-
fered for sale, and especially p)larmnlaceuticaIl and toilet articles are
appearing on tli imarlkoet in increasing quantities.
Market for Railway Material-Ship Chandler's and Fisherman's Supplies.
The construction of the electric line from Corunna to Sada, the
proposed construction of the railways Corunnr;t-Sant iiago-Corcbion,
and Ferrol-Gijon will afford a market of great importance for the
sale of American railway material. The latter two projects may not
be completed for a yea or or o, but it would be advisable for American
manufacturers and financiers to investigate them, in order to be
fully prepared when the plans have been completed.
England is the chief source of ship chandler's supplies and articles
used in the fishing industry. These articles are not especially enu-
merated in the returns otherwise than under ropes and cordage.
There were no imports of these articles in 1918, but in 1913, 98 tons
were imported aml in 1914, 148 tons, valued at $21,705 and $41.:-"'i,
respectively. Steel cables for fishing nets is an important item
of import, lut is not especially provided for in the cuttoumhouse
returns.
Marketing Methods-Credits.
The usual credits ot'ered Corunna imerilcanls by contiiiental ex-
porters are 90 days, with 5 per cent discount for cash and 2 per cent
if paid within one month.
1394 S0-19- 15d--2






j.-^









SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


The best way to introduce American goods is to establish a branch
house in Barcelona or Madrid, with a stock sufficient to supply imme-
diate orders. Traveling salesmen could then visit the provincial
cities and show samples, quoting prices, duty paid, in Spanish pesetas
and in metric weights and measures. This system would, however,
be feasible only where there is already a market sufficient to warrant
the expense.
At present the greatest objection to purchasing goods in the
United States is that they must be purchased from catalogues, with-
out the buyer having seen a sample, and be paid for in advance.
Thins is also a difficulty with which agents of American manufac-
turers have to contend; these agents are asked for samples, but in the
majority of cases they have not been received from the manufac-
turers.
Corunna is not large enough to make it worth while for a firm to
take up an agency for the city alone, so that hardly any person or
firm will consider an offer unless the territory granted consists either
of all Spain or, at least, Galicia and Asturias, comprising the
Provinces of Corunna, Pontevedra, Orense, Lugo (Galicia), and
Oviedo (Asturias). Most of the agencies already given cover
Galicia and Asturias.
The Port of Ferrol-Warship Building Activities.
Ferrol is, next to Corunna, the most, important city-and port of
this district, which includes all between the frontiers of Portugal and
France. The Government arsenal is in Ferrol and the largest ship-
building and repairing establishment in the district is located here,
as well as two other important shipbuilding plants.
The Sociedad Espaiiola de Construccion Naval at Ferrol is a large.
shipbuilding establishment employing over 2,500 men and equipped
with modern machinery. It lias built three dreadnought-class battle-
ships and is constructing two 10,000-ton passenger boats, as well as
boilers and engines for several other merchant vessels and three light
cruisers for the Spanish Navy. This company has the only dry-
dock between Lisbon, Portugal, and Bilbao. It is 574 feet long and
opens- from a wet dock of 3,'(00 by 1.200 feet, with a depth of 26 feet
at low water. The capital of the company is over $0,700,000, but
this also includes other works at Bilbao, Cadiz, and Cartagena. The
capital is both British and Spanish owned, and important concerns
such as Viclkers and Armstrongs are interested in the plant.
Owing to the fact that a large percentage of the capital is owned
by British firms manufacturing the articles required for the construc-
tion work, the greater part of such articles were formerly purchased
in Great Britain, but as during 1918 these firms were not able to make
deliveries, the United States became the source of supply, especially
of brass tubes.










SPAIN-VIGO. 11

Imports at Ferrol.
The principal articles imported into Ferrol during 1917 and 1918
were as follows:

1917 l'.i l
Articles.
Long Loui
Long Value. V2l1e.
I on_. tOI.O

Coal and coke ................ ... .......... ..... ... ................ 1 ,2i.2 I......... .......
Cotton, rawv ......... .................................................... 7,7. .. .
Copper and )lras- manufacture- ............... ...................... '
Iron and steel ranritari .cture' ... ... .. ..................... 77 ..- 2 */)
M a chinery ..... ........................ .. ................... 2 '. 2 4,.;')
Oils ..... ............................. .... ...................... 1 .
All other .................................... ..................... "7 I :..' I 2, 4.i
Total......................... ................................... 4, 111 .,20,54, i 21 : li,'

,All imports in 1917 came from Great Britain, wherea- ll were
from the United States in 1918.

VIGO.
By Consul Edward I. Nathan.
The consular district of Vigo embrace., the Spalnish Prov.ine'li of
Pontevedra. (renl-e and Liugo, situated in the northwe-tern part of
Spain. Their total population is estimated at over 1,l00.,010. In
shipping and foreign trade the Province of Pontexedra take,' first,
rank. Its coast is indented by three rias or b)ays. of which that of
Vigo, the southernmost, is the principal and largest.
Vigo an Important Port of Call-Distance to New York.
Its unrivaled natural facilities have made of tile city of Vigo .an
important port of call for numerous ocean-going vessels of all na-
tionalities. The lort facilities of Vigo are at present someliwhat
inadequate, especially a- tlie largest and newe.-t pier lhas partly
collapsed. When thin i,' repaired and other projected improvements
are carried out the 1)ort will Ie alle to accommodate all tr;fic. ( For
a detailed report on the port facilities of Vigo ,ee C'o 31MEcE RE-
PORTS for Feb. (;, 1919.) The clo'ce of the war has revived intere-t
in a project not only for the improvement of tlie port but al-o for
the construction of a railroad to IIendave, on the French frontier,
by a more direct route than the existing line. During the latter
part of 1018 the Spanish press gave areat prominence. to thin, plan,
and even stated that it was to be carried out by American intere-ts.
The principal advantage enjoyed by the port of Vig,, o(vtir others
ini continental Europe is the shorter distance required for ocean
travel from the United States. This is ,shown :b the following Vcom-
parison of distances between New York and various European ports:
From New York to Havre. France. 3.300 miles: Borden;lx. France,
3,154; Cherbourg, France, 3.096; Lisbon, Portugal, 2,927; and Vigo,
Spain, 2,883.
Shipping Severely Affected by War.
The war greatly affected the traffic at this, port. especially for ves-
sels of the Allied nations, as the activity of enemy submarines about











12 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

this cost increased during the years 1917 and 1918, which made it
inadvisable for them to call at. Vigo. The number of calls of ocean-
going passenger steamers, engaged plrincilally in emigrant traffic,
in 1913 w: 717. rTi number decreased to 500 in 1914 and continued
to decline until in 1917 only T such steainer, called here. With one
exception these were all of Spanish nationality. The lowest level
was, however, reached in 1918, when only 24 calls were made by
-ich vessel, whllich were all under the Spanish flag. The signing
of the armlistice again roused the hopes of local shipping interests,
;idn at the end of 191S prel)paratiolns were made for the resumption
ifI call, at Vigo hy three Briti-h and one Dutch line of passenger
-iearnerl plying between their home ports and South America.
Tie decline in tile traffic of the port of Vigo is also ,shown by a
clnlmpari,-on of the receipts ol the cu-,tomhou.-e of Vigo. These con-
-ist not only of duties on illports and exports of merchandise, but
include toiiinage ldie-., head taxe- on iemiigrants, etc. Tie tonnage
dlue, on foreign veel-, are particularly high, and tile decreased
1111nl eor of calls by su'lchl v\e-,els is one of the 1)pincipal reasons for
Ithe decline in tile .i-tl in- receipts:


y,. 'CusInm Decrease
ru.cci.pl. 0 inc 1913.

1 ........ ...... .. ... ...... .. .. ....... ....... 1 0, J ..........
1'1 .. .... .. .. .. ... .. ... .... .... .. .. .. ... .... ... ... .. .. .. ... ... 7;,0 U 'J 1 $ -A )0 ,0 46
1l i........ ........... ..... ........._ ...... ................ ,7 5 519, 341
Iill ...... ............................. ..... .. ......................... 47.1 Il 572, 4011
917 ................... ................................. .................. ..937 39,109
191.7.. ....................................................................... 213.4 80i,30


The Inationality of the slipping at tie port of Vigo in 1918 is
-liown in tile following table:


Nationalit v.


D ennm ark............. ....................................................
r n .......................... .... ...... ....... ........ ... ..
I rt .l .. .. ........................ .... ........ .................... ....
oialin. ... ......................... .. .... ......... ...... ..............
N h ,r I.. .. ...... .......... ...............................................
N orw a I, ....................................................................
]liun .......................................................................
S'lu n..... .............................................................
ISw l d K .miin. ............... ............................................
Totld l .. .............................................................


Sream-
siips.




13




394


Saiing Tonnage.

-1
2 176
......... t00O
.......... 1,411
1 288
1 250
.......... 1, 79 1
1 761
1, 10I 359,360
1 399
1 142
1,413 364,038


The above figures show tlhe great decline in shipping at this port,
particularly in the case of British and French shipping, which before
the war ran into the hundreds of thousands of tons.
War-Time Decrease in Emigration Through Vigo.
Vign, is the principal port of departure for the nummterou elmi-
grant, from the Gali.'ian Piovinces of Spain. Thi-s emigration,
which is directed mostly to Cuba and South America, was steadily
ncreasin'g until 1913, when the total number of emigrants reached
41.833. I)uring the war there was a continual decrease, due largely
to lack of steame'r-, and the increased cost of passage, which almost
quintupled. In 1918 the number of emigrants was only 3,080, of








SPAIN-VIGO. 13

whom 566 went to Brazil, 11 to Cuba, and 2,503 to Argentina and
Uruguay. It should be noted, however, that ninny emigrants from
this district left for Cuba. Porto Rico, and other destinations, hut
owing to the itineraries of the steamers, which did not call at Vigo,
they were compelled to embark at other Spanish ports.
A large number of returning emigrants are also renlairly landed
at this port. The maximum nluniher was reached in 191-, when 47.46-ti
persons who had emigrated from Spain were landed at Vios1 on
their return. In 1918 there were only 4,000 such returning emigrants
landed at Vigo. These u-ually have accumulated enough Ironev to
tenable them t.c, live on their small patrimonial farmws, w-hich alone
can not sustain them. All steamers going to and ret urn inL from
South America carried emigrants to their full capacity. and11 the
demand for passage was always far in exce-_s of the a;L-iiiillnudations
available.
Sardine Packing the Principal Industry of Vigo.
The principal industry of Vigo is sardine lacking. There are
about 70 sardine-packing establishments, located principally in Vigo
and vicinity, but many of the smaller establishments are situated on
the bays of Marin and Arosa, north of Vigo. The export of sardines
in oil from Vigo in 1918 amounted to 1,017,000 cases of 100 tins each,
with an estimated total value of $13,000,000. In addition there were
large quantities of salted sardines, packed in wooden containers, ex-
ported from Vigo in 1918.
The principal purchasers of Vigo sardines before the war were
Cuba, Porto Rico. the Philippines, and South America, especially
Argentina, Chile, Peru, and Uruguay. The war was responsible for
a decreased demand from these countries because of the high prices
brought about by higher freights and the increased cost of produc-
tion. The latter was due principally to the scarcity and cost of tin
plate for the sardine containers. As tin plate could no longer be
imported from Great Britain, local packers had to turn to the tin
mines and tin plate factories of Bilbao, which so raised the prices
of tin plate that sardine packing became almost profitless. To
these disadvantages was added the refusal of the Compafiia Tras-
atlhintica steamers, during the first half of 1918, to ac-opt cargoes
of sardines and other foodstuffs for Cuba, the United States, Porto
Rico, and the Philippines.
The following table shows the effect of the war on the sardine
export trade of Vigo with these countries:
Countries. 191.3 1917 191

Cuba................................................................. $193,39 $S .3 134 a 5, 405
Philippines ................................ .......................... 141.2Si 6( .-,30 7.136
Porto Rico...................................................... .. 27 511 4.740 ..........
United States............................ ............................ 12,554 60 303 ........
(a) Includes a large quantity of preserved fish other than sardine;.
Overstocking Results from Decreased Trade with United States and Posses-
sions.
As a result of the decreased exportsof sardines to the United States
and possessions, packers became overstocked and had no other recourse
than to ship large quantities of sardines on consignment to South








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


American ports. As the French Government had prohibited all private
purchases of sardines in Spain and the French demand was met by
purchases of Portuguese sardines, the French market was for a time
unavailable. The local sardine situation was changed in Septem-
.er Ih\ a large order for the. American Expeditionary Force. This
order was followed by others, making a total of almost 30.000 cases,
valued at about $350,000. The French Government then made some
purchases, and orders for private account were also permitted to a
total of about 150,000 cases, all shipped to France at. the close of the
year. The end of the year also witnessed the first direct shipment
of sardines to Belgium.
Packers profited greatly by the rise in price of sardines. While
they had been sold at low as 55 to 60 pesetas (peseta=$0:193) per
case early in the year, they were selling for 70 pesetas and over at
the close of 1918. Thus what threatened to be a most disastrous
year for the sardine industry proved to be one of the most profitable,
clpecially for dealers who held on to their stocks until the end.
Agriculture-Wine, Grain, Ergot, and Gentian.
The consular district of Vigo is mostly \ery hilly country, farms
are small, and the tendency is to subdivide them among each suc-
ceeding generation of owners. There is no intensive cultivation and
small possibility of improving the present antiquated methods of
farming by th -, u., of agricultural machinery. Even the plows are
still mostly of wood witl iron sheaths, and are made locally. There
i, considerable viniculture, particularly in the Provinces of Orense
and Lugo. In 1918 the wine production of the Province of Orense
was 2.489,608 gallons, and that of the Province of Lugo was 1.401,76-1
gallons.
The production of wheat and corn is far from sufficient to meet
local requirements, and large quantities of these products are an-
nually imported from Argentina. The following table shows the
production of wheat, corn, and potatoes during the year 1918:

Provinces. Wheat. Corn. Potatoes.

Buslherl. Bushels. Bushels.
Pnl r ......................................................... 3-1, 6'98 6,937.071 2,823,040
Orcn ............................................. ..... ........... ............ 275 6 1 5 7,172 1,681,142
.Lugo................. .......... ..... ...... ................... 756,303 20.S, 680 7, 719,250
Total...... .. ......................................... 1,066,686 8.732,923 12,223,432

The Province of Orense is noted for tile production of ergot of
rye Nl(d gentian root, both of which are important items of export
to the United States. The yield of ergot of rye in 1918 was only
about 5 tons, while in 1917 it was over 30 tons. The production of
gentian root in 1918 was only 200 tons, while that of 1917 was 500
toIs. Orense and Lugo also produce large quantities of chestnuts.
Shipments of these have been made to the United States in past years,
lbt none were sent in 1918 because of lack of direct steamers.
Cattle Raising by Small Farmers.
The principal industry of the Galician Provinces is cattle raising.
This. however, is not done on large stock farms, but small herds are








SPAIN-VIGO. 15

raised by the numerous small farmers. Throug-h the medium of reg-
ular local fairs, drovers are enabled to make large purchases for
shipment to Madrid and Barcelona. It is estimated that there are
now about 1,000,000 head of cattle in Galicia, although the herds have
been greatly reduced by large sales during the war. The annual rail-
road shipments of cattle from the Province of Lugo alone are valued
at about $4,000,000. Local stock raising, however, does not supply
the demand for ide fo r f the leather-inaking_ industry, andl large
quantities are annually imported from Uruguay. In 1918 itch( im-
ports amounted to 180 tons.
Lumbering-Wood for Sardine Boxes, Xine Props, and Fuel.
Galicia abounds in large forests of oak, pine, and chestnut trees,
and an important lulberiing indutry' has developed, v.-,Ip,.iially dur-
ing the la.-t five years. There are a number of important sawmills
located in the cities, of Vigo and Tuy, and some smaller ones in the
towns of Salvatierra, Porrinno, Puenteareas, and other 1lnaces. The
lumber is used mostly for boxes for packing sardines, oranges, etc.,
but Inllge quantities of prop- for mining and building operations are
also turned out. Most of the lumber is fised in Spain, but lately
large quantities of props have been shipped to France and Great
Britain. The value of lumber shipments from Vigo exceeds $5,,000,-
000 per annum.
As the price of coal rose to almost $50 per ton during the last few
years and the quantity obtainable was insufficient to meet local de-
mands, both railroads and fishing vessels had recourse to wood as
fuel. As a result, large quantities of firewood were cut and sold ad-
vantageously. Pine knots sold for $4 to $5 per ton, and oak wood at
from $7 to $S per ton. It is estimated that 500 tons of timber have
been cut daily in the Galician forests during the last few years.
Until recently nothing \was done in the way of reforestation, but
measures have lately been taken to replant the most denuded sections.
Shipbuilding Active-New Plant Under Construction.
The shipbuilding industry of Vigo was given a great impetus by
the scarcity of tonnage during the war. There are at present, 14
small yards which construct sailing vessels and hulls for .team
trawlers used for fishing. Besides 12 sailing vessels, the Vigo yards
in 1918 turned out 75 trawlers having a total tonnage of 4,000 tons
and valued at about $2.000,000. Of these. 10 were for a French
company and proved to be of great service in French waters. All
of these trawlers were equipped with boilers and machinery made in
local establishments.
The excellent prospects for this industry led the principal local
establishment (Hijos de J. Barreras) to begin a new plant which,
when compl)lted, will have cost. about $1,200,000. The buildings
alone cover 7i acres, and the yards will occupy an equally large
area. There will also be a dry dock capable of receiving' vessels of
5,000 tons. The plant will be equipped for the construction of steel
steamships of 4.000 tons each. It is expected that the plant will
begin work before the end of 1919.










16 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Further Rise in Cost of Living.
The war-time rise in prices of articles of food, fuel, etc., which
took place during tie years 1915 to 1917, continued in 1918, as shown
by the following table (prices per pound unless otherwise indicated)


. ri t .. -.


H.ir r -........................
Beef .........................
Bri adi .......................
Hitter ......................
(andl....... .......... .......
'odfih ......................
Corn.........................
Egg .......................
Fi I


a Each


1917.


Pir
pound.
$0.06
0.24
0. WI)
0.50
0.31

0.19
0.02
O. 50
0.19


b Per ton.


1915.

Per
pound.
50.08
$1). OS
0.21)
0. 15
0.85
0.55
al.20
6b56.00
0.45
0(.03
eQ0.70
0.24


c Per dozen.


Articles.


Flour.. ....................
Por...........................
M ilk ........................
Nuts........ ................
Olive oil.....................
Petroleum...................
Potatoes......................
Rice................. .........
Sardines.....................
Sugar.........................
Vegetables............ .......


d Per tin.


e Per bunch.


Imports from the United States.
The following list of articles, with values, imported at Vigo in
1918 from tle United States, shows the character of the business of
this port with that country. The figures are based on the values
given in the War Trade Board export licenses, and hence the values
are those at the time and place of shipment. The local customs sta-
tistics will doulbtless show much higher value, as the cost of freight,
insurance, etc., will be included:
Value.
Autoumolile ancei.,ories $--------------------------------------- 1. 565
Carpets ._--------_-- --_----- ----- ------- 65
Cash reNiters----------------------------------------------------- 320
Coffee I [r., rto ic) -------------------------------------------- 1.944
Copper tules _--------_- __----_----____- 7, 012
Corset steel---- -------s 18, 550
Grocerie .____---------__- -------------------- -_ 224
Matting --- ---- ------------- ----- ------------------ 408
Oil, l11iirl;iting -----------------------------------------------55,000
Paints and colors_---------- --------- ----------------- 4, 067
Pipe, ;galvanized iron --------------------------------------------- 2,15.3
Pumps ------------- ------- ---------------------. 2,180
Roller skate---------------------------------------------------- 88
Safety-razor sliurptners------------------------------------------- 185
Sewing machine woodwo rk of ------------------------------------- 1,364
Steel llnndlt anl loop ---------------------------------------------- 3,468
Steel wire_----------------------------------------------------- 6,800
Tools and ipet---------------------------------------------- 289
Tulbing m-hinei-ll --_----------------------------------- 469
Typewriter sulplie ----------------------------------------1, 491
Vacuum i:leanet;-rs _-----------------------------_----------------- 316

T-tal -1 --------------------------------------------- 107,958

Lubricating Oil the Leading Item of Import-American Articles in Demand.
The principal item of imports was lubricating oil, which included
3.025 barrels discharged from an American schooner that put into
this port in distress. Besides this lot there e re 4,100 barrels of
ilhricating oil imported by a Vigo firm but were entered at the
ports of Barcelona and Cadiz. There ere re 1,481 gallons of crude
petroleum entered in the customhouse at Vigo in 1918, but are not
included in the above list as they arrived in 1917. Large quantities


1917.

Per
pound.
0.06
0.27
0.05
0.14
0.183
0.43
0.03
0.075
dO. 13
0. 13
e0.03


1918.

Per
pound.
0.08
0.34
0.08
0.19
0.19
0.68
0.035
0.08
d0.15
0.17
eO.05








SPAIN-VIGO. 17

of crude petroleum are regularly required by a local refinery.
Another important item in the above list wa.- corset steels, which
were imported from the United States by a local firm because of the
impossibility of obtaining them from France, whence they had been
imported before the war.
Copper tubes, steel wire, anid bands are regularly required by the
local shipbuilding and sardine-pa:king indlli-tri:. The latter also
consumes large quantities of tin plate which IbefHrue the war was
obtained 1)principally froin Great Britain. Such implrts in 1913
_amounted to (,0S4- etric tns. Duin the vwar ti- hlo demand
was supplied mostly by the Spanish tin-plate mak ers at Bilbao, buti
some American tin plate was received- in 1017. Tii-. v.w- well liked
here and American tin plate should be able to ',cinp:ete with the Brit-
ish and Spanish articles for a --hare of the loc:il Imarket. American
articles which have already been intrtoduied and h (,-ld be sold in
even large quantities than before are aultolmtfile- a11n ac'l-lcries,
chemicals and dyes, electrical supplies, hardware. paints, ;an tools.
Certain Americanl foodbtufi' like corn flour prepared cereal-, cheese,
and dried fruits have already been sold locally, and the 'lemuand for
them is likely to continue.
Lack of Direct Steamship Lines-Credit Terms.
Prospects for American business with Vigo are now better than
ever. Naturally there are certain obstacles to overcome. The lack
of regular steamship lines from the United States direct to Vigo
necessitates transshipments, and hence business is more readily done
with countries having such direct lines to Vigo. The terms of pay-
ment. required by American firms- constitute another obstacle. Dur-
ing the war, when goods were not obtainable elsewhere than in the
United States, local importers yielded to the American reqluirel'lnnts
of cash payments upon shipment of the merchandise, but they are
reluctant to continue this practice and will only do so when it is
very profitable. They demand that payment he deferred at least.
until the arrival of the goods at Vigo, when it can be iimade to one of
the local banks upon delivery of the shipping documents. It is im-
probable that long-term credit,- will be granted to local importers by
British exporters, our principal competitors for the trade of Vigo.
The establishment of an American bank in Vigo would greatly facili-
tate credit matters. Although the local banks are imolt reliable and
obliging, yet an American institution would p1erhapll, lie in a better
position to further our trade interests.
Principal Imports and Exports.
The value of the principal imports into Vigo in 1O1-'i and their
principal countries of origin are shown in the following table (kilo=
2.2 pounds):

Article'. Kilos. Prinrip.il ci'min ril nt origin.

Codfish........................................... 417.7FS No.rnvay, Unitei Kin2gdom, Inited
Cocoa ............................................ .. .11,21' Ecuador, Ven' t .ni-!0 Br.zil.
CoTeet .............................................. 114, Brazil, Ecuido'r, I'orlo rico, Vcne-
zuel:.
Corset steel............ ............................ 18,791 United States .
C(l tou, raw ............................. ........ 104,590 I i.
Hadardware (anvil, chains, etc.)...................... 4,752 Sw"een, United Kingdom, United
States.










SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Articles.


Kilos.


Iron bars ........................ ................ .. 5), 17_S
Iron p ip .... .............................. .. .. .. .... 14,717
Iron strips Ifor h.oip-, ....... ..... ........ .. .... 4. 0,422
IM cbhintry ..... ... ................... .1, i"1
Machine, st\ in z' ...3 2 1
Mabogan .. ........ ........ I 4, 3t)9
Mate ........... ................................. 9
Matt mn ... ....................................... 1,1
M iner.l oil.......................................... 510,740
Paint............ ................................ 7,'60
Pepper............ ....................., 159
Petroleum .................................. .... 319,787
Seeds, colza ......................................... 99, 00
Skins......................................... .... 60,33
Sugar............................................. 11,30
Sulphur................ ...................... 4s1,913
Tea................................................. 96,460
Wire, steel ......................................... 31,610
W ood pulp......................................... 20,.320
O their article ............................ ............ 11
Total...................................... 2,750,9S2


Principal countries of origin.


Sweden.
United Stateq.
Sweden, Unlited States.
Sweden, Unircti Kin,2tdom, United
Siatic.
T. nitd St-ires.
C;Ib a.
Brazil.
China. United Stute;.
United State;.
Do.
U'ra.iuaiv.
Unite.] St. te;.
China.
Argentini, Chini, Uruguay.
Brazil.
Italy.
China.
United States.
Sweden.
Brazil, Japan.


The cotton, ten, etc., credited to China, Japan, and India origi-
nated in these countries, but were discharged from a German steamer
in the Bay of Vigo since the beginning of 1918. The petroleum, as
already stated, arrived in 1917, but was only entered in the local
customhouse in 1918.
The principal exports from Vigo in 1918, their quantity, value,
and countries of destination were as follows (kilo=2.2046 pounds,
and peseta--$0.193) :


Articles.


Calcium carbide ...................................
Cem ent................. ...... .....................
Fish:
Cuttle rshli, dried ............................
Sardines. etc., in ri l ............................


Kilos. Pesetas.


171,502 ll., 719
523,000 t,)67990


53',,94
4, 701,994


53, 93
7,0.12,991


Sardine, salted ................................ 25,715 102, 6S7
Lumber ............................ ........... ....... 230, 50l 27,555
Mineral water..................................... 212,20. 141 .542
Oil,olive.......................... .. .... ....... 32,071 32,074
Soap, toilet ........................................ i8, 15 437, 03
Soda, ca stic....................................... 391,529 132,120
W ine ............................................... 90i. 11,87 3
Total.......... .............................. 702, 264 8, 12, 10i1


Principal countries of des-
tination.

Argentina.
Portugal.
Argentina, Brazil.
Argentina. Cuba, France,
United Kingdom.
Argentina, Italy, Uruguay.
Argentina.
Argentina,Cuba, Uruguay.
Argentina, Brazil, Cuba.
Argeutina.
Portugal.
Brazil,Cul.ba, France.


Declared Exports to the United States.

During the year 1918 only one article of export to the United
States was declared at the consulate at Vigo. Tiis was 25,191
pounds of ergot of rye, valued at $13,90.3. Declared exports to the
Philippine Islands consisted of 20,280 pounds of tinned sardines in
oil, valued at $7,136. making the total declared exports $21,041, as
there were no declared export. to either Porto Rico or Hawaii.


WASF.HINGTON : COV'ERNIMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1919




































































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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


3 1262 08485 1921



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