Supplement to Commerce reports

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Material Information

Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00052
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00052

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text






SUPPLEMENT T MAR 1955

COMMERCE R OR
\ DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC CO -% -
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D.C.

Annual Series No. 15b IMarch 12, 1919

SPAIN.
CORUNNA.
By Vice Consul IW. Bruce Wallcce.
The consular district of Cormnna is -ituated in tlit noirIvlltxest cor-
ner of pain and comprises toe Irovince f ('rina. 'Tle anra of
the district is about 3.0.'1 square iniles, and its population i- oll icially
given as 726.697. although unofficially estimated to bi 1.2:.ii.OiO0.
The city of Corunna is not only the capital of tli I'rrvlinre and
residence of the civil governor 1but is also considered the capitall O1f
* Galicia. Although Galicia no longer exists as a governmentt De-
partment, there is still a nominal division cOiiiprisinig the Provinces
of Corunna, Lugo, Orense, and Pontevedr;i. The hieaditl iarters of
the Eighth Region, or Departiien:t of Galicia, is in C'(,oirnn and the
captain general resides here in consequence.
Ferrol, which is situated about 10 miles northeast of Corunna, is
the great naval base of northern Spain, and its excellently sheltered
harbor can easily acconmmodlate the entire Spani.ih ileet. An ars-ena;il,
a large private shipbuilding yard, and the headquarters of the com-
mander general of the navy for the north of Spain are e...t:b.slished
here. Corunna is, therefore, one of the important political centers
of Spain and consequently c onseqntly considerable conrimercial importance.
Agricultural Conditions.
The majority of the people in the district are engaged in agricul-
ture. The farm products are the same as those in the Middle West
of the United States- o t'e, barley, and oats-but the lo-
cal production is no il len sl e coiinniiIption. In
1912 imports of nmai% iiet ,. ic tons and in 1913 to
almost double that amount. In 1916 and 19T, however, they were
only 1,202 and 247 metric tons, respectively. live also was imported
to the amount of 2,279 metric tJ i 4. :. and 1,2s9 in 1914, from
Bulga'ria and Germany. The importatiof of wheat was not large,
but 237 tons were furnished by Bulgaria in 1914.
The only product grown in sufficient quantities for exportation is
onions, but shipments of that. commodity decreased from 3,167 metric
tons in 1916 to 1,893 k 1917 on account of lack of tonnage. The har-
rests in 1917 were 5gneral gob and the prices obtained were
higher than in 1916J lTl
Many years ago jlrjpat tpor ~'nter of cattle to
Great Britain. The market w thl6igh h I oiirnce of the
foot-and-mouth disease, and cattle raising dec e sed consequence,
107198'-19-15b








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


although it is still of importance for the Spanish market. "The prices
obtained in 1917 were very high, and they are steadily increasing.
Amount of Shipping Decreases.
Corunna wa a bury port in pre-war times as about. 15 foreign
steamship lines were repre-sented here, and o over 300 steamers called
annually. The German lines were stopped at the outbreak of war,
and there ha-, been a gradual decrease in the number of other foreign
vessels entering. In 1013, 458 foreign steamers and 54 sailing ves-
sels with a total tonnage of 1,823,702 and 3,338, respectively, called
at Corunna. The number of vessels decreased as the war continued.
Of the 1.487 vessels which entered the port of Corrunna during 1916,
with a total displacement tonnage of 962,211, there were only 162
foreign vessels, with a displacement of 87,541 tens. Of these 58
were British and 18 French.
In 1917, 1.4S vessels, with a total displacement of 5.)8,636 metric
tons, called at the port; namely, 712 steamships, 630 sailing vessels,
and 6 naval veels. The number of foreign ve-sels was 29, with a
total tonnage of 46,200 divided according to nationality as follows:
French, 11; Dutch, 4; English, 3; Danish, 3; Norwegian, 3; Italian,
2; Swedish, 1: Uruguayan, 1; and German (submarine), 1. Of these
23 were steamships, with a total tonnage of 45,000 tons, and 5 were
sailing vessels totaling 1.200 tons.
The follow ing 'satistics give a comparison of the mountt of cargo
in metric tons loaded and discharged in 1916 and 1917:
Loaded. Discharged.

1916 1917 191', 1917

Tons Tuns. Tor, Tons.
Coaslinre irai, ......................................... 21,53 29,710 1,04.O 3 108,864
Foreign tra .............. ........................ ,i-12 3. 131 13,.31! 7,432
Local I r.tide in 'Ii haror. ................................ 46,211 :39, 11 1,272 753
Tolt l... ......................................... 7 ,.391 72,3-2 9.1, 31 117,049

Tlie large tonnage of the harbor traffic is explained in that the
amount of fresh water taken on by vessels in the harbor and included
in the statistics amounted to 41,031 tons in 1916 and 27,335 in 1917.
Shipbuilding and Fishing.
No statistics can be obtained showing the activity of the ship-
building industries of the district. In the largest establishments
construction amounts to 10,300 registered tons. Other shipyards are
fully occupied with building wooden sailing \vessels of various sizes
ranging firom 150 to 500 tons displacement. This activity will prob-
ably continue during 1)18 owing to the lack of tonnage and the
difficulty of Inuihli .g teamers. Many of these boats are constructed
so that motors may' be installed later.
Fishing is carried on extensively all along the coast, and the center
of the industry is Corunna. As no statistics are available, it is im-
possible to form an idea of the extent and importance of the industry.
Sardines, the principal product of 25 establishments, which preserve
them in oil and salt. are exported to Cuba and North and South
America. This trade decreased from 264 metric tons in 1916 to 247






'I1









SPAIN-CORUNNA. 3

tons in 1917, although exports of salted sardines increased in the
same years from 41 to 89 tons. Sardine fi-hing is carried on mainly
by means of the small steam vessels called tarrafas and the lng,
narrow boats with 8 to 16 oars.
Supplying the fresh-fish markets is also an important industry.
Various .-orts are caighlt off this coast by the trawlers, but hake is the
most popular variety. In 1917 there was opened in Madrid the so-
called Corunna fish market, the main promoters of which were
Corunna concerns. The fish, amounting to 7,200 tons in the course of
the year, are packed in ice and sent to Madrid and other points.
This method of shipment is not satisfactory, and could be greatly
improved on by the introduction of refrigerator cars.
The hauls during 1917 were large, and good prices were obtained.
According to the statistics of the chamber of conminir'ce, hake was
sold in the Corunna markets for about $0.18 a pound and sardines
for $11.58 per 1,000. The owners of steam trawlers were handicapped
somewhat by the scarcity and high price of coal, and, consequently,
a great many burned wood. Notwithstanding the high price of fuel,
1917 may be considered a profitable year.
Transportation Facilities-Economic Depression.
Except by .sea, the district does not have favorable facilities for
transportation. There is a railway line from Madrid to Corunna
which has a branch from Betanzos to Ferrol. In the -outhwestern
part another railway connects Vigo with Santiago, but this line
passes through only a few miles of the district. This is a great dis-
advannt:ge to trade extension, as the only means of carrying freight
is by ox-drawn wagons. There are no motor trucks at present, but
it is believed that they will be used when conditions become normal.
The economic depression which has been felt in Corunna since the
war became more noticeable during 1917. A general strike in
August affected all industries, and continued among the workmen of
the shoe factory until December. Many industries were compelled
to close or to reduce their production materially on account of the
lack of raw material, and the Government-owned match factory was
particularly affected.
Causes of Emigration.
Corunna is one of the principal ports in Spain for emigration to
South America and Cuba. The ambition of the Galician laborer is
to go to America. There is not one family in any of the villages of
the four Provinces of Galicia that has not a relative in Cuba or
South America. As a general rule the head of the family and the
older sons emigrate, while the mother and the younger children re-
main to look after their small farm or patch of land. The earnings
of those who remain are, of courIe, smaller, but those who go away
send home part of their earnings. Millions of pesetas forwarded by
the laborers in America were paid weekly by the banks in Galicia in
pre-war times, and the family considers itself happy if the father
can come back after a few years with money enough to buy a cow or
two and to build a little house.
The Galician is a hard-working, sober man, whose most striking
characteristic perhaps is the deep love he feels for his country; in
fact, his morrina," a sort of a homesickness, has afforded a theme


*







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


to Galician poets with which to enrich the folklore of Spain in
poems full of inspiration.
The foreign steamship lines transported most of the emigrants in
pre-war days, but since the war the Spanish boats have had almost
a monopoly. The following statistics give an idea of how the traffic
was divided:
Years. English. German. French. Dutch. Spanish.

1912 .................................. ... 16,360 1,555 7,391 1, ,32 3,064
1914 ....................... ................ 3,131 2,532 3,349) 9.3 4,010
1916.......................2............... 2017 .......... 5,220 491 10,741
1917................................. .... ............. ............ 1, 4t. 41 10,9,3

Number and Destination of Emigrants-Immigrants.
During 1917 all boats with regular sailings to Cuba were full weeks
in advance of the ,ailings, and other boats calling here generally
were able to fill up available space. There was a great decrease in
the emigration to Argentina, the main factor being lack of boats.
According to the official figures, the number of emigrants varied in
pre-war days from 18,000 to 30,000, but decreased to 77S in 1917.
Official statistics, however, do not give a correct idea, for a great many
who are unable to obtain the necessary papers, embark clqnudestinely,
so that the real number of emigrants would be about 25 per cent more
than that given in the official fiauires. There are also a great many
stowaways, one vessel in 1917 having over 400 on board. In 1917,
10,;30 penron 4e'migrated to Cuba, a decrease of 3,000 or 4.000 com-
pa red to pre-wa r days.
The class of emigrants going to the United States is of a type
superior to that going to other countries. They generally remain
there many years and often become naturalized. The statistics do
not give a correct estimate of the number whose ultimate destination
is tie United States, as many are included among those emigrating
to Cuba. This was also the case in pre-war times as large numbers
went to tlh United States via England or (Germanv. The figures
given in st:dlistics are as follows: In 1911. 54; in 1912, 339; in 1913,
284; and in 1917, 455.
Although emigration has always exceeded immigration at. Corun-
na. it has been the custom of many laborers to go to Cuba and South
America for -sliort periods with the result that the immigration has
also beIen large. The keen competition of the steamship lines has
also been an important factor in this- respect as the laborers thus had
the advantage of competitive rates. In 1916 the total number of im-
migrants w.t 13,676, of whom 9,980 were from South America and
2,529 friomi Central America, Cuba, and the United States. The num-
ber decric:a.c-l in 1917 to 8.005, of whom 1.089 came from Argentina,
6,507 from Cuba, 119 from the United States, 114 from Uruguay, 95
front Mlexico, and 21 from Brazil.
Both the emigration and immigration are bound to increase greatly
immediately after the war, and await merely the reestablishment of
the steamship traffic to South America and Cuba.
Declared Exports to the United States and Porto Rico.
The Corullna consular agency was closed on October 1, 1916, and
not reopened until May 4, 1917. The declared exports during the










SPAI-COR U NNA. 5

periods it was open, amounted to $15,243 in 1916 and $13,900 in
1917.
The principal article of export was preserved fish (sardines)
which increased from $5,069 in 1916 to $6,410 in 1917. Other articles
of importance exported to the United States are onions, chestnut ,
and drugs. The trade in these articles ha. not varied to any extent.
in several years, nor is it likely that a change, will take place in
the future. Two products of the Corunna district might be exported
to the United States in larger quantities; namely, s-ardines and lace.
Cuba is the principal market for the latter coninmodity, and it is .-aid
that a considerable quantity of the Canmarina-, lace finls its way ulti-
mately to the United States via Cuba.
The exports to Porto Rico amount. to about the -anme as those to
the United States with the exception of onior,., the principal item,
and consist of the same classes of goods. A dcre:i,-e is shown in
1917 in comparison with 1916, owing principally to the lack of ship-
ping. The exports in 1916 amounted to $'28,808 and in 1917 to $15il,6r4.
The greatest decrease was in onions, as 20,096 bushlN' valued at
$21,475 were whipped in 1916 and only 3,128 bushels valued at
$5.136 in 1917.
The declared experts for January 1 to October 1, 1916, and those
from May 4 to December 31, 1917, are as follows:

Jan. 1 to Oct. 1, 1916. May 4 to Dee. 31, 1917.
Articles.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.

TO UNITED STATES.
Chemicals, druT-s, dyes, and medicine:
Gentian roots.................... pounds.. 18,739 $2,076......................
Ereot......................................... .. ......... ... ......... 4,894 $2,428
Fish:
Pa:le:.d in oil.............. .............................. 1,450 ........... 1,161
All other..... ...... ..... .... ..................... ......... .06 ............ 6,410
Fruits and nuts:
Walnuts, not shelled................n....... .ou .... .......... ............ 1,107 78
All ot her .... ..................... ................do...............40,503 1,.46
Vertaller; :
O ionrli ............. ........ .......... .... .u-h I, f I .n ................. ...
O1ion ...........................1.u ,hUl;. 1 i ....................
Prepared ................................ ... ..... ........... ..........277
All other artirl..s .................................. .... ............ 374 ............ .........
Total. ....................................................... 15,243 ............ 13,900
TO PORT RICO.
Caunn d meair: S ust af- .......................pounds. 3,748 1,189 ........................
Cotton maniua-:tures. .................. ........................ 1,576 .......... 493
Fish, packed in oil ......... .................... ............ ..1 ..... ...... 1213
Fruit and nutn:
Walnut ., nrl sh ,ll ........................pounds.. ........... ............ 419 24
All other .................................. do............ .......... 4d a.;, ... 2. 2180
Spirit?, wines, malt liquor., and other beverages:
In casl:s...................................gallons.. 1,996 2,102 132 70
In botlles...........................do.rii quarts .. ...................... 459 1,674
Vcgetableh.:
Onions .................................. bushels.. 20,096 21,475 3, 128 5,136
arlic.......................... ........ pounds.. 23,810 1,905 11,413 831
Tota.l............................................ ............ 28,808 ............ 15,624

Markets for American Goods.
The cutting off of Spain's former sources of .,Iupply of manufac-
tured articles has offered the Almerican manufacturer a splendid
chance to enter this market or if he had already gained a foothold,






I









SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


to extend his sales territory. Articles of American manufacture are
gradually replacing Germin products especially in the case of hard-
ware. The superiority of the American commodity in general is such
that there is no danger of Germany monopolizing the market. The
sale of Anmerican cutlery, however, does not appear to have kept pace
with other clas.-es of hardware.
Altlhogh Germany virtually controlled the electrical-goods busi-
ness before the war, the gradual depletion of its stocks means an op-
portunity for the United States to extend its interest in the market.
As textiles of nmditum or cheaper grades are supplied by Spanish
manufactu rers, it would be difficult for American firms to enter the
market. There is apparently a great scarcity of textiles of the finer
qualities and a favorable opportunity exists for the sale of this class
of goods.
As there are but a few industries in the district, there is but a
limited market for machinery or commercial chemicals. Besides
agriculture, fishing, and shipbuilding the principal industries are
petroleum refining, and the manufacture of white cotton goods, cig-
arettes, matches, and shoes. There is, therefore, a market for the
raw material used in these industries, with the exception of the match
industry which obtains its raw material through Madrid.
The farms of the district are very small, and labor is cheap and
abundant. It is therefore difficult to introduce farming machinery,
and it could be sold only to cooperative associations which are be-
coming more and more numerous. The field is consequently varied
and includes most manufactured articles that are sold in an ordinary
European city. Although, owing to the present lack of foreign com-
petition, American manufacturers are able to sell their goods on their
own terms, such will probably not be the case after the war. The
Corunna merchants were accustomed to two jor three months' credit
and were even granted extensions by foreign manufacturers.
The establishment of a branch of an American bank either in
Madrid or Barcelona would be of great assistan.>- in extending trade,
and American manufacturers would then be able to grant better
terms than their competitors.


WASHINGTON : GOVERN INMNT PRINTING OFFICE: 1919















































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