Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00051
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00051

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text
/ 5
/ '


7


SUPPLEMENT TO


COMMERCE REPC
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Annual Series No. 15a March 3, 1919


SPAIN.


By Consul General Carlton Bailey Hurst. Barcelona.
The total foreign commerce of Spain (lduing 1917 amounted to
$473,712,150, of which $230,110,008 was the value of illmport- aind
$234,602,052 the value of exports, compared with a trotal trade of
$479,672,322 in 1916, of which $2 30,004.,231 represented ilnlport andl
$249,008,001 exports. The balance of trade during 1917 was against
Spain by $4.508,046 and in 1910) in Spain's favor Iy $1s,:1143,( ;s o.
The 1917 imports include $10(,0,,3,.9 in gold bullin a nd clin iIas
against $63,968,257 worth in 1916. Elirinating tlhe valtie of the irm-
ports and exports of gold and silver in Ibullion and 'oin, the balance
of trade was in Spain's favor in 1017 by $90).723,70. comnpalred with
$81,821,207 in 1916.
Excluding gold and silver, the imports decrea: d frtlom 8104.1-24-.40
in 1916 to $132,488,042 in 1917: and the exports decrea-edi frou
$246.245,703 in 1916 to $232,211,438 in 1917.
During 1916 the balance of trade Ibetween the Unlited States and
Spain was in favor of the United States by a larger ilargin than
during the two previous years. Tlhe United States as-inimed t le first
position in Spain's source of supplies and the United Kinilgdlom
second, followed by France. As purchla -rs of Spanish p Irodts.
France continued to lead. as in the two previous years, followed Ib
the United Kingdom, the United States and poi es-inns, and
Argentina.
Origin of Imports Into Spain.
The chief countrie- of origin of tlie leadining iport ip into Spain are
shown in the following table, vwhiclh was compiledd from1 tlie E't; -
distica General del C'omercio Exteri-r tie Epafia for 191-:


TArlir.h.. I nt,','.I .\r'" ,l;"Iji

Agricultural implement ..................... li9
AutomoMr ilcs and parts ... ....... ........ .... .............
Breadst.uls: II
M aiie or corn ............................ 1 3."A' '012
W hneat...... ................. ........... ',; ', 3, .1
Coal ..................................... 7 l .
Copper wire ...... .. ............... I i .. .. ...........
Cotton, unmauufactur. d ...........'.l. "i ............
Fish, cod ..................... ......... ..... 1' .........
Bides and s'rins............................ 2 'il 1.21 1 ;
India-rubber tirec. ......................... .. ..
Motors, lo'omintiv\:, ft" ] I I
Ele.triC motors a.rn dy'. a i.. ......... ', 17 I 17
Loomiotives, t'?iderr, and r art ....... .. : .........
Typewrt itcrs.................. ... ....... .i :...........
Oil: Petrolcum ............................... -.1 ...
Seeds: Flax, sesame, etc..................... ......... ,'i I
Tallow and other animal fats................ 17,.:', f 42,.. I
el. Steam ers........................... .......' ............

1071980--1.a--1


Tr.iif,'."

1', 172'
1 ,
II

1 "i I
-". ,'


1. 1-i lj I
17'' ',.41
d .'.i'
i.., ....
.. ',6,...0


l :r, -tr ,-[i, r-


71. ....... ..
......... ..........
S. ..........

. .

1i, *. .
< '1 l
l-. il l',

e 7. 721 1, 711
1 1, ..........
I ."r' ..........
S "'^, .1 ..


'A?-
I / tin)


I


..











: SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Leading Articles Imported in 1916 and 1917.

The table which follows is blsed on the Resulienes Mensuales de
la Estadi-,tica del Comercio Exterior de Espafia for December, 1917,
and show- the quantity in metric tons (2, 04.6 pounds) and the value
of imports into Spain during 1916 and 1917.


Articles.


Animals, Hi v:
Horer? .....................v.....................
Mul:- n1 l jennets .............................
.\A ii Lillt iurl inplements...........................
111 '..l -r LI itC :
Barley an l other cereals ........................
laiir .... ......................................
\\ h.r ......... .... ....... ........
Cars, tars, rij-s,. f.tr *.ti n3d parts:
.Auromlllilc-. and parts.........................
Cal -. I'a ir', ir and fri iihit, and pIart. ..........
lrII Ilc. nili.,ro Cvt -, and partr................
I'..rrlil. s I ..a d i L rl-r vi. l "li-.1 aijd parts .........
'h. ni .l J., Iru t ', ]' -. and mei'd l'Ii .,.
I I % .-; .. : .. .. . .. .. .. .
i lru-. lIh 11LI tn 1-. a!d otlih r mu 'dicinl.i..........
( h l .-, v, i -, iil *'.1 \\'.tll helr S................
I'u. 1 .1 ld coke:
Coal .............. ...................... ........
Coke and briquettes............................
Cacao...............................................
I Il.-. ...... ...... ..... ........... ..... ... ... .. .. .. .
('cr I:, I l.' b:. a. iil gral ulalc 'd...................
(Ci'ill'r ''.ir. ........................................
(.'. It1IL -0i,'J m111d l.t1 1 i.ltl ur .
Umanufactued..................... .........
5M I i., : 1 ll : .................................
Errs ............................................. .
I-I.. tI!i lainifr., iii Iliding bulbs ...................
Ex ii\- ...........................................
F' rt in.:-"
N:I rai it. f soda.................................
I'l1. .,[i. ,l..f Illnc., natural ....... .... ...........
Other............................... .......
1.-cr;, v!(' t,1h! .itilii tilc '.'rTaSs's.
S rlJ LIL LL i(. ir l ...................... ........
Manufactures of................................
l- ,iu, cod...........................................
Fruits and nuts .....................................
Glass and glassware................................
Hides and skins....................................
India rubber, gutta-percha, and substitutes:
I.inll n In ii I r ........ .............. .........
Tires.............................................
Other manufactures...........................
Tncreticidoe. in. lilin: s'iilphiat- of copper............
I .in ..'u -'t,., I ull i F.i.tures of:
\\Nii.. 'it iiml inC cables..................... .........
Wiri'. I'o i'roeil, electric ..........................

In t ric' iin ,tors and I 'lynmos ............
'!". and steam engines.......-................
Ii .'I ,u Ir motors........................
Locomotives .ini tenders...................
TPumps......................................
.Pum ps. ... ..n ..... .................... ...
T'. r'.- rir .. ....... ...................
........... .....................
Wheels, iron and steel...........................
TK ili rin tensils.....................................
l.eathr, r -rli.-. i .i n d in:.nrlfJ, tiite .,f... ......
l.liint- uii. t emF itL. ..... ......................... ..
3 ir..r janl ,airr' 'I.'-i'i.
B irl f, r t i... .. .... ..........................
Butt r and l..b iit ...........................
Cheese" ................. ....s....... ..........
Milk, condensed ........... ............ .....
S Ia e 'in- t.l f ...... ........... ............
Taiv, w id.,uul 'jhr animal fats...';..."."....'.'....


Tons.


a 770
S3,776
7, .:50

32
108, 056
314, U

1,120
99
129
211

15,001
4l1,1U61
' .367, 3,9

2,1117, 243

31, Ul


7,J
.,21.

In., 1"7
1 579

47-'
73




-1, 2
57S

42, 15







3--s
25, 3..7

N.,23187





13,97







2,713
S4s
2, $.90
J, 5.3
3378










3530








.33
07
1l,, 901

6t19
550
12,553

3SI
.353
659
'2, 72t
1,976
'4, tUJ9


1916


Value.


17


Value.


a Num )r.


$1415,5.59
27', 513
1,52;,I's'J

3,112,036
11,471,316

533, 98
15;.57'
3103, .9;
4, 92-

1,991),61t')
J3,1 ,733
1,340,917
9, H0, 4'#7
S"u, S'.t
2, 1.1, U
5,711,.;43
", 71, N ;


**" ;, 71,, --

-21, )I7

4i 171
7 .1S, IJ*57
l,SlI,Ij;7
1, iLuil, I-.S
2,b ,l>'.ll

U'll, I-I
1, b%3, t91
71I. _'0)
317, 730G
6, 2l1, l., lS

1.9'Mi., 2>
2 ,0I,M7
'_,), 507
391),14.3
3.l,513.1


1, 652,760
'25.3, 134
'201,.370
tad,,020
',47,177
1 b, 570

3J., .'u3
3,34,'911j
157,640
2.16.37U
1,7-2, 522
122, 04

110 526
172, 11D
236.--23

771. 79
1,-I'2,971


191


Tonm



a 1,451.
a 7, IS1
3. 539

1, 01
.5,3.37
50, 570

2, S86
2, 8S6

15

:313
1U,910
a I41'. 30

1, 094, l.tj
73, 362

2,423
2, 1,3|)

96, t
1,671
1,414
3.J

52,, -4
1.30, 32.3
23,tbi I

31, IL)
I, -'. 292
21, 794
9,010
1,316
11, 11.1 ,

1,330
-: 3 ;
2:12

2. 57
102

W1.5 I
2,3119
332 [

3, GeI




271,
336
2,579

Sil
2.34
15 S
3,030
3, 33S
8, Slf3


S225,465
-3'), 322
688, 054

43,228
1,591, 72
2,002,368

1,635,873
363, 344
31,503
2.636

1, 529, 496
3,619, 789
1.447,206

1!9, 433
*462, 181
2,841,930
6,36, 696
117,743
970, 720
26,116, 2-7
2,1921,220
114,916
307,254
2,840

2260, 413
750,663
609, 222

2.336,105
40,O0.50
3, 3'1, S6B
1,-'41,133
2h6,71S
5,6.Y3,761

,5364,39S
1, 7I), 323
1,066,26
20,Bt50

13.3,410
57,312

1,5.2,565
221,356
129,125
701,267
.72,015
107,721
451,575
775,306
1,596,542
213,714
123,963
1,353,309
35,070

27,126
124,049
72,077
83.685
913,109
1,387, 32









SPAIN. 3


1916 1917
Articles.
Tons. Value. Tons. Value.

Oils:
Lubricating.................................... 12 353 '' 149 8,751 677,331
Petroleum ....................................... 824 1, .;i, 904 11.800 1, ;
Priper. ja l manurif-,-ll iret ul. :n, l jine pIilp ......... 0, 335 2,390,699 3 .405 ],i;'., '
Parallin.................. .. ................... 6,747 1,190,284 5,275 930,679
Seeds:
F L.,seed or linseed, sesame seed, etc............. 47,472 3. 9.. 2n? 335,090 2,842,286
Ojithr. i,-lu'hdnllln crobs ......................... 1,839 Jii.)' t.a. 1,212 71,987
Silk. dlii iIa.nuf .w'tr-r*' of:
I-umanu fr.L I r .............................. 103 807,999 106 802,893
F iD o ................. .......... .............. ... 245 716,661 173 505,747
Fabrics......................................... 159 2,047,474 133 1,588,078
Other manufactures............................ 117 987,324 4 1 1,547,011
Telegraphli ind tl.lephl,.nr nl.iarlal ................... 288 ". 2106 602,313
Tolbat o. 'andl mrniiifi uInes .oi:
UniiLnulbic i rePd ................................. 15,192 3,228,984 18,752 2,991,749
Manufactures ................................... 106 437,379 150 4no. ?,'
Tin and manufactures of............................ 1,502 903, 688 1,288 7,'j.'2
VegPtables:
Ch I k. p.:.- ; ....................................... 4,624 449,548 1,202 116,870
Ot rIr, fresh, preserved, and dried................ 4,328 140,546 5,550 164,187
Vessels and docks:
Steamers......................................... 11,630 906,735 13,324 1,035,721
Other.......................................... 8,726 430,573 9,374 647, 046
Wood. :aiil manufactures of:
I'lni l. and boards-
Common ................................... a 381, 423 3, s19 ~ b169, 363 1,656,380
Fine........................................ 5,306 7tr, :.i 4,410 221,072
Poles and posts ................................. 23, 051 411 ,9' 6,773 121,908
Railway sleepers................................. 1,460 2, 375 6,078
Si ( ........................................... 50,146 992,887 47,105 932,687
Unmanufactured................................. 14, 936 2,689,173 8,339 1,067, 226
Manufactures of................................ 372 ':.4'7 455 1,102,573
Gold ................................................. b3,526,916 63, 7 b5 932,122 106,339,379
Silver............................................. b2,175,519 2,.-I, ; b 0355,196 282,677
All other articles.............................................. 15,932,029 ........... 16,312,698
Total ..................................................... 230,664,231 ...........239,110,098

a Cubic yards. 6 Troy ounces.
Decrease in Imports.
Le.sened impol ti; ion of raw materials, manufactured artic le', and
foodstuffs during 1917 was the natural outceotne of the abnormal
trade conditions caused by the war. Of dyes, coal, coke, and bri-
quettes, natural phosphate of lime and other fertilizers, insecticides,
lime and cement, lubricating oils, wood and manufactures, and poles
and posts nearly half or, in-many cases, less than half the .quantity
imported in 1916 was received in 1917. The decrease in the imports
of paper and manufac-tures, including pulp, is acr-unted for by the
smaller quantity of pulp arriving from abroad. The maiinufactlued
articles among which the le--ened import was most notable were
iron and steel wire (including cables), -Vwing and embroidery ma-
chine-, and other machinery. The falling off in foodstuffs was most
married in corn, wheat, codfish, meat, dlairy products, and chick-peas.
Increases were noted in the imports of mules, automobiles and parts,
watches, cocoa, coffee. nitrate of soda, hide-- and skins, and ships.
The greatest value of any single, item of import was that of gold,
which in 1917 showed an increase of 66 per cent over that of 1916.

Destination of Exports.
In the table following, taken from the Estadistica General del
Coinuetio Exterior de E-p;iiL for 1916, are shown the values of the












4 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


leading laticles exported to the principal puirchlsing countries in
1916:


irtirles. tit Age
1 Argenliua.


4 cr l,1,1
f-i .... .. .. .. ... .............. ".22,243 ............
Pro ':I"'-- ---- -- ---M-- -
fi f1 ........ ............................ ...... 2 l .............
S-1i-. l ni nIin iii--, Il....... ......... I, 2n,2.1 2 5313, 97S
11i.ln. mIf1 nni .lift! Ill ii, ii ................. 21.514 4.01,746

I i ................................ 72,20 I .
Ii 11il ild niil'
S .......................... ... .... i,3 3,,
i il. .. ............ ....... ........... 1. ,344. 3.114

i ................................ 11 ,271 31, 171
I' i., .-i ............................ I -, 111 104.S74
'irii* ;. .............. .......... ..... 1. 9 11. 711
11 1 .1 .. ......................... 1 i.4 3'.. .

r' I..................................... 1,210 9 I,
I 'i .i .. .. ...... .... t I .
I .1 1 i 'i i i '. i u r**-................ l1,>.3.3 7 sl i ii;
,i..r ii ............................ 2., 13
S1. I ................................... 1, ,2 3 1. .4 1
I iri ,l n ................................... '., t- .0 .




i i fl :. 1. .. ..................... I'J.. ............
.h .l. .. l.... .................... N 1..... 1. .. ..
. l............ Articles of Exort. .. 1)


Pvincipal Articles of Export.


Cubs.



............,


592,44 4
2, 44,366

3,969
1,GS7

4,071
1
161
52,779
1.1, 6 2
.',, 24.s
............


20
............"
17, 2i5

I,:39 .7M

tut, 311
I 4', 7, I


I 92, 634


' 'il','.597


France.



$103
............
73
I, 563, !z;
1,670,035


135,247

,'-0, i8.5
wo, i .m
1, 04, 429,
1, 596
3If 9, 2-5
29l4,,*t6
10', 47s
1.14. 770


1,414,.551
5, 0s",,.S.5
4,,951I,0,0
2,6;7, 114
190, .319

15, 096, 2,90
20i)6, 0,9
421,411.3


110, 22N)
I I, 72', 110


Great
Britain.



$136,564
2,366,445
4,162,179
1.318,143S
9,537

1j, tl6
1, SS 6

1,7.17, 31
5.8'i1,176
29,093
%5, 364
1.,011,049
483
101,773

., 95i160t'
2,012,196
45, i66t
6,23(f,010
1. ;01,330
1 ,591,4 7J

262. 60
5, 225
504,077
1,011,020

77, 735
7, l0


Tih' fnlliowiiin- ii iuries. slowing the I]iilntity aidl vnlu e (if the prin-
i ul ,i'ti'l- 'xp,,riI't'( l fr,'m Sipl:inl to all coa n tries dlurini the years
l' !l :Tn l 1 tir'' I]-i l lati.a -l r fnrin the ReiueInes > Ienia leos de la
E-t:ili-t1-':ti lk-1 (.'(iinrlci Exttior
lIlG 1917
I I I I- .
Tonc. Value. Tons. i \ .


. i. I II si.'.* IVn 'I

. ,.' .,l. ........ ... ......... ..... .... -f32 | ? ,560 T n 4 44
\ II .. i1l. la 7uS ll7
S, ................ ................ .. 4 I i 7 311 20.17 3
\\ h,. l ll l1." ................ ............ h 1i..- 7 1.76, 3 i l 311 ; ). 17-'


Si d r Ii "- .I 'lL- Il'.'v-" ,ir m n-r1 -]d in,,:
I.j.. ) . . .. .
I-.i ....................................


I, .' ." l .' .. ... .. . .. .
. . .. .

i ii in. I in wi f iiii i. i m i -. [:
S. I.... ... ..........................
S 1 i ... .. '.................. .... ..
I li tn I i ll |1'i. Iiiit i, :

I +..I. I .,,,, ... ...........................
1i ., .I .. ................... .... ...... .

i -,-r 11.' 1 1'. 1 : I fli I Ii I 'ft ll1:
T., h l . .. . . ...


I in r I. n i if.] l Inl' L' .l. d .............. ....
I I ,llI... .. ......... ...............
i. . f ... .. ... .
a QN ulxer.


I,.51 0
Iii. .15


4. .- [
11. 4.12
12. .') ,


1. -'i
.t, .I1t
Il lh'l
1 lui


3.4.0,
t, 7.30, "
5,.570


1'l 5102
1 .5, .1s'J
1, '; : 4 2


2 ., 444

A. I.1 ,504


12, 1iI ,, 6.i)
1,.'9 1 27
9, 71, 16 7



,..6'71, *-74
64",i5


1, 001



31,3.1
11, 7C3
I q, 97
47,0)15

1, 159
i.l.nl2

7, 1i7


5,.721l
1, 4 52 I1
5,776


4241,600
2,00, 770
494,941


4, 141, 95
", 412, 412

-,3.',Il,,,,l

14. 19.< 078
1,55 7.3304
L'2'I, 791


461,809
2,257,338
1,488,658


b Duo Dn.


!


I
i
I











SPAIN.


1916 1917
.\. ricles. T s. Value.
Tons. Value. Tons. Value.


Fish:
Sardines ..................................
Other......................................
Fruits and nuts:
Grapes...................................
Oranges...................................
O li es ......................................
Raisins....................................
Almonds.................................
Filberts...................................
Glass and cl.-swre ............ ..............
Iliies and kin ............................
Iron:
Ore.....................................
Pyrites..........................:.........
Iren a nd steel, manufactures of................
Lead, in pigs.................................
Lear her, and manufactures of:
Sh..e ..... ..............................
Skins, tanned ...........................
Oil, olive......................................
Paper, and manufactures of ...................
Pepper .......... .....................
Pipes a.ini uijkl-r.i' articles: Cigarette paper....
Quick il\ er ....... ...........................
Salt................................. .......
Silk, and manufactures of.....................
Silver:
Bullion and coin..........................
Jewelry ..................................
Sprhaleire or IT'uii .........................
Spirits \ ina..,ndl oih r |.-'.crui '..
Millpral \waLer.............................
Wine-
Crmmorn. red and white..............
FIIn', ird and hitr ..................
Sherry and similar type..............
MIT -l l and similar type...............
Spirits ard liquors .......................
Sugar.........................................
Tiles..........................................
Tu rpen' in'...... ............................
Vegetables:
Chick-peas................................
Garlic....................................
Onions...................................
Potatoes..................................
l r ........................................ ..
Wood, and manufactures of:
Lgs .......................................
C'ast;......................................
Other manufactures of....................
Wools:
Unmanufactured..........................
Blankets..................................
Knitted goods..............................
CI'r th........................................
Other in inrili[. tirt. .......................
Zinc, in pie.-. Jnd sheets.......................
All other artiels ...............................

Total................................


a Troy ounces.


20.397
8,961
4i 11 It1

19,092
9,772
5,332
13,998
7,083

5. 14. 000
2.74 1. 000
117,667
173,345

873
5,497
9R. 952
I i, *:*>."
5,378
2,524
1,276
425,022
167

a3, 590, 775
a 447,158
59,734

2,429

b 105,617,517
b 1,335,432
b 52??.193
b :., *.l2+ 709
b 1, 136,882
2,408
20,733
3,735

5,945
7,489
148,005
53,244
45,213

51,630
13,097
3, 965

5,293
6,364
529
424
2,625
4,856


'4.,21? "11
., 1.0, 1

2,918,113
9. -**. 63
;. *- 117
I I',). 141
.!,.'; 475
7Il' 815
4,- (i31
2, 2-1, 486
10, 1;. 1 ."il
6, -1 7".'
12, .115, 0

2,513,211
7,011 3'
15, ,.,.1, .i>,,
2,641,646
774,443




S306, 09.
970 ,r.. 9







18, S00, r90
7'2.. 040



5 j 7, ,.,u7

306,095

18, 800, 690
822,873
2,564,232
3. 19. <'r
2, '-., "4 I1
390,074
.12..'2...'


4 ?, 018
r:11, 627
? ,4. 107
I,1 7,582
2,094,765

650,540
815,100
904,502

2, 45, 781
11.1 4",786
1, '..' 669
1,527,861
6,404,731
611,862
37,515,563


18,220
18,037

16,790
246,393
li.. 741
?. -r..

7,039
11,649
5,014

5,137,621
1,964,937

mI,'i7'i.

831
4,654
81,570
6,653
5,218
3,604
650
274,394
150

a 2,973,720
a 2,i:. q.2


2,825

b 156,941,431
b 623.545
b 2,747,354
b 5,935, 952
623,730
2
12,842
4,115

8,937
5,643
189, 732
24,503
11,972

3,154
9,015
2,161

b,I I
4, 7,i
100
32
2,055
7,235


. ........... 249,008,091 ..... .... 234,602,052

b Gallons.


Decrease in Many Exports.

The demand for Spanish merchandi-e during 1917 was far greater
than could be supplied to foreign coiintries owing to export prohi-
liitions- and lack of carrying facilities. The ire-ilt was dc:'lr'cased ex-
portation compared with 1916, although -somenwhat inc're(:ti o com-
pared. with 1915. The greate-t. falling off is oeen in the export of
food-tuffs, followed by manufactured articles and raw niltri:ls.
Among the staple exports of Spanish fooldstitffs the decrease was
notable in rice, sardines, grape.-, orange-, oliver, raisin-, olive oil,


$3, ', 17.366
4, "1,026

1,057,750
5. 122 092
:, :1.11,046
847, 751
2,610,610
950,314
1, 1 I7.108
2, ;;, 903

10,172,490
4,597,953
5,100,619
10,947,565

2,392,442
6, 630,045
14, ".27
1,7 ",. 77'
751,409
1,394,779
643,498
493,909
853,059

2,387,464
331,474
304,492

355,909

27, 265,388
381,982
1,625,900
3 :1,421
1, 7, 158
415
40r'. .5
1,.1:2, .J7

965,254
457,095
3,415,180
t,., .~.t L

,'. 746
.i. 7,942
523,603

4,915,120
8, 1. l, 043
-"7, 168
114,314
3,193,332
911,653
38,505,001









SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


sherry, spiritss andl liquior.-, po1intes, beans. lentils. andl tomatoes. As
there are whole districts in this country wlhi(ch practically depend
on the world's inarkit.-, for the consumption of these crops, the les-
sened exports icauseld .suf'ferilln to cultivator-. The few exceptions,
such an filbe.rts and chick-pea-, did not compensate for losses in 1915.
The min;iufa;'turid articles rno-s keenly affected were cork manufac-
tures, goods of fibers and textile grasses, glass and glassware, hides
and skinl. iron and steel manufactures, paler and paper goods, tiles
and casks. Exceptiuns were copper bars, cotton piece goods, and
above all hemp shoes. Exports of iron pyrites, copper ore, blende,
aind quii-kiilver declined, and zinc in pigs and sheets and copper
hi r-i increased. Shipments of raw wool also ,hoiw increases.
Declared Exports to United States and Possessions.
Thei value of Spani.h goods exported to tlhe United States and
pl)--,Oi(,ns from the Peninsula and the Balearic and Canary Islands
amounted in 1915 to $20,403,392. in 191G to $35,643.475. and in 1917
to :7 ,606,415.
The dil'elared valili.- of exports to the United State,, the Philip-
pine., Portl Rico, and Hawaii during 1916 and 1917. as invoiced at
the AmiZ riCi:l! (con-iulates and consular agencies in Spain and the
Balearic and Canary Tlalnd;( are given as follow.-:

To United States. To P'ilippine T r i:-..o. Toll.
Consular, 1;i I i.~_
1916 1917 1916 1l17 1916 1017 lu'i 1917

I.:ri"e!..,nl ......... ... -..S ::.1. 17 ',1 .'.'I ",1 ,'-"; .' .. ":' 3 :;.5,! 0 ".l 771 s1.3 ,591 727,736 ,5"-
C runi ..... ... i 2 i !.J. ,IL) 77 I ......... 62,2.5. l1).i.hl4 -;.:03 29,524
Pal "n. ... ..... !.7 1, 1 ....... ....... .. .... .. .T I 1.9 1 5,45N,192
;l) i1 ..n '' Mal-
lorca........... 250,143 390,738 2,70, 1, 1.:1 7.. 41h bi. 44 33'9..i -161l,7.14
T ri -.'na, ........ 1, 1i.;, 7 2,;1 2.700 1, 1 i,"l. ],:1 10 ,1l 1 i.4 'r. 12 2,474,859
\i......... .... 70,112 12'1. 12 97,7J 1 i. ,5i) l, .; 7,30) ,55h 200, 03
Bilbao ............... !.'7,,270 1, ii)1, t'. 1 8, (0. .,7 19i,J2. 14,2.24 3,i ',. .i- 1,3.1, 452
1'i ,q) ............ .... ...... .... ..... .. ,5.
S............ ....... ......... ......... 6,5
JerezdelaFrontera .. 273,10 .. .... .......... I7,2 I......... llbi l ..........
M.1hIiii .. ............ 879,495 7, ,lb 7.3, 1 71 0, 1 I 17 1. 10 .. ;L ,tII l 66t8,6i
Malaga............. 2, 7 2 4, 80), ,78 9,7,U. 7,. ,J.J7 11,:v-11 2, S1.4.14 4,930, 461
Alim eria.......... ..... ,'.7 2,0 ......... ...... .. .. .. .... 7, 2 201,3
..i t 1. ... .. .... .......... .W. 21 .. ......... .. .I ....... id. 221
ilt [i r.. .... .... ...... .. ] .......... ..... I) I ..' .,. 6 21
'" iIl ...... ..... i. il,- .,,- 7, '',7 Il l, i' ,...55 17 l. 12 2:.4!"',777 >SO,17
H *.l ll-. ........... 9... .1 7, 196
1 .4.... .11. ,42S, 531
T NI i ............. 118 12., 5 4 .j ....... ... ..... I I r ,71.) 1.i. 44 259,279
Ias Pa nl as...... 26,'i 47,':. ......... .... 2 5 14, inu 46,54 61,973
Valencia............. 1 2''i; 2 -12' .,. .iMi 2 'i"i 1M. 4 3 2 .';.37 3 20.114 2,- i4 ,5 1.
Alicante........ 2. I. 1 ., Jil 2.21, i i1 2,5:,2 1,9_ '. I' ,S 2..-2 2,135.s l 2,250,456
Total.......... 33,7. -22 35,733,492 1,022,757 ..3, .. I .1 7. i .13,473 i37,606, 15

'Ilc. total riu,iiii between the U'nitedl Sl:ic-s aindl S;pin, includ-
ing imports and exports, amountc.i in \:!i!,, in !113 to s4:;.14-,.1524:
in 1914 to ;,0I. ,180; in 1915 to .4,.7;l,:7 a.nd in 1916 to $9S,-
..s5 74-, exli-ive of lthe Philipiine- ani IPorto I~ico. Aside from
-pli.-, tli' 1, ,ling import fi, mi tle, United State.- is r;'w ,o.tton. The
piilh-.1 of AI I'riiI wl( t1t which- before tihe \v;i \';is lninilportant
devlt p in 1915 ;ii 1916 to over 9,(i 00, i 0, I:nnu1illy. Copper
wir., iron Iii:,!,f ;.! t ,-i Lidl. ,ind .kin-, tvyp\e writer, agriculturala l
Ilipllelliilit. lo iomiotiv--. Itni lel,. ;aild t1O,1110lo lilt' v'i 'e imported in
iicr,.-;tscd ,pit il(?tic,..
The exp('it- i'r- d Sp;i in to the United( Stat- -i 'ti.wed an appre-
ciable in'rei-c in iron ore and pyrites, raw wvi m. hidei- and skins,











SPAIN. 7


onlionds, olives, and olive oil, while cork and its manufactures and
copper bars decreased notably.

Important Articles of Trade Between Spain and the United States.
As illustrating the growth of Spain's trade with the United
States and possessions, the figures for imports and exports of articles
which amounted during at least one of the pa-t four years to over
$950,000 have been assenmbled from official surclce and given in the
following tables. The classification comprises 180 art icle., of which
the more important are selected.


Articles 1913


IMPORTS FROM UNITED STATES.
Coal............................... ..............
Pet rolt m ............................................
Oleonaphthas, etce.....................................
Phojph:lnr o llim. ....................................
Iron, and minur.i.ctlre's of ............................
Copper w.il ..............................................
Paraffin .... .......................................
Cotton, u n ru jnfactured..............................
\oud, 3 ind m in ufactures of..........................
Riids and sl:ins.......................................
T .yrrpe ifir f ...................... ...... ...............
Agric illuir.al tnIrp in lim. I ...............................
Elec trLC mOl. anrd Irniumos ........................
Locomotives and tenders.............................
Automobiles..........................................
Pork: Bacon..........................................
W heat......................................... .......
Tobacco..............................................
C artrid ............................................
\'I'ss.l : -lr.ilr'I .......................................
Gold in coin..........................................
All other articles........................................

Total............................................

EXPORTS TO UNITED STATES.
Spllmleril.. ... ...............................
Iron ore j.ii' |I '. l It-t s ...................................
\\nol. .................................................
Cork, and manufactures of ................................
Hides and skins.......................................
Almonds.........................................
Olives...............................................
Grapes................................................
Olive oil.............................................
\\'ine .................................................

'Preilared or preserved ...........................
Onions............................................
CoprIt 111 1.S.........................................
A ll othur artil.I.- .......................................
Total ............................................


IMPORTS FROM PORTO RICO.
C'otTef, unroasdl .................. .................. 1,
All oth r. ..............................................
Toial ......................................... 1,

EXPORTS TO PORTO RICO.
Total.................................. ..............
IMPORTS FROM PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.
Seeds of sesame, flax, etc.............................
Leaf tobacco and ( i r ................................ 2,
All other ............ ..............................
Tulil ...........................................

EXPORTS TO PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.
Drvd' cot ton cloth and knit It, cotton goods............
Sjr.linc ...............................................
All other..............................................

Total .......... ................................. 1.


$169,451
1,557,575
587,147
399,671
529,282

18,420,846
2,. 7. 474
2'.7.045
278,326
228,316
982,821
39,015
138,863
I ".. 1 2
*II, ;
1,078,381


2,108,480

30,147,441


1,,'9,275
1, 563, 300
36,764
741,464
699,641
1,092,226
140,854
246,157

171,421
299,489
5,043,822
1,130,670


1914


1 02. M00

1111 .1 1
4W I I
Ji'l. .'n
93,577
75,422
458,786
15,957,143
1,752,011
192,817
191,757
"'',1.711
711,404

77,989
8,131
2 312. 1.;
'. I, 71o


80, 39
1,498,964

26, 549,498


:, .'1 ,
2,001, 04
1i 1.508
1, 4 'T',
783,606
2 'f, 9...

258,580
lq1.631
2, l'1.,419
1,?-2', 629


1915


? I. r'2-)
1, 1,. 048
SiZ, 273
l*'1. 556
2--',086
382,217
1,052,104
32,143,402
1,095, 504
.12. r.2

434,576
150,426
11.4321
1 ;,1 .4'.,
147.* '1
9,4il, -*"
1'* I !,'
1,091,702
46,829
2,511,466

.


2,133,048
14', 609
2,110,046
668,793
1.1 2.'1
741, 11:
413,153
S.'1, 159
223,852


1,049, 7.0
1,593,439


371,334 1,253,302 1,599,116
42,548 68,330 66,205

413,882 1,321,632 1,665,321

450,489 558,660 383,127


914,570 7. 431 1,734,389
"11.147 2, 1',' 319 2,157,403
.1,., ':. 48,783 63,797

s'.009 3,298,563 3,955,589


613,453 1.2 7", 119,618
1-' l -22'.. ; 52,096
I- i 11 2 I 4 1.I1." 762,293

J.9.069 .1,2.;. ;9 9 4,007


1916


$274,477
1,422,075
8'', .,,)
406,876
1, 121. 107
4, 960
1,033,970
21,910,265
1,509,586
811,678
506,522
1,130,260
579,179
560,303
492,262
560,620
9,334,198
h47.956
551,606
252,972
31,668,288
5,256,435

81,675,150


36, 628
2,903,486
519,925
1,255,920
1,464,314
1,321 106
2, 111,167
'100, 1' ,9
1, 7:.i, 2'J
429,744

471,483
497,681
71.201
2,. '.. 22-.


17,224,724


1,250,657
63,679

1.. 11..3 ti

404,557


9 .,79'7
2,20 711l0
1l9, .lt9

3,344,870


32,543
82,384
871,078

986,005


I


12,0!"'I,0S3 11,479,682 1 1. 2:'..2211









8 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Changes in Spanish Commerce During Four Years.
Of particular value in studying the influence of the war on Spanish
commerce is the rearrangement. during four years of the leading
markets for Spanish products and the sources of supplies. The im-
port.s and exports during 1914, 1915, and 1916 contrasted with 1913
are shown in the following table compiled from official returns:


IMPORTS.

1i13
Great Britain............. $44, 040, 000
France.................... 3i, 840, 000
Germany.................. 33, 2.6, 000
United States............. 30, 147, 000
Argentilna................ 19, 975,000
All iotlir................... 90, 321, 000

Total................ 254, 689, 000

1914
Great Britain.............. 39, 509, 000
United States............. 26, 549, 000
Fr.an.................... 24,166,000
Germany ............ .... 19, 462, 000
Rustsio ...... ... ......... ... 8,512, 000
All other................... 81,756, i000

Total............... 1 '*,, 9.54, (CO


Great Britain.............. a 6, 406, 0u0 )
United States............. A.;, 'A to
France ................... 16, 870, 0 )
Arientina ................. 15,549, 000
British d(iminionu-, in Asia... 11, 4-51, 000
All other........................ 54, :3.. n

Total................ 217, 213. 00t


United t r ................d 81, 675, 000
Great Britain.............. e 5., 694, 000
Flai. .............. f 1, 848, 000
Arnini ................. 10, S0;, ('00
Pi1 it i- inii in Asia... 9, 182, 001
All .lh..r. ............ .... 58, 973, 000

Total..... ........ 239, 178, 000 ,
a Inlc i .. .! ,.0 ill .li1 c ..; n.
C In llli "i ','-"i in i]J coin
c I ,-.ht.h 5 '..* ",F, ,, 2 ,. I o in


EXPORTS.

1913
France................... $58,994,000
Great Britain............. 41,683,000
Germany. ................. 13, 395,000
United States............. 12,996,000
Argentina. .............. 12, 774, 000
All other ................. 75, 261,000

Total............... 215,103,000

1914
France.................... 45, 152,000
Great Britain............. 41,896,000
United States............. 11,460,000
Cuba .................... 9, 356, 000
Italy ..................... 9, 117,000
All other.................. 52, 776, 000

total ............... 1 9, 757,000

1915
Fra ice .................. 95, 592,000
(;r-i.t Britain.............. 47, 159, 000
Italy. ..................... 1 116, 000
Argentina ................ 12,280,000
United- States. ............. 11,275,000
All nther .................... 45, 439, 000

Total ................ 22 -191, 000

1916
France .................... 102, 012,000
Gieat Britain ............. 51,339,000
United States ............. 17,225,000
Ar ontina ............... 15, 275,000
ItalyN........... ........... 13, 847, 000
All other .................. 56, 941,000

Total ............... 256, 639, 000
d Inl'liuks 1l,l..S,2S in 'old coin.
f Includes S2t,:371,,2S mi gold coin.
I Iluliih l; 2,.'I..,"79S in gIid con.


Commerce With the UI'itcd States Augmented.
CDllliim'.c. with the United States has undergone notable modifi-
cation,- sii the war. The IIcom, erlcii activity of Spain has in-
crna,,e'[ as a 1\l le during the past three ear.-, and it is natural that
this deveh lnli'ieif should1 extend to in.-irea -ed trade with the United
Stat,-;. particularly :s some off Spain's former markets haye been
shiit off. The growth of tlii- commerce with the United States has,
Iihowever, surpassed its I.'pr"i tional relation with other great coun-
tries, and in 1'01G the Ulnitc. State- beenane the first among the









SPAIN. 9


countries of origin, with over $81,000,000 worth of imports. It is
true that a large part of the amount was gold, but the same was the
case with imports from Great Britain.

Shipping Statistics.

The number of vessels arriving at Spanish port- wai greater in
1917 than in 1916, although the total tonnage, as well as cargo, was
less. The entry of ships of foreign registry during 1017 was about
half the number entering during 1916. A general decrease marks
the statistics covering maritime movement, notable exceptions being
the increased amount of cargo taken by a decreased number of
foreign steamers clearing, and the large nunlber of Spanish sailing
vessels clearing, of which there were 2,271 more than the year he-
fore. Statistics regarding the vessels entering Spani-,h port- dur-
ing 1916 and 1917 are given below.


Class of vessel and flag.


WTTn CARGO.
Steam:
Spanish.......................
Foreign.......................
Sail:
Spanish .......................
Foreign.......................
IN BALLAST.
Steam:
Spanish ......................
Foreign ......................
Sail:
SDani:h .......................
Foreign......................


2,021
2,367
1, S76
29t)


Toal ....................... 13,013
1


191i 1917

Tonnage. Cargo. Number. Tonnage. Cargo.


.M'tric t.o'.s. hi .;c ".or
4,474, 491 1, 96%r.i01 3,770 .1, 11.7s l, I-I4,226
1, tIS, 216 1,M >,., 0 714 1, 11u, t', j .,, 4"'7
33, 35 23.700 2,014 1I), I.j]I 52,044
77,243 10:, 344 3.' $S3, 677 112,91;


1, 475, 4 !;6, ............ 1,fl' D 2 ............
3, 120,3-14 ............ 3 ............
3 1,J0 ............ 3, qr. I 9.3, 1 ..........
7, .14 ........ .. 2.1 I. .
10,937,.99 i 3,952,03-4 14,207 9, -'I,2$7 2,.r77,643


The number of vessels, the tonnage, and cargo clearing from Span-
ish ports in 1916 and 1917 are shown in the following table:


Class of vessel and flag.


WITH CARGO.
Steam:
Spanish.....................
Foi ign..................... .
Sail:
Spanish......................
Foreign......................
IN BALLAST.
Steam:
Spanish....... ..............
Foreign......................
Sail:
Spanish......................
Foreign......................
Total. ...................


Number.


Tonnage.


I 1I ---1-*I


7,100
4,220
3,053
632


7,21,9.97
5, 323, h6;9
95.394
1!3,011


516 t.fl l. "l
339 737,757
199 6,S72
206 12,464
I1, 1635, 14, I0td,73J


Cargo.


M1 ri r' tons.
3,707 39
6,902, 934
7', 071
1 .10 '1


Nuini..er.


.-, 1M1
2.t 'IJi
5, 172
3. i


Tonna'e. Car.o.


S.1, Ir fi i"s..
4.7 41. ('-0 2,1 ..3 :is,i
4,'J1) 147 7.,21, .32


114, 125
,* I -.


1V'i 9.52
j.Z* 'Lri


............ ".20 4 .4, 9 4 ...........
............ 217 "-Ib, 23 ...........
............ 3.1 14 60% I............
............ j 111 SI, 4 ..........
10, '.9,147 14,X7u u,73',294 9,319,232


The Spanish Merchant Marine.

The Spanish merchant marine lo-t 37 ships during 1917. destroyed
by enemy submarines. The loss of these ships, which displaced
107198-15a-2


1 li li. r


I


I








10 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

(6,924 tons, materially reduced the national tonnage, which at the
beginning of the year amounted to 847,848. The sale of ships of more
than 2.3' tonU' register. even when both seller and purchaser were
Spaniards. w.- prohibited unless the permission of the Minister of-
Public Work-, was secured. Owners of vessels were obliged to render
a monthly aiccoiint to the Director of Commerce in regard to the
traffic and routes in whic.h their vessels were engaged. The Minister
of Public Works wa; authorized to seize such Spanish vessels as
engaged in foreign trade and did not touch at Spanish ports, and
such vessel. were ordered to return to Spain at fixed times. Mort-
gages, tran.ractions, or contracts which tended to reduce the full
possession of the shipowner were regarded as illegal unless approved
by the Mini.,ler of Public Works.
Sp'anish merchant vessels of 500 tons register or more were ordered
to provide wireless installation of a minimum radius of 100 miles,
and to carry one or more motor lifeboats, according to the size of the
crew, or motors which could be adjusted to ordinary lifeboats.
The coast of Spain wais divided into three zones; there was pre-
.-cribed a special tariff for coastwise freight to different ports in
each; and regulations were made a.s to the kinds of freight to be
transported. Merchandise from the interior might be shipped only
from certain specified ports at which the railroads of each particular
zone terminate. Shipowners were obliged to place at the disposition
of the Government 180,000 tons for the transportation of merchan-
dise of prime necessity, a committee being appointed to determine the
exports and imports for domestic needs and the conditions of requisi-
tion. The tonnage thus acquired may be increased if such action is
found advisable by the committee.
Financial Condition of Railroads.
Although the earnings of the leading Spanish railroads showed an
increase over those of 1916, the year 1917 may be regarded as unsat-
isfactory. Traffic increased rapidly, and the high rate of exchange
on the pe-et;a influenced favorably the payment of foreign loans,
but the expenses of exploitation increased and cut down net returns.
In 1917 the financial obligations of the railroads absorbed 31.66 per
cent of the earnings, and exploitation, 66.94 per cent, leaving a net
gain of only 1.40 per cent.
Some time ago the railroad companies received from the Govern-
inent reimbursable subventions amounting to about $54,000,000, and
for this reason the public demanded of the roads the compensation
out of which grew the serious strikes of the railroad employees which
took place in 1917. The companies, however, showed that the re-
turns, calculated on a kilome:ric basis, for the personnel employed
were constant ly diminishing. Even at special rates for the roads coal
increased in price in 1917 contrasted with 1913 by 150 per cent, iron,
300 per cent: iron tires for wheels 631 per cent; and lubricants, 233
per cent. These prices made repairs extremely expensive while the
upkeep of the rolling stock was rendered imperative by the greater
volume of traffic.
This finallcial condition of the Spanish railroads forced the com-
panies to increase their rates, and an attempt was made to have
the Government fix the prices of materials required for exploitation
as well as to guarantee a minimum interest to stockholders.







SPAIN.


Receipts for 1916 and 1917.
As compared with 1916, the receipts of the nine principal railroad
companies of Spain during 1917 were as follows:

Railroads. 1916 1917 Railroads. 1916 1917

Norte d, Espafia........... 30,994,fl9 32, 457.37 Sur di,' E rpai'a ............ M9S,I14 SI1,110,9O.
Madrid-Zaragoma-AUiauIte.. 2, 23' 1 s 29,72". 12 M Andaluces ................ G,40).723 ., 3.1,, 5.'. \ io .................. 111. 241 97. ;19
M adrid-C ccres............. 1,159,76 1,2 '- ,74) Oloi-t :o ri .............. 121,311 121,3'1
Oeste de Espaia........... 820,035 920, 72 SA Feli-Ctur,.o .......... .,4,3l J -,I I1

Improvements in Railroads and Transportation.
In spite of adverse circumstances, tlhe railroad system of Spain
was slightly enlarged during 1917. The narrow-gauge road heing
built by the Government from Vitoria to Vergara was extended 11..S
miles-from Salinas de Lenitz to E-coriaza-and the electric rail-
road under construction from Barcelona to Sabadell and Ta;rrasa
was extended 3.72 miles from Vallvidrera to San Cugat, making a
total of new road completed during the year of 15.52 miles.
The functions of the special committees appointed by royal order
to control railway traffic were combined in April under a Committee
of Railway Transportation, composed of the chiefs of the railway
section of the Board of Public Works. At meet ings of this com-
mittee tlie representatives of chartered railways may be present to
discuss arrangements affecting their interests.
With the rolling stock available on the Spanish railroads it wa-
estimated that GG3,300 tons of merchandise and baggage, 199,340
horses, 620.140 calves, and 1,997,530 cows, goati, or pigs can be trans-
ported at one time, t.he average run for a car being 155 miles a day.
Attempts were made to systematize distribution so that merchandise
might not accumulate in the freight yards. A zone system for certain
classes of freight was inaugurated in conner-tion with coa-t zones, and
various minor measures were taken-by the Gov1erinent to relieve
congestion at certain points.
Treasury Receipts and Disbursements.
The aggregate receipts of the Spanish Treasury during 1917 were
$409.059,190, an increase over tho.-e of 1016 of $90,000,I00I. Early in
1917 the Treasury had to provide for maturity on April 1 of a large
issue of 4 per cent bonds and on July 1 of 44 per cent bonds. After
various possible solutions had been considered it was decided to bar-
row a nominal sum of $180,000,001) at 5 per cent, amortizable in 50
years. The immediate causes of this loan were tile great amount of
the floating debt and the anticipation of a rise in interest after the
war. The public debt in circulation at the beginning of 1917
amounted to $1,684,080,000, which included interior and exterior
bonds at 4 per cent. The first claimants on the new loan were tlie
short-term 4 and 4A per cent Treasury bonds maturing in April and
July, and the remainder of the amount was paid in silver. The sub-
scription, which took place on March 31 resulted in $121.74,000 ill
the value of maturing bonds presented and $1,087,607,000 in cash
payments, a total of $1,212,401,000.
As the issue amounted to only $180,000,000 and as $124,704,000 was
covered by bonds, there remained only $55.'0U;,000 w-rth to dis-











SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


tribute, whereas $1,921,401.000 was underwrite, and subscribers ac-
cordingly received only 5.076 per cent of their demands. That the
loan was greatly oversubscribed indicated the available wealth of the
country,i but. it was seen by comparison with the amount of current
bank accounts the (lay before and the day after the loan that it was
not :so nnmil the general public that subscribed as the banks, which
thus cnmployed some of the capital deposited in their keeping.
The increase of $108,752.775 in the disbursements of the Treasury
during 1917. (:ompared with 1916, was chiefly in connection with the
public debt. The balance of the year showed a deficit of nearly
$4,0110,0)10, in contrast to a surplus at tle close of 1916 of nearly
$14.000,')00.
Revenue Statistics.
The receipts and disbursements of tlie Spanish Treasury for 1917,
rcojnpared with 1916, as published in the Government Gaceta de
Madrid, were as follows:


items 1916

E N '"JE.
T.Lw:. o013 li. tsLate, 'ro ps,
andl ent-Tr l............. V, 5337,578
Taxe- on indroitries and
trad......... ........ 1n4, 704
Ta.x's on proil, derv-ed
iroulm iuval'1, pIropwity. 2-Cm, 4I,i,2.6
r'-.v:-ia j;ip'-is and prop-
eity t(rLrfIer........... 14, 306, 4i3
Imrpo:t: (n Flin-; ....... 1, 9, 97
Personal tax registration
r l ri t ifil ,i............... 1,21.5,:6i
Imctnpts on piymuPuits
Umade by SLtat:, Prov-
incr, or municipalities. r,90, 'J00
Imports rn private ear-
rin e-............ ..... .. 1 9,,,4
T;;: fraur the Biscay,
Pro.i;no:s Jlnd Navarr. I, .5,-,i, 4il
I'll.;tomn drotpsi ........... 27,007, "00
Irnpomt; on s ir........... 5,216,422
Iinpo(-,t on akl llolo........ 3, 186i.065
T.i') on in i iol Ci .iirnup-
tion i ll iii r........ .........
Conq i-hr f''. ............. 179, 190
Imrpo.s on o.tr,-,......... 7, S1.6,90O
Impo;ts on pissengmrs
:i l ml i'c l Jni:s.: i.lral.- L
pr-rtid by land or qQa... ', 44, 44 .
StaImp L............... ,70,
Impo)rt on Pga, elvtrfec-
LLV, nLd C'.-leCilmcjarbide. 2, 19), .80
Tolir-rn n'o'iopl'oly........ 2 ,50 I 5
Match monopoly.......... 3,9S1,946
Lo.r i ry runol'lvy. ...... I 2-1, .14,7I
Mornopolv of m.in.ilecturre I
and _'ale ol explosivesr... I6,1,040
St .L( -o''-l d mines:
Slmniden.............. 3,0.5,01
Lin rc .. ........................
ReevPenue from 'r'ligio0t1
souLrLt3.................. .O, ;00
a.'m;re' nft fnr on'; mptirun
ironic mritLr y se-r.-ice
an d fines ............ 1,6. 178
All other 'oirce- of i-
come................ .. 7, 512,679


1917




535, %'6, i57 ,
9,.551,3-

3j,434,4UJ I
14,7,,201
1.97 ,?4-1
I, 223,20i

I, 0.-37, 4 7
I?, Il.a)
1,6,j,797
24,640,471
5,307,4-6
2,83' 2,'7
150, 7S
176,915
*, .S01,0,37
1.S 1'.( 7

5, N.3 129
19, 'i a,6 6
2,265,677
30,440,703
4,509,L 5
2., 4 11S,116
1, 3322, S2
1,957,692
916,1]47
4W 601)

1, 4i1, 537
7, 361,377


ILcms. 191G

REVENUE- conllnuedl.
Sle of Tiwa.urv 10n1i,
(laws of Dec. 11, 1912,
and Der. 2, 1014.)....... 172,00,00
Sale of fool ploducr r-
Qoired by 1 w of Feb.
1915................. 11,991, 2
Sale of snophate of copper.I 139,730
Collection n prerav-
.mnti t rMade to daily
newspapers............. ............t
Benefits on war Lasur-
anui ................... ............
Municipal us b ,xes........ I 1, e6 ,521)
Total ...............313, 11, 479
PI.SB UREMENTS
The Royal House......... 1,611,676
Legislators ................ 447,480
Public debt, pensions,
tcr ..................... 7, 517, 743
Unemprloyed elaises........ 15,157,403
Presirltecy of Ithe Ceouneil
of Mni.nit r.............. 1,383, 65
Ministry of Si t.......... 1,574,765
Min:.try of GraC' and
JiiSiice:
J ILs; iep:
Civil obliptions...... 3,432,799
Etcrleasstfcal obliga-
tions................ 7, 09,425
Miui t.ry of WaVr.......... 47,920,173
Ministry of he Navy .... 13,347,04
Ministry of the Interior... 17,768,803
Mimni'ry of Public In-
struction................ 13,413,,787
MihiNiry of Public- Works. 30,493,121
Ministry of the Treasury.. 3,82,5,673
Expeunsc s of the Treasury
for collecting revenue-.. 38,68), 59
Spanush possessions in t e
r:ulf ol Guinea.......... 342,000
Action in Mcroeco........ 27,000,909
M urieipalsurtaxes......... 1,S89,193
Total................ 30, 296, 666


The Bank of Spain.

The year 1917 was one of continued prosperity for the Bank of
Spain. The gold reserve increased from $241,296,120 at the close of
1916 to $370.117,080 at the close of 1917; the silver reserve fell from


$160, 633, 79

2,133,721
415

91,765
415,335
1,882,M28
149,049, 190


1,633,500

19, 419,936
15,447,325
2,630,312
1,525,671

3,523,923
7, 98,e60
43, 903, 415
12,26 i 6
18,2LI,2L1

14,769, 3W
30,848,205
3,575,8 4
35,211,569

20,481,62
1,&32,622

w~,M.WaI


"








SPAIN. 13

$133,471,440 to $127,896.840, making a total metallic reserve nt the
end of 1917 of $498,013,920.
In March, 1917, the bank was authorized to increase its b:unk-note
issues from $450,000,000 to $540.000,000, provided the additional
$90,000,000 should be guaranteed by a gold reserve. At. the close of
1917 the value of the notes in circulation was S0 .',0,00,l00 compared
with $425,000,000 in 1916. The policy of thie Bnk of Spain to store
its gold in vaults and not put it into circulation during the year was
the subject of animated discussion in financial circles.
The bills in circulation at, tle close of 1917 were distiibl:uted as
follows: $102,000,000 in 1,000-pe eta notes, $10U,000.o00 in 50'!-l)-peOta
notes, $190,000,000 in 100-peseta notes. $S1,000,(.00 in 50-peeta notes,
and $24,000,000 in 25-peseta notes. There was al-o lilunt 7,00i
worth in notes of 250 and 125-1pesetas, whici are no longer in circu-
lation. The metallic guaranty of tile paper notes has risen from S0.:;
per cent in 1916 to 95.57 per cent, of which 70.23 per cent repre.e''nts
a gold reserve. However, the bank notes can not be exehllngeld even
at the bank for gold, as may be supposed, becauiie gold is not in circu-
lation on account of the fact that the reserve is composed largely of
dollars and pounds sterling and tlat of Spanii- coinagte is not .uf-
ficient for the demands of circulation.
Deposits and current accounts increa-ed during tile year froin
$136,000,000 to $172,000,000; and the value of discountss' securities,
and loans from $120,000,000 to $131,000.000. Tlle balance at the
close of 1917 showed net profits of 14,284.050, from whiicll must be
deducted $2,968,751 for taxes. Dividends were paid amounting to
$5,400,000, which was $18 on every share of a nominal valiiu of $90.
There was an excess profit of $5,'),15,308, which 1he stock!;o!lder de-
voted to the increase of the bank's capital, pending authorization
by the Cortes.
Banking Activities.
The increase of capital in Spain during the year wa.~ cons.idlerble.
as shown by heavier deposits and other accounts in tli saving. banks
and various local banks throughout tie country. Tlirty per cent tof
the total current and saving accounts and 25 per cent of the capital
in Spanish banks are held in Barcelona. Rates of interest on current
accounts were low, very few exceeding 1 per cent.
Until recently Spanish banks have acted more as crons.erva\tive
guardians of national economy than pronmotters of linan;cil activity,
but a tendency to change is apparent in this rescl)t. At e clo.,o
of 1917, there were 54 private banks in Spain, witLl a nomninal capital
of $85,300,200 and a paid-in capital of $43,120,SUiG. (Oprating with
such capital, small compared with that of tlhe IBaik of Spaiml-thesec
banks have during the past years taken step.- to(,vwad l on.oli dating
their interests. Associations have been formed, not na trusti.-s )but
rather as societies, for mutual advantage. In 19.S the As-ociation
of Banks of Barcelona was formed and now intlPlies .many concerns
-t;Si: throughout Catalonia. In June. 1917, a similar organization was
S formed in Madrid known as the Association :,f Bankers of Central
.JL Spain, and in October followed the Association of Banks and
Bankers of Northern Spain. The chief object of these associations
is to keep in touch with and assist large enterprises in Spain or
abroad as well as to 1rctect time interests of their members.
*:; I,.
%:'; "
-F:







14 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Important Banks-Dividends.
Among the more iiilportant Spanish banks aside from the Bank of
Spain are the Baiwo Hipiotecario, Banco Hispano-Americano, Banco
de Barcelona, Banco Espanfol de Credito, Btnco de Bilbao, Credito
Mercantil, Banco Hispano Colonial, Banco de Vizcaya, Banco Gui-
puzconno. Banco de Cartagena, Banco de Gijon, Credito Navarro,
Banco Arnuis-Gari, and Crndito de la Uni6n Minera. The Credito
Mercantil is planning a fusion with the Banco de Barcelona. The
Banco Hispano-Africano was opened in Madrid in June principally
to contribute to the development of the zone of Spanish influence in
Morocco and to support colonization and commercial relations be-
tween Spain and Morocco.
The banks in general realized greater profits during 1917 than
during 191;'. Some of the dividends declared for 1917 may be taken
as an example. The Bank of Barcelona, the oldest in Spain, paid 18
per cent: Banco Arnis-Gari, 22 per cent; Bank of Bilbao, 24 per
cent; Banco de Vizcaya. 12 per cent; Banco del Comercio, 12 per
cent; and Credito Mercantil, 10 per cent. These dividends are the
outcome of the unusual accuunnlation of capital on account of the
war. In former years they averaged from 3 to 12 per cent.
New Banking Institutions.
The London City and Midland Bank was considering opening
business in Spain, but renounced this project on account of the high
value of tlie peseta which would have made the investment unsatis-
factory. The field was taken by the London County and Westminster
Bunk, which opened a branch in Barcelona in October. The Anglo-
South Aineric-n Bank (Ltd.), which began business in Barcelona in
1916 as the filst English bank in Spain, established in 1917 a branch
in Madlid and another in Bilbao. This blank a!so acquired the Corn-
imercial Bank of Spanish America. its director- and stockholders
having decided that the transaction was desirable in view of com-
inercial expansion after the war. Another bank opened during 1917
was the Mercantile Bank of the Americas, which established a branch
in Barcelona, with the object of developing commercial relations
with the United States as well as with France, Italy, and South
America. Its capital of $5,000,000 was contributed under the auspices
of Brown Dros., Seligman & Co., and the Guaranty Trust Co. of New
York.
At the close of 1917 seven foreign banks had been established in
Spain under conditions favorable not only from an economic stand-
point but also from a legal standpoint on account of the facilities
afforded them under Spanish law.
They periforl operations not practiced by Spanish banks, espe-
cially in relation to exportation, and grant long terms of credit, a
caistom which gives them a decided advantage.
Savings Banks and Accounts.
Three well-defined classes of savings banks exist in Spain, the so-
called Caja de Ahorros, the Postal Savings Bank, and certain banks
which conduct savings departments. The total number of the various
kinds of savings bank books in circulation in 1917 was 1,082,022 and
the amount of deposits reached $117,071,660, an increase over 1916,
when the deposits amounted to $104,000,000. The Caja de Ahorros








SPAIN.


represents 75 per cent of the depositors and 73 per cent of the capital.
The number of its depositors is greatest in he Province of San Sebas-
ti in, followed by the Province of Barcelona, and the savings are
greatest in the Province of Barcelona, followed by the Province of
Madrid.
Of the amount, deposited in all clawses of savings institutions,
$292,220,529 are in Catalonia and $21,683,873 in the Vascongadas,
followed by Valencia with $12,421,292 and other districts with lesser
amounts. In the industrial districts these considerable savings indi-
cate the thrift of the laboring classes. This spirit was stimulated in
1917 by the establishment of three new departments in the savings
service-savings accounts for scholars, money boxes, and s:,vings
stamps. The Inst innovation met with tlie greatest success.
The Stock Exchange.
Regional decentralization in financial matters has resulted in (lie
existence of several bourses of importance, those of Barcelona, Bil-
bao, and Madrid leading. At Madrid public securities did not show
notable changes during 1917. Interior 4 per cent bonds averaged
74.67; exteriors, 82.81; amortizable 4 per cent, 85.29, and amortizable
5 per cent 95.39, the quotations having been lowest in July. The
new 5 per cent Treasury bonds closed at the end of the year at 94.
The domestic political agitation during the month of August, 1917,
caused a momentary drop in all markets of Spain, but an increase
was noticeable in quotations on municipal securities and in a rise of
20 per cent on banking securities. An increase due to the war is
found in industrials of all kinds, but railroad securities dropped,
owing to the demands of the employees and the increased cost of
material. Bonds were affected in practically the same way as stock-,
nearly all having risen, those of railroads, however, being notable
exceptions.
On the. Barcelona bourse, Government securities were strong
throughout the year, and interiors and exteriors ro.-e. Barcelona
municipal bonds showed lower quotations on account of the numerou-
issues of tie year, and railroad bonds were also lower, partly because
many French holders sold in order to profit by the high rate of the
peseta. Paris sent into Spain many bonds purchased in France by
Spaniards. Banking securities rose slightly. The most intcrejting
change was in industrials of which Tabacs de Philippines was quoted
at 142.50, compared with 124 the year before, and Tran-atlanticas at
146 as against 102.50.
Despite considerable activity in bourse transactions, p'lrtic-tlarly
in Catalonia and the Vizcayan Provinces, there was little ,peulllation,
and, for this reason, quotations were so little influenced that the mar-
ket did not adequately illustrate the financial potentiality of these
regions.
Decrease in Bond Issues.
Bond issues in Spain aggregated $114,236,319 during 11-17, a de-
crease compared with 1916, when the amount was the highest since
1901. The greater part of these emissions comprised the Treaisury
5 per cent bonds, amounting to over $55,000,000. This sum was less
than the total of the three issues of the previous year. Issues by local
governing bodies, harbor boards, and the Banco HIipotetcario re-








16" SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

maiinedl practically stationary, but railroad bond issues show a marked
decrease in 1917 compared with 1916. The great increase in general
industrial bond is.-sues indicates the exceptional activity in the
Sp;anish manufacturing world during 1917. The amount attained
bv t!lc-c i-suic- during the past 15 years surpassed that of 1916 only
in the year 1909, when it exceeded $23,000,000. The sum of
$42.300U,(00, devoted in 1917 to industrial enterprises, showed a
decided change in the employment of Spanish capital, which until
irc entlvy ib:! been notably conservative. The bond issues of 1917 com-
pared with 1016( were as follows:
l nd issues. 1916 1917 Bond issues. 1916 1917

Tr'a ............... 90,117,920 5.5,205,99.3 Railroads................. $11,762,640 58,451,360
Miiin. ihl! ii ............ 4,2S5,n0,0 4,344,C60 General industrial ....... 10,477,900 42,300,000
Harlo; i..oiarld ............ 569,790 443,206
Banco Uiputrcario........ 3, 0, 600 3,491,300 Total............ 121. 083,930 114,236,319

The general industrial bond issues include extensive investments
in shipping and shipbuilding, hydroelectric enterprises, machine fac-
tories, and siderurgy. With few exceptions the prevailing rate in
1917 Nwas 5 or 6 per cent. The greater part of the 5 per cent bonds
were sold on terms that resulted in a yield of 6 per cent interest on
the investment.
Joint-Stock Companies.
In 1917 there were 270 joint-stock companies founded in Spain,
compared with 217 in 1916. The capital invested in 1917 was $37,-
688,Si38, compared with $26,096,000 similarly invested during the
previous year. The amount was entirely Spanish capital, no foreign
enterprises having been launched in this country since 1915. Of the
co(,lll;pnies fornmd during the year, 190 were in Barcelona and 12
in the rest of Catalonia, making 202 in that active industrial section
of Spain. Thirty-one companies were organized in Bilbao and 2
elsewhere in the Vascongadas, while 7 were formed in Castile, 7
in Valencia, and the rest in other parts of the country. The Viz-
cayan Provinces led in the amount of capital invested in joint-stock
compaiiies with $14,586,300; followed by Catalonia with $7,662,888;
Ca.tile with $0,660,000; Andalusia with $4,500,000; and Valencia
witl $2,700,000.
Of the newly formed companies 63 were manufacturing, 62 com-
mercial, 20 agencies and representations, 13 navigation, 12 mining,
11 advertising, 8 machinery, 5 metallurgical and siderurgical, and 5
electrical and gas.
About $14,C'00,000 of the capital thus invested was devoted to
mauin factiiuring, $12,000,000 to navigation, and large sums were in-
vet.-.td in Iban-ks, electricity, gas, hotels, and many other interests.
Estimated Wealth of Spain.
Luocil tax collectors' returns published in December, 1917, give the
valuation of Spanish wealth at the close of 1914, wherein 2,256 banks,
sc(etiies, and companies were shown to have a total capital of $1,474,-
750,000, of which $951,167,000 were stocks and $523,583,000 bonds.
Stocks of credit institutions were valued at $207,900,000; railways
and trainways, $190.920,000; mines, $120,960,000; gas and electricity,
$76,.100,n000; factories, $7,1-40.000; insurance companies, $47,700,000;








SPAIN.


sugar plants, $37.620.000; metallurgy, $31,500,000; navigation, $29,-
880,000; monopolies, $15,300.000; waterworks, $14,220.00U0; and
canals, ports, and various concerns, the remainder. Railroad and
tramway bonds amounted to $340,140,000, gas and electricity to $4:,-
120,000, mining to $28,980,000, municipal and provincial to $26,-
820,000, manufactu res to $16,200,000, metallurgical to $12,060,000,
and sugar to $9,540,000. The rest of the bonds were for navigation,
water, and various other enterprises.
Spanish capital represented by city land was estimated at $0,250,-
000,000; country land, $1,950,000,000; live stock, $720,000,000; im-
proved real estate, $1S.,080,0,0 00; machinery, $324,000,000; and other
movable property, $1,620,000,000.
Insurance Companies Active.
The year 1917 was one, of increased activity for insurance com-
panies. The total value of the premiums collected amounted to $16,-
489,987, which sum is greater by $3,717,578 than that collected in
1913. During the intervening years the business of these companies
has suffered from many causes, chiefly connected with the war. The
total premiums collected in 1917 by the life insurance companies
amounted to $5,033,260; fire insurance, $4,504,907; tontine, $2,385,-
817; accident, $1,443.967; illness, $989,099; and cattle, $645.628.
Statistics published in 1917 by the Insurance Commissary General
refer to operations in 1915 and state that at that time there were 181
iiisurance companies in Spain, 123 of which were Spanish, 22 French,
20 English, 4 German, 3 American, and a few of other countries.
These figures do not include a large number of mutual insurance
societies or (6 terrestrial and maritime transportation insurance
companies.
Establishment of New Industries.
The bill providing for Government concessions in favor of the
creation of new industries or the development of such as already
existed in Spain was approved by the Chamber and Senate early in
February. This law affords special protection to the following in-
dustries: Shipbuilding, the production of coal and the utilization of
its by-products, the production and manufacture of iron, steel, cop-
per, zinc, brass, lead, tin, aluminum, and tools, agriculture, the manu-
facture of fertilizers, cattle raising; hydroelectric exploitation,
chemical, textile, electric, and scientific material manufactures,
graphic industries; and those esCtablished for the purpose of iiieeting
the requirements of Moroccan markets.
A committee for the protection of national production, created
in 1908, was reorganized, insuring due representation of all indus-
trial and producing factors and regions of the country. This com-
mittee has been engaged on the classification of the industries into
groups indicated by the law as well as the examination of cases
for benefits thereunder. On account of the stimulus afforded manu-
facture by the Government, the demands from abroad for Spani-h
products, and the necessity for supplying the donie-tic market with
merchandise formerly imported, Spanish industrial activity in-
creased during 1917. Labor troubles and high prices of materials
militated against industrial production in its fullest extent, but the
results were on the whole satisfactory.
107198"-15a-3








18 SUPPLEMENT TO, COMMERCE REPORTS.

Further Development of Wool Industry.
During recent years, especially since the war, the wool industry
of Spain has greatly developed. Raw wool of domestic produc-
tion no longer suffices for the spinning and weaving mills, and it is
now necessary to import from Uruguay and Argentina, whereas pre-
viously Spain could dispose of from 14,000 to 16,000 tons for export.
During the past five years imports of wool and woolen manufactures
as a whole have steadily decreased, while exports have increased.
Raw wool, however, must be excepted, exports having decreased
and imports increased, not on account of the lack of production,
but rather on account of the requirements of the industry, which
absorbed not only the native wool but necessitated purchases abroad.
The values of imports and exports of raw wool during the past five
years are given in the following table:
Wool. 1913 1914 1915 1016 1917

Raw:
ImprorI............................... S44,340 $14,3i0 $1,8R7,34 $2.25n.2i56 $542,392
Exports...................... ......... 4,159,604 3,510,95.5 1,298, 6J2 1,012,263 965,634
Washed:
Imports.................... ....... 64Cq, 656 472,745 286,168 136. 0S 184,820
Exports............................... 6S3, 122 872,789 1,145,950 1,443,518 3,949,432
Yarn:
Im sports ............................ 13,069 7,715 36.217 5,239 647
Export .. ............... .............. bl,3 154,4 1,393,342 1,377,547 1,8S1,441

The industry employs largely domestic wool, of which there are
many varieties, in addition to the grades imported from South
America. In Leon, Segovia, and Estremadura merinos are produced
which are employed in making fine worsteds. In Aragon a class
called entrefinos is produced, and that peculiarly adapted to making
cloth for civil and army uniforms comes from Burgos and Navarre.
In some parts of Anidalusia a very fine wool is raised, but most
of the Andalusian wool is entrefinos, long, strong, and excellent for
cloth. The raw cotton used by the spinners and weavers is now
practically all of American origin, but the cultivation of silk in
Spain is increasing, and some vegetable fibers are likewise of do-
mestic origin. Much textile machinery is supplied by Spanish
factories, which have increased their plants in order to replace for-
eign machines now difficult or impossible to secure. The chemical
situation, which early in the war was greatly affected by the cutting
off of supplies from Germany, has been improved by the manu-
facture in Spain of much-needed material.
Despite the development of the wool-washing facilities in Spain,
importation has not ceased entirely, because for the manufacture of
certain articles special kinds of foreign wool are required. This
is notably the case with the Australian product, which is imported
raw, washed, and spun. The value of exports of manufactured
woolen goods increased from $5,703,919 in 1913, and $10,761,997 in
1914, to $30,762,577 in 1915; afterwards decreasing to $20,912,047
in 1916, and to $12,198,857 in 1917. The exports of the year 1915
were a surprise even to manufacturers, who themselves did not
realize that the industries of the country were capable of such pro-
duction, until under the rush of orders from the countries then at
war unforeseen results were attained.








---. SPAIN. -


Cotton Industry-Textile Works.
The manufacture of cotton textiles in Spain consumes over 1,000
bales of raw cotton daily, all of which is imported. During the
1916-17 campaign imports were heavier than during the previous.
campaign by 27,783 bales, but circumstances were such that a com-
parison of the figures gives little idea of the increased demand for
that commodity. Barcelona importers bought all that they could
secure in spite of heavy freight rates.
In contrast to a decrease in imports of raw cotton from Egypt
and India, American cotton increased by 41,991 bales during the
present campaign year, compared with the previous season. A
total of 356,846 bales of American cotton were shipped; '-' ~,3 from;
(Galveston, 32,873 from New Orleans, 24,470 from New York, 12,440
from Savannah, 1,400 from Charleston, 100 from Pens:cola, and
3,025 bales came indirectly.
In the city of Sabadell at the beginning of 1917, the number of
spindles employed in the wool industry was increased to 1:9,622
and those in the cotton mills to 52,300, while the mechanical looms
in both branches amounted to 4,900, an increase of 10,456 -pindles
and 213 looms over the preceding year. In connection with tlheu.
mills there are 175 dyeing plants, 12 bleacheries, 22 steam presses, and
105 carding machines. The electric, steam, hydraulic, and gas force
employed amounts to 11,100 horsepower. The total of operatives
employed in cotton and wool mills and auxiliary industries amounted
to 14,370 in 1917, an increase of 2,020 compared with the previous
year. The production of yarn is estimated at 12,342 tons, woolen
and worsted goods at 3,34 tons, cotton yarn, 3,243 tons, and cotton
goods at 3,120 tons; 6,157 tons passed through the municipal con-
ditioning house. About 1,000 tons of washed wool were exported to
Italy, and large orders of blankets, woolens, and yarn were shipped
to France and Italy.
The chief products of Spanish industry, exclusive of foods and
beverages, as classified under the industrial tax returns are: Cotton
textiles, industrial machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, machinery,
boilers and metal goods, porcelain, tiles, other ceramics, and glass,
products of carpentry and cabinet, making, woolen textiles, toys,
printed, dyed, bleached, and finislied goods, textiles of mixed fiber.
and silk, soaps and glues, leather goods, yarns of all kinds, hemip and
linen textiles, paper and paper 1ia;ilufactures.
Textile Industries.
Spanish establishml nts comprise lhe cotton, wool, linen, silk, hemp,
dyeing, bleaching,'and associated indul-tries, of which there are about
8,000. The number in Catalonia is early three-quarters of the
whole, more than one-half being located in the Province of Barcelona
and the rest in Gerona, Tarragona, Lerida, and the Balearic TIlands.
These also are the most importannt e;tablillmelnts, contributing 90
per cent of the industrial tax on this branch of industry. The cities
of Barcelona, Sabadell, Tarrasa, and Manresa are the centers of this
manufacture in all its branches.
An indication of the importance of the textile indutlry in the city
of Tarrasa is seen in the fact that between 5,000 and 6,000 tons of
washed wool are worked up in its factories annually. The wool-








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


washing plants can handle from 10,000 to 15,000 tons annually,
whereas before the war the capacity was limited to 5,000 tons. As
an outgrowth of this branch of the industry, a company has been
formed for the sole purpose of utilizing the potash contained in the
residue of water used in wool washing. In the factories of Tarrasa
15 tons of wool can be combed daily, an increase of 5 tons compared
with pre-war capacity, and this increase would have been still greater
except for the lack of certain machinery.
The wool combing of Tarrasa has also developed since the war, ..1
has the manufacture. of blankets, capes, and cloth for the armies
in the field, large orders having been placed kyJ the Governments of
France, Italy, Russia, Greece, and Serbia. An illustration of the
rapid growth of industrial life in Tarrasa is found in the quantity
of wool passing through the conditioning house, which in 1913
amounted to only 3,377 tons, but in 1917 to 12,108 tons. The spindles
employed in wool and worsted number 112,000 and looms 1,500;
there are 215 wool-combing machines, 80 loonms for making woven
woolen garments, 3,000 spindles, and 450 looms for manufacturing
cotton goods. Production amounted in 1916 to ovei 12,000,000
yards of woolen piece goods, 5,000 tons of combed wool, 11,300 tons
of washed wool derived from 2S,500 tons of raw wool, 200 tons of
stockiings, socks, and woven garments of wool, cotton, silk, and arti-
ficial silk, 198 tons of yarn, and 605 tons of cotton piece goods.
Unprecedented Returns from Metallurgical Industries.
The value of the products of Spanish metallurgical industries in
1916 was over $100,000,000, a much greater sum than any thus far
realized in Spain from that source. The increase was due partly to
the growth of metallurgical manufacture and partly to the high
prices paid for the finished products. The value of metallurgical
goods in Spain has more than doubled during the past decade.
Thie output of seminmanufactured iron and steel greatly increased
during 1916, amounting to 71,746 tons (including 398,815 tons
of cast iron), and the prices obtained were far in excess of the
previous year. The value of pig iron, iron and steel sheets, puddled
iroJn, forged iron, and tempered steel at the Spanish blast furnaces
and rolling mills was $23,500,000 in 1916 compared with $16,900,000
in 1915, notwithstanding the fact that about 60.000 tons less of these
manufactures were turned out. The price paid for certain sider-
nrgical products was between three and four times as great as be-
fore the war. On account of the perfection of labor-saving ma-
chinery, the number of employees was reduced from 12,858 in 1915
to 12,571 in 1916, and workmen thus liberated were employed in
the mines. The metallurgical industries of Spain are centered in the
Province of Vizcnay:, where the rolling mills and blast furnaces had
a year of exceptional activity. New mineral and metallurgical en-
terprises numbering 31 came into existence in that Province, one of
which, when fully established, promises 300,000 tons annually.
Steel for National Defense-Attempt to Regulate Prices.
The important establishments in Baracaldo and Sestao devoted
their attention chiefly to the production of steel for national defense.
An electric furnace was installed for the production of a special








SPAIN. *- ". ".


quality of steel. A forge for masses of steel up to 60 tons w~is started
for making cannon and their mountings. At La Felguera, Mieres,
and Moreda steel in lumps, iron and steel in billets and sheets, and
iron in ingots are produced. A fully equipped ammunition factory
is situated at Trubia. At Corrales two furnaces of 8 tons capacity
turned out increased quantities of steel, but the factory at Nueva
Montana had difficulty in filling its contracts, owing to shortage of
coal. Important furnaces are situated at San Pedro de Araya, Vera,
and Malaga.
Early in 1917 an effort was made to regulate the prices of sider-
urgical product. by the appointment of a board to fix the maximum
selling price at the factory. This board was composed of representa-
tives of various lines interested. A comminision appointed by the
Government to study the question rendered a report which resuIlted
in prohibiting the export of cast iron in pigs, steel in lumps and bil-
lets, crude iron in billets, scrap iron and steel, iron and steel rails
bars, plates, and hoops.
Lead, Sulphuric Acid, Cement, and Coke.
The lead refineries turned out 147,407 tons of refined lead in 1916,
a decrease compared with 171,472 tons in 1915, although the value
at the plants was approximately $24,000,000 compared with $14,-
000,000 the year before. About half of this lead was reduced in the
Province of Cordoba. This industry is highly developed in Spain.
Important lead works are situated at Penarroya, San Luis, La Tor-
tilla, and La Cruz. The number of laborers employed in the 15
works was 3,580 during 1916, compared with 3,431,. during the pre-
vious year.
A notable increase is seen in the production of sulphuric acid, of
which the annual output has averaged about 20 tons for the past dec-
ade and that iri 1916 amounting to 140,788 tons. Five factories in
the Province of Barcelona, which in 1915 were not productive turned
out 80,000 tons in 1916. In 14 factories, 555,975 tons of briquettes
were produced, the greatest quantities being from Oviedo and Leon.
Of the 536,346 tons of cement produced in 1916, 2s9,959 tons were
natural and 246,387 Portland. The Province of Bareelona leads in
the manufacture of both classes, although large quantities are made
in many parts of the country. The coke produced amounted to
957,679 tons, compared with 623.53, .tons the year before, and was
the maximum for the decade. More than half of the coke wi from
the Province of Vizcaya, where it proceeds from the -.idlrurgical
factories.
Copper, Silver, Salt, and Zinc Works.
The production of semimanufactured copper in 1916 amounted
to 32,SSO tons compared with 34,690 tons in 1915. The 1916 pro-
duction consisted of 17,507 tons of blister copper; 11,-33 of precipitate
of copper; 1,762 tors of ingots; 1.500 of wire; and 878 of copper
shell. The copper obtained at the Rio Tinto works in 1916 decreased
from 17,556 tons in 1915 to 15,803 tons, but the value of the product
at the plant was far in excess of the previous year. The ingots were
produced in the Province of Cordoba, blister and precipitate of
copper at Huelva, the wire in Oviedo, and the shell in Seville. At








22 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Cueva de la Mora copper production increased from 1,502 tons in
1915 to 1,704 tons in 1916. The laborers employed in the copper
works of all Spain increased from 3,586 to 3,849.
Of the 140 tons of silver obtained during 1916, compared with 142
tons during the preceding year, 61 tons were from the Province
of Cordoba, 47 from Murcia, and 24 from Leon. All this silver
came from the argentiferous lead mines. Ordinary salt, 546,989 tons
of which were produced in 1916 against 488,305 in 1915, came chiefly
from the salt gardens in the Provinces of Cadiz, Alicante. the Balearic
Islands, and Ta ragon a.
The two white lead factories of Spain increased their output in
1916 from 2.132 to 2,493 tons. The zinc furnaces produced 8,526
tons of zinc, an increase of some 400 tons over 1915. The 1916 out-
put included 1,715 tons of sheets and 4,913 tons of refined metal
from a factory in Oviedo. The quIantities were practically the same
as in 1915, but the prices paid at the plant totaled less in 1916 than
in 1915.
Hydroelectric Development in Spain.
Utilization of electric current in Spain has increased wonder-
fully during recent. years. In 1908 it was estimated that the hydro-
electric force under exploitation amounted to 80,00 horsepower, and
at the close of 1917 it was approximately 500,000 horsepower. Even
this growth is far from the possible 5,00o0,000 horsepower said to be
capable of development in this country. The 500,000 horsepower of
hydroelectricity now in use is equivalent, to about 2,000,000 tons of
coal and insures a tremendous saving of mineral fuel. During 1917
a hydroelectric enterprise of 15,000 horsepower was commenced in
Asturias and one of 12,000 horsepower in Valencia. The Electra
de Viesgo has under construction in Asturias work which will
eventually yield 18,000 horsepower, and Dos Aguas in Valencia, ca-
pable of producing 60,000 horsepower, is now being worked for the
utilization of 20,000 horsepower.
In the Provinces of Barcelona, Granada, and Pontevedra electric
railways and tramways were constructed and extended. Plans were
submitted for the electrification of a railway from the Asturian coal
fields to central Spain and also for a direct electric line from Madrid
to Valen-ia.
In 1917, the hydroelectric enterprises in Spain numbered 170, of
which 67 are recognized as important in that they produced 800
horsepower or more. These enterprises exploit 361,557 horsepower
out of a potential capacity of 858,434. There were 29 imediumn-sized
establishments of 300 to 500 horsepower exhausting their entire
potential capacity of 14,795 horsepower; and 74 small works of less
than 300 horsepower, each also using its entire potential capacity
of 7,945 horsepower. By including the smaller installation, of which
statistics re lacking, the total horsepower in exploitation would
reach 5000,000.
Capital Invested in Hydroelectric Enterprises.
When hydroelectric works now under construction in Catalonia
are completed, they will attain 700,000 horsepower. The average
rate for this current, in important contracts is $36 a year per horse-
power. The rate per kilowatt hour for motors, tramways, and the








-r-rSPAIN.


like is from $0.0108 to $0.054; and lighting current varies from
$0.108 to $0.216 per kilowatt hour.
Of the 200,000 horsepower employed by the textile industries of
Catalonia, 100,000 horsepower is hydroelectric force. Flour mills
and paper mills have increased their consumption of current.
Although electric application is still susceptible of vast development
in Spain electric illumination seems to have practically reached its
limit, even small towns and villages being lighted by electricity.
New railroads also employ this force, but the older ones can not at
present procure the necessary material for electrification. There is
a wide field in Spain for the sale of electric apparatus because
domestic production can not as yet meet the requirements of the local
market.
Capital invested in hydroelectric enterprises in Spain amounts to
some $:30,0,000000. Most companies work on coipa ratively mall capi-
tal, only six of them being capitalized at more than $4,000,000. Some
of the more important of these companies are foreign. The Spanish
Government, under the provisions of the law for the protection of
industries, affords certain advantages to Spanish companies exploit-
ing hydraulic energy beginning at a minimum of 1,000 horsepower.
Locomotive, Motor, and Machinery Production.
Spain suffered during 1917 from the lack of railroad cars, which
resulted in the tying up of a great mass of freight. A company
formed to build rolling stock drew up a plan for work, by which it
proposed to construct 50 cars the first month, 100 the second, and
150 the third. The Norte de Espariia Railroad ordered 200 car;, the
Asturian 80, and there were many other contracts. The average de-
liveries per month to the different companies during the year at-
tained the number of 243 cars, of which 226 were of 20 tons capacity.
The manufacture e of passenger and freight cars is now of growing
importance. especially at Barcelona, Miravalles, Zaragoza, Beasain,
and Palencia and is sufficient to supply local railroad-.
The really diilicult, task was the construction of locomotives.
Spanil-h railroads col-nidered the formation of a company especially
for this purpose, but finally it wa.s decided to intrust this branch to
the Malq(irista, Terrestre y Maritima of Barcelona, and its capital
was increased by the roads to $3:,00,000. This company c(n.-.tructed
15 locomotives for the Madrid. Zaragoza y Alicante Railro,.i in 1917
and a considerable number for other railroads. This is the first
serious effort in Spain to build locomotives bec: ul ie until now the
prevailing customs duties rendered it cheaper to import them. Be-
tween the years 1900 and 1914 the Madrid. Zaragoza y Alicante Rail-
road bought 36~S locomotives. all German, and the Norte 299, of
which 247 were German and the rest Belgian. Extensive repair shops
have also been formed at Palencia.
In March, 1917, a royal decree established the right of the Gov-
ernment to intervene in factories and workshops where any kind of
railroad material is manufactured or can be manufactured in order
to investigate whether production can be intensified and to dis-
tribute the material turned out to the places most needed.
A number of locomotives were imported during the year from the
United States by the Norte Railroad. These came in parts and were
assembled in the company's shops at Valladolid.








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


The Minister of the Marine organized a contest for the construction
of Diesel motors, ordering 18 motors of a minimum of 400 horsepower
and a maximum of 47 tons for coast-guard vessels; and 36 submarine
motors of 600 to 1,000 horsepower. A Spanish company contracted
to supply them.
Activity in Shipbuilding.
The construction of vessels during 1917 in Spain was not sufficient
to replace the continued losses of Spanish bottoms or to meet the re-
quirements of the nation's commerce. The chief reason for this was
the difficulty encountered in obtaining necessary materials, especially
iron and steel. However, activity in the shipyards was relatively in-
tense. At the close of 1917 tonnage under construction at Bilbao
amounted to 12 vessels, with a total tonnage of 3,600; and 6 vessels,
with a total tonnage of 28,500 were launched during the year. These
figures relate to the three yards of that region. Similar activity
existed in shipbuilding enterprises of other districts. A company at
Tarragona constructed steamers and sailing craft of 1,500 to 10.000
tons. and many others went into dry dock for repair. The shipbuild-
ing establishments of Ferrol, Cartagena, Matagorde, Sestao, and
Carraca were likewise unusually active. A new company was organ-
ized at Reinosa, with 7,000 employees, to contribute war material for
the Navy, and the creation of a shipyard at Vigo was considered. An
important, contract for 2 vessels of 9,600 tons had to be abandoned
owing the impossibility of securing the necessary material.
Development of Maritime Companies-Increased Dividends.
A notable feature in the shipbuilding annals of 1917 was the de-
velopment of maritime companies stimulated by advantages offered
by the Government, the losses occasioned being supported by insur-
ance. The nominal capital of the companies, which in 1916 amounted
to $25,242,(;60, rose in 1917 to $51,609,991; and the paid-in capital
rose from $21,415,320 to $35,932,252. One of the reasons for in-
crease was the formation of a new company with a nominal capital
of $18,000,000 and a paid-in capital of $9.000,000.
The dividends of shipbuilding companies have increased enor-
mously and have permitted in some cases a partial repayment of
money borrowed aside from large sums set aside for reserves. Sev-
eral companies paid during 1917 from the 1916 returns 50 to 200 per
cent in dividends. Their stocks naturally attained proportionally
high quotations. As an illustration of some of the prices paid for
vessels it may be stated that a navigation company of San Sebastian
bought a fleet comprising 8,200 tons at the rate of $225 per ton, and
a Cartagena company paid at the rate of $216 per ton for vessels
purchased.
Cork Industry Declines.
The cork industry in Spain has recently suffered a stage of de-
pression, which during 1917 did not change for the better. Many
proprietors of cork groves are abandoning cultivation, selling their
property or felling the trees. Owing to the coal shortage of the
winter of 1917, cork trees were sacrificed for fuel and brought large
sums.
The depression is largely caused by reduced vintages in leading
wine-making countries of Europe, and wine acquired for the troops








SPAIN.


is sold chiefly in casks and not bottled, thus greatly reducing the
demand for stoppers. The case is the same with bottled wines and
mineral waters. Some important. markets for corks are completely
closed, and the demand in the United States does not replace them.
The cork is manufactured chiefly in Catalonia and under normal
conditions 90 per cent of the products of this industry are exported.
Not only have exports greatly decreased but much difficulty has
been encountered in getting the bark for manipulation. This
is usually brought to Catalonia in boats, and of these there were
fewer available, and freight rates were almost prohibitive.
The export of cork in sheets has not suffered so greatly as have
come of the other products, for, after decreasing during 1915 and
1916, it rose in 1917 to above 4,000 tons, an increase of more than
3,900 tons over the export in 1913, which was due in part to its wider
use in the making of life belts. The export of cork cut into c-ubes
for transformation into stoppers amounted in 1913 to 786 tons, and
in 1917 to 462 tons.. The export of stoppers, which was one of the most
important branches of the industry, fell from 8,370 tons in 1913, to
4,490 tons in 1917, causing a loss to Spanish exporters of some
$4,000,000. On the other hand, cork dust and shavings, which at
one time were regarded as of little or no value, have grown in im-
portance through their use in pressed-cork products. Of dust and
shavings 33,000 tons were exported in 1913 and 36,000 tons in 1917.
Manuifactu rers, however, complain that such export damages the
industry as Spanish laborers are thus deprived of the profits of its
last manipulation. The United States, as the greatest market for
the cork dust and shavings purchased 18,952 metric tons in 1917.
The manufacture of cork in various forms has been developed un-
der the pressure of circumstances for a number of new uses, such as
insoles, washers, life preservers, hat linings, paper, insulators, and
quite recently cork wool for mattresses. Exports of cork to the
United States in other forms as given in the export statistics rose
from 298 tons in 1913 to 2,348 tons in 1917. The increase was in
cork disks, which partially offset the great decline in the export
of stoppers.
Mining and Mineral Products.
The impetus given to Spanish mining by conditions traceable to
the war resulted in increasing the quantity and value of minerals pro-
duced in 1916. The value of ores at the pit amounted to $6S,914,033,
compared with $45,721,829 in 1915, and the value of metals and
mineral products from the smelting works amounted to $104.2-5.441S
compared with $66,887,533 in 1915, a gain of $23,192,204 in the value
of ores at the pit and $37,370,915 at the smelting works. The total
value of Spanish mining products in 1916 amounted to $173,172,488,
an increase of $60,563,126 compared with $112,609,362 in 1615 and
nearly double the output of 10 years ago.
In 1916 the number of mining concessions was 2,531, an increase of
328 over 1915, while there were 17,789 laborers more than in 1915.
The factories and salt works engaged in mining indnltries numbered
403, or 47 more than the year before. To those already in use at the
mines were added 675 machines, bringing the number to 2,163 with a
consequent increase to 97,191 horsepower, a gain of 3,799 horsepower.
While the machines in the smelting works decreased from 1,559 to








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


1,481, the smaller machines were replaced by larger ones, bringing up
the force supplied to 135.228 horsepower. The number of minor
accidents to employees was 20,517, an increase of 3,801 over the pre-
vious year; serious injuries amounted to 431, or 99 more than the
year before; and deaths 251, or S more than the previous year. The
increase in accidents and dea ths is attributed partly to the greater
number of miners empllo'yed and partly to the fact that many were
unaccustomed to blasting powder and did not understand its use.
Output of Principal Minerals.
Among the most important. Spanish minerals are the following.
witli anlmonts (in metric tons) produced in 1915 and 1916:

Minerals. 1913 1916 Minerals. 1915 1916

Tons.. Tonw. Tnns. Tons.
Iron ................. 5,17,.1,39 5,856,861 Zinc..................... 1,922 1 ,053
'oal .................... 41. ,9 4 75 Sulplur.................. 2,937 46,923
Copper a .. ................ 1, 4'9, 419 1,773,921 Qtiicl.silcr.............. ...... 2.717 19,799
Irun p rites .............. 730,568 9.'3. fi73 M -aiane.i:................. 14,3-8 11, 17
Common salt b............. 793,340 F'5. 3S Silver-bearing lead ....... 2,3.1 7,371
LiL it..... ..... .... 3 :,213 47., 1O Ocher..................... 1,500 aNI
Li..2 ................... 285,266 2:,i ,2.3 Silver.............. ...... 21U 275
Anthracite................ 222,621 : 268,087
a Includes copper ore and ferro-cuproous pyrites. b Includes rock salt and products of salt wurks.
The total area of the iiining concessions in 1917 was 2.208,634
acres, of which 1,523,732 acres were unproductive and 684.902 acre-
productive. The most extensive productive concessions were in the
Province ef Ciudad Real, covering 489,107 acres; those of Oviedo
had a superficial area of 95,7SS acre,; Leon, 18,19(' acres; and Pa-
lencia, 17,240 acres. The area of the productive and unproductive
iron-mining concessions is greater than that of any other mineral
in Spain, with tl.hat of quicksilver, coal, lead, lignite, and copper
mines following. Of the productive concessions in 191 quicksilver
mines covered 485,6')90 acres, coal mineq 126,784 tzires, iron mines
20,418 acres, lead 14,.826 acres, lignite 8,036 acre-s, and copper 7,806
acres.
Profitable Iron Deposits-Loss of German Market.
Iron ore is the leading mineral product of Spain and secondd only
to coal in value at the pit. Nearly half the ore mined in Spain dur-
inlg 1916 originated in the Province of Vizeayn, which yielded
2,815,974 tons, the Province of Almeria contributing 854,373 tons,
and 15 other Provinces adding, in greater or less amounts, to the
total, which, although slightly in excess of the yield of 19)15. was
still far below the average annual output for the decade. Although
the total amount of iron ore mined in 1916 increased by only 239.022
tons over the previous year, tle value at the pit showed an increase
of 0O per cent. The total number of laborers employed during 1916
was 23,764, an increase of 4,439 over the year before.
The inimpo-sibility of exporting iron ore to Germany, which coun-
try formerly received over a million tons, particularly affected the
Province of Vizeaya, where there are 93 iron mines. One important
company, which ordinarily ships about 300,000 tons of washed min-
eral to Krupp's annually, closed its works completely on account of
the blockade, but, on the other hand, new furnaces were installed








- SPAIN.


in the Province and production increased to meet orders from Eng-
land.
In the Province of Murcia are valuable iron depo.-its, froim which
more than 200,000 tons of magnetic iron were formerly exported
annually to German foundries, but in spite of the loss of this mairk(et
and the consequent paralysis of work in some parts, the output in
1916 was still satisfactory. The existence of very ,ncvient mints in
the Mazarron district which had been albandoned, after extensive
working about 17 centuries ago, leaving large qui:ntiti,'- of ore al-
ready mined, led to the formation of a company to i-vive the enter-
prise. However, after he;ivy expense in prel1iinairy operations, the
company disc otiiiiied its efforts, not having realized the economic
ldv \ant ages anticipated.
The iron-nimniing sittllctiJeon created by the war has brought out the
necessity of blast furnaces to enable the country to profit more di-
rectly from the rich ore beds along the northern and southern coasts.
This ore is now laLrgely exported and the domestic net ds of the
country suffer. The iron pyrites iiined during 1916, chiefly in the
Province of Huelva, showed an increase ,f 223.110 tEn- compamreL
with the previous year, owing in large measure to the de m idl for
this mineral in England for the niianufieicture of explosives.
Coal Mining.
As the nation has been forced to rely in large nieasure on domestic
fuel, coal mining has been encouraged in every way possible, with the
result that 5,973,300 metric tons of coal of all kinds were mined in
1917, an increase of 1.12.',S25 tons over the official figures given for
.1916. In 1917 the production of soft coal amounted to 5,025,600
tons, lignite to (;:3 3,S00 tons, and anthracite to 310,900 tons.
In many cases the production was checked by the impossibility of
transportation, owing to the lack of coal cars on the railroads. It is
said that near many of the mines there were tlhiiiisands of tons of
coal ready for sale, but that there were no means by which it could
be carried away. Mining was palralyzed in some parts also on ac-
count of insiufftient space in which to store coal accumulated.
There are recently discovered indications of carbonifelrous de-
posits in the Province of Cordoba estimated at over 13,000,000 tons.
Some of these deposits are said to be accessible and capable of ready
exploitation. The present production is of slight importance in
comparison with its possibilities. The great mines of the Com-
paniia de Peirarroya are well equipped for operating on a large scale.
Over two-thirds of the anthracite mined in Spain comes from the
Province of Cordoba.
Causes Contributing to Increased Production.
It is generally admitted that the fuel problem for Spain cin not
be solved in one or two years, but that much time must pas- before
the rich carl)oniferous resources of the country can be miiade freely
available and distributed throughout the kingdom. In 1916 there
were 877 coal-mining concessions producing soft coal; 62 lignite; and
20 anthracite. The soft-coal mines employed 37.926 laborers; lignite
mines 3,300; and anthracite mines, 1,913 during 1916, which was
10,160 more hands than engaged in coal mining in 1915. The rich
coal fields of Oviedo yield over half the supply.








28 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

That the increase in production during 1916 was due more to in-
tensive working of established mines than to the exploitation of new
areas was principally on account of the difficulty of installing new
mining machinery and getting the actual work of mining under way.
The favorable results attained are partly due to the social institu-
tions organized and perfected for the miners which had the effect of
attracting labor to the mining districts to remain definitely, thus
counteracting emigration from Asturias, which is already reducing
the population of that part of the country. Another element in
bringing about the increased production was the generalization of
mechanical transportation in the interior of the mines, an important
factor, owing to the great extension of the galleries. Several new
mines were opened which will in time, it is hoped, add materially to
the total annual output.
The most notable increase, in proportion to the extension of the
coal beds exploited, was at the mine of Puertollano in the Province
of Ciudad Real, which nearly doubled its output in 1915. This work
is facilitated by the horizontal position of the veins at slight depth.
New shafts were opened and machinery was installed for mining
coal and for the production of benzol and sulphate of ammonia.
Preparations were made for an annual production of a million tons
of coal if sufficient labor and means of transportation could be se-
cured. At present the work is closed for several days each month
so as not to overcharge the coal depots and cause unnecessary fire
risks. The principal mines of the Province of Seville, which are
situated at Villanueva and belong to the Compafiia de Ferrocarriles
de Mediodia, continued to produce normally as for several years
past.
Deposits in Many Provinces.
In the Province of Oviedo the production of 1910 showed an in-
crease of nearly 200,000 tons.
The Province of Leon did not increa,:e its output to any appreciable
extent, because the railroad from Robla to Valmaseda is incapable
of transporting more than 400,000 tons annually, and thus important
mines, such as the Sabero, could not profitably force the production
beyond that amount.
The same was the case with the rich mines of Villablino. whence
the mineral was carted to Ponferrada at an expense of $8 per ton.
The coal mines of Palencia are located around Barruelo and Orbo,
the first being the more important and belonging to the Conmpaliia
de los Ferrocarriles del Norte, which uses the output on its own road.
In this Province there are anthracite mine-, some of whici have long
been neglected, but preparations have now been made to work them
extensively.
Although the Province of Logrono produces at present very little
coal, it po:.-ses beds, which despite their irregularity are capable
of profitable exploitation, mining having already been begun with
promising results. A railroad will soon be built to carry the coal
from the mine at Prejano to Calahorra, but in the meantime it is
being hauled in mule carts or carried by pack animals. Some of the
outcropping strata have never been scientifically mined; but for
several centuries the coal has been broken off, when needed, by the
people of the immediate neighborhood. Now, however, the high price








SSPAIN.. -.- ;'


paid for coal has attracted capital to that locality, and work has
been undertaken both on the surface and underground.
Increase in Output of Lignite.
The production of lignite shows a decided increase, and its ex-
tended use is an interesting development of the fuel question. The
lignite mines of Utrillas in the Province of Teruel are the nmot im-
portant in Spain and from that Province one-third of the entire sup-
ply is drawn. The Compafiia Minas y Ferrt:c:arril de Utrillas is the
greatest operator in that section and obtained quantities of lignite
for its own use as well as for sale. At present this company can not
greatly increase its output,-but it has ordered two engines in Phila-
delphia, which, when delivered, will facilitate the distribution of as
much as 200,000 tons a year. The delivery of these engines has been
retarded by the entry of the United States into the war.
A line connecting Utrillas with Zaragoza would be of great. ad-
vantage to the mining company, as this would unable e it to send lignite
to Barcelona and Zaragoza. At Figols in the Province of Barcelona
are lignite mines producing 100,000 ton. annually. The Balearic
Islands more than doublled their production of lignite coinmpared with
the previous year, although intensive work in the mines did not
begin until July. Mines that had been abandoned becctause of the
limited demand for this product were again worked to supply fuel
for local industries, remunerative prices being paid. In the Province
of Santander the lignite mines yielded three times as much in 1916
as in 1915.
Exploitation of Coal Industry to Continue.
The progress in Spanish coal mining is indeed all that, could be
expected, but the supply does not yet meet the ind(lutria! demands of
the country. It is natural thlt the increase should continue unless
labor should fail, because the mining companies are now suppliedd
with machinery. To encourage mining throughout Spain. the Gov-
ernment. authorized an organization called the National Council of
Coal Miners, the principal objects of which are to group small con-
cessions, investigate new field, secure mining machinery, build rail-
roads, depots, and freight yards, and by concerted action increase the
production of coal. Syndicates of mining companies are formed in
different localities having the right to representation in the national
council )based on the quantity of coal produced. The Government
grants this organization aid by constructing -uch railroads as may
be necessary for the development of coal fields and by advancing
funds in the form of loans to groups of mine owners.
Taking into consideration the preparations that have been made in
Asturias. Leon, and Ciudad Real for greater mining efficiency, it is
hoped that, with an increase in labor at the mines and the encourage-
ment given by the Government, the output in the future may be still
further augmented.
Production of Copper.
The 1,773,92-2 tons of copper mined in Spain in 1916 consisted of
251S80 tons of copper ore and 1,748,742 tons of ferro-cuprous pyrites,
an increase over the past two years, although still considerably below
the annual yield from 1907 to 1914, which averaged more than 3,000,-







SUPPLEMENT TO, COMMERCE REPORTS.


000 tons. The number of laborers employed in the copper mines dur-
ing 1916 was 12,877, about 4,000 less than the year before, the de-
crease being entirely at Huelva mines.
There were 81 productive mines with an area of 7,806 acres, and
g"22 unproductive with an area of 40,734 acres. In the Province of
Huelva where the Rio Tinto Mines are situated, 1,657,348 tons of
ferro-cuproius pyrites were produced. The mines of Huelva yielded
only 2,898 tons of copper ore, whereas 21,407 tons came from the
Province of Cordoba. The production of ferro-cuprous pyrites in
the Province of Seville decreased compared with 1915 from 101,786
tons to 91,091 tons. The term copper ore is applied to ore having
more than 4 per cent of copper, and mineralogically is the chalcopy-
rite mixed with pyrites of iron in most cases. Under ferro-cuprous
pyrites are included pyrites of copper mixed with iron pyrites con-
taining from 1 to 4 per cent of copper.
The prices paid for copper ore and ferro-cuprous pyrites during
1916 were abnormally high owing to the need of copper and sul-
phuric acid for explosives, of which England, in particular, ac-
quired great quantities.
Lead and Silver Mines.
During 1916 there were 328 productive, lead mines employing 25,-
072 laborers, an increase of 16 mines and 639 laborers compared with
the previous year, but the production decreased in all of the princi-
pal lead-yielding Provinces, such as Jaen, Murcia, Cordoba, and
Ciudad Real. In contra-t to this the Province of Almeria moral
than doubled its output of lead, and that of Granada showed a slight
increase. Although the quantity mined was less than the year be-
fore, prices were such that the value of the ores at the pit amounted
to considerably more than in 1915.
The production of silver-bearing lead ore during 1916 was more
than double that of 1915 and much greater than during any year for
the past decade. Of the 22 mines that were productive, 21 were in
the Province of Almeria, where 6,771 tons were. mined. Although
only one silver mine was worked in 1916, that in the Province of
Guadalajara, the yield was considerably in excess of the year before.
That wa-, however, only a small record for silver production com-
pared with the output of the ancient Iberian mines.
Quicksilver, Antimony, and Other Minerals.
Spain's production of cinnabar in 1916 was more than 900 tons less
than in the previous year, owing to a decrease of over 1,500 tons in
the production at the mines of Granada. This was partly compen-
sated for by an increase.at Almaden of 570 tons and the slight
inicrenIe of 85 tons at Oviedo. The number of quicksilver mines in-
creased from 17 to 22, and the number'of persons employed from
1.334 to 1,:3. .
The seven antimony mines of the Provinces of Ciudad Real,
Huelva, Leon, and Lugo yielded 515 tons.of that mineral in 1916,
in comparison with 300 tons the year before. There were 387 tons
from the Province of Lugo alone, where mines near Caurel produced
more than double the quantity obtained the previous year. Prices
realized for this metal encouraged the introduction of new machin-
ery, and preparations were made for extensive exploitation.








SPAIN.


From 10 mines, the largest of which is in Albacete, 46,923 tons of
sulphur were extracted in 1916, compared with 6 mines and 28,937
tons during the previous year. The laborers employed, however, de-
creased from 793 to 699 in 1916. The important sulphur deposits in
the district of Hellin yielded 35,000 tons, which is the normal annual
production for the mines of that region.
The production of 10,507 tons of barium sulphate in 1916 was about
two and half times as much as that of 1915. The two mall mines of
Gerona yielded the greater part of the mineral, but some also came
from mines in Almerin and Navarre, which were unproductive in
1915. The output has steadily increased during the past decade.
Of the foui small mines which ini1915 produced 102 tons of tin ore,
only two were worked in 1916, with a yield of 86 tons. Although
there was an increase from 13 to 19 mines, where wolfram was
obtained the quantity decreased from 511 to 455 tons. The wolfram
deposits of Zamorn, which previously contributed over half the total
production, were apparently very rich in this mineral for the first
few feet below the surface, but, although the veins are perfectly
regular, extensive zones are encountered of complete sterility, mak-
ing the future of the mines uncertain.
Gold Mining Revived-Prospecting for Platinum.
In 1909, 13 tons of gold ore were mined in Spain, but since then
gold has not figured in the mineral statistics until 1916, when 376
tons of auriferous quartz were extracted from one mine in the
Province of Almeria. Alluvial gold was discovered in 1917 in the
Province of Huelva along the left bank of the Tinto River, where
the formation of the country is said to be like that of certain locali-
ties in California. Stones have been found rich in gold visible to the
naked eye, and in the bed of one of the stream.- tIra\erring this dis-
trict, there are evidences of gold-yielding deposits. Preparations are
being made to resume work on a mine in the Province of CO'ruina,
which was abandoned by the exploiting company on account. of the
small quantity of the metal obtained.
In the district of Ronda in the Province of Mal:Lga, where platinum
deposits were di-covered a few years ago, prospecting is being carried
on by the Spanish Government. The right of search re-ervel by the
State for two years was extended for a further period of two yvers
by a royal decree published November 16. 1917. The State is thus
enabled to pursue investigations for platinum and ol!',r miniiii:;l! use-
ful in national defense. The object of the investigations is to ascer-
tain the industrial value of the platinum, chrome, and nickel sup-
posed to exist in that zone. In the investtinoti,,s: for pl:tilinimi 78
pits have been sunk on the Verde River and 10!) on the iGuadaira.
Along both rivers much platinum has been encountered at a depth
not. exceeding 90 feet below the surface. Ten chrome beds have been
found, and the prospect of deposits of nmgicetite, chrome iron, and
nickel is reported to be favorable.
Petroleum and Potash.
There are many indications that petroleum may be produced in
various parts of Spain, and at certain points in Aragonl. Navarre,
Teruel, Alicante, Castellon and Mnlaga .-n lte ha- been found contain-
ing volatile matter. In the Levante and in Vizcava, works have been








32 SUPPLEMENT TO. COMMERCE REPORTS.

installed for treating this slate and extracting the oil, which is said
to have greater caloric potentiality than coal oil.
Work was begun on the rich potash beds of Catalonia, which have
been reserved by the Government since October 1, 1914. A small
railroad was built and machinery was installed for a well-known
Belgian company to work the fields and market the potash on a com-
rnercial basis.
Leading Crops.
According to statistics published by the Ministry of Public Instruc-
rion, there were at the beginning of 1917, 124,837,000 acres of land in
Spain under cultivation, of which 32,699,000 acres were productive
and 92,138,000 acres unproductive. The greatest area is devoted to
wheat and other cereal crops, followed by olives, grapes, vegetables,
industrial plants, fields and mIeadows, tubers, and fruit trees, bushes,
and the like.
The volume of the leading crops in 1916 and 1917 is given in metric
tons in the following table:
Product. 1916 1917 Product. 1916 1917

Tons. Toens. Tons. Tons.
Wheat ................... 4,145,72 3, 883,002 Corn..................... 727,547 746,023
rapes .............. .... 3,958,151 4,01;9,314 Beans................... 401,566 207,209
Olis ................... 1, 146, )99 2,207,7() Ric ..................... 241,708 236,700
Barley ................. 1, 1,242 1,697. 24 Chick-peas................ 130,512 124,385
Oats..................... 466, 85, 479, 77 Peas...................... 30,487 34,968
Rye ..................... 731, lu0 611,7N)

Viniculture Successful During 1917.
In 1917, 4,069,314 metric tons of grapes were gathered, compared
with 3,958,151 tons in 1916. In this production the region of New
Castile stands first, with 1,284,569 tons, followed by Catalonia with
1,030,813 tons. During the past five years Catalonia has contributed
the greatest quantity of grapes except in 1915, which was a disas-
trous year for the vineyards of the. whole country, especially for
those of northeastern Spain. The total area devoted to vineyards in
1917 was 3,198,351 acres, compared with 3,173,104 acres in 1916 and
3,080,218 acres in 1915.
In some parts of southern Spain where large interests are centered
in the exportation of fresh grapes, there was considerable suffering
from lac.k of shipping facilities. To alleviate this situation the
Government appropriated funds to be loaned without interest and re-
payable in installments.' The raisin business suffered through les-
sened export, only nb)out half the quantity of 1916 being shipped in
1917.
Export of Wine Important.
Of the total grappa yield 3,856,691 tons were uied for wine making
in 1917, compared with 3,721,438 tons in 1916; and the amount of
must produced in 1917 was 627,737,238 gallons, compared with
618,054,062 gallons in 1916. The vintage of 1917 added materially
to the commerciall prosperity of the country, as the value of exported
wine of all classes compri.ed one-seventh of Spain's total exports
and amounted to $33,777,849. This is far above the average value of
the wine exports, which in 1916 anlounted to $27,700,000, in 1915







SPAIN.


to $11,000000, and in 1914 to $15,000,000. Red wine is the prin-
cipal article of this export, its value in 1917 being $25,265,388, of
which $22,885,380 worth was shipped to France.
The export of fine wines decreased as belligerent nations dimin-
ished their purchases of luxuries. However, Malaga wines were
largely bought for the use of the sick, France having imported
$2,947,120 worth in 1917 as against $894,240 worth in 1916. This
increase compensated for lec-ened exports to England and Italy.
The export in bottles was slight.
Toward the close of the year France placed certain restrictions
on the importation of wines. These measures, which were particularly
grave for the wine makers of Spain, created export and import
complications that are not yet settled.
Spain imports comparatively little wine, as is natural, such im-
ports being chiefly confined to champagne and fine bottled -vines.
These increased, however, as a result of the commercial prosperity
of the country, from $197.015 worth in 1915 to $246,350 in 1916 iand
$292,986 in 1917.
Though the 1917 exports of alcohol were about the same as in 1916,
liquors decreased from $2,322,944 in 191G to $1,273,158 in 1917, not
only on account of the reductions in purchases of luxuries by bI'lliger-
ents, but also because of legislation against alcoholic beverages.
Increased Production of Olives and Olive Oil.
The total area devoted to olive culture in 1917 was 3,717,058 acre'.
from which 2,207,700 tons of olives were gathered. This was nearly
double the production in 1916, which amounted to 1.11 .S7 tons and
was the greatest yield of the past five years. Of this amount
2,149,914 tons went to the presses in 1917, and the oil extracted
amounted to 427,83s tons, in contrast to 1,110.153 ton,; pressed in
1916, with 207,115 tons of oil. This increase was greatest in Anla-
lusia, where the olives gathered amounted to over 1,415,00)r ton-., while
in 1916 that district produced 616,730 tons. The crop in Catalonia
increased from 182,067 ton, in 1916 to 247,784 tonr in 1917. It is
interesting to note that the crop i. usually greater every other year.
In 1915, 1,772,S87 tons were gathered, but the 1917 crop far surp,-ed
precedents of recent. years.
Olive oil is employed generally throughout Spain in cokig pirac-
tically to the exclusion of other oils and fats, and it, price is an im-
portant item in domestic economy. Early in June 1, 1917, t retail
merchants began raising the price of this commodity until it finally
doubled. This rise was generally attributed to incrte'ased export.
Shipments had risen from 14,881 tons in 1914 to ti7.J]3 tons in 1915
and 88,852 tons in 1916, and those in 1917 promised to exceed -all pre-
vious years. This was regarded as the more alarmingi in tli.t the
oil yield of 1916 had been smaller than the year before. Acrnilingly
on July 5, 1917, a royal order prohibited the export of olive oil from
Spain and the Balearic Islands until Novenmb.r 15, :exCVl )tiing for 20
days such shipments as had been invoiced at the pi.'!c of origin before
and including the day of the publication of the order. An exemp-
tion was also made for fine oils exported in bottle', or tins munt er labels
or brands registered before the publication of the order, in case such
shipments were accompanied by a certificate visded by an agronomical







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


chief of the Province of origin showing that the acidity of the oil to
be exported a., fine oils tlid not exceed 10.
The provlisonl to pernlit the export of fine oils only in bottles and
ins w\is s.ub:seqluently modified, authorizing its shipment in barrels
and c;Hk,, s well. T'iis was a concession made in part to the coopers
who cl-liin.d tlht tihe former ruling would seriously injure their busi-
ne--, bnca-e nimany wooden containers had been ordered, especially
for the export of fine oils to America. The olive-oil exporters sup-
.i:; te. tlh.' ca-ius of the coopers on the ground of the scarcity of tin
plate in Spain. The regulation that the brands be registered before
J1uly wai also modified, and a provision was made for the export
of fine oil commercially known before that date. These modifications
resulted in altering the export trade rather than in reducing it, and
the total exports in 1917 amounted to 81,570 metric tons, a decrease of
only 7.'-8S tons compared with the previous year. At the close of the
year tle embargo had not been removed.
Supply of Wheat Limited.
T he acreage sown in wheat in 1917 was 10,330,961, an increase com-
p;red with 10,172,872 in 1916, and 10,036,800 in 1915. Of the area
,w in in 1917, 9,705,480 acres were dry soil and the remainder irri-
g ted. The total quantity of wheat raised was 3,883,002 metric tons
in 1:I17, compared with 4,145,752 tons in 1916, and 3,791,102 tons in
1915. Tlji. decrease in the yield, despite the increased area devoted
to its cultivation, was chiefly due to reduced crops in the great wheat
t.iel of New and Old Castile resulting from unfavorable climatic
conditions. The wheat crop of Catalonia, the Levante, E.tremadura,
\V-congIdai, and Aragon was greater in 1917 than in 1916.
In addition to the domestic wheat crop of 1916, Spain was able
with some diflifculty to import 314,906 tons of wheat from abroad,
:'35,708 tons coinig from the United States; but shortly after enter-
i..g i~1 vr;;r the United States limited the export to neutrals. Wheat
wa-, then brought from South America, but the total quantity im-
ported in 1917 fell to 50,570 tolls. This brought the. supply of the
country in 1l17 down to 3,933,572 tons, as against 4,460,658 tons in
1916, a decrease of 527,086 tons.
Vigorous measures were taken by the Government to solve the
whelat qI.lestion. The central provisions board took an inventory early
in tle yvar of the whliet supply, and its investigations showed that on
January 27, 1917, there were 1,700,000 tons of wheat and 100,000 tons
of fl(oir available. Tle 100,000 tons of flour were taken to represent
lzSirio0 ons of wheat, bringing the stock up to 1,825,000 tons. This
c(uanltily was thought sufficient to supply the country's needs through
July, wAlien tile new crop would be available. However, inasmuch as
Spain lduiiiii the last 20 years has imported an average of 234,000
tonm.- of whlvt annually, the acquisition of 200,000 tons from abroad
wa,- authorized to avoid the risk of a shortage. Special freight rates
-were arraitng d both for import and distribution of wheat, hoarding
Vwas prohibited, and efforts were made to keep down prices.
Yields of Barley, Oats, Bye, and Corn.
The area so\wn in barley in 1917 was 4.006,458 acres, 3,782,735 acres
of which were unirrigated, against 3,886,026 acres in 1916. The total
amount of barley raised in 1917 was 1,697,324 tons, a decrease com-








SPAIN.


pared with the barley crop of 1916, whl0ich1 amuounted to 1.89'1,242
tons. The regions producing the largest quantiti'-es wvtr New Castile,
Old Castile, Aragon, and the Levante.
Oats were sown in 1916 ol 1,308.3tj66 ares, compared with
1,397,938 acres the year before. The land \wa chiefly in dry districts,
only 18,303 acres being irrigated. The total amount of oats raised
was 479,877 tons, compared with 466,855 tons in 1916.
Of 1,804,542 acres devoted to the cultivation of rye in 1917, only
934 acres were irrigated; the acreage in 1916 was 1,S45.711. The crop
of 1917 amounted to 614,790 tons, compared with 731.100 tons in
1916. The leading districts in this production were Leon and Galicia,
which together yielded more than half the crop.
Corn was sown in 1917 on 1,175.447 acres, as against 1.154,416 acres
in 1916. .Of this acreage, 922,587 were dry land and the remainder
irrigated. The corn crop of 1917 was greater than during the pre-
vious two years, amounting to 746,023 tons. Imports of corn fell
from 206,621 ton-s in 1915 and 108,056 tons in 1916 to 55,357 tons in
1917.
Rice and Vegetable Crops.
The rice fields of Spain under cultivation in 1917 covered 105.655
acres and yielded 236,700 metric tons of rice, an increase in acreage
compared with 100,393 acres in 1916, but a decrease in production
compared with 241,70S tons harvested during that year. The fields
of Valencia and Tarragona supplied most of the crop. Owing to
export restrictions, rice exports in 1917 amounted to only 331 tons,
compared with 3,30 1 tons the year before.
In 1917 there were 8.495 acres devoted to the cultivation of canary
seed, Sielding 3,033 tons of seed as against 9,108 acres and 3.237 tons
in 19Y1. Sorghum was cultivated on 3.768 acres with ; crop of
1,134 tons, against 3,933 acres and a crop of 1,225 tons in 1916. The
yield of millet w:s 2.201 tons from 5,350 acres, a decrease compared
with the year before.
During the year 520,316 acres were devoted to chick-peas, and
124,385 tons were harvested, compared with 501,708 acres and 130,512
tons in 1916. Andalusia and New Castile led in this production.
Horse beans were grown on 519.567 acres, yielding 211.401 tons in
1917, against 496,3$)6 acres and 206.077 tons in 1916.
Decreastd Exports of PrTits and Nuts.
Abont 901,915 acres in Spain are devoted to the ciiltivation of
fruit and not trees, and the value of the products aUnount:ed to about
$47,000,000. In 1916 the total yield was 2,375,713 tons. Thesecrops,
consisting chiefly of oranges, lemons, and almonds are gre.itier than
are required for domestic consumption and form important itemn of
export.. Naturally the shipping difficulties of 1917 greatly dc(:rei ied
the profits of fruit and nut growers in Spain. The experts of
oranges fell from 382,730 in 1916 to 246,303 tons in 1;17. lemons
from 7,105 tons in 1916 to 4,253 tons in 1017; almonds from: 90,72
tons in 1916 to 9,068 tons in 1917; whereas., compared wiih ship-
ments abroad in 1916, filberts increased from 5,302J to 7.0:'.'3 tons.
and walnuts from 1,629 to 1,890 tons.
These figures show the influence of the war on this branch of
Spanish agricultural and commercial life but (do not indicate an'v







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


permanent condition. The result brought about certain incidental
ad,!:antages; for instance, better oranges were offered on tht Spanish
market bec:ine-o of the inability of exporters :o ship to foreign
market-; T'Ile bananas of the Canary Islands are usually so largely
exported to England that very few remain for the Peninsula, but dur-
ingI the )past two years bananas in Spain were abundant and of ex-
c(llentt q(jimlity. In order to use the surplus from the Canaries the
new inlii.-try of making banana flour is being introduced.
Crops in General Inferior.
Exact statistics as to the yield of oranges, lemons, other fruits,
anl nuts in 1917 are not available, but in general it appears that
s-lihlily inferior crops were gathered. An important feature of
(lie business is the sour orange used for marmalade.. In recent
yoars the entire production has been purchased before ripe by British
firTn. 'This crop was damaged by frosts during 1917 and was from
,(0 to 75 per cent less than normal. Bad weather also had disastrous
elect on the sweet-orange crop in some extensively cultivated dis-
1ricts.
Lemon t:ees suffered from the prolonged cold, and the crop was
-: -:newliat inferior to that of previous years. The fig -rop, although
retarded by the weather, was very satisfactory and the hgs were of
good quality. This was fortunate for shippers, because the w._ Lav-
ing cut off Turkish figs and embargoes having limited the export of
lie Greek aind Italian fruit, Spanish dried figs have been mnch in
demand. The export increased from 10,033 tons in 1916 to 20,111
tons in 1917, whereas before thle war it ranged between 2,000 and
.0.(0R) tons.
lIRports from some districts show that the almond crop of 1917
n:icerially suffered from the extreme cold when the trees were in
bloss-om. The Jordan almond is less hardy than the Valencia almond,
and many valuable trees were injured. The filbert crop was better
ihan usual, but in spite of increased exports, large stocks awaiting
favorable shi pping conditions accumulated.
Lack of Transportation Hampers Fruit Trade.
The scarcity of vessels and irregularity in sailings resulted in the
collection on the wharves of great quantities of fruit. Crates and
boxes were stacked often unprotected in the open air. The perishable
contents were in many instances ruined by rain and sun. The ships
thit called gave preference to full cargoes of more important mer-
chandise. In March the Government took measures to prevent this
]os, and issued an order that ships loading cargo for abroad at Le-
vantine Spanish ports would not be cleared by the authorities unless
they consented to apportion 10 per cent of their cargo space to fresh
fruit. This regulation was only applicable in cases where supplies
of fruit awitting export were consigned to the same destination as
that for which the m-hip was :sailing.
In December a committee composed of members of the chief
orange-growing districts was appointed officially to distribute the
freight space equally, and steps were taken during the season to
move the crop. However, so many crates and carloads of oranges
pcerisled along with other fruit, such as lemons and grapes, that in
December the Government apoproriated $2,160,000 to be used to as-








SPAIN.


sist growers of oranges, lemons, anid grapes; fr exportation il the
Provinces of Alicante, Almeria, Cazteflon. Murcin, and Valencia.
Loans made under the conditions of appropriation Ido not bear inter-
est and are repayable during a period of five years in nnounts (,f one-
fifth each year.
Live-Stock Statistics-Sugar Production.
Live stock in Spain, at present, as stated, in statitic "ubiished by
the Ministry of Public Works, numbers nearly 35,000.00)0 had, classi-
fied as follows: Horses, 699,i51; a"ses, 1,068,182; mul,, 1.,2."l4:
cows, 3,712,00S; sheep, 1S,01,349; goats, 4,4.175.556 hluJ, 4.7.1SS,;
and camels, 4,2GS. Domestic fowls number 20,O2'3.;9-2. These figures
represent an increase over those published in 1915. when the total live
stock amounted to 27,314,812 head. The greatest increa.e was in the
number of sheep raised, which amounted to 2,706,741 more than
in 1915. The Province of Badajoz led in sheep rali.ing, with nearly
1,500,000 head. Mules have increased by "280,000. :as-e by 240.000,
goats by 1,259,000, and hogs by 2,114,000. The Provinces of Corutnna
and Oviedo led in the number of cow-s, Ciudad Real andl Malaga in
the number of goats, and Lugo in the number of hogs.
The approximate area devoted to the cultivation of .-ugair cane in
Spain during 1917 was 4,621 acres, yielding 0E3,763 tons of cane.
There were 146,45G acres devoted to sugar-beet cultivation for the
1917-18 campaign, and by December 31, 1917, the yield was 67-,,792
tons. The price paid for cane at the factories, fluctuated between
$6.30 and $9.00 per ton, while sugar beets brought from $9 to $14.40.
Raw material entering the sugar factories in 1917 amounted to
1,015.279 tons, from which 4..'S4 tons of refined cane sugar and
119,592 tons of refined beet sugar were produced, making a total of
124,176 tons. This production was greater than that of 191i) by
8,371 tons, although considerably less th thnthat of 1912. 191?3. and
1914.
Sugar imports increased durinll. 1917 to 39.17'2 tonil, compared with
18,331 tons imported in 1916 and 43 tons in 1915. Sugar exported in
1917 amounted to 3 tons. in contrast to 2,408 tons in 1916 and 8,'j56
tons in 1915.
Supply and Consumption of Sugar.
In addition to the quantity of domestic sugar which left the refin-
eries 2,230 tons of foreign sugar were put upon the market during
1917 after undergoing further refining in Spanish mills. In order
to determine the actual quantity of sugar consumed in Spain in 1917,
the amount imported should be noted and with it the quantity in the
mills and various warehouses, the entire sugar stock on December 31,
1916, being calculated at 84,662 tons. With the sugar produced and
the sugar imported, the total for 1917 was 248,010 tons. At the close
of the year these stocks amounted to 79.90S tons, making a total con-
sumption of 168,102 tons during the year. The stock on hand at the
close of 1917 was less than that of any year for the past decade.
The glucose produced in Spain during the last 10 years has aver-
aged 1,802 tons annually, but in 1917 only 54- tons were manin-
factured. This reduction was due to lessened import of potato flour,
which is the raw material chiefly employed. There were 50,416 tons







38 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

of molasses produced in 1917, compared with 36,5-20 in 1916. Most9f
the molasses is used by the distilleries.
The wholesale prices of sugar in the markets of Barcelona have
increased during the past five years until in 1917-they averaged on
all classes anl advance of about 50 per cent compared with prices in
1913.
Increased Activity in Canning Factories.
The ldifliculties enecountered in the export of fresh fruits and vege-
tables brought about increased activity in the canning factories. and
results would doubtless have been even more satisfactory but tor a
shortage of tin for containers. Canned goods were consumed in
greater quantities on tile domestic market, although to what extent
i; not shown by statistics. The export of canned goods, comprising
vegetables, fruits, and fish amounted to 30,299 tons in 1915, to 35,370
Ions in 1916, and to 41,244 tons in 1917. The increase was not uni-
fornly distributed, preserved goods having fallen off slightly, while
vegetables such as beans, peas, and tomatoes increased. The export
of canned fish was nearly doubled, having amounted in 1916 to 6,656
tons and in 1917 to 12,121 tons. Preserved goods of other animal
prodLucts rose from 86 tons in 1916 to 616 tons in 1917, largely as a
result of orders for armies.
Spanish canned fish products are consumed in nearly all foreign
countries. Italy has usually been the principal purchaser, followed
by Cuba and France. Much of the goods is packed in tins bearing
non-Spani.sh inscriptions, and, though generally shipped abroad, is
occasionally offered to the Spanish consumer. There are also tins
especially adapted to exportation, which are inexpensive and bear no
inscription. These plain boxes are enveloped in transparent paper
on which tlie inscription is printed.
In Galicia, the principal district for canned fish, about 100,000 per-
sons live from the industry. The 270 fish-salting and 108 fish-canning
factories represent, respectively, 3 and G62 per cent of such establish-
ments in Spain.
The shortage of tin reduced the profits in the canned-goods busi-
nes.s in 1917. The price rose to such an extent that. the cost of a can,
formerly insignificant, was of greater value than the contents, par-
ticulairl in the case of vegetables.
Trade with Spanish Colonies.
Outside the Peninsula anil adjacent. islands. Spain has possessions
on the Rio de Oro and Ifni, with an area of 82.764 square miles;
Spalnish Guinea, 10,039 square miles; Islands of Fernandb Po, 800
square miles, and the protectorate in Morocco, 11,583 square miles.
Commerce with these colonies is of importance in that the exports to
them represent approximately three times the value of the imports
from them to Spain. The chief articles of export to the colonies in
1917 were flour, barley, straw and fodder, potatoes, sugar, rice, chick-
peas, wheat, and benns. Imports of cocoa from Fernando Po
amounted in 1916 to 3.804 tons and in 1917 to 3,747 tons, while im-
ports of coffee amounted to 1 ton in 1916 and 9 tons in 1917. The
total value of Spain's exports to North African possessions, Canaries,
Rio de Oro, Fernando Po, and the zone of Spanish influence in
Morocco allmounted ill 1917 to $3,713,220.








SPAIN.


Spanish Zone in North Africa.
The Spanish Government's disbursements in Morocco ;ii:ounttced to
$20 481,622 in 1917 and to $27,000,929 in 1916. The chief item .if the
budget was $18,587,997, expended by the Ministry of War, a cntt .a't
to 1916, when $23,000000 was devoted to the same purpose.
Spanish commerce with Ceuta and Melilla in l191; cu'ered
$230,678 worth of imports into Spain from those port-, and $2,1::..9
worth of exports thither. The exports consisted chiefly of cattic and
grain, while hides formed the bulk of the imports. To Me!illa. 1.170
tons of barley and 2,695 tons of wheat were exported.
The total commerce of Tetuan and Larache, including imort :il
exports, developed at a rate of 15 per cent. Almost all the (o,.i- .,.
of Tetuan was with Spain, having amounted in 1916 to _.l11.18
of the total of $2,741,166. Two-thirds of the colmmeree of Ltrielie
was with Spain and one-third with Great Britain.
A number of new Spanish companies were formed in Morocco dur-
ing 1917, the most important being a sugar refinery at Melilhi. .\
maritime company was also organized to promote traffic between
Spanish and Moroccan ports. The financial organization of the ziiine
was greatly benefited by the creation of a new hank, the Hispazin-
Africano. Its object is to encourage and -tipport agriiiltura l enter-
prises by subventions and loans, to aid in the purchase of seedl. fer-
tilizers, and machinery, and otherwise facilitate the development of
Spanish interests in Morocco.
Trade Between Spain and Morocco Encouraged.
In response to requests from a number of merchants, thl Mlin-
ister of the Treasury by royal order authorized certain priviferces
for the -,tilulatiion of r:onll -ier-ci;.al iiutercour-c I et \\(-w Splain: :via l
the zone of Spanishi e nfri:nce in Morocco. To the prit., aid
manufactures originating in the zone will be applied the iwinltits
already accorded to free ports and African i oss.-esi(n,.. TL-, qiian-
tity of raw wool exportable from Spanish North Africa An-, fixed
at 150 tons annually.
The economical development of the country pi ogire.-*,ed a-s a whole,
although building conditions were unsatisfactory, new oonlitr ltctiuons
rare, and real estate transactions few. On the railroad front (.'uta
to Tetuan 23.61 mile of new road were completed between Rirlc(on
de Medic and Tetuan. The Ceita to Tetuan railroad I t oii;ited
for six engines, of. which four were put into service during 1917.
The Banco de Morocco placed in circulation new bills of 20 p!c~. ,tas
(about $3.60) in order to facilitate small pay)menti. which could
not be negotiated by the then-existing 100-pe.l'ta not'-s. The de-
nomination of the new paper bills is printed in Spa;nii. French,
and Arabic.
Silk culture in Morocco, much neglected in ile pa.-,t, is d-lc've.ling
under the patronage of the Government. During thle la-t h:i!f ''en-
tury it was almost abandoned, because of silkworm diiea,,cs whiich
the natives were unable to combat .uccessfully. In 1911 an educa-
tional campaign in this line was undertaken byl the Adminlistration
del Protectorado. In 1915, there were only 12 'iltivatonir of silk-
worms, but the following year their number had iucica.sed to 30,
and in 1917, 108 persons received silkwormt e-gg. Incubation is




....


40 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS. r

accomplished by means of artificial incubators. Only slight in-
cursions of disease occurred and those were readily controlled.
American Chamber of Commerce for Spain-Free Depots.
A highly important factor in the development of export trade with
the Peninsula is the American Chamber of Commerce for Spain, with
headquarters at Barcelona. This organization, with offices centrally
situf:ted and a growing membership, is doing much to facilitate
cominercial relations between American and Spanish importers and
exporters. Through the efforts of the American Chamber of Corn-
mnerce for Spain, many American exporters have been put in touch
with Spanish buyers, and profitable business has resulted. Spanish
inerciants, on the other hand, wishing to learn of markets for their
goods. have received valuable information that has led to the meeting
of American demands along certain lines. The results of the cordial
business intercourse thus initiated will be more evident when the
numerous impediments to commerce caused by the war are removed.
The establishment of free customs zones in Spain marks an epoch-
making innovation in Spanish commerce. After many years of
d(i-cission by Spanish economists, commercial men, and others inter-
ested, the royal decree of September 22, 1914, accorded to the port of
C'adiz the right to establish a free customs zone. Immediately other
great Spanish ports, particularly Barcelona, petitioned for a similar
privilege, and it was granted Barcelona on October 24, 1916. Fos-
tered by the Department of Commerce and aided by the constant
effort. of consular officers in Spain, the trade of the United States
with Spain has expanded, and every opportunity should now be
taken advantage of by American manufacturers and exporters to
extend their operations by the use of these ports in process of de-
velopnment.
Provisions Governing Free Depots.
Under tlhe provisions governing the establishment of free ports,
th1. governmentt grants the concession to certain local organizations.
Thlt for Barcelona was vested in an association of a group of feder-
ated Ibodies, and in October, 1917, the statutes regulating the work-
ing of the governing body which obtained the concession were ap-
proved. Thus at the close of 1917 all necessary official formalities
for the free port of Barcelona had been complied with, and work on
the actual utilization of the privilege was being pushed rapidly.
Thli. port is to be run on exactly the same lines as that of Cadiz
and each is known officially as a deposit franco, or free depot.
The governing body is empowered to engage in construction work
of all kinds; to contract for the supply of materials; to accept sub-
sidies and raise loans; to issue warrants for the receipt of goods;
and, should it be deemed advisable, to lease one or more of the
branches of the depot. It is also authorized to control the installa-.
tion of the depot; to nake regulations; to approve projects, rules,
and tariffs; and to rent or purchase buildings and machinery. It
also has control of the financial resources and the receipts of dnes
and tariffs. This body is in fact the owner of the free zone under
the tutelage of tiheGovernment and the group of federated bodies
indicated.
There was no legislation enacted as to the deposits francos, mat-
ters having been arranged on the basis of royal decrees granting the








SSPAIN. 41

concessions to the ports and the royal order of October 22, 1914,
fixing the regulations. These regulations stipulate that, within the
free inclosure, all foreign merchandise may be entered such as is now
admitted in the customs precinct at the port, including tbliacco, raw
and manufactured, and all Spanish inerchandise the exportation of
which is not embargoed. These commodities lose their nationality
on entering the entrepot and are to be regarded as if sent abroad.
Merchandise brought into the free zone is not permitted to remain
more than four years, after which period it mii-t be exported or made
available for consumption in Spain.
Advantages of Free Depots.
Operations permitted in the free depot cover change of packing of
merchandise, division of merchandise for retail use, preparation and
roasting of coffee and coco,, shearing of skins, preparation of woods,
washing of wool. and extraction of oil from copra and cleaginous
seeds. In fact, all operations are allowed that increase the value of
the goods entered without essentially changing its chara.-ter.
The Government does not guarantee the continued existence of the
free depots.obut it places the goods .stored there under the safeguard
of the Spanish law and give-t special as urance that the commodities
stored therein shall under no circllnsances be subject to reprisals on
the part of the Spanish Government, not even in the event of war
with countries of which the owners, shippers, or consignors of the
same may be citizens. Laws, regula;tioin, and existing treaties as to
industrial property, trade-marks, patents, and commercial names
wil be applicable and effective in the free depot. Thel. Government
reserves the authority to revoke a con'e:.c.in to any corporation oper-
ating in the zone at the option of the Government.
These free depols are of far-reaching internail(ini l importance,
particularly owing to the geographical situation of Spain. The free
depot of Barcelona has invited American intere-st, Ihrouigh the
American Chamber of Coinmeri'1 for Spain, to rent a part of the zone
for their e.peial ue, put up buildings, and install all the apparatus
needed. An advertising campaign should be generously financed,
care taken in packing, and the tastes of the Sllnish market carefully
considered. The question of credits does not for the movie nt require
the same liberality as heretofore, ,and cnsh against d,-.ulments is now
generally given.
It is stated that the United States received the first invitation of
this kind, and it would donhbtless be of great advantaLe to American
commercial expansion inSpainif a number of nlrge American1 firms
would unite in leasing a section of the space allotted to the deposito
franco of Barcelona. EnIetmy interests are reported to be already
negotiating for a large share of the zone, with a view to post-bellum
trade expansion.
Demand for American Products.
The demands for Am1erican products on this market at present are
unlimited and Ameriean goods of every variety find a really sale.
Statistics show that the United State, ; as the chief ,-' irce of Spain's
supplies as- a whole during 1917, and but for trade restrictions and
lack of Ahipping facilities far greater purchases of American mer-
chandise would have been made. That this advantage was the re-








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


stilt o oflck of competition owning to the war is evident, and American
shipper.)C should bear in mind that those who formerly controlled
much of tlih c.nm:iiercc here will endeavor to regain their old-time
sipreOii fa. A a ine; of r ilil r retaining our resent strong commercial
foot lill ini Spain, the American exporter should prepare ample ad-
verti.inig maIltter in Spanish, giving weights and measures in the
nict.ric system, should (uote tents f. .b. American ports, and send
al.untiiit it samples.
Tariff Legislation.
During 1917 the Spanish Government dictated measure, in relation
to duties which were found nece-esary in order to favor the importa-
tionc of some articles and to restrict or prevent the exportation of
others indispensable to domestic economy. Many articles appear
temporarily on either the list of embargoes, the list of articles sub-
je't to export duties, or the list of articles from which import duties
]have been removed. Tlihse temporary rulings were made by royal
order or decree.
A royal order publlished on February 3 1, p7, provided. that after
March 1, T, 1917, petroleums and other mineral oils of foreign origin
imported into Spain and tlte Balearic Islands, then suitable under
the customs tariff as oils destined for fractional distillation in
Spanish refineries, should he exempt from customs duties on entry
and that a b1ond fur the amount of duty leviable should be required by
the customs from tle inmporters. The process of dis tillation will be
under Government inspection;: and gasoline, and illuminating and
lubricating oils derived will e stored in the refineries under the con-
trol of revenue e officers. Duties will be collected on the oils when
they leave tle refinery.
(IGasol ine in receptacles containing less than 21.42 gallons must be
stamped to show payment (iof duty and place of origin. Shipments
of gasoline, and lubria'iting and illuminating oil, in quantities greater
tli n '21..42 gallons must be accompanied by a certificate as to origin.
()n the expiration of the monopoly for explosives on September
1, 1'.17, a special consumption tax on explosive powders and mix-
ture pr1,)luced in Spain was levied, while on hIo-e imported from
foreign countries andl not specially y designated were levied specific
conuil.-minptio, n taxes independent of tlie import duty.
Declared-Export Returns of Barcelona District.
In the following talle are detailed the quantity and value of the
exports o the Unitcd states for tlhe calelndcar' year l191(6 .nd 1917,
according to invoices certilied at thie Barcelona consulate general:

1'.l6 1917
A,,r:icli' ---
Qu.intiy. Value. Qilaniity. Value.

.A niimonr ', rc idllu1 ..................... p u .. ll, .I 0 5,')5 ............ ............
Anlimln:, Ii...................... ............... i,

A t i p i ....................................... .... ..... 1 .. .... ..... .... ..........
Aitr nir. i l..l.ll.'l ........ ....... 9 .,'., ............. .........
',rin, ... it-",Ir i.........: ................ ,ul ........ ,, 20 1,3o 371
( h, ~t:..;, ,.r.l-,. inJ 1),j['li.-s:
.A ; I;n ,'j o:,d it ......................pornd ..I 9, i ;,7..................... I
Ar l- ................................... dri... 2 3211. 9 ,22 h3 139,499
1 I,. 1.r iJ I..vur cLruJ C................ ldo.... :.,M S 3,1 34, :S. 3,52












SPAIN.


Articles.


Chbemcals, drugs, and medictues-Couniniueid.
Fusel oil....... ........................ do....
(Gentian root........................... do....
Glyeerin, '.*roe ........................ do...
Licorice-
Paste...............................do....
Root...............................do...
Liine tairlrate......................... do ...
Ph:rniaceutical produces, n. e ...............
Pot-sh, eirbohnl t.................... porinl .
Potash, s line ................... .........d. ....
Thyuol ...............................do ....
Cork, and manufactures of:
fork paper................. ................
Disk- for hlrttls ................... r.potII s. .
Tnsulation in sl.ib ......... .............. do....
Shi.LngL .ini'J waste.....................do.
Soles....................................do...
Stoppers ............................. ....
\\ oo1, Luni..ninilaturcdi ................. ..o....
Cotton. and mi manf.icture- oif:
Cl':ih I pi eoi c_.r'IJd s ............. iiquare yjrd 3..
\'WaI.t ........ ....... ......... ..... I, .indJ .
Fiber.,. '.- et-ihle:
Li.i n' li.in kerthiliif (mitrvLiierer l ..............
HnE-np, raw ............................p. .
I up .................... .............
Sacks and bags.....................pounds..
Fruits and nuts:
Oui In:-. ..... ......................number..
Pr'e er ied Irllc....................... : .ii : .
.mun nls-
.Sh lled ..............................do...
UnsiellOd..................... do..do..
Filberts-
Shelled.............................do....
Unshelled..........................do...
GC'l.ia n, niil manufactures of................do...
Glue and glue size.............................do...
iut, andl manufactures of.........................
HidesJa n.) skins:
Goat skis......................... .pi. s .
Se s(.pountmeeds..
Sheep skins...................... oun s
Har''v ire............... .................
H ouse'hr Id i.),,dei t. o Im rrm ira.rir ....................
Leailier. iuLl !inun l ii[ t.i r>.-; 'l
Sole s and pptlrs .li hibuts an1.l shoes..........
T'A:unDL-l. .:l hit.-p ii-i .............................
Other tanned skins........ ...............
Lumber: Frinitti' .lil I' hbbius...................
Mtisical inslrumentii: Strinf- for (gut),.............
O ils., \efie .lblc:
Sllive ................................. .. -all, a ..
Rosemary, lavender, ete.............potmds..
Paints: l.rilopjln ...... ..................do...
Pa.jp r. and manufactures of:
Books in Spanish.............................
Paper stock, fiber waste...............pounds..
Ras............................. ... d....
\ .', 1? 1 .I'-i..- .............. ....... do....
Oiltr r p.xp-l. i .. i ........................ ....
P earl, iniit:r ii n .. .. ..................... .... .
Pepperz, sI s i w i A dl ....... ................... ..
Quiek itltr. ......................... o.....l .

Al i ll. ................................... ...
Anise..................................do...
Cuilu n ................... ..... do ...do...
Smokr in' *I r i l. I.' ir t, paper ................
WVinos"
S ill!, ill i)1 !,-. .............. .. ., n |,Iri t ..


Wool, .in1] inil!mt2(-nurc oif:
SO'I Lt ............................... plllul.
Uli n~rw I'i, ......................... .. .
All other ;rtcelc-. ...... ...... ..............

Total............ .............................


Q Quhntit:,.



151,.24b
83,422
1,502,277

874,538

237,217
..............
405, 944
11,023
161

.... ........
2."0. 13

37,731,355
17,376
147,750


27,079
291,513


Value.


62,583
11,007
522,966

135,693
73,935
34,680
206
60,337
1,215
1,056

137,278
207,551
............
425,935
2,808
122,959


7,588
14,965

28,550


.............. ... .......



868,172 4,727
2,106 171

.ii. 455 4, 434
.'J, 621 .,

72 21
..... .. .. ........
.............. ......... ..

.............. 9,177

968, 151 1 719,593
716,409 ;
l00l2,515 43,880
,:,l, 'l9 i 4' ,SSO
297
........... .. 29733,380
............... 33,380


.............. 6 '17
.............. 2.,721
.............. 24,141
.............. 9,6(10

504,411 594,436
19,953 13,220
174,614 14,073

..... ... 5,584
3,043,320 84,322
4,C.,MS43 205.635
4 i.:'.1 I ni 1
., 1 l, .i41 ";'"., '.
.23, I.
I". 2..1 I2 1

56,215 10,335
21,505 2,736

......... ... 4,422

101 617
12, 000 6,440
464 4,306

14 .074 67,276
S.a,,, 320 14, 4.1
....... .., .

............. 6,818,19
I'


1917


Qii.nni'v. Value.


21.390
2' ",, 2.2.
255,418

761,862
3,400,654
556,359
......
567',638
176,136
10,144


345,99-4
2,767,304
41,781,008
37,862
209,990
1,810,324

II, I


147,946

659, 937
.............
146,582"

18,167
49,240

113,674
142,416
44,092
387,877


691,125
438, 049
3,287,053
1,339,619



..............
..............



1,320,09-1
..............


652,245
623,467
448,288
314,775
..............
..............


i. 344
i1,321

80

s: o
+L ii s


10, 462
4,757
99,034

208,989
371,600


Ii, :5.
i,.,2,,

22,221

21,922
2 494
131,692
568,038
5,901
11,988
17,301

4,423


44,226
20,505
26,479
32,630


10,897

3,649
0,336

!2 ; .' ,

11,274
61,851
11,966

S 923,690

1,651,050
8,782
7,823

13,966
148, 884
11,724
54, 631
4,697

1,869,972


8,592
29,157
10,700
14,034
21,942

122,635
.........

7,582
8, 623
10,1641

419
31,020
2,752

Ilt, 157
114 396
172',105


.............. 8,081,991


_










44 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Exports to Philippine Islands and Porto Rico.

In tho following table is shown the value of the


Philippine I.landsi
cordinxi to invoices


exports to the


and Porto Rico for the years 1916 and 1917 ac-
certified at the Barcelona consulate general:


A rt:l-i's.


7)0 IiI. irriS.: iSL..[NDS.
]1 r'in l .t ffT: ..................
B i t i n., I h-' ................
C.'ia-lh- :, ir w ,x .........
(Cnlemi al, ,drujg-, and medi-
(i ............ ..............
(C'irk, ri,| in riif.ir-t res of.-.
C..iti.nl .mi i .in i ai:l l tur(-_ of.
E.aillr ii;rnr, and lcina
r-.... .....................
F I,-r i \ .','tal i1, and man-
iuil tlur s .f ................
Fil h...... ................
Frnit :'i D l n ...................
I .in,] -. l-- ] m rnuf.irtur n ol"
I '.-rth.-r,. o l niarnuful(itn r or.
MI, i- ':id 'i:iiv product' .....
NM t icinr-pi I ir.. film .i .........
IMuse.al iiLstrumrants a n d
p.irti o! ...................
Oil, oil' .. ..................
PA'p r, antd T.nufctutirs of. .
P i rl-IIn r .'. ......... ........
Sinokinuga r t i c I es: Cigar-
-i.. t r iper ..................
8ilk, ihd maniil.ait urr of.....
S; ir:,e;........................
S I'nrt I ic- ...................
V.L:vr l.Sl....................
N Coul .........................
All other artr cl ..............
Total ...................


SI


90,C71
In, 1 us
2.,103
2.,752
7, 'is
97, ?73
9,077
72,909
2.s,942
1.1, 176
7, 74'
41',311
I., 179
33,378
14.290
2t., r3
114. 751
9,242
41.700
11,V103
I3 .19

2, 7. _
'i3l,-!US
725, 22.3


1917



S9, .4!3
1.3, .1
9, 172
.,3157
9,25
2.3,755
1,705
4in, 3.
26,'U.7
7,. i5
7.276
414,:',2
41, 170
J, Nit

37,51
1 ,2,72-
lil, 4S.7

117, -- %2
9,:'72
7,350
44,-:I 2
0 n,.5.,5
, 761r
21,157
705, .3SS


Declared Exports from Agencies at Palamos and Corunna.

In 1917 exports to the United States, as invoiced at the consular
agency at Palanos, were valued at. $1.458,402, cork disks, the chief
item, making up $1,142,417 of this amount.
Tle declared exports invoiced at the Corunna agency for the
Titited States in 1917 were valued at $13,001, those for the Philip-
pine I-lands at $,2,525, and those for Porto Rico at $15,624.

TARRAGONA AGENCY.

By Consular Agent Caesar Franklin Agostini.

The effects of the war had never been so keenly felt in the Tar-
ragona district as during 1917. January gave promise, indeed, of
an exiceltilonally buiy year, but events proved otherwise. During
that Imionth trade in general showed a remarkable advance over
the cfrre-poindin g period in previous years, but the unrestricted
submliariine campaign Ibrought all foreign trale to a deadlock for
some weeks. Late in February, pourparlers between shipowners
and exporters were initiated with a view to the resumption of the
export trade. The negotiations were dilticult to complete, as ship-
owners demanded enormous increases in rates on account of higher
insurance premiiulms.


Articles. 1916

TO PURTO RICO.
Bre,\d-tuffs:
Biscjite, cal,.-e., etc....... $1, 472
MN.icaroni pate ........... 11,722
M'Ncjroiii coup pr3at .............
Chemicals.d rus and medic inr 2,453
Col Ion, und minufact.lures of:
I;lankcts ani quilts........ 3, S20
Filcr:, \-cotalble, and nm1nu-
facturps of:
Lnccu, mbhroidrries....... ..........
Linen and cotton pkce
goo .: ........ ......... .........
I.gln plice roods........ S, 39
Sacks anld bl1 ,s............. ..........
Shoes, hrmmp.............. 1, 662
Leather, anti nianurf.ctures of:
Iloot and shoes .......... 10,259
Mrat Sjiisa: ............... 6171
Motion-picture films.......... 11,264
1)h, olive ..................... 32,144
Paprr, nndl mInifajc-tures o1l:
Books, in Sp'.nih ......... 1,513
Card Iioi rd .............. 1 1 ;2
W\rappine plper ....... 12, 3U3
Sniokinc material: C'lLirttte
paper..M.................. 4,174
Slolrir and wmi-;:
W'ine, still, in hnotl1..... f6,626
Sugareanidy and LOon'fCioucry. 1,276
\'cg t hlI; :
; arlie ................ SS,997
Potato ................. ..
All other artcles.............. 8 ,510
Tot al.................... 335,170


1917




S6,219
2, 31
5,337
17,030
21,873

5, 082
1,168
13,944
1.1, 1611
5,507
10,120
7,1296
12,259
29,381
16,402
11,819
55,309
31,3M1
5.604
4,006
80, 914
7,133
82,448
44S, 951


I








SPAIN. 45

Exportation Limited-Prices High.
Early in March exports were resumed only to be handicapped once
more by restrictions of foreign Government,, especially of the
United Kingdom. Exports, reduced to shipments to FranIce, Italy,
Norway, and the United States reached, however, record figures
up to late July, when the restrictive mena.ures on food-tufffs taken
by the Spanish Governnment. on the one hand and by some foreign
Governments on the other su niuarily put an enl l to almost the
whole of the foreign trade of the district. In fact, since the be-
ginning of Aulgu.t, the United States has been the pl,.iipal and
almost single outlet for -.ich products as the Spanish Govern-
ment permitted to be exported.
The stocks on hand show ed a fairly large balani, in January
and later on were abundantly repleni-hed by the 1917 crops, which
were far in excess of the average. Tihl the -to{k- of all the staple
products-wine,. allo.nod-, filberts, walnuts, olive oil, etc.-at the
beginning of 1918 wH('r n11ineh larger than had be.eni the case for
severaIl vear. Yet no corresponding fall in prices O-ii c.red. It
is true that almondi and filliert. were quoted lower than a twelve-
mont]i previous. Uit the difference between the prices for the two
years did not equal the difference between supply and deli:mand
during this period. Such dipnaiity is still more evident in the case
of other products, such ;w-. olive oil and wine.
The imports during the year 'v-'re very low. The commodities
imported in former yc.irs have (been eit-ler replacedl by home produce
or, as in mos t in..-,inces, suppre-sd altogether. This ,ir.miit;inc,.
has madce li\;vig an incre:-iilgly difficult problem. The price of
food-tuff. is ligler each -'iir:cdiing day, and every ri( brings with
it the iinpre-iiiin that a fresh one is forthcoming. Thus the price,,
of sone of the nece-.sarie, of life have been inmr!'ase1d in'o July,
1914, in the following proportion: Eggs, 125 per cent; beef, 35;
mutton., 40; swine, ;O; vecgtnbles and g.-f.n-. 150; milk, fi,-L. 30;
milk. prer e:dl, 78; bread, 25; pot;itoe-,t 100; chii rcoal, 100; sawdust
and fiel. 210 per cont.
Principal Exports and Impoits.
The following ;arle lilh plin-:ipl iulIport-, into and exports from
Tarragona during 1017:

.\A l;fl;t ;l i r .\Xri V '- l P i i
S. .... .. .
'.I ..i i.. rxr T- *: .n iiii. I
Coil ................... ..... ... .
. odtibll .. . . . 1 l i -- i .. I 1... . ,I ', .
Mtondi ,i .. ................... I .. -. .
t' 'TI u .,'" .



Noit sh'.l. I ............... d o..j. 1 ..
Sh Ielled .................. 1 1 l.... I.

Exports to the United States aniid Possessions.
The following table .s-how.- thi- ,iiaii iti an, l value of the exports
to the United States and possessions ficr the alr.iidar yir-;s 1916 and











46 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


1917, according to invoices certified at. the Tarragona agency of the
Barcelona consular di-trict:


Anricles.


TO7 1 N17ED .ST.lIS.

N r -hlil !d ............................... pounds. .
Shelled .................................... do....
F ill., rI .
N.lr helledI ..... ........................... do...
-h Ill ................................ ....... do....
' iqeiur, ............................. ...... ..g llou..
IL i.
Sliv ........................................do ....
'11lphtl r. ................................. poLiunds. .
T ir kt-rjt-I . ......... ..... ... do. .
S.-ii ir, rid1 ... ................................do....
'T .,I Itr, tridii ................... ................. .do. ....
T'.rtir.,re o lim e.................... ............. do....
'\\ .ailntl"
N,.t Ihlled ................................. o....
.l-lle ......................................do ....


11 i I,
'I ill, over 11 pr r cent .................... gallon?..
Still, undrlC 11 per cent ...................... (tdo....
.A11 i t i h r article ................ ........................


Ilt PIIiLIl'PINE I'L.AN S.

.\ 11m\nuir]:
N-h.I ,h.l leil ...............................pounds..
Shellot ................. ................. .do....
Fille.ri:, not -,cllre .............. ........ ..... do....
t \.'.t rt-a. ...................................... do...

Totil ............................................


1916 1917


Quantity. Value. Quintity. Value.




2,57'. 7,5. .122, 715 3,70.1, ,90 $422, .50
35 ,511 9t,931 521,929 120,186

114,1.3 16, 429 3,247,C27 304,315
1,4Ut..-,721 36:1.'71 2,636, 4.26 501,448
7, 397 33.697 11,052 65,334

26. 1504 2 I,397 0ln, 'OJ 550,301
2.'., 2ti 2.', 52 911, 6S 11,438
2 t.NA 3,7,11 .51, 44I 14,171
1,272, 1'26 171,090 1,04'j, 574 13%,877
............ ............ 276,717 34,012


473,749
151,25j5

120,9-41
31,212
. ... I


31,010
37,5.34

94, F24

2,024


It 6, 125
611,134

07,0063
69,723


15,720
171,740

79,531
42,552
479


............ 1, 49',027 I............ 2,472,709



5,3''i)0 .9 5,748 680
TNO "l,7 ....... ... .......
4,159 .76i t..6, 639
1,5;... ,i ............ ............

............. J,,tr',u ............ 1,319


Exports to Porto Rico, which consisted entirely of nuts, fruits, and
sweet inets, amlounted to $1,310 in 1b916 and to $ 31 in 1l17.



































WASflINI:TON : GO.'I: NMCNT rPniNTING OF' ICE : 1919


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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1II I Ill li111| I IIII 1111111 i I ll|ll ll I
3 1262 08485 1897