Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
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Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
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6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
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English
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United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
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Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
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sobekcm - AA00005307_00050
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AA00005307:00050

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text




SUPPLEMENT TO L

COMMERCE REP T 9
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Annual Series No. 13a November 3, 1919

RUSSIA.
THE CAUCASUS."
By Boris M. Balevaky, Russian DIislon, Bureau of Forei-n aii nn I)omenlle
Commerce, September 1, 1919.
The Caucasus is situated between 38- and 47: north lat itude and
38 and 50' longitude east of Greenwich. On the north it is bound-
ed.by the Don Cossack district and the Government of Astrakhan;
on the south by eastern Turkey and Persia ; on the east by the Caspian
Sea: and on the west by the Black Sea. It is divided by the chain
of the Caucasus Mountains into North Caucasus and Transcaucasia.
The total area of the. Caucasus is 181,173 square miles. The Cau-
casian mountain chain stretches from the Black Sea to the Caspian
Sea, and is about 1,000 miles in length. The central chain from the
mountain of Elbruz to Kazbek is about 130 miles long and in soine
places about 18,000 feet high. The highest peaks are Elbruz (1S,470
feet), Kazbek (16,346 feet), Dykhtau (17,054 feet), and Tetnuld,
with two summits (15,919 and 15.935 feet). The chain is intersected
by four passes, the largest among them being the Georgian military
road between Tiflis and Vladikavkaz.
There are 982 glaciers on the north slope of the Caucasian chain.
with a surface of 1,288 square versts (567 square miles), and 407 on
the south slope with a total surface of 441 square versts (194 .-quare
miles). The most prominent are Gerget, 0 or 7 versts (approx-
imately 4 miles) from the station Kazbek; Devdorak, 16 versts (11
miles) from the station of the same name; and Tzei on the Military
Osetin Road.
Lakes are numerous in the Caucasus. Many of them-some of
fresh water and some of salt water --are situated high above the sea
level. The largest lake in the Caucasus is Goktcha Lake (67 versts
long and 30 versts wide, or 44 by -1) miles), into which 29 rivers flow
and out of which flows the Zanga, tributary to the Aras River.
Among the rivers the most prominent are the Kuban, 4120 miles
long; the Ingus and Rion, 200 miles;: the Terek. 350 miles; the Kurn.
690 miles; and the Aras, 520 miles.
'The material for this survey of the Caucasus was compiled from reports of American
consular officers; from official and unofficial publications in Russian, Including The Min-
ing Industry (authorized by the Russian Mining Department), Guide on th'- Caucasus,
Suvorin's Russian Calendar (1917). and the tenth yearbook of agricultuiial suitistics
(published by the Russian Department of Agriculture in 1917) ; and from the following
sources in English: Ghambashldze's The Caucasus and The Caucasian Petroleum In-
dustry (pamphlets, 1918) and Mineral Resources of Georgia and Caucasla (1919);
Russian Yearbook (London, 1916) ; Goldstein's Russia: Her Economic Post and Fluturv
(1919); Raffalovich's Russia- Its Trade and Commerce (1918): Ru'siia. a periodical
issued at 24 State Street, New York; 'Ti? Mineral Industry during 19117. edited by G. A.
Roush; and publications of the United Stite's I;eological Survrey on various minerals.
145985-19-13a--1







2 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

On the old border of Russia., Turkey, and Persia there rises the
solitary Bible mountain Ararat in the shape of two conical peaks,
Large and Small Ararat. The distance between them is about 10
versts (7 miles). The height of the former is 16,916 feet and of the
latter, 12,840 feet.


-






















o -.-
16















The Black Sea coast of the Caucasus is about 650 versts (433 miles)
long, and only five bays along this coast can be considered suitable
for the establishment of ports. These bays are Novorossiisk, Ge-
lendzhik, Pizun, Sukhum, and Batum. In autumn and winter the
Black Sea is very rough and navigation is difficult. The Caspian coast
has no bays of any importance, with the exception of Baku Bay and
its natural port of Baku.
-Ar












0N


i~t


;I'



Ii



r.







RUSSIA---IHE C.AUCASUS.


The climate of the Caucasus is very varied, owing to the vertical
configuration of its surface and the unequal fall of rain. For in-
stance, at Sotchi, on the Black Sea, the rainfall is 3,000 millimeters
(1 millimeter=0.03937 inch) and at Baku 241 millimeters per annum.
In the western part of the Caucasus the climate is subtropical: in the
eastern part dry, owing to the influence of the winds from the Trans-
caspian district. Under the protection of the Caucasus Mountains
and plenty of moisture there is very rich vegetation, and at a height
of 4,000 feet there are forests of oak, beech. chestnut, boxwood, etc.
In Transcaucasia the vegetation is of the same chact peter as in Asia
Minor and along the shores of the Mediterranean. Along the Black
Sea shore and around Batum are grown oranges, lemonn, b:anmboo,
cork trees, etc. At a height of 9,400 feet there are wonderful rhodo-
dendrons, and Alpine grass is met even at a height of 11,500 feet.
Among the animals, bears are common, and near Lenkora n. on the
Caspian Sea, there are even panthers and tigers. In the high moutn-
tains there are still to be met bison, wild goats, hogs, foxes, reindeer,
antelopes, etc. Along the River Rion, in the western part of Georgia,
there is an abundance of pheasants. Altogether there ar1 400 varie-
ties of birds.
Population.
The population of the Caucasus in 1915 was 13,2229,100, 14.8 per
cent of whom lived in cities and towns and 85.2 per cent in villages.
The density was 32.1 persons per square verst (0.44 mile). The dif-
ferent races in the Caucasus are Georgians; Russians (chiefly Cossacks
in the northern part): Cireassians, Lesgians and Chechenz, Osse-
tians, Nogais, Kalmucks. and Ingushes among the Caucasian moun-
taineers: and Armenians. Tatars. Persians. (ermnans, Greeks, and
Jews.
The fullowina' table. taken frmn .the StIteslmn's Yearbook, shows
the area, population, and density uf population in the different Gov-
ernments and Provinces of the Caucasus on January 1, 1915:

Density
I.;1.n.(menti ln proving e Area. Pop lat io.n per
Jan. 1, 1915. square
mile.

Square
Norlli Caucasus.: mim.s.
Kuban provincee) .................................................. : ,4 3,0"1.2)00 ,s3
Stavropol........................ ............................... 0,970 1,3'13,500 i
Terek (province)................................................. 28..13 1,311,900 47
Total, North Cx .ncaisus............................................. 85,76 5,719,600 66
Transcaucasia:
Baku....................................... ............. 15, 01 1, I19,0) 75
Batum (province)........... ................................. 2,693 1 90,'00 69
Black Sea (Tchernomorla).......................................... 3,22) 201,800 .3
Daghestan (province).............................................. 11,471 732,600 (11
Elisavetpol ............. ........................................ IIi,991 1,117.200 (
Erivan ............... .............................. ..... .... .. 10,725 i '1. i ;31, i0 96
Kars(pravincc)................................................... 7,239 403000 56
Kutai.............................. ................................ 1 J5 1,070, 3110 130
Sukhlum districtt) ................................................. 2,513 147.6 ) 5
Tifis .............................................................. 15,776 1,394, S00 .S
Zakataly (districL)............................ .... ............. 1,539 101, ,00 i
Total. Transcaucasia........................................... 9"405, 7, .O, 500 79
Total, Caucasus................................................ I 1, 173 1.1,229, 10 3
!







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Public Instruction.
Progress is being made in public education in the Caucasus. Here,
as in all parts of Russia, public instruction is in the hands of or is
directly controlled by the State. The secondary educational system
in the Caucasus at the beginning of 1912 consisted of 106 secondary
State schools or gymnasia, progymnasia, and nonclassical schools.
The largest. number (27) of these schools were in the Province of
Kuban in North Caucasus, and the smallest number in the Province
of Kar.-, where there were only two. Nine similar schools were
added to this number during the same year. A little more than
half of all the schools are for girls. At. the beginning of 1912 there
were also 180 private schools, and during the year permits were
granted to open 44 new ones.
The total number of elementary schools in the Caucasus at the
beginning of 1912 was 3,214, and 418 more were added during the
year. Tiese schools were insufficient for the increasing population,
and a considerable addition to them was contemplated. Additional
grants were made by the Ministry of Public Education and by the
zenmstos in the C'ucasus, to be apportioned among the different Gov-
ernment, and Provinces according to the population.
Besides the foregoing schools, there were also 40 schools for the
training of teachers, and two others were added during the year.
There were 24 industrial schools. During the year surveying and
general technical classes were opened at the Baku Indulstrial School,
and it was planned to equip a section there in 1913 for training
motor-car drivers.
Much attention was paid during 1912 to the introduction of a sys-
tem for training teachers in various kinds of manual work. Classes
were formed for the theoretical and practical study of agriculture,
for studying the preservation of fruit, for culinary instruction, and
for needlework. Specialists were invited to give practical instruc-
tion to teachers in the various branches of industries, and funds were
granted by the zemstvos to enable teachers to visit industrial schools
and there acquire practical knowledge. Classes were also formed in
physical culture and a two months' course for men and women in-
structors wa;- opened at Tiflis.
The number of schools and pupils during 1913 in North Caucasus
and Transcaucasia was as follows:
Pupils.
Geogrr.phical divisions. Schools.
Boys. Girls. Total.

North Caucasus....................................... 3,938 J 199,439 103,201 302,640
Transcaucasia....................................... 2,965 I 132,904 41.S15 174,719
Total, Caucau i................................. 6,903 332.343 14,016 477,359

Area and Production of Principal Cereals.
Agriculture is tlhe chief occupation of the inhabitant., of the Cau-
casuS.
The following table shows the annual average area under wheat,
rye. barley, corn, and oats in the Caucasus for the years 1911 to
1915. The area is stated in dersiatines, equivalent to 2.7 acres.









R USSIA-THE CAUCASUS.


North
_Cer__. C Caucasnl-.

Wheat: DeS:ialitc,.
W inter.................................................. 1 2,4 ,512
Spring............................................... 1,261,244


Tolal, wheat .........................................
Rye:
W eiu r ...... ............................................
Spring.................. ...................... ..........
Total, rye............. .. ............................


3,749,756

164,831
7,397
172,228


Trani -
caucasia.

DAssialiara...
642, M5
337, :3T3


f79. ,'23

26,332
6,235


Total,
Caucasus.

I D,.-iatines.
3.131,035
1, '9S,627


1,729,679

191,103
13,632
204,795


Millet ...................................................... 360,254 20,718 380,972
Barley ..................................................... 1,54.. 5,i47 481,399 -2,027,0416
Corn........................................ ................. 296. 21 303,080 :99,303
O ats......................................................... l ,0fi .1 12,325 .12.' ,341
All other cereals ........................... ............... 11,127 15,221 263,34S
T otal ................................................... i ;,551,'-'.I !'. "1. "'i | *,39r, 1t 1
TOL1................................. ...... ... ........ .... ..

The following table shows the annual average cereal crops of the
Cauica,us for 1911-1915. Quantities are stated in poods of 36.1128
pounds a oirdlupois.


C0-r, i--.


North
CU.Ue,_LI;.


\Sileal: Poode.
Winter................. ................................ 134,541, 000
Spring........ .. .......... ............ ...... 0.4,174,00
Total, "whca.......................... ..... 198, I....OLR
I{3 e:
W inter................. .. .......... ............. .... 8, 0,0 0 0
Spring.......... .................. 40,', l)
Totll, rye .............................................. 9,29', 00)0
M illet ........................................................ V1 102,000
Barley................ ................................. 97,295.,000
Corn ... .......................................... ....... .. 2, 291,000
Oats..................... .................................... 24,65i, 000
All other creals ....................................... ...... 5,I, u00
Total.................................................... 371,943.000


Tr..!t Tor-i],
.,ta c -itj. Cticas"II.

Poud.'. Poods.
2., 133,1 'l 1 t2,674,000
13.5..,lJ10 77,678,000
41,F,.37,(i 0 240, 312.000

1, 077, Illn'i 9.,67. 000
23,2, wtl 610.il000

1,.:;0yl9, I) 1, 60)7. 000
S26.000 1 ,. 924, f000
22, f O 7.0) 119, 392,000
II. 0 .)I,10 T, 37..0 X0
62l,000 2, 27 0,000
6 4 1,000i 1, 22S, 000
A1l,221,000 4.15,161, 000


The C'aucasus produce.-, about 18 per cent of the total of Rlussia's
wheat, 18 per cent of its barley, and 29 per cent of its corn.
The relative distribution of the various cereals in the ('aucta'usu for
the period 1911-1915 is as follows: Wheat, 52.S per cent; rye. 2..3
per cent; millet, 4.16 per cent barley, 26.23 per cent; cornI. 8.0( per
cent; oats, 5.56 per cent; other crops, 0.27 per cent.
Area and Production of Rice.

The following table shows the area under rice in the C.'taucasus, the
production, and the production per dessiatine from 1911 to 1915:

Items. 1911 1912 ll I i '

Area In dessiatince: I -
North Cauc q ..; .......... 4-l ............ l,0S4 16 '. 5 472
Transmu-ia ............ 25,733 32,320 21,917 2-(,0). .: 1,320 17,052
Total, Cau:iJ -us ......... 26,248 3*2,320 2.3,001 2r.. ,2 31. ., 17,521
Production in pood: :
North Caucas LS ........... I 0400 ............ t.800 2-..300 :3'.7in 34.0
Transeuca esia ............. 1,67.;,700 2,11,5 l,00 1,557,100 1.557, 60o 1,76r.i. 1, .' 1 ,37. 70u
Total,Ca iasus........... 1,70,,000 2,115,500 1, 62,9000 2,0 1.7'.: ..iO 1,1 2,3(00
Production per dessialin in
pooris:
Nort Caur asus ........... 62 ......... 63 52 11 T.
TramniC'cic ii........ .... ... 7 6 71 Fu .i S I
Totnl,Caunsu .. .... 5 63 7 i"


^s1 r:-^ ,,,.,,^::^::~t ~ ::- ^~ "T: ::,;-










6 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Transcaucasian Cotton Area and Yield.
The figures given below, compiled by the Caucasian Society of
Rural Economy, show the area under cotton in the Governments of
Transcaucasia from 1910 to 1915:


Years. Eri an.

lH -. ntines.
1910............... ..i., (on
1911 .............. 40,4001
1912............... 36,200
191. ............... :3 ,300
1914.............. 444,000
1!15 .............. 35,2'0


Elisavtlpcl.

Degsituinrs
26, i1OO
33,300
50. S0O
.A3, 000
42.400


Iaku.

Dessaafinrc'.
12,2( )
23,600
21,401)
30,! 0n
40,000)
32,000


Titlis.

Dtssiatl ins.
1, C l'
5,000
5,370
5, 100
8,200
4,100


Kutais.

Dessialines.
1.,00
2,700
2,780
2,408
3,700
1,800


Totel.

Dessialins.
77,170
125,050
112,550
127,500
148,900
115 500


The area cultivated in 1916 was about 87,000 dessiatines, a decrease
of 25 per cent from tile 1915 figures and of 40 per cent from those of
1914. The (auses of the decrease are said to be dearness of labor,
lack of seeds, disorganization of transport facilities, and fixed Gov-
ernieint pri( es. Ac wording to the Torgovo Promyshlennaya
Gazeta (No. 28. May 28, 1918), the area for 1917 further declined to
about 52-700 dessintines.
Notwitlistanding the decrease in area in 1916, the fiber crop for
that year was only a little below that of the preceding year. The
following table shows the area under cotton and the crop in the
Governments of Trans aucasia in 1915 and 1916 and the percentage
of fiber obtained in 1916:


Governments.



Frivan ........................
Flisaverpol.......................
Pakl,............................
Tifis.............................
Tiz t:.is.........................
Total.......................


Area. Crop. Per
cent of
fiber I
1915 1916 1915 1916 1916.

DEssiatines. Dessilinws. Poods. Poods.
35.200 23, 500-30, 000 352, 000 3, 500- 450,000 29.5
42, 400 28,30(-34, ( 53n, 000 430,000- 516,F00 29.3
32,000 24,000-27,000 565,000 43-,(X00- 404,000 30.3
4,100 2,000- 1,000 10,750 1n,000- 3'',000 30.3
I,.00 1,500 20,100 24,700- 27.000 27.3
115,500 1 7.,3.0-93,500 1,51,85U 11,2 5,2 -1,526,800 ........


Importance of Silk Production.
Silk production is one of the most prominent of all branches of
agriculture in Transcaucabia. According to official statistics, 400,-
000 families, or 2.000,000() persons, scattered over 3,000 villages, are
engaged in the cultivation of silk cocoons. The annual production
is estimated at 11,000,000 to 13,000.000 pounds and is valued at $2,-
300,000 to $3,000,000. The following figures, compiled by the Seri-
culture Society of the Caucasus, give the production and prices of
cocoons in this di.ttrict for the six years from 1909 to 1914:

Prices per pound.


190 ..........................................................
1l10......................................................... .
1 11 ...........................................................
1912 ............................................................
1913........................ ...................................
1914......... .. ... .. ...................................


screen
cocoons.


Pounds.
10, .33, 0'0
12, 9W9), 600
11,555,200
10, 2(1,350
10,110, 000
11,555,200


80. 21)0-0. 22
.22- .23
.23- .24
.17- .19
.20- .23
.24- .29


Dry
cocoons.


0. 64-S0. 70
.66- .74
.62- .69
.54- .62
.92- 1.03
.86- .93








RLUSSIA---T1 E CAUCAS US.


Tobacco Cultivation.
In tile Caucasus there is cultivated high-grade tobacco raised frolu
Turkish seed. It is worth noting that the popular Russian cig;nrettEd
:eC all imlanufactured from Caucasian tobacco. Of the total area
under high-grade Turkish tobacco in the former Russian Empire in
19.13 (27,027 dessiatines), 18.808 dessiatines, or 69 per cent, was in the
(aucasus, chiefly in the following districts: Sukhum, 8,037 de-sia-
tines, or 30 per cent of the total: Kuban. 7,678 dessiatines, or 28 per
'cent; Black Sea Government. 3.093 des.siatines. or 11 per cent. The
crop in 1913 was 584,530 poods in Kuban and 412,S30 poods in
Sullium-a total of 1,027,360 poods, out of a total for the Empire
of 1,489,211 poods.
The following table shows the ulnmber and average sizL. of the
tobacco plantations-. the area cultivated, aind the crop for the years
1911 to 1915, and the average for this five-year period:
Number Average YIeld
Number Area culti.
Yar-. of plan- vaed. size o Crtp. per de-
tations. ae plantations, iatine.

D(fsiatifes. Dessfatines. Poods. Poods.
11..................................... 25,915 24.190 0.955 1,68;,949 70
1912 ........................... .. .. .... 24,023 20, 101 .837 1,230,869 61
1913 ............................ .... 23, 4' 20,917 .881 1,364,800 65
1914................................ .2,236 1.0.5 2,026,089 63
115 ................................. .. 30,230 31,371 1.038 2135,8.4 68
Average, 1911-1915 .......................... 26,784 25764 .957 1,689,116 65

In the following table the average annual figures pertaining to
tobacco cultivation in the Caucasus during the period 1911-1915 are
given by geographical divisions:

Average Aervrage A vrjt Average
graph icl divisions. numr area n izeI Aoe cro pe
,ions cultivated. plantation. crop. desst-
tations. tine.

Dessiatines. Dessiatines. Poods. Poods.
Kuban ............................... 4,264 11,017 2. 50 860,357 77
Terek.................................... 83 4.047 .... ................
Black Sea Government.................... 2,419 3,194 1.57. 178.57> 56
Baku .............................. 3,222 35 .056 3, 15 91
Tiflis....................... ............. 1 756 1,041 .590 80,003 75
Kutais............ .... ................... 4 789 354 .075 17,334 49
Batum .............................. 2 928 548 .320 42,576 88
Sukhum................................. 7584 9,033 1.194 464,858 52
Erivan ................................. 1016 149 .143 4. CA3 32
Elisavepol ......................... ......340 133 .391 13. 2'.; 102
Kars .................................... 122 6 .043 587 96
D)aghestan............................. 669 6 .010 643 117
Zaltaly............................... 163 242 1.434 22,774 91
C':lcasus-Average for 1911-1915 .... 26,784 25,764 .957 1,689,116 65

Area Under Vines and Grape Production.
In 1913 about 210,000 small peasant proprietors cultivated 190,000
acres of vineyards in the Caucasus, and 40,000,000 gallons of wine
were produced. The quality of the wine is excellent, andl in those
cIse.s where modern chemistry was applied it was said to be as good
as khat of the French and Italian wines.









8 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

The following table shows the area of vineyards and the grape crops
in the Caucasus for 1915, so far as returns are available:

Geogr-apical divisions. Area or Crop of
vineyards. grapes.

Norli (:iucJ Iii: Dsniahincs. Poods.
SIvnpol ............................................................... 5, 51 232,200
K 1u la l ...... ..... ...... ... ... .................. ........................ .... 7,I10 (a )
.li..... 7, 100 (a)
Ill.ick Sea (;overnment..................................................... .. 1,(X) 600.000
if'rek.. ........................... ..................................... ... 10.80 1,942,600
'ot.dl, Nol th Calicas'il .............. ................................... 26.313 ..........
Tr u -I-i lii J a'i:
K;1 1 i ................................................................31,42 (a)
Sm m ............................................................. ....... 3.09 (a)
Baitum ........ .......................... .............................. 1. 1 9 (a)
T illi- ... .. .......................... .................................... 32,4S (a)
'al-ja l.ly ........................... ................................... 777 235,700
B .\. .......................................................... ..... ..... 11,075 1,050.000
Da. ih ..-1 in ................... ................................................. 3...: ) ; 87, .00
r .. .. ..................................................................................... 11.2 74,400
FI lt.i' l.rpol................ ........................................... 16,4.3 (o)
K ar .................................. .. .. ..................... ... ........ 16 100
Tni l, Troincunicasia .................................................... 112.152 .......
Tur.l. ( ji 5ii .............................................................. ....... IS, tL. 3 ..... ....

a No fihures avail blc.
Tea Production Small but Capable of Expansion.
Around Batum, on the Black Sea, there are tea plantations, and
a few are located in the Government of Kiitai-. In 18.5 there were
only 6 acres; in 1913 there were 2,210 acres; and in 1914, 2,270 acres.
In 1895 onl\v 85 pounds of leaf were obtained; in 1913, 1.220.000
pounds; and in 1914, 1.245.000 pounds. In 1895. 20 pounds of tea
were pro(luced: in 1913. S267,0)() pounds: and in 1914, 300,000 pounds.
This branch of cultivation is .till in the experimental stage, but there
are great possibilities for expanding it in the near future.
Sunflowers and the Sunflower-Oil Industry.
Sunflowers are raised chiefly in the Kuban Province, North Cau-
casus. The following table gives the acreage and cron of sunflowers
in Kuban and Stavropol, North Caucasus, in 1914 and 1915:

Area. Crop. Tessne
Gengraphical livisinns.
1914 1915 1914 1915 1914 1915

DJfialiner. Desialinrs. Poods. Poods.
Kuhan............................... 2;2,568 236,087 21,0.3,855 15, 1.55,. s 7 64
Starropol............................. 6,741 8,162 402, 3S 49, 1' 0 60 56
To'al, North Caucasus.......... 2;9,309 244,249 21.4760,93 15,614,955 77 64

According to official statistics, states an article in Russia," dur-
ing the year 1915 about 15,000,000 poods of sunflower seed was col-
lected and utilized by over 600 oil-producing works. As a general
rule they are small and run by peasants themselves, but a strong
tendency to enlarge and improve them is now apparent. At Eka-
terinodar, which is the center of the Kuban district, there are three
large oil works, each with an annual output of 650,000 rubles. There







RUS.SIA-THE (1A'CAUCl'.S.


are al-o very large works at Ro-tof and Ar avir. The shells and
refuse of the .-,ecds are made into briqjiitte- and ul .-ed 'a fuel. In
connection with the strong development of tlhe oil industry. (iernian
merchants erected large work-, in 1907 to produce the machinery
needed. Oil presses were brought from (ei'rlany. knocked down.
and parts wore manufactured at. T Tganrog. Thi- experiiiiit was
very aiucce-,ful, and was carried out by the fir' of Kerber & Co. In
many ca.es tlle oil-producing busine's can be worked in conjunction
with the manufacture of potash and soap powder.
Flax and Hemp.
The following table shows the Iarea sown to flax and the crop of
flax seed in the Caucasus for 1913, 1914. and 1915. and the average
for 1911-1915:

Y.ar;. De-iatines. Poods. Years. De.-iTin(n;. Poods.

Average, 1911-191 ........ 51,756 1,437,900 1914 ....................... 74 ,716 ,341, 1
1913...................... 62,,433 1,243, 0 1915.......................7 921,

The following table shows the area and production of henmp fiber
and hemp seed in the Caucasus from 1911 to 1915, together with the
annual average for those years:

[iemp fiber. CHemp -,cl.
,' *r--'. Poo.li
Des-ialinef Poods. per deo- rD--.a rinne... PIold-
siainue.

Average, 1911-1913 ........................... 6,9, 210,00 W0 30.9 7,35 206., IIi
1911......................................... S,7 0 267, 10) 31. 4 (a) (a
1912...................................... .. 6..71 160, 7i0) .i 4.5 (a ( )
1913 ...................................... x, 030 2 .',700 35.2 4,5156 2.i, '1 i
1914......................................... 6,066 159,f00 30.8 J J,520 161.aikj
1915 ........................................ 5,413 12, 50 I 33 5,t0. 213,2lw I

a No figuellC? .-ailable.
Beekeeping-Domestic Animals.
Beekeeping is one of the ancient occupations in the Caucasus. In
1912 there were about 26,067 apiaries, with 59f6,924 beehives, and the
production amounted to 5,653,302 pounds of honey and G.66,2n
pounds of wax. It is worth noting that the Russian Holy Synod did
not give a chance to the Georgian Church to develop this minor in-
dustry very considerably. Had the reverse been the case, the Caucasus
could have supplied the demands of the churches all over Russia for
wax for candles. But considerable quantities of so-called wax (actu-
ally ceresin) have been imported.
In 1914 the numbers of the domestic animals in the Cauclasus were
as follows: Horses, 2,065,826; cows and oxen, 6,447,335'; buff I loes,
638,160; sheep, 12,604,917; goats, 1.157,.554; pigs, 1,268,795. The
country has vast possibilities for cattle breeding.
1459850-19-13a-- 2




N.,



10 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Wool Production, Prices, and Exports.
The followino- figures give the production and prices of unwashed
wool in the c-i'tral aniil southern Caucasus for 1913 and 1914:

1913 1914
OrituI of wool.
Tons. Cents per sCents r
pound. Tons. poune.

CforldAiI -prin r i l dipr............................. .......... 1,371 a 11-12 1,210 o11-13
Aiinllnin l i Oi pIrt ,od'ing 'ear................................. 1,935 11-15 1,613 13-16
Color l wnon -pli ............................................ 6i4 7- 9 484 9-10
A ulIumn clip, ................... ...............................b. 01 11-13 1il 11-13
l..................................................... 4, 112 .......... 3,468 ..........
a I'rie,.< of this wool, brook washed, were 13 to 17 cents per pomud in 1913 and 14 to 19 cents in 1914.
In normal time- wool is the principal export from the Caucasus
to the United States. In 1914, however, the value of its export to
the United States dropped to $708,825 from $848,581 in 1913.
Wool produced in North Caucasus finds its way to and is handled
from Rostof-on-Don.
Goat and Sheep Skins.
The average annual production of the Caucasus is estimated at
100,000 goatskins and 600,000 slheepskins. This estimate includes
the skins that find their way to the central markets and does not take
into consideration the skins consumed in local home industries. To
these figures must be added about 200,000 goatskins and 300,000
sheepskins from Persia. The average weight of Caucasus goatskins
is 260 to 300 pounds per 100 pieces. The Persian skins are lighter,
averaging not more than 253 pounds per 100 pieces. Prices of Rus-
sian goatskins ranged in 1914 from 46 to 62 cents per piece, Persian
from 3(; to 41 cents per piece. The price of Russian sheepskins
ranged from :n( to 62 cents per piece, the Persian skins selling at a
slightly higher rate on account of the wool; weights ranged from
290 to 400 pounds per 100 pieces. The principal foreign buyers are
the United States, Germpny, and France, and the principal local
market is Tiflis.
Beef and Sheep Casings.
An important and growing business in the Caucasus is the exporta-
tion of beef and .sheep casings. The former, both dried and salted,
are produced in large quantities in all the principal towns of the
Caucasus. Part of the production is consumed locally and the
remainder was forimrerly exported to Austria-Hungary and Germany.
Toward the close of the year 1914 prices fell and the depression in
this line w;as marked. The contrary can be said in regard to sheep
casings, there being an increased demand from the United States.
The total annual production of the Caucasus is estimated at over
600,000 pieces, to which must be added 2,000,000 pieces imported
from Persia. Tifli, is the principal market for this product. The
Caucasian salted casings are rolled round a board in rings about 7
inches in diameter, each ring containing 69 to 75 feet, caliber %3 to
1f inches. About 30 per cent of these rings are composed of one
entire piece, 20 per cent are made up of two pieces, and 50 per cent
of three or four pieces. The quality varies widely. It is estimated







RUSSIA-THE CAUCASUS. 11

that 5 to 10 per cent of the total production is ., to of an inch in
diameter, 25 to 30 per cent from -7- to 4, of an inch. the remainder 4.'
to 1-o inches.
The Persian are superior in quality to the Caucasian sheep casings,
but the number of pieces to the regulation ring or parcel of 69 to 75
feet is greater. This is explained by the fact that the Persians
slaughter principally full-grown sheep, the casings sometimes being
115 feet long. These long casings are cut to regulation size, the short
ends being used to make up the three or four piece rings. It is esti-
mated that about 10 per cent are in one piece, 30 to 40 per cent in three
pieces, and the remainder in four or more pieces. The average cali-
ber of the casings is considerably larger than the Caucasian, many
reaching 11/ inches.
The prices of sleep casing in 1913 ranged from 8 to 9 cents per
ring, in 1914 from 11 to 1-2 cents. Of the total production, Germany
in 1914 took 40 per cent, Austria 30 per cent, and the United States
20 per cent. The United States, however, is believed to be the
greatest purchaser. as a large proportion of the exports to Germany
eventually found their way to the United States.
One firm in Tiflis makes a specialty of handling untrimmed salted
sheep casings, one ring containing 79 to 92 feet; the price per ring is
slightly higher than that of the regulation size. A considerable
stock of dried sheep casings was left over at the close of 1914. The-s
casings are prepared from young lambs and are packed in bundles
containing S1 to 22'2 string-, (13.8 inches), every 5.0 bundles weilghing
0.88 to 0.99 pound. Prices in 1914 ranged from $41 to $62 per 1,000
bundles. About 30.000 dried lamb casings are produced annually in
the Caucasus, all of which are normally exported to Germany.
Importance of Caucasian Forests.
The area and production of woods and forests in the Cau:Ia--ut
administered by the Forest Department were as follows in 1911, ac-
cording to the Russian Yearbook:
Dessiatines.
General area of Crownl forces ------------------------------_ 4,907,271
Areas worked directly by ilte Government ------- ------- 3,089,863
Distribution:
Crown forests ---------------------------------------- ,
Appanage forests _-- _--- ------------ --------------- 14, 693
Forests belonging to private persons----------------------- 749,413
Forests belonging to peasants ----------------------------- 174,! )I
Forests of various categories of ownership---------------- 14,402
Area of forests subject to the protective law:
Prohibited ------_------------------------ 73, -23,
Forests protecting water courses----------------------- 54, 373
Production.
Total amount of material ruced--------------cubic sazhens a 141. 7i
Gross receipt -----------------------------------------rubles-- 1,126,864
General expeunes (not including zemistvo tax) _--_-----_ do---- 678,644
Net profit ------------------- ------------------------1. --_ 44-S,220
The forests of the Caucasus, though distingui~lshed by their great
richness and variety, are as yet little worked and commerce in lumber
is only slightly developed. The kinds of timber found in important
quantities in Transcaucasia are those characteristic of warm climates.
such as boxwood (BRi'',,s semCerCirens), walnut (Jvflaii. r7,./;t), and
*1 cubic sazhen equals 343 cubic feet.








12 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

yew (Tax.us baccata); but these kinds have little commercial im-
portance. The most important trees in commerce are beech (Fagus
sylvat;ca or;entflis). oak (three species: Quercus pedunculata, Que'-
cus s~cs.~;lif/or. and QuereC-. castaneaefolia), hornbeam (C'arpinun
betuls and f'arphinus duinensis), birch (Betula i lba and Betula
pubesrctns), elm (Ulimus campcsthri, Ulmus montana, and Ulmus
c/ff'isa). alder (.Ainus glutinosa, Alns incana, Alnus cordifolia, and
Al/ms or-ienitalis), maple (Acer campestre, Acer lactum, Acer plata-
noides, ;nd 1Acer trautfetteri), ash (Fraxinuis excelsior and Fraxinus
o.ryphillU). linden (Tilia intermedia, Til, platiphylla, and iliaa
,pafrifv'j ilht) .and poplar (Popndus tre- ula., Populus nigra, and Popu-
ui.s cuphrafti(a).
The percentage of the general forest area in the Caucasus of the
most important species is as follows: Caucasian beech, 25.8 per cent;
oak, 16 per cent; hornbeam, 13.1 per cent; pine, 8.3 per cent; spruce,
(.7 per cent: fir, 6.1 per cent; other species, 24 per cent.
The growth and yield of the chief species are as follows:

SDi:imeter Volume
Age. Height. breast-high. per are.

I'mrs. Feet. Feet. Cuba feet
Caucasian beech.............................................. 200 149 7 8,000
Oak.............................................. ........... 120 100 2 5.000
Pine.......................................................... 100 120 4 &i8.0
Spruce...................................................... 250 iO1 5 12,00
Fir............................................................. 250 170 7 16,00

The mot. useful of these trees is beech, which grows in great num-
bers along the sides of the mountains. The beeah of the Caucasus is
distinguished by the good qualities of its fiber and is suitable for the
manufacture of furniture, staves for casks, etc. Oak also grows in
considerable quantities and is highly valued.
Among the softwoods are pine (Piwus sylveftris, Pinus montana,
Pbius la)icio, Piu mrm Pinn mr.us pinca, cand Pinus eldarica),
spruce (P;cca oiuientalis), silver fir (Abies .nor'dman nina, the dimen-
sions of which are sometimes enormous), and many kinds of juniper
trees. The most important of these commercially are silver fir, pine,
and spruce.
In many parts of the Caucasus, especially near Borzhom, spruce
trees produce excellent material for piano instruments. The wood
for such instruments was formerly furnished by Austria, and the
supply is nearly exhausted. Piano manufacturers in Petrograd have
made experiments with Caucasian spruce trees for this purpose and
have achieved excellent results.
Caspian Fisheries.
The Risi-iain w.ater-, have always been famous for their abundance
of fish. The official statistics published by the Department of Agri-
culture give the following data concerning the catch of fish in
the Caucasus. in 1913, exclusive of the waters of Petrovsk and
Derbent: Volga-Caspian region, 17,802,000 poods, valued at
26,00, Kur-C ian region, 8384000, poods, valued at
$9,500,000.
The Caspian Sea maintains a highly developed fishing industry.
The richest fishing trade in Russia is concentrated in the southern







RUSSIA-THE 'AUCA'SU'S. 13

part of the Baku district and the River Kura, with a center at. the
village Salianui. The technical equlipnment for the preservation of
the fish is excellent in the case of some large Iundertaking...
The Ca.lpian Sea and the lower part of the Volga have always, been
famous for yielding the highest. grade of caviar. In the year., 1911
to 1913 the exports of caviar amounted to 175,000 poods, in value
$2,000,000. About three-fourths of the amount went to Germany,
from which country it was reexported to France, England, the
United States, etc.
The number of persons employed in the fishing industry before
the war amounted to 127,5000 in the Volga-Caspian region and 43,500
in the Kura-Caspian region.
Caucasus Oil Fields.
The oil fields in the Caiucasus are Kuban, Grozny, Gurya. and
Baku.
Kuban d/strict.-The Kuban district is situated on the north-
western slope of the Caucasian main chain, and comprise- several
fields whose importance is not yet established. Two of these are
Anapa and Taman, where prospecting was begun in 1912, chiefly by
British capital, but no final results were arrived at before the war
stopped further activities. The Maikop field came to the fore in
1909, when a prolific guisher broke out in it so unexpectedly that
the oil was lost. as no preparations for its storage had been made.
Enormous excitement followed this event. Companies were forced.
and speculation in land and feverih-l borings began on all sides. A
pipe line was laid to the station Einem, and also two pipes to the
port of Tuapse. Unfortunately the production of the field was a
great diappl)ointment, as only a few wells yielded oil; and in 1916
only 5 of the f1i companies founded in London for the exploitation
of this field were .till working mn ,tly in the central and south-
eastern parts. It i-; expected that deeper drilling will give better
results. The aggregate depth of :ill the wells drilled in 1912
amounted to 11,. .azhen.s (S3.303 feet), and in 1913 to 14,475
sazhens (101,325 feet). Prolific oil, high in motor spirits (11-13 per
cent) and illuminants (31-38 per cent), wa~ found at. a a shallow
depth.
Grozny.-The Grozny oil fields are situated on the northern slope
of the Caucasus Mountains and are connected with the Vladikavkaz
Railway by the Baku line and a pipe line with the Caspian Sea at
Petrovsk. Deep boring began there in 1903, as hand-dug well..
which formerly had been utilized, were found to be quite inadequate.
In fact, the important oil horizons lie very deep in this field; most
of the original wells are between 3,000 and 4,000 feet deep, and yet
their productivity is diminishing. However, new -ections have beetl
taken up during the last few years and are 1eing methodically
worked. Special care is being taken to prevent the flooding of the
wells by surface water, which accident had happened repeatedly in
the beginning of the exploitation. The total area worked in the field
in 1916 was 2,861 dessiatines (7,725 acres), and there were 773 well-.
of which 385 were in operation.
The total of the drillings executed in 1913 was 203,000 feet: in
1914, 290,000 feet; in 1915, 181,930 feet; and in 1916, 153,307 feet.







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


A great part of the. Grozny oil is exported through the port of
Novorossiisk. The quantities shipped from there were as follows:
1910, 170,609 tois; 1911, 234,285; 1912, 213,186; 1913, 219,480; 1914,
149,330. The closing of the Dardanelles stopped further exports, and
as the Grozny oil is especially suitable for the production of high-
class gasoline. enormous quantities of it are accumulating in the field.
Ti'e, fir- -. rfil'er for lubricating oils at Grozny was completed dur-
ing 1914. Grozny occupies second rank as oil producer, and it is
estiiimted 1 h:it. it m.n easily produce at the rate of 150,000.000 poods
(18.000.000 barrels, at 81. poods to the barrel of 42 gallons) for many
years. The (Grozny works are conducted on a more scientific and
eco('iiiiiic; l aiii.- than the works at Baku. In the former all water is
perfectly cut iff by proper cementing in the wells. The oil is stored
in iron t;ankd. which prevent, the heavy loss by evaporation to which
the Baku operators are subjected through the extensive use of earth
reservoil-. The loss of Balk operators attributed to this cause alone
is estimated at 11.000.00 poods (1.320,000 barrels) annually, whereas
the cost of iron tanks sufficient, to store 100,000,000 poods (12,000.000
barrels) of crude oil would not, it is estimated. exceed $4,000,000, or
approximately the loss that is now felt in one and a half years.
Gurya.-This oil field is situated in the district of Ozurgety, at a
distance of 25 miles from Batum and only 5 miles from the small
ports of Supsa and Nikolas on the Blick Sea in Georgia.
Natural outflows of petroleum had been known there for a long time,
but only in 1911 a Baku firm made a trial boring which produced a
flowing well at a depth of only 63 feet. This immediately caused a
great rush to take up lands in the neighborhood; experts were sent
to the spot and several British and other companies formed. Drilling
was started in 1913 in three places, but the outbreak of the war in-
terrupted the work.
The investigations will, no doubt, be taken up again as soon as cir-
cumstances permit, since the favorable position of this field practically
on the Black Sea coast makes it specially interesting.
BuLiu.-The name "Baku," or rather "old Baku," oil fields is
applied to the four oil fields of Balakhany, Sabuntchi, Romany, and
Bibi-Eibat. covering an area of a little over 1.000 dessiatines
(2,700 acres).
The work of the Ruslian Geological Conmmittee has shown that, in
reality, the old fields mentioned are not. limited to that area and might
be considerably enlarged; but owing to the difficulties arising from
the system of leasing the unexploited parts of the old Baku oil fields
belonging t t the State (also estimated at about 1,000 dessiatines),
Baku petroleum enterprises have been restricted to the existing oil
fields.
A gradual exhaustion of the upper petroleum levels obliges the
works to keep up their output by constantly boring deeper and deeper,
thus naturally increasing the cost. of production. Of late it. has not
been uncommnonm to find borings in Baku 300 or 400 sazhens (2,100 or
2,800 feet) deep, although even now the average productivity of the
wells can not 1he considered great. In 1912 the average depth was only
184.7 sazhenI (1,293 feet), as against 145.8 sazhens (1,021 feet) in
1901. It is the opinion of competent geologists that the Baku oil
fields still contain large quantities of petroleum at a very considerable
depth, so that the generally accepted view of the exhaustion of the








PrUSSIA-THE CAUC'ASUS.


old Baku oil fields Imay he taken to be correct only ill the upper levels
of the fields. If in spite of deeper horings ;ind tie, larger inibt! er
of wells, the output 1 1, the old oil fields should fall, thl're wo\IIhld be 11
denying that the old IBaku oil fields are becoming exh;-ll.-tel. How
much petroleum and at what cost can be obtained at the greater depthl
ILmust remain an1 open qutestionl."
Besides the four old tield. there are alo in the Apshlleron Penin-
sula the Surakhany and Binagadi fields; the latter includes the. hand-
dug wells of Kharasan and Shubani. The area of oil land under
exploitation in the Baku region at present is about 5 square mile-.
The number of productive wells is 3,500, distributed among, about 20)0
oil-producing firm-s. Thl S\iatoii, or Holy, Island field lie- :3 miles
off the peninsula.
Baku oil is heavier than that of Penn,.ylvania ; its density is 863 to
872. It is very prolific in heavy oils fielding lubricants. On di.--
tillation it furniishes 5 per cent of eightt oil, 2o to :3 pIer ceni of kero-
sene, and 55 to 65 per cent of residue. heavy oils, or mnizut." Tlhe
residue is used principally for the preparation of lubricants. Upon
distillation in steam the residue fields 15 per cent of turbine oil and
35 per cent of machine oil. The remaining g waste, or mazit," is
used for burning on loi, miotives or elsewhere, although it may, by
superheating, he partly tran lformled into lighter oils.
Oil Production in the Caucasus Fields.
The following table. conui iled from figures published by the United
States Geol(gi al Survey, gives the production of oil in the various
Caucasus field., from 1907 to 1917. in barrels of 42 gallons:

Yearsu.u. Grozuy. Mai'op. Other. Total.

Bar itls. Barr, Is. Barils. Barr Is. Barrel,.
1907 ..............,...................... ", 113,: 7 7, .. ................ 1 0, .4
1908....................................... .... 9I t.. 24 67 ............ ............ 62, I1, ,'147
19.................................. ............. f 6 u,
1909................................... ... o 546,700 .... ....... ............
1910 .................................... 1, 1 0.141 8.'9, .9 1-6,640 17S,12' 70, 2.3, 271
1911 ....................................... .4, '2 t-11 33 9,026,361 9"2,4 3 1,614,944 66, 110,391
1912 ....................................... "1. 1,6,723 7,8 1, 14 1,104.442 1,99 2,m' 3 67, 7.;5. 105
1913...................................... 4- 63,939 S x42,649 j7i,S2 .31,2 1 il 6 tl, 13,372
1914..................................... 49,4 9.41 S 11,S5. 150 .17-,019 3,021S,36S 64,S03, 95.,
1915....................................... 51.77,419 10,5.Qa,320 1' .04 1 0 2,9".3 t66,333,S9r
1916a..................................... 5:, 810, 64 12,332,6S3 210,60:6 25,352,911 70,736.2q4
1917b ...................................... 49,300,000 14,70hn,i 00 (c) -2,2~l ,001 d67,210, 000

a Estimated in part. b Estimated. c Iiclndcd in "Other."
d Includes production of Ferghana. in Turkestan, \xlhich is not riiveni separately for 1917. In the thr'o
years preceding, it varied [rom 215i,0i) to 240,1000 barrels.
Oil Production of Principal Countries.
The following table, giving the production of oil from 1914 to 1917
of the principal producing countries of the world, shows the relative
importance of the Russian oil fields. It will be noticed that the Cau-
casus output constitutes almost the total yield for Russia.

Country ~. 1911 1913' 191i 1917

Barr'el. Barrrls. Barrdc. Barrrls.
United States............................ ......... 2i65,762,.535 21Sl1,104,101 300,767,15S 335,315,601
Russia............................ .......... ............ 67,020,522 6,5 MS, 06i2 72.s01,110 69,000,00.)
Mexico................................................ 2 26,23 ,41l 32,010,'- O 40,.45, 712 55,292,770
Dutch East Indies.................................... 11,S34,502 12,356,$00 13.174,3'9 12,92',9"3
Rumania............................................ 12, ;26, 570 12,)029,913 10 295, 20S 2,6,1,S 70
Galicia................................................ 5,033,350 4.1,5S,5 99 6, 41,706 5,965, 147
aThe foregoing paragraphs on Baku were adapted from Russia: Its Trade and Cum-
merce, edited by Arthur Raffalovich.







16 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Baku Oil Refining.
The refining of oil takes place at Black Town and White Town,
industrial sections to the east of Baku. The refineries number 30.
Nearly ill thel petroleum produced in the Caucasus is refined in the
Baku region. 'ihe refineries existing in Nizhni Novgorod, Moscow,
Petrogr.ad. and l iign distil only about 10,000,000 or 12.000,000 poods
per an num.
In ca;lculating the cost of the refining operations there must be
taken into conm-ileration as a basis, the cost of the crude oil delivered
at the refilcry; the fuel, for which often the reid(lues of the distilla-
tion are ictl; the co-t. of cheniicals, administration and labor, and
general expense's.
As an ilnlii.-:tion of the varioul- products or the Baku refineries, the
following li-t gives the oultpul for April, 1916. The total production
amounted1 to -.84-s,!0lI poods, made up as follows:
Poods.
IlluiminlA tiii;-g oils (kerosene, Ip roiillihtha, ild-astlral oil_ -------- 5, S74,900
Luh1ricatini oils (spidiltel, IItI.L-ine, cyli itler, ec.) ------- --- --- 980,500
Solar oilI, ligili ind havy-------_------------------------------- 514,000
;Gasnline-__-__-----------_-----------------____----_____ 101,3 00
Residues ---------------- ---------------_-----------13. 585, 000
Paraffin --------------------- ------------------- 800
Other l.1 proIets ------------------------------------------------ 2,786,400
Oil is pumped from the places of production to the Black Town dis-
trict or is brought. in small barges from the Bibi-Eibat field. There
are also works engaged in the production of machinery and tools re-
quired in oil extraction, chemical works for the production of sul-
phuric acid, caustic soda, and saponaceoous bases, and brick, stone,
cement, flour, timber, printing, and cotton works.
Transportation of Oil and Oil Products.
Oil is transmitted from Baku on the Caspian to Batum on the
Black Sea by means of a pipe line 560 miles long, which lias 19 pump-
ing stations. Tie diameter of the pipe is 8 inches and it has a
capacity of 60,000,000 puods per year. It- cost was 25,000,000 rubles
($13,000,000).
The (ql:ntitiet- of oil thuls transported were as follows: 1900, 21,-
490,000 poods (.78800 barrels: 101, 9.0 poo (.7800 arpoods (7,099.440
barrels); 1902, 56,495,000 poods (6,779,400 barrels) ; 1903, 52,780,000
poods (6,3:2.600 barrel) ; 1904, 64,095,000 poods (7,763,400 barrels);
1905, 19,543,000 poods (2,345,000 barrels); 1906, 21,760,000 poods
(2,611,200 barrels) ; 1907, 26,i70,00)0 poods (3,188,400 barrels); 1908,
27,674,000 poods (3.320.880 barrels) 1900, 19,7S88,000 poods (2,374,-
560 barrels) ; 1910, 2(,425,000 poods (3,171,000 barrels); 1911, 23,-
630,000 poods (2,835:,6010 barrels); 1912, 2-2,000,000 poods (2,640,000
barrels).
While this, pipe line is now nmore than sufficient for the trlansl)orta-
tion of the Baku products to the Black Sea, the trade hnas at its dis-
posal on the Caspian Sea aC considerable numllber of '-'teiners and
sailing vessels adapted for it, a. the following table shows:







]UiS-IA-THE CAUCASU.S.


Ys m. Number ol .1. Nilmhr of (..pacity.
steamers. *I, i" sailors.

Cubic feet. Cubic feet.
1906............ ..... .... ...... .............. 131 .2. 1, 771 140 2,8%6, 41
1 07 ................................................. 129 ,2 ,21 144 2,7 ,7
190 .................................................... 129 5,225,100 142 2,761,819
1909 .......................... ..... .............. .. 127 5,200,245 145 2, 1G,'O82
1910 .......... .............................. .... ..... 120 5 ,2' 109 150 2,993,653
1911........ ...................................... 121 5, 011, l'1 147 2, N' ,9.C 7
1912.................................................. 118 5,518,664 60 1,755034

In 1912 the transport of petroleum products formed 37 per cent
of the whole traffic on the Volga and 5 per cent of the total traffic on
all the Russian railways. The Iean; of transport used for the Baku
products are shown by the (lluantities forwarded during April, 1916:
Poods.
By Tririiisea ii-i-,;sih ii _iil\ -; --- _- 2, 5 3. 21 mj
By Transl-aiasiain Rail way to Batum---------------------- 1,019,500
By Vladiknvknz Iil\\ay --..------------------------------- 531,700
By sea to Astrakhan. ---------------------------_-------__--------- 4:. 818, 5110
By sea tu Petrov~sk ----- ------. --- ----------------304,903,
By sea to Tr; ----------------------------------------773, 7- I I
By sea to 'ersia ;.............______________.._______.._________ 247,600
By sea it) I'PieAa -------------------------.--- ---- ----- 24, 600
By sea t ,li- pirr- .--- ----------------------------------- 421,000
Total -. ---- ----------------- 49,670,100
Of the other prodltuling centers Grozny senid-; a part of its crude
oil to the refinerie, in Novoro ssii.sk, whence the light oils are ex-
ported, while the residues, which amount to about 16,000,000 podI.
(178,000 barrel:. at 9 poods to the barrel) per year, are piiumped to
Petrovsk ,on the C'apian Sea by pipe line and tlhre shipped by
steamer to A.,tralkhin and Central Russia. The Maikop production
goes for refining Imostly to Ekaterinodar and is con,mincd locally.
Importance of Homc Market-Increased Russian Consumption of Fuel Oil.
The ihowe market, i, (if the highest i!pl,,rtlnce to the Baku indlt--
t.ry, and even mn(,re -!, I-) the whole country, as heating and lighting
material.: ai-, generally scarce. Coal especially, which is indis-
pensable iln niiinyi ndistries, llbor-i under great and constant diffi-
culties of' transport. A., the export trade has couniderably dimin-
ished, especially since 1905, in cons'ile l' nce of A lmerir.an competition,
the hone market lias easily absorbed by far the greate-t part of the
production, and the con-,lsmption can only increase in the future as
new manufactures rees created in the country.
Only 6,500,000 poods per year of illuminating oil canl be trinls-
ported directly by water to the c-enter.- of consumption, while 40,-
000,000 poods can be carried by sear to the Volga ports, there to be
reloaded on the railways, and the rest must be e.airirle by railway
only, direct from the factories to the consumers.
In the last few years large (.lUantities of fuel oil have been shipped
to the Volga port.- for distribution in the interior of Russia as
follows: 1913, 77,035,100 pood., (8,559,.500 barrels, at 9 poods to the
barrel) ; 1914, 75,024,20( poods (8,330,000 barrel); 1915, 102,799,400
ponds (11,422,200 barrels). Tlie great increase of 1915 is (due to the
1459850--19--1,, ----:







SUPPILEMI.NT TO '(O MMERC'E REPORTS.


disturilani .'1 f tin- co0.I production by the war and the urinent neces-
sity of lotainilng fi!el fronl other source.-. l'he consllumption of the
inidi;'t( neilIghborhood of the producing centers i-, in itself not
iniconil-bi l rIili nku. for instance. use'o lt0 to 1.) per cent of its
prodiirtion of 'rilde oil as fuel. although this quantity is gradually
decreea-ing, ;I electrical energy and fuel-saving engines are being
introduced. 'T1l Trani-cauaision Railway in 1912 used 15.000,000
pood-h (1,11,G7.0110( barrels) and the Vladikavkaz Railway 17,000,000
po1d)- (1,b.ss0I0 I)arrels).
Development of Export Trade in Oil.
It lany seem -ttrange that the products of the Baku petroleum in-
dustry from the very beginning should have been utilized almost ex-
clusively for the export trade and not for home coniisumption. One
of the chief reasons for this anomaly was the fuet that Baku was
far distant from the chief distributing centers of the Empire and
had prncticnlly no railway connection with them. Moreover, the
Government was fotering the export trade from its initial stages.
It released the export goods from tie excise duty and even encour-
aged the exporters by a special export premium of 4 per cent. Ex-
portation was chiefly concentrated in the Black Sea port. of Batum,
whence the goods' were shipped to the countries of western Europe,
Afvicin, and the Far East. The exportation through the Ca'pian
Sea to Persia was of comparatively small importance.
The Trancauca..ian Ra ilway and tle pipe-line to Batuin were
really the maker, of this export trade and at the same time gave to
the port of Batunm a considerable incrveae in activity and importance.
Alout. 100 huge tanks were erected there for storing the oil brought
from Baku by rail and by the pipe-line. Then about 10 special fac-
tories were started for the manufacture of tin cani. and wooden cases,
which, in the beginning, were the usual mode of packing the oil
for export, each case containing usually 2 cans of 4 gallons each of
petroleum. Thi-, packing required a great. number of men and im-
portant installations of modern machinery. Rothschild's factory,
which was installed in 1892. was the most important and could pro-
duce and fill 3(j, 00 tin-, per day and pack them into the respective
wooden case-,. Tlis factory occuplied about 1.400 hands and had 28
iron taflik, of its own. The number of such cases exported from
Bat.um was .276,512 in 1910 and 1 n ,40d0,000 in 1912. Two-thirds of
the. entire export-, of the port of Batumn consisted of petroleumi prod-
u.:t-, and the porl ladl no competition to fear from the other Black
Sea ports, :is. for instance, to the port of Novorossiisk the railway
taritl on petroleum products was 7\ klopecks per pood higher than
on the Trainca ucasian Railway.
Labor Conditions in Oil Industry.'
In 1913 the ni lmber of workmeni and officials directly engaged in
the petroleumn ilnduitry in the Caucansus was about 60.000, of whom
about 10,000 were connected with the Baku fields-42,105 in produc-
tion ;nd 3..i25 in tle refineries, pipe-lines, and (locks. In the Grozny
di-trict there were about 7,200 men engaged in production and 372
a Til- n maini:.I i..ir.'-i, h.- o.i i h.. i ir oil iniduatr i were taken from The Caucasian Petro-
leum Inidu-tr y, I LP I;hi.IiII:i' hiil ,C.







11'.S- lA---THE CAUCA.rfs.-.


in the retinerie.-a total of 7,57"2. Maikcp occupied 1,270 men in
production and 74 in the refineries- total of 1.144. The refineries in
Novoro.- iisk employed about 134 mlen :ind the pllumiping station in
Battum 363.
According to nationnliltie, the worllen were divided as follows:
Tatars and Persians, 54.3 per cent; :ll.-i;in _'i:I.1 per cent; Ar-
menian.. 19.4 per cent; Georgian-, 3.2 per cent.
According to occupations the relative numbers work out in the fol-
lowing proportion: Administration, 6.6 per cent; foremvi.n, 14.3 per
cent; mechanics, 4.2 per cent; skilled workmen, 36.9 per (cint; un-
skilled laborers, 27.8 per cent; apprentices, 1 per crnt; other work-
ers, 9.2 per cent.
In Baku itself the niumbier.; of men employed in the oil industry
amounted to 46,4391 on September 1, 1915, and to 48,.1'G' on September
1, 1916(. The latter were di-irilbuted in the different branches as fol-
lows: Petroleum production, 31,199; boring, 8,812; mechanical work-
shops, 3,714; refining, 4,801; total, 48,526.
In 1909 the 8-h,1(r working day was introdiu.ed for the men at the
wells an(l 9 hours for those in the shops. Housing is provided for 71
per cent of all the officials and workrien by their employers; 22 per
cent of then, are paid lodging money, while the rLiinining 7 per cent
are not specially provided for.
The petroleum workers of Baku, Grozny, and 3Maikop are organized
in several associations for protecting the interests of their industry.
The most important of them is the Baku Association, founded in 1889.
Originally its functions were very modest, but. it has grown into a very
important organization. In 1914 its budget amounted to 2,704,875
rubles. The following were the items of its expenditure:
Rubles.
For medical aidl ---------- --------- .------_ ,0000
For education ------------ ------- ------------ 248,000
For road bo)n.tri.iCtio0 ------------------------------- 131,000
For collection of .tatnistic and publications-------------------- 70,000
For collection andi slle if oil otherwise lost on the roads -----------_ 57, 000
For (Irainnage and lig-lting ------------------------------- 52, 000
For maintenance of the p, lic r force .--.---------.--------------___ 587. 000
Foreign Capital in Oil Industry.
In the development, of the Russian oil industry foreign capital plays
a prominent part. The first important. foreign enterprise, that of
Nobel Bros., was founded in 1872 with a capital of 3,000,000 rubles,
which was increased in 1881 by 3,000,000 rubles, in 1882 by a further
4,000,000, and in 1883 again by 5,000,000, thus. making a capital of
15,000,000 rubles, and showing the sudden expansion of this business
concern. On the other hand, tle oldest Russian enterprise, the Bakin-
skoie Nephtyannoie Obshtchestvo, founded in 1874, with a capital of
7,500,000 rubles, had to write it down to 2,000,000 rubles in 1894, and
only the help of French money brought it up again to about 8,000,000
rubles. Russian capitalists kept strangely aloof from this industry,
even after the railway to Batum had been built and had opened up the
prospect of a great export business. Its possibilities were soon
recognized by the Rothschilds of Paris, who founded in 1S.S the
Caspian Black Sea Co., and in 1898 the Masut Co., which w:as later
bought up by the Shell Co.








20 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

The following table. from the Nephtyannoie Dyelo, shows the
original capital :lnd the capital in 1915 of the older companies:

V' J,, Oricil,:l Capital ill Yna r': Of icial Capitalin
Conim ir. r. tla13- ap al 1i. Companies. lunda-
c, pit.. riun. capital. 1915.

Ftorric, rI iI I ; Forcien tapital-
Siikii I 1ic-i:,in kHR hlr. hlrw.I Continued.
I't i..lh ,nt U. IUN74 2,000,0000 7,700 ,1111 hI.Ian IPetro- Rubles. Rubles.
N< ..l I', .... 197,1 3,001 :01) 0 30,00i,000 Plum C(u...... 1WS1 2,000,000 24,750,000
laj I1. ......... 1SSO 3,500,000 1, S00,000 Russian capital:
I' i...n-IIlatck Milz II........ 18 '; 2, ,40 ,0 3,, 10,000
Si tI ........ 1S.3 1,51l,(000 10,000,000 Caspian Co..... 1I.&7 1,500,000 10,000,000
t.hi,,..ti.- I ...... I" 1 501)0, ) t, 500, (

Therefore, while the foreign enterprises increased their capital by
67,250,000 rubles., the Ru.sian companies added only 9.570,000 rubles
to theirs.
Briti-h capital became specially interested in the Russian oil in-
dustry after 1898, and between that year and 1903, 85,720,000 rubles
were invested in it from this source, the most important enterprises
beinl, the Schibaeff Petroleum Co., the Russian Petroleum Co., and
the faku Russian Petroleum Co. The new field-., like Grozny, are
controlled almost entirely by British and French capital.
It may be confidently hoped that foreign capital will always be
welcome in the. Russian oil industry. At the same time it must be
mentioned that during the war there has been a great accumulation
of capital in the Caucasus, .,ome of which will find its way into this
indu.try. But extensive new installation'- and technical improve-
itents will lhave, to be provided from abroad, and this will offer great
and fruitful opportunities to American finance and enterprise. The
expected general development of industry i'n the whole of Asia will
cause an ever-increasing demand for oil, and this will give new im-
petus to its production and to the opening-up and exploitation of
new fields. H
Importance of Manganese Deposits.
Mining at present is little Ildveloped, but it could be made a most
impnrta.nt bran'-ch of the economic activity of the Caucasus. The
itlin,''ral resource.- of tihe region are vast. Of particular importance
is the mnanLganese ore of Georgia, where the output equals 70 per cent
of tll' total amount of manganese ore produced in Ru-sia.
The IlniLg;lnese deposits of the Caucasus are among the richest in
the world. The principal mines ,are situated at Tchiaturi, in the
KuTt:i Government, about 125 miles from the Black Sea ports of
Batum and Poti. The exploitation of these mines began in 1878 but
reiiiiined on ;: ve\,ry limited scale until 1885., when the Transcaucasian
Railw:av was con',tructed. The mines at Tchiaturi lie in a region of
lori zl ital sedimientary formations, divided by the Kvirili River.
These are again cros ,ed by numerous branches of the river, so that
the entire region is ldiv'ided into seven plateaus: On the right side of
the Kivirli-Rzani, Sedergani. Mguemevi, and Darkveti; on the left
side-Pemcvi-,i. Tehueuicti, Itlkhrvisi. The total area covered by these
mine- is about 55 ,qjiuace miles, of which 44 square miles contain good
ore.









T''lle o l'cA uitllrop are aboutl 1,000 feet alcImc tihe level of the river'
and lie in a horizonta I bed, with limestone below and .-i ndsione ab ove.
Besides solid benches, the ore also occurs in granules (oolitic form)
mixed with sandstone. The richest ore has been found in tle plateaus
of Mguemevi, Sedergadi, and Tchucruti; Rgani plateau yields rich
wash ore. According to the calculations of Rnsisi.nu geologists, the
Tchiaturi mines contain about 1,070,000,000 tons of ore, estimated to
be sufficient to supply Europe. and the United States for at hl;ast half
a century, especially as the Tchiaturi ore is of high quality. The
mines can Ie worked easily over g -at areas. by g;lllri^,*-. with the uiie
of picks and shovels.
Ownership and Working of Mines-Transportation of Ore.
The mines are owned by a large number of (Geogian p.i.-In t-, who
are without capital or knowledge of mining. Until recently, with few
exceptions, the mines have been worked in a iniot primitive way, re-
sulting in the recovery of only about two-thirds of the ore. Within
the last seven years various foreign firms have bought up some of the
larger plots and have started mining by more modern ill tllh'd. The
lunmp ore is sepal)ated by land from the sandstone; only the ore occur-
ring ili granules is separated by water concentration in w:ll; ingi
plants. In wVashinig, tie granular ore can be conce t rated up to 60 per
cent of metal or 90 per cent of manganese peroxide (MnO,), bil these
percentages are above the averages for the district.
The ore is tr'ansporteil to the railroad at Tchiaturi in two-wheeledl,
oxcarts or by pack horses (over poor roads for di.itances varyiiVng. from
1U to 3. 1 miles. at a cost of 1 to 1.5 centk per pood (31.1128 po.unds).
The position of the mines is favorable for mechanical transportation
of ore, especially by wire ropleways, but on account of lack of v.ipital
such methods have begun to be employed only recently and by a few
firms. From Tchiaturi the ore is carried on the Tchiaturi Railway, a
25-mile MiiUrruw-gauge branch of the maiin line, to Sliaropan, where it
is transferred into the cars of the Transcaucasian Railway and slipped
to either Batuim (or Pti.
Explored But Unexploited Manganese Deposits.
There rv an l. deposits in the Tchorokh Valley (Georgia). Main-
ganese ore occurs in another interesting deposit n'ar Kartla, on the
left bank of the Tclorokh River and not far from, it and the high-
road, about 35 miles from Batumi. The ore is pyrolusite, of good
texture, and not very friable. It exists in three layer- having a
total thickness of about 3 yards. The beds are liorizontil aind
their natural outcrops imiake extraction easy, no expensive or coU-
plicated operations being required. Assays of saplles gave 53.60
and 54.40 per cent of maanganese metal, 0.07 to 0.09 per cent of
phosphorus, and 6.10 to 8.52 per cent of silica, without other objec-
tionable elements, so that. the ore seems of superior qualityy. An
Anglo-French syndicate took an interest in this depo-it some years
ago, but only exploration work has so far been done in it, and the
exploitation of this and other mineral occurrences in the Tlehrokh
Valley depends probably on the building of the projected railway
through it.
Manganese ore also crop.-, out in the valley of the I(clilkhdla River
(Georgia). a tributary of the Tchorokh from the wvr-t.crr side, about


HV'--,NA--THE ( AUCASITS.







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


20 miles from Battum. The ore is also pyrolusite, in places mixed
with iron ore and containing up to 27 per cent of iron. Only super-
ficial exploration work has been done.
Other highly interesting deposits occur also in Lazi.stan, formerly
part of 'Tu'rke,. southwest of Batun. This district forms the con-.
t.inuat ionl of the mineralized zone of the Tchorokh Valley across the
IHelishin Iiii, ntltin range, and the most of the valleys running from
the hitter northward to the sea between Rizeh and Surmeneh contain
some minerals. as mangane-e, iron, copper, or zinc.
In the Kara-dereh Valley, near Surmeneh, large occurrences of
]maIll;aneseL' ore have heen traced over a distance of about 6 miles
along the mountainside. The outcrops, where exposed, have a width
of 4 to 10 feet and consist of high-grade pyrolusite. The nearest
point of the deposit is only about 2 miles from the sea.
Similar formations exist in the Treeboli Valley. The outcrop
stands out prominently and has a thickness of about 12 feet; the
lode strikes east and west, with a dip to the northwest and is com-
)poed of limestone showing nodules and heavy impregnations of
manganese ore. The center of the lode carries a vein of good ore,
samples of which contained 49.66 per cent of manganese metal.
This outcrop is about 6 miles from the sea and easily accessible.
Other deposits of the same nature occur at Gooshak, where the
quantity of available ore is estimated at 1.000.000 tons:- at Dhar-
luk. 2 miles from the coast, where at least five beds of rich ore are
exposed; at Sharadek, Khraklabek-tchan Badaheltree, and Govanyak,
all lying in the same district and within a few miles from the sea,
where loading stages can be built easily. Water is available, in
every valley for washing and concentrating the ore, if necessary,
and transportation to the loading places- would require only short
tram lines. The cost of the ore delivered on board ship would there-
fore be very low.
Number of Mines-Production of Ore.
The number of mines with drifts under exploitation for the years
1913 to 1917 was. as follows: 1913, 303 mines and 437 drifts; 1914, 192
mines and 226 drifts; 1915. 95 mines and 153 drifts: 1916, 106 mines
and 144 drifts: 1917. 84 mines and 96 drifts.
Tie t( tal production of manganese ore in the Caucasus fur the years
1911 to 1916 was as follows: 1911, 451,640 tons; 1912, 725,806 tons;
1913. 9.)i2,000 tons f; 1914, 566,000 tons,0; 1915, 254.000 tons; 1916,
237,000 tons. The declaration of war seriously affected the produc-
tion of manganese. This was due to the shutting down of a consider-
able number of mines and to the limited exploitation undertaken.
Figures for the year 1917 are not available, and during the year 1918
practically no mining was done.
Operations of Concentrating Plants in Tchiaturl.
In the Tchiaturi region up to 1914 there were 27 concentrating
plants. In the following table, taken from a publication of the Coun-
cil of Manganese Producers, is shown the number of plants in opera-
N No accurate figures are av:ilablb : ti,:l e e are e.-tilnaIes based on flgures given in Min-
eral Industr.v for 1917 and on the a.I-umption that the Caucasian production is 70 per
runt of tin: total for Russia.







RIIrSIA--THE C'A CASUS.


tion for the years 11 1 1915, 1916, and 1917, together w ith other par-
ticulars:

rLaborers.
Orere- Pl A ointof Loss in
Y,.:,l -. Plants. eeived
1lm?1. celAvel washed ore. % vr i hing-
at plants. Fwor For
washing. hand lig.

Number. Poods. Poods. Per cent. t.\ ;1,f. 1Picmber.
1914......................... ....... ; 23,211.IN'i 15 007,00f 35.17 478 20S
1915.................... .............. .... 12 53, l, 7 17, i J 37.01 170 15
116 .... ........................... 22 17,228,500 44.51 417 38
1917............ ....................... 21 11,967,000 l;, 6 .' il1 44.27 222 30

In 1914 only IS out of 27 plaints wel'r rlluning. making i u" th lproduc-
tion Imailleri than tliht of l!i:1 by 7.1)i),ui)() pool-: hinve\er, taking
into consideration that the plants were operated pr.yiticially only
during the first six months of 1914,'it will be relimarlk'c that in that
yeari thle ,production of every pl;nt incllrt;,d, aind if w\ar had not
occuI'rcd :an output nien11ly t wii'c :i lirge a: tlh one indicated would
i;a' leen ol)btined by thll end of the year. The next year, 1915, the
am.iIe Imiiimlber of active plants produced only 7,817,000 ponid, of
washed ore. In other words, the production dcrevased1 by 7,250,000
pood(., or 4., per 'ent. In 1916 the number of active plants and the
;Illolllt iof Ilv p)rhcl'itled in 1',linectionl with the demiiind., of the
Riuss'ii nietallirgi'ial t;i,"ories inmaking war materials increased,. liut
in 1917 there wa':; ;i -.till wiore nol icealbhle fall in the amount of w:i.1i-,d
ore. lin co',plariiton i wit tlie pro'dut-tion for 1914, this 191.7 output
s-hlo\ed! !e're;i.-o of s,..:..000 pod,1. or 55.7 per cent.
Manganese Exports from Black Sea Ports.
Tli,. exlprt-, o i 'igain'.-. ore from the (i:ttia.ian ports of Poti
:illd l 3:it01111 dl1ll'iig tir' ( -i'\',V ] llefn t11 the W l' W;VT'. eei foillo\v-.:

',11 i. 1 9li0. i' 1910 1911 1912 1913 1911

i'.: nh. Ti n Tons. I",n. TrIn. T7", Tonm.
P'oli .. ... tili) .311, 1 364,500 11 V'. I;' tI. ) 649,780 115i.01
iltlni ......... I G10J 36,215 12"., 23. i .3.2 429,900 -',129
I',ta l. ... 71,7t0 5.,T ,-l. i 715 ..71,(.3 '12,.572 6I. o;1'i. 07 727, 11.

For the 10 pre-wil years Germainy took 41 to 47 per cent of the
total lluantity of Illiaiilaliie'e ore exported from the Cai.;iSl.-.
In 1912 the iiml:nganese-ore traffic became a prolineinti feature of
the trade of the port of B~atuin, but it 'was, seriously handicapped by
the lack of proper facilitie-. A portion of hie quay in the inner 1i;r-
kor liha been set apart, to vtet its relt!irel'iienIL but there are not
enough berths for the int reading number of large vessels that the
trade brings. The situation is made still worse by the condition of
the port, which causes great delays and inconvenienless ind is dan-
gerous to shipping in had weAe;ther.
Manganese Shipped to Russia-Large Stocks-Firns Handling Manganese.
Shipments of manganese ore to Russia from the Caucasus am ounted
to 21,700 long tons in 1915. 175,000 long toin. in 1916, and 46,500 long
tons in 1917. Third was a considerable incre ,iee in the amoun i t of man-








24 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE _REPORTS,

gnne.e consiumIed by Russian industries over the pre-war period; pre-
vious to 19 1:i tlli- rnIlmimpltioln lhad ever exceeded 32.000 long tons
ill any one Vya;r.
Notw\itli-t:iindliig the decrease in production (during the war, the
lack of oppl)iJitunity to dispose of the ore left the manganese pro-
d(cer, ,i' this region with enormous stocks on hand at the end of
1917. n11 .Tune, 1919. at the port of Poti and at Tchiaturi, there were
approxii lately 935,000 long tons of cleaned ore, above ground, ready
for ,shipment. This ore varies in quality from 50 to 60 per cent,
ordinary, up to 88 to 90 per cent pure dioxide.
Mo-At of the Georgian producers have combined to form the Man-
ganese Producer,,' Stock Co. (Actionnerny Obshtchestvo Margantsei-
prlomyshlennikov), a semigovernmental institution that is designed
to court rol the industry, in spite of the fact that it owns only 242,000
long tons out of the 935,000 long tons above ground. Three-fourths
of the remainder is controlled by the two great exporting firms of
Tchilingiuriain Bros. and M. Manuelides, of Batunm. These two
firms are not actual producers, but are buyers and exporters.
The most important companies prior to the war were the Caucasian
Mining Co., Gelsenkirchener Bergwerks Verein, and one English
company. The Caucasian Mining Co. was estimated to have 225
dis-iatines (about 600 acres) of property, containing 10,000,000 tons
of ore, and produced about 150,000 tons of washed ore per annum.
Its washing plant vwas very well built, with machinery furnished by
the well-known I-lumblldt company.' in ('ologne. This company was
to be liquidated. The Gelsenkilchen company probably had 20,-
000,000 tons of (,re. but delayed the working of its own property with
the idea of keeping it for the future, and bought ore from small
contractors.
Manganese Output of Principal Countries.
The following figures give the output of mlanganese ore in the
principal produing countries for 1914 in metric tons k1 Ietric ton=
61 poods, or 0.9S4 long ton):
Metric tons.
Hungary --------------- ------------------------------ 11,413
Bosnia andl Iorzeg vin; -------------------4----- --- --------- 4,120
Brazil ----..... -------. --_ ------_-------------------------------. 183, 630
Canada ---------------------------------25
Greece --------- ------------------------------ 558
India _------------------ 693,824
Ita;ly__'- ---_ ------- ------- 1, 6-149
Ja i n .....------ ._.----------- ----------------------- 17,076
Ql li lid __..------------- ------------------------ ---------- 6
Russia -------------------------------------------------------- 737,300
swdeilil Kiii-d-m_ ----- ---------- --------------- 3. 46
I'nitcd Stat.--- -------------------_--------------- ----- ---2,677
Tli, 1913 production in France wais 7.732 tons and in Germany

Importance of Copper Deposits.
T'h( 11(mot reTeint and the fullest account of the copper resources of the
Can.i a-i1! is contained( in Mr. D. Ghambdashidze's book entitled "Min-
eral IRsources of Georgia .and Cauccsia," from which the following


a Exports onl






r US.s\-A-THE CAUCASUS.


iniforiHation i- taken. It should be noted that the word "Geoorgin."
as iused here, includes certain portions of the former Turkish Empire
that rle adjacent to Tnrns;eniua:sia on the soillthwest.
A\ftelr p!.i 'ium and iang ,nI.i'se, copper is the most important mineral Iprol'ucl.
of tlhe ('nu.aus.'. T ihe copper ores are generally found in ii-uiir. veins an;t con-
sist princi pally of chaleopyrite mixed sometimes with malachite and other
inmoificationi, besides different nonjlllCreous ores. Of the latter the most com-
mon are iron pyrites, which in many places prdoil.iiiineTio, while composite zinc
ores contaiuinin Iblende and galena form the bulk of other viiti,. the copper
forming only an acc"sst'ry part.
Cli'ppe'lr orl's oll'clil alll io.t every \ -re in (._'i-ii. If the (xj lil;iali ns are
cOL)iparalIively few, tih reason lies principally in the absence of easy means of
access to the mines tistrly situated in the mountains) and the dilli-unlty of
transporting to them (he necessary fuel, which may have to be imported by sea.
These difficulties make it imperative for new concerns to provide for large
prelininarly outlalys for it:lds and means of transport, so that small ci'nmpanics
have Is; chance of inercasing their production of metal, however plntiful their
ore reserves may he. The fuel problem might be avoided by expli.rtiilgL the ore
to foreign h ilielters; ill this lpolicy has not been encouraged, because Russia
itself \wa-i a Lrre' c'r,nsllumi t of copper and did not produce eno('hli for its needs.
Three Zones of Copper Deposits-Kedabek Mine.
Thie c'-plIJr (1d-pilits 'if (.Girgia are situated (1) south o ,' Tiflis, east and west
of the Tiflis-Kaurs Railway; (2) in the Tchorikh district, in the -',utlwe.ter
corner of Georgia; 13) in I he ZanIgesui- district, in the southeastern part.
The li-st-lmno\ n mine of the first zone is Kedabek, which for many years
ranked firsi in the country. It is situated southeast of Tirlis, about 25 miles
from thi. -iation D.;lli;ir of the Titlik-Ka.-rs Rlilway, and 1iolel-i'-; to Siemens
Bros.
The ire' d, pl-it li-, a:t Mi.s-Dar- (Copper Hill), near the works, and consists
of a s-lii'v. -i'i llif lhenitiviillrl ore bodies of considerable dimensions, being up
to 100G feel I :ikl ;imid S'i". fet~, long in one insiAn:in'i, while the ilnlt.rverIin:. spaces
somlel inl. narrow d(\'ll ;I thickness of 6 feet. These lenses, of \\ hi.:11 17 were
disco\v.'rtl ;Inii wi\' Vkd 111 were filled with quartzose rock and ir-l'ildpry, con-
taining vli.hlchulpyrite al:1 oxidizedd black copper, mixed with iron pyrites, also
zinc bilendh and gMihinia, partly with barytic gangue.
Th II '.untiry rock ,ci l-i-ki. of quartziferous :iiilo ite.s. which are almost com-
pletely i*..vered by a tfli\\- if lava.
Alaverdi and Other Mines of French Company.
Tlhie second cii ')ppir p iuMliucer of this zone is situated at Alhtvrrdli, near the
station Akhitala of tle Tillis-Kairs Railway. The mines were worked 10;1 A.:;Ir.c'
ago Iy the (G corgiain kingdom and have been exploiited since 1897 by a French
company I Sicirt I1nd11trielle et Mitallurgiqui e (d Caucase) on a lease expiring
in 1944. .\- at Mis-Dag, the vein here forms a succession of lenses, which vary
considerahbly in thicknes-; and frequently branch out ,ihlenist. Their ai-r,:Ig.
thickness is about 42 feet, Iut the largest one encountered so far was 36 fee:
thick, 12U frel. wide, anid oiw0 feet long. Tlif ore is chaliopiyriti, and some purple
ore, mixed with Iin'l p.yrites, and its copper content varies between 36 and
about 10 per renlt. it also contains about a dollar's worth of gild and silver
per ton. The capacity of the smelter is 160 tons of 5 per cent ore per day. In
1908 the mine produced 1,871 tons, and in I1013, 3.735 tons of copper, the average
cost being alout 11 cents perT pound.
Besides Alaverdi, the French confpany exploits. several other nieiic, two of
which are .ituated in tle same district. Tchliinluk, which it holds on lease,
lies about 9 miles northeast of its smelter and is of an;log,-'i gei.hlogie-al
formation to the Alaverdi deposit. consisting of a series of pockets or widen-
ings of the.- vein in gypf-in and harytes. The ore prii1'liell here is treated at
Alaverdi.
A similar mode of exploitation is carried on at Shm-aii, .situ ated east of
Alaverdi in the upper valley of the Bortchalo River. A quartz vein containingg
chalcopyrite is being worked here, and the ore extracted is also carried to
Alaverdi for treatment. although a -miall smelter existed on the spot in con-
nection with this mine.
1 -55'"-]- 1 --13 ---- -1








20 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Smaller Veins in Same Neighborhood-Other Deposits.
The e-tablishirelntrs iof Keidahok and Alaverdi possess the only large smelters
in illi, ilistriril, but there iare .svernl veins in the neighborhood either being
iexpjiol'vl \ 111 or \v.'l;.r l i i .ll a Slli l w.y, their prull ll-dtion going to the said
'ml tcrs. One ,1 IilIl r l'rs in tl Ie Knsakh district and is worthy of notice,
as the work lllle in it seem.ls to promise well. It was known to the ancient
miners, as there are muiiny indications of old workings on the property and
Inr.e- sl;; l pl. pl*-rol that at that time the ore was smelted on the spot.
Before the war siall quaIntities of ore were extracted, but the principal work
,ol ii.'Witd i'f i'rparill'i the mine for mnore intensive extraction. Six galleries
:riil two .iz, fti< of an a;'gregaite length otf about 500 feet and a depth of 60
feet, rs.'c'tivcly, were opellied up. The ore found during these operations was
ll-ftr!y i-l1ll :ipyrite and also lpper gl:ince Icovelline), or a mixture of both.
Copperli glance occurs in a vein about 14 inches wide nrnd assaying 30 per cent
of (IIcop(er, which has been fo llowe over a length of 50 feet. About a dozen
oirltr veins were met ldurinn the investigations, consisting mostly of chalcopy-
rite. There are also outcrops in the higher part of the property; one of them,
about 2 feet \ ide and carrying copper glance and chalcopyrite, can be traced
over a distance of about 1.uI leet. but none of these outcrops has been fully
x:'liniii t. The situation of' tllis dep 'sit is adviiiitageous. and only sufficient
v:iital seems reqiiuirell to make it an important producer.
Tile western part of this ('Ipler belt is not less rich in metalliferous ores,
but lhili: more remote and Ilulniitainois, it has apparently attra-icted less at-
tention.
'Twi coniguu'll.s old mining lieI(ld have here to be itentioned, situated at
Djaraior ;indI Tchan-Bakhtcha, southwest of Titlis, about -10 miles from the
railway. The ore is largely copper gl:ince, clprite, andl malachite, while
cluh:ilopyrite. which prediminutes in mo.;t of thie. other o ipprier zones, is com-
paratively rare.
All the other veins are of similar nIlliture; the :iv\'rt'e thickhire.s of those
which have been worked or well explored is 32. 18, 2S, 4, S, 23. and 15 inches,
re-plcfively. The ore avail;ale above the water level is estimated at 1,750,100
tons, the ;avernLe contents in copper varying f'rim IS to 22 per cent, and this
richness will probably brin-j this iiniing fiehIl to life amnin sooner or later.
To the southeast of D.iarailr, in the direction of Eriv:n, several other de-
posits o'f copper ores are knownmm liut are not exploited. The following
occurrences may be iineitioned: At Peilijan there .re considerable outcrops
of a vein widening -i out into lenses or poc'kets in altered porphyry. Their
ore is siid to contain 6 to 7 per (ent iof coipper. At Karavaii-Saral
in the same region a very prioliising vein about "4 inches thick is known
in porphyritic roici. 'Farther mouth, near Novin BI:ayzet. on lthe western
shore of Goktcha Lake, copper veins occur in ninny places but are not ex-
plored. Nei;r Alexandropol the Si,.nii:la:ii tiines are worked in a .-Imall way
and have a smelter uinached to them. which is. hoIever, not of great impor-
tance. The vein is said to be about 4 feet thick. lying at the contact of dia-
base with limestone and gypsum, anl to contain 12 to 15 per cent of copper.
Other mines are being explored at Shlikar-Dara and Tamir-Magara, and snfall
quat:iilii' N of ore are extracted from them.
Other intllirestin occurrences of collier ores exist east of the Tiflis-Kars Rail-
way in the Kazakh district at V:ntike;hl and Ave-i-Tcjbl. They lie opposite
each other on two hills, -epilraitdl by the River Indja-Su, an affluent of the
-ura, but are ,of identical formation with parallel veins. The country rock Is
diorite, much dlrui~posedl, specially at the former place. There are four out-
tcrm ps of copper ores at Vartike.gh and three at Avessi-Tchal, in the shape of
important veins, two of which are over 3 feet wide. They consist of quartz
with clialopynitc, also decomposed in places and containing there copper
gh;ncLe and igreeni malachite. Only superficial exploration work has been done
in this field, by small grnlleries and open trenches along the veins, but its re-
sult leaves no doubt that it is an infportant deposit, which deserves fuller in-
vestigation.
The environs ielpresent a zone of remarkable mineralization. Immediately
north of the copper there are outcrops of magnetic iron ore with a great number
of old wrkings.. and west of them are important deposits of henmatite, consisting
of more than 40 veins, some of which are over 3 feel thick at the outcrops. In
the northeast Ila;!-.;lliese ores "lrop 0111t, and other deposits of copper are being
worked east and sutll of this field.







RUSSIA-THE CAUCASUS.


Fa rather east, labOi 30 liles f'romL Kod(ilbI k and 20 miles fnIrin the railway,
aminther iUmport -nl deposit of copper and sulphur ore.s occurs at Djiraki-dsor,
near the viillal Tclialkent. The ore bodies crop out in quartzite, 1,:lrily covered
by clay schists, at the bltto fl of a ravine. They were w~i'rked in the first in-
stance for icron pyrites, as an outcrop of this mineral, about 190 feet long, was
lying -ioen along the side of the hill. It forms an enormous and compact stock
whose depth into the hillside has not yet been ascertained, but it must be con-
.siderabhl. At present it is le.ing worked in open case and also by olh.lrirs, and
is sent to Baku to the siulIpluri.i-acid factories, where it ri'lj'd:i1 the brimstone
formerly imported from Sicily. It is of remarkable pi', it~, silh'iwnvi, a sulphur
content of 50.51 to 51.73 per cent in carsnies, wilthot objectionable elements.
In the course of this exploration chal op-yrite was found and riL' ily sorh-.1l
out from the iron pyrites; front time to time a few vwanginll'-nd- of it were sent
to the Alaverdi smelter, the bulk containing 20 to 25 per cent ,i, copper. In
places the iron pyrites also contain metallic copper in the shape of small specks
disseminated through them. Lentils of pure ,lliipper glance have been met,
weighing as much as 5 to 6 tons and containing 61.-L. to 65 per cent of copper.
This metal therefore became interesting, and a cross gallery was driven from
the pyrites works, which at 40 feet cut an important vein of chalcopyrite, of a
thickness between 3 and 7 feet and containing 12 to 20 per cent of copper. An
outcrop at the contact of granite about 400 yards from the mine was also ex-
amined and found to contain chalcopyrite and copper glance and to continue in
depth. These minerals also contain gold, analyses having plroed up to 3.9
pennyweight per ton. Further explorations were projected in these mines, but
were stopped by the war.
Tchorokh Valley District.
The Tchorokh Valley, co'ilainiiiii the second group of copper mines to be con-
sidered, begins a few miles south of Balum and extends southward for about i';(
miles to Lazistan (a district in the former Turkish Empire). The Tchorokh
River receives many tributaries from both sidle and is of.fair size, sufficient for
navigation at all seasons if it could be tamed; but its fall is considerable,
making its flow rapid and da;ingitrous in places, on account of sudden winding
and other obstacles. Transport at present is by means of long, iral-bottomed
boats, ihich go only downstream and have to be dr;i_-'.id up empty by the
boatmen. Moreover, tlhey can not go all the way to the sea; they must dis-
charge- about 8 miles from Batuim, whence their en gr'.> have to be carried by
road. The river can not be relied Uplimi, therefore, as a regular means of com-
munication, but for power pl ,r'pe- it affords every opportunity. A fine macad-
amized road runs along it, suitable for motor traffic, but the valley will be
opened up only when the l'Ig-lprojectoe r.iilway is built.
The Tchorokli district is eminently mineralized, chiefly with copper ores, and
there is scarcely a side valley in it in which copper or other ore outcrops do not
exist. The valley of the tributary Murgul River and its immediate environs
contain 50,000,000 to 100,0( I. II) tons of ore containing about 3 per cent of cop-
per. The veins are generally in l"rpllhyry and Cretaceous dl-tr 'ie, and i l
ores appear as sulphides.
Daansul Mine Most Important in Tchorokh Zone.
The most important exploitation of this district and of all Ge'oria is that
of Dzansul, belonging to the Caucasus Copper Co. (Ltd.), a British-American
concern. This mine is at the head of the valley of the Murgul River, which
flows into the Tchorokh from the western side. It is reached from Batum by
the highroad leading to Bortchka (30 miles), crossing the Tclorokhl River by
a wire-rope ferry (which will be replaced by an iron bridge to be built by
the Government) and skirting the river southward for 2 miles to the entrance
of the Murgul Valley. From this point the company had to build its own
road to Dzansul, a distance of about 10 miles, where there was formerly only
a precarious horse track. This road now leads to the smelling works on the
banks of the river, but the mines themselves are situated about 3,000 feet
above them and 4,500 feet above sea level, so that a further zigzag road about
0 miles long and adapted for wheel traffic had to be constructed. The trans-
portation of the ore from the mine down to the works, however, i; effected
by an aerial ropeway about 21 miles in length.
Serious exploration work was started in 1900, when the present company was
formed; and it resulted in the opening up of probably the largest connected
ore body known in eastern Europe, measuring some 160 by 3~0 iby 1,000 feet.








28 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

This is covered by on overburden of clay and alluvium between 50 and 100
feet in thickness, which is removed by Ileclhalicil a1nd hydraulic means, so
that (tie ore r;in be worked in open case at very siuall expense. The ore con-
sists of chllllopyrite Iunt some bcrnite, mixed with iron pyrites in quartzite
gangue, and assays aipiproximnately 3 per eent of copper onl the average. Its
quantity is icosideirable; in 1914 there were .some -1,000,1000 tons in sight.
Tlie Iiue and w\\rk.s are provided with tlie most modern appliances, ample
power Ibein,, available iin te 1uli rgul Itiver, which supplies the electric current
for the mines and th (voinienitrntion andi s:imelting works. The latter are
situated near the river and are able to produ.lie about 1,000 tons of concen-
trates per day, which are then snielted and refined. The workmen and the
stail connected wiith the works are housed near the river, while a great
number of I1uilin-'s have also been erected near the mines for offices, stores,
ships, dwellings, etc. Motor transports iulmae conneltiobn with Batnum.
The treatment of the ore provedl a serious problem, and the methods adopted
at thie lweginning of the exploitation were found to be unprofitable. The
initi;ll ptl;it was, I11breft ore, scrapped in 1905f, and tile wet-concentration method
was introduced, which gave s:aisfactory results. The daily capacity was after-
wards increased to 1,I.000 tons. For saving the former losses in the slimes and
tailings a minlerlls-separmation plant was also added in 1013, dealing with about
400 tons per day, so that all the difficulties seemed solved when the war broke
out. The tir frontier, which is ,ioly a few miles distant from D-zalnsull. Nevertheless, the
exp the valley ail the works had to be shut down. The Turks were driven out
ag-,ain in March, 1915, without having' done much dalniage, Ilut the mine has
been idle ever since. Nevertheless, it has all the elements for becoming in the
course of time one of the largest copper producers iL eastern Europe.
Th'e Ilpridn.l-tilli f this mine mountedd to 3,030 tons in 1911-12, 2.992 tons in
1912-13, and :,.1i6 tons in 191:-14.
Neighboring Deposit-Analysis of Ore.
About 6 miles- above Dzansul, on the MInr\vai River, an fllHient of the Murgul
River, another copper deposit has been lcainld and to a certain extent explored.
Its nature is the same as that of Dzansul, and the exploration, carried out by
means of galleries and drill holes, has disclosed so far in three different places
stocks of sulplhidle ores existinie at the contact between Redimenttary rocks and
quartzites. The drilling, without reaching bottom, has pr-iived the existence of
at least 100, The following is a lypi-al analysis of the ores teoming from this region:
Per cent. PI'r cent.
Copper --------------------- S Lime------------------- 1.00
Iron 2--.------------- -. T70 Sili.; ---------------------_- 20.50
Sulphur -_-------------------_. 40 Gohl and silver ------------ traces
Aluminum ----------------- 3.50
MN:i:ill .. ......--------------- 1.10 Total _------------ 100.00
Kvartzkhana Mine.
The second mine now in exploitation and likely to acquire importance in the
Tchorohk district is .situated at Kvartz'kliana, about 37 miles from Batum and
only 10 miles from Dzansul. It has the aldvzi\tage of being situated on the
ri.ht bank of tlh Tchorokh and only a short distance from the highroad, so
that no extensive -ornd making was necessary. The original outcrops occur on
a high, and in pieces, a very steep hill between the gorges of the Betauli and
Kvartzkhana Rivers, which unite below the hill and flow into the Tchorokh.
Thle mountains in this part of the Tchorokh Valley form a part of the Pontic
Ridge, which extends westward toward Lazistan and eastward to the sources
of the KurI River. The central portion is formed of granite, which crops out
near the town of Artvin, and which lower down the river is replaced by
porphyry, and then by clay slate and schists, traversed by quartz-like sandstone.
The gorges of Betauli and Kvartzkhana, which open out on the Tchorokh
River, alyl the lower slopes of the river itself, consist of clearly defined forma-
tions of clay schists and sa ndstones, while in the upper parts of the gorges
chiefly porphyry formations crop up. Among the latter a larne lmass of quartz
is noticeable, which Is probably connected with a large similar outcrop occur-
ring Apposite Artvin. This mass in many places is more or less metalliferous







RUSSIA-THE CAUCASUS. 29

and contains chalcopyrite, copper glance, green and blue malachite, and also
galena and zinc blende. The original exploration work was executed in the clay
schists containing the beds of quartzose sand(stonp in which the metalliferous
veins are found. These strata of sandstone occur in succession at varying dis-
tances within a lode from 200 to 250 feet wide, and, although the outcrops were
not of great width, it was evident from their formation that they were con-
nected with larger ore bodies.
These deposits attracted the attention of Siemens Bros., of Kedabek, who
began some preliminary exploration work in them, and as it proved satis-
factory they secured the mines in 1906 and prepared them for c~xpli'ii~tion on
a large scile. They had soon proved a considerable ore body containing about
500,000 tons of ore with a content of about 41 per cent of coppier. in the shape
of chalcupyrite mixed with iron pyrites, aud also about $2 worth of gold
per ton.
An aerial ropeway was therefore built from the mine down to the highroad
and to the river near Bortchka, wh,,re th1 smelter and refiniiin works are
erected, the smelter being able to deal with about 200 tons of ore per day. A
con-idlerable part of the staff from the dwindling KNelaliek mines was brought
over ih-re, as mentioned elsewhere, and the whole installation l:id only been
fully e(liilpped and a coonsiderable quantity of ore made ready for the smelter
when the war broke out and the works had to be closed.
On lthe next hill north of ihes1u deposits, near the village Irsa, more large
outcrops are known, in similar g-ological formations, and a rln.,et. deal of
exploration work done on them has proved their value, but they are not yet
being explioited.
Other Tchorokh River Deposits-Valley of the Katila.
The western bank of the Tchorokh River, south of the Mirii- V:all-y, is
equally rich in copper ores, judging by the numerous outcrops known. For
manny of them preliminary permits were obtained by local re.idcnts, but no
work was done, so that the claims hlapmed.
Mention may be made of the valley of the Katila River, which falls into the
Tchhoriikh below Artvin. Within 5 miles from the Tchorokh there are at least
nine promising oiutcropl of chalcopyrito of the usual formation in this zone
They are at Nadjvia. at Tzild Deressi, whlre a vein of about 12 inches crops
out in yellow sandstone; at Satovo Deressi, about a mile from the river; at
Kepki:a-Kropri. Elel Ogli, Shi-lb) Ogli, Degir Bandi, etc., all near the Katila
and Tchorokh Rivers, so that they cimld easily be made accessible. Higher up
in the valley similar conditions prevail at Porosseti, Nirvann, and Nakerav,
which last village is surrounded by mountains 0,000 and 10,000 feet high.
Clpper must have been actually produced by the ancients on the KIunpta
Mountain, about 2 miles southwest of the town of Artvin. where the usual
renmins of old workings, .sla heaps, etc., alxound.
Khod-Eli Mines in Tchorokh Valley.
In the highest and most remote part of the Tehorokh Valley, 90 miles from
Batum, are the mines of Khod-Eli. inclosed by mountains of volcanic origin n and
consisting partly of columnar basalt. They must be very ;n.inint. juiilding' from
the slLg and antiquities found there. The vein is 30 inches wide, consists
of quartz with chlalci'pyrite through porphry, and contains about 5 per cent of
copper. In recent years the mine had a smelter attached to it, the ore 1i .ig
first roasted In heaps in the open. The matte produced was then carried on
horseback to the Tchorokh River, and on it by boats, when the conditions
allowed it, to a small refin-ry at Erghi, near the mouth of the river and about
8 miles from Batum, where the matte was finally treated. Princip:lly on ac-
count of the difficulties of transport, the mine had to be shut down, but it has
lately been taken up again by new capital and a new plant has been erected,
which produced between 450 and 700 tons of col-pper per annum before the war.
Resources of Lower Valley-.-Deposits near Bortchka.
The lower parts of the Tchorokh Valley below Dzansul are not less rich in
metals but they have not yet been exploited.
One of the most interesting deposits occurs about 8 miles below Bortchka,
only 24 mil-s from Bituin and easily accessible. The outcrops cover an area
of about 1 square mile. Some of them were worked in a small way about 20







30 SlUPPLE MENT TO COMMEIR'E HEPORTrS.

years ar,, and the ore was seoll to tile smelter lat Erghi, previously mentioned.
But the owners of the concession could not exploit the mine on a sufficiently
Inrg( scale and therffuLre continued with exploration work only, in order to test
lit outl(lrops. For this reason this deposit is now well known and merits at-
lention. Durin-i the investigations 17 different inutcr(op, were followed by
.*alleri.es of various leiglhs, the most important one being about 150 feet. They
,iiscIDsi-d at least 13 -pi:rate veins, v\irying in thickness bItweeln inches and
7 feet but averaging about. 20 inch s. Tie ore is generally chalcopyrite in
qluartiz, in pIlaces. also Ima:lchiite, anl the ore extracted from the different
.gilleries contained, on an average, S.70 per cent of copper. All the veins in
th( center of the lichl run in tlih direction of a mountain, forming its north-
west corner and r'ising to about 1,000 fcet ailove the level of the valley. Outcrops
of the same nature are fiiond also near the top (of this mountain, and all the
experts who have visited the place therefore assume that the veins converge and
ouirm an iilportan i ore Iiody in the center of the mountain. So far no work
has been done to test this theory, but some enterprise in this direction seems
infliciteil. This mine has the further advantage of being more accessible and
nearer the port of Batum than almost any other in lie Tchorokh Valley.
About three-qiuiirt-r.-, of a mile northeast of this field there is another large
outcrop of copper ores, aind its direction and general geological condition make
it pirlibald that it is connected with the mountain described.
The width of this lode between se;vage. is 10 yards, and it consists of a vein
of 1 yard of quartz conl;ininig chalcopyrite, marcasite, and zinc blende at the
roof. The floor is fanned by a vein more than 3 yards thick, of quartz
imprel ated with cluhlcollyrite. In the center h)etween hllcse two veins there
is a third one about 40 inches thick, alo of quartz with chalcopyrite. This
large lode, which is viible at the bottom of a creek and again at a considerable
height above it, has been explored only at the surfacI:. ,11t - ii\v.I ilI idt as it seems to contain large iire lolies.
Zinc Vein-Continuance of Deposits into Lazistan.
In the same valley another vein is known iln wlih zinc lr.I'ldohm.iintes, aLt least
near the surface. It is about 28 inches widc nil .r, onsits i f zine blende with
incrustations of hali:oplyrite, and Ilie cai 'iie, consisting, o(f (Iiiu rtz, is also
impregniiatiLe with the same minerals. Analysl.-s of samiiple,. siowed: 42 per cent
zinc and 1 per cent coIl'ipr. No exploration work hasi bee'nt done on this vein,
but it has been superfinially tlracv la at the bottnllli of a cr(.lrk in l again 500 feet
farther on and 175 feet above the first outcrop.
ThI. valleys containing these deposits, as well ;(-, that off thel Tchalt River
,rlnini' at B3irti:lika, are all coinnioinl l by lie Kiura-ShaLIvar Moiuntain, 5,000
feet high, whose western slopes extend into Iazxistan !do\'wn to te Black Sea,
fear Kholpa, Arkhavi, and Veronet. As might he expected. the geological for-
mation in the valleys of Lazistan is the same s in the Tchorolik Basin and the
mineral veins continue across the mountain chain, cropping out again In the
same profusion. Prospect ingi was going on before the war near Khopa and
Arkhavi, and copper and zinc outcrops are known to exit in Lazistan as far
as Rizeh and Surmeneh, besides the manganese ore already mentioned. These
ores have not been worke.d.
Copper Belt Between Imerkhevi and Akria Rivers.
Rleurning to the eastern bank of the lower Tchoruklh Basin and especially
to the upper valleys of its tributaries, we find there another important copper
belt between the Imerkhevi and Akria Rivers in Georgia. This must formerly
also have been a busy mniuiin center, as most of the outcrops have been laid
bare by old workings, and slag heaps abound.
The principal ore found everywhere is chalcopyrite, sometiimes also malachite,
and the outcrops are in the Jurassic formation. In several places great numbers
of veins run parallel and may be followed over hundreds of yards, their widths
varying between a few inches and 6 feel. Samples taken from them were rich
in copper and contained also some gold.
As only superficial investigations have been made in recent years, full details
of all the occurrences are not available. but enough ic known to show the desirn-
hiility of closer investitigation.
Adjara and Tchaklis River Valleys.
The valley of the Adjarni River, which falls into tho Tehorukh about 10 miles
from Batum, contains the dil'p-its nearest 1i tihe sen. Two mines were worked







RUSSIA-THE CAUCASUS. 31

there, near Agara and Merissi, and the ore was brought downi to the smelter
at Erghi.
The next valleys to the south are those of the Tchaklis River, with its tribu-
tary the Akria River. They contain copper outcrops and oldl mines at the vil-
lages Sindiethi, Aghmarthi, Tskhe laina, Tchikunethi, Akria, and Elphrat, all
in Georgia, the nearest being only 13 miles and the farthest about 30 miles
from Batuw.
Drainage Area of Imerikhevi and Its Tributaries.
Southeast oif this district. in the territory drained by the Imerkhevi River and
its trilutaries, i-most of thi? villages within a radius of 10 miil1e~ can show old
lines or outc~p-); mIore recently discovered. Meintimo iIn.,, be made here only
of Inkhrlul, Diolain, K:okiethi. Ivethi, Zekiethi, BaN;I1iri,.tli. Daba, Surevan,
Ube. and Andriatsminda in the noilth, and Tchikhor, Dzios, Sinkot, Dovlethi,
Dzetletlhi, and Dzkaltzimor in the south.
Some of these mines contain also zinc and lead. For instance, aud.s-liirethi
is known to have been worked for Oiiver by the Turkish Government, and there
are still many villnwzers living who worked there. A more recent analysis of
samples drawn from there gave the following results: Copper, 1).4'2 per cent;
zinc, 13.02 per cent : hlnd, 10.35 per cent.
At Ardala, on the Inmerkhevi River, near its fall into the Tchorokh, there also
exists a quartz vein with feldspathic rocks traversing piilrph)ry and containing
about 0 per rent of copper.
In the some neiihblorho.od, almost opposite Artvin, a powerful quartz vein
crops out at the contact of metamorphic sanilstone and porphyry; it is about
2 meters thick, and c'rntiins iron pyrites mixed with a goi1d proportion of chalco-
pyrite, bur no anily-is i, available.
Although the-e lmiiiiiieru.-4 deposits situated on both slopes of the Kartchkhal
Mountain, whlilh ric-; tn, 11.'48 feet above sea level, formed once a most im-
portant coilper-smiicltin- center:, they are not worked now and not even well
known. leca.ause they :tn,- not situated on the usual hiiihlriad. Nevertheless,
they are irtu.ted nlar Ili s a and in a well-populated district, and they could
easily he nmde cccee the Tchorokh Valley.
Third Copper Zone, Zangesur, Less Important.
The Za.ng'iisur dlistric. \\wichl forms the third copper-minin-, area of Caucasia,
is less important than tihe other two. It is situated in the southeastern part
of the country, to\'vard the Per'sian frontier, and its position is rather unfavor-
able for transport, as the nearest railway tatiin, EI\viakli, on the Tiflis-Baku
line, is about 130 minie distant. This is the principal reason why the exploita-
tion of this zine is less intensive, but it will undoubtedly expand when better
means of transport are available.
Several mines are being woNrked at present in a comparatively small radius;
they were als.o known to the ancients, who left the usual \\rl:iL's and sl1;m
heaps, and even tools. The ore of this zone also is principally chalcopyrite, but
copper glance occurs, with admixture, in prices of zinc blende and mleiia.
The name of the district, Zanresmur," proves that it was well known of old,
as it means "sounding brass." The old expllitation was taken up aaini in
1845, when a small smelter was erected; two more followed in .ll.-1 and one in
1857. But the working remained in a very primitive state until ]lill., w\lin the
first modern plant was installed at Barilba tunm.
Synik, Barabatum, and Ugurtchai Mines.
The Synik mine is situated at a distance of only 2 miles fr' mn Barabatum
and belongs now to the Soci*t& Industrielle et Metallurgiilue du Caucase, which
also works Alaverdi. The mine contains some 20 different veins, from 7 inches
to 4 feet wide, containing clhalcopyrite and some purple ore in qua;Irt gangue,
also a small proportion of precious metals. A great deal of money has been
spent on this mine and the smelting works, which. as mentioned, are iniitalled
on modern lines, but their production has still to be developed. The output was
721 tons of metal in 1909 and 939 tons in 1913.
The neighboring Barabatum mine. although under different owinervl ip. is
worked in connection with the Synik smelter, and also receives the required
electric current from it. It contains several veins of the same character, of a
thickness varying between 6 inches and 2 feet and widening out in place. even to








SUPPLEA'NIMNT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


7 feel. Thel ore is handpicked ;ind then conlainii nui average of 10 to 18 per
cent of copper. The small ore is washed in the river and concentrated by
l1rimitive mIean-ll, nul the rIisting also only takes place in lhenps in the open,
whereupon the lprolduct goes to the Synik smelter. The production of ore is not
ronsideralile, some 2,0011 or 3,000 tons per year, as t he owners are doing mostly
exploration work. The mine asio contains nn old dump Ilhel, of some 40,000
tons of sh.iu c1lontaini Ining between 2 :1id 3 per cent (if copper, :n1d altogether de-
serves to lie more energeticialy explloited.
The lUgurltcli: mine is rwork(ed by Tiflis owner'c oin a fairly wide lode, but also
illn a Irimitive f;lahioli. They' also have a smnll smelter. which in recent years
plol uced "oi to Soil tons ovf i'per ler annum.tl.
Other Mines in Third Zone.
Other copper mines in this district octcur at hlie villages Aga.iak, lKiarara, and
:t.a-klllit, the firnt one posse..-.inlg a vein about 2 feet wide between diorite and
y.llnile, and r'ounta;iiinll about t10 per cent of copper and some molybdenite.
The Galisur mines, which formerly were well known, have not been worked of
late years. On the other hand. new exploration work has been started near
Byelokan, where an ore I,'dy of aPlarenltly censidlerable size lhai been (is-
clvered.
'Thi district contains v\t.'l other -,mall ir'od1ucing Iprollerties whose only
drawlaelk lie,- in the Irui.-port difficulty. Although the railway from Tiflis
to Persin runs onlyy 30 to 5.i miles west of the mines, i1o connection is possible
in Ilii- dilt', ioill at present, 'ln l cIcoullit of the intervening ITolo ttain chain rising
to more than 10,000) feet. Tlnt. only hope of improvement lies in tile building
of tlih prijltil l)ld biIranch rail ;ay from the Baku line t'o the toiwn of Shu.shn,
from which the mines arc easily accessible.
Deposits Outside of Three Main Zones-Kazbek Deposits.
The three iiinii,.- areas ile-cribed above (dh not cover' all tilt C;iua.liaan
.pper-leilrill- lields.. Sepnarte delpoisits occurL also, inl many other places, es-
ipecially in Trm;. a-asiia ilonig lite main mountain chaiii. The eastern part.
Itsetweten Tel.'v and ZakaIaly. is fairly rich iln quairtzose veinsl containing chal-
cop,'i'riie and iron pyrites, not;iljly at Pl\'aveii, Zaklalaly. and other places.
They vary in width between a few inclhe alnd several feet. but iln general they
seem too poor or too difficult of ;I cc.ss forl successful working and they have
not been iloucli'd.
The Kazbek group of iiouintillPs in Traniisonii-asi.a .lontaius iat IasL two con-
siderable delipoils of cop per onr(. The first one lie-, on its northern slope on
the left bank of the i\'er Terek, and although situated at :a high altitude, it
presents no special dliticilty to tihe extraction of thle ore. The country rock is
formned of nearly vertical siratn;i of glray' graulnite' 1i1i i,,iliyrie' arind almost
black schistose dliirites, and Ilihe inetalliferous veiuns run ahlon the latter. Their
-a;|IIgnI consists of quartz or cal(ite impregnateld witli clalilcopyrite. Consider-
able exploration work ha.s bteent done on the deposit and seven veins have been
fully traced at dlifferent lh.vl.s. Their width \aries between S inches and 7
feet, widening in one place evn, l. 11 l.eet. Tile extell.ioli of at least two of
them has been exactly letermained over a length of 940 ind 700 yards, respec-
tively, a-nd at levels differing by 700 feet. The ore existing in them is esti-
Ilmated at 1l,0,111,01i0 tons, (containing an average of 9 per cent of copper. The
ilanlltilie- contained in thet other veill.-, Ile int yetL been ascertained, but all
of them extend much farther in dlopth ;and erop (tlt again alibout 4,000 feet
lower down on the mountain side.
The extraction of the ore will h e easy 1by melieiIls of adils at different levels.
and there is no difficulty in building an aerial ropeway for ils transport to a
smelter to be erected at tlhe foot of ltle mountain. Fuel can easily be brought
from Vladikavkaz, a distance (,f 27 miles. In this regard this mine is mucih
better enacted than those in the soulh of the country.
The second deposit on the Kazliek occurs a few miles distant from the first,
in a side valley on the eastern bank of the River Terek and at about the same
altitude. The geological conditions are also similar; the metalliferous veins
consist of quartz embedded in clay schists and contain chalcopyrite with much
malachite. Seven or eight of them are known and crop out at different heights,
but there is not enough sxplohitation work done to estimate their contents.
However, they extend over sur'li wide area that there r-an he no doubt of their








RUSSIA-THE CAUCASUS. 33

richness in ore. This property is partly coverved with forests, which miliht be
used for mine purposes, ilnd ,onsideraL e water power could be supplied by
the stream that flows through it.
Deposits Near Vladikavkaz and in Kutais Government.
In the vicinity of Vlndikavkaz four more tl'-pl.-'it, of copper ores are known
but not explored.
Copper ore- exist also at lower :ltitidIlcs in the Government of Kutais, near
the River Rion, and two groups of outcrops may be spcLially mentioned. The
country rock is generally dioritic, crossed by thick veins .*r basalt. quartz, and
baryta. The quartz and baryta are mostly milf-rali.'-'l1 witl chalcopyrite :md
malachite, also copper glance, and in ninny places the ldepi'its resemble those
of the Alaverdi mines. They extend over a wide area on both banks of the
river, and ohl sing heaps prove that they were folrerly worked, but in recent
times they have been lying entirely idle.
Mineral District Near Black Sea.
Farther west a most inter-sting mineral district lies near the Black Sea,
only about 25 miles from Batum. It covers an area of ai'iut 40 square miles
and contains, besides copper, also zinc and tea'd. as well as imn:t;ianies and
iron. It .siems suip. i.in!g that in spite of tllvir favorable position th.-:e deposits
were ine ei worked and are even scarcely known.
The surfacee formation consists mostly of greay or white clays, the products
of the decomposition of poi pllhriiic io(ks, which on wailliiig give galena,
blended, and i:.alol.iy rite. Quartz, which in oilthr parts forms the usual Pangue
of the veins, is here almost -entirely absent, mia iron pyrits forms only a very
small propolrtion. One of the outcrops consists of two parallel veins, the
upper one about 9 inches wide, the lower one 3 to 28 inches; they are divided
by a lied of kaolin and can be worked together. The mineral extracted from
them is solid, and an analysis g~ve 8 per cent copper, 40 per cent zinc, and
20 per cent lead. Other samples contained 7 to 16 per cent copper; in some
there was mn re lead than zinc, even up to 60 per cent of the former in the
metallic state.
The veins from which these minerals come, as it is clonarly shown in other
outcropps, can be reached by a gallery of about 140 feet driven through the
kaolin ; its cost would easily be paid by the ores rctvc\eic'd.
A further vein crops out direc'tly albilut a mile from the above; it is a pure
vein in porphyry, more than 15 inche-;S in width and contains 7 per cent copper,
48 per cent zinc, and S.5 per cent iron pyrites, practically without any silica.
The conditions, for working it are also very favorable. Several other outrops
of a similar nature are known, but have not been explored.
MAananriese ores also are found in tih dii ti,-t. either in the shape of rocky
outcrops or weatherc-d in grains mixed with the surface earth over large
areas. The pyrolluile taken, from the outcrops was found to contain also some
iron, but its d:plth is not known. At a distance of about half a mile from the
manganese there are very con.ilerahle outcrops of rnoanetic iron ore of great
purity and remiarkblo,.- rnmgn-'ti; properties.
Tli-se two deposits miUlht together form the center of a metallurgical in-
dustry for th prodItluction of fir r-inIna:nI e. e, zinc, and lead. In view of their
proximity to the sea, only 20 ndl 25 miles from two ports, the fuel question
here would not make any ditrl' ence, aid thl-rr is no doubt about the presence
of laree quantities of ore, whiil. several rivers comlil suitpply power.
Many other oiitcri'o'p of copper veins are known between the Black Sea and
the western part of the Caucasian main clh;iln, but th.y are not explored. A
very considerable one is said to exist above tli monastery of Novo Aphon near
Sukhtnu, Georgia, and samples riceiveil from there pro\ned very rich, consisting
of copper glance, which ci.iitained 511.25 poe- cent of copper.
Number of Mines-Output of Copper Ore and of Refined Copper.
The number of copper minelsk. in the C(lin'u-llns from 1911 to 1914 was as fol-
lows: Mines with their own smnliter.--15 in 1911 and 1912, 16 in 1913. and 14
in 1914: mines without smelters-17 in 1911, 14 in 1912. 21 in 1!:13 and 14 in
1914. Thle output of ,-oprl'r ore from all the mines was 237,415 tons in 1910,
324.09S tons in 1911, 319,-140 tons in 1912, 359,674 tons in 1913, and 23S,954 tons
in 1914.









sUPI'PLEMENT I; TO C(X llMMIR'E li irPOnTS.


'Tli' 1tulpitl 1 I'' inil -i c'ulllel in i ll i ('. Ca';IIC I l dIuring the y.enr- 1901 to 1917
i-ir'.- iitialfl i .slih \n l \ I lite fuolliewin' figure. (in lhrn, tI.nst
'I' is Ton.. Tons.
1o01. .3. !S-- 19t .1, 003 1913 ------------ 10, 13S
1902.-- _..-. ..- 3. 4-0 l!iil),P ..- 4,S 20 1914 -- ------- 8, 259
1913-- .-. -- 241 199 ------------ 1915 ----------__ 03, 83
014 -_- 7-4..5 ]i91 ------------ !7, 695 191 ----------- 4,40(
!005. 3 7307 1911 ,, 346 1917 (Jan.-nJune) 2, 800
101ii : N29! 1912 9- 057


Principal Firms-Relation of Caucasus Output to Total for Russia.
Ti[le ItpuIL Il If" tilt l:irge.-l il'r lii'erIs frrimi 1011 t- 1914 was a's follows:

('lnl,!li. i- 1911 1912 1913 1914

rans. 7'r',n Tons. Tons.
,An i.t: In iih.iell' M.;iallrgiqie d ti ('a .ic -. .............. 3,990 4,315 :3.721 4,071
C':ii .i-is (C'opper Co. ( Lt.1 I ................... ............. 2.208 ., 010 .A.322 2,892
'i ii ll.lln nrn ..................................... ............ I l,5 l 1,4 I 1.272 1 7

Othp.r lan'ge coinpi ;iii.e were the MAezilik AziUriiitz l\' W'oks, the Kon-
d(ilIrv Works, :ilal the Griel-k ('o.
The 1prodiItiOin (If COppil '' ;:1oiit 31 pei'r cent aend o(f (il!lir I;nliiiiit 10 per c(nt of the tti;1I! qiiinti-
tie-' prod(1It-ed in Russia.

Silver. Lead. and Zinc.
Thie average share of the C'anliasui.-. for 1912 alil 1913 ,of Ilthe total
q1a ilt ities. of silver andii lead prodlieed in Russim \'.as as follow':
Silver, iibout 24 per cent: lead. ;iiCo.l O per cent iil : silver and lead
ores. :ilholt 50 per cent.
There irf' mny .silver line in the ('ltaisll.s, bill of tile.nm only tile
Saidon mini lihis been exploited. Tile ore from think mine contaiins lead
sulphide and zinc blende. Prior to the wa tilhe joint-stcik eompannv
"Alnair was interested mostly in producing ziine from the o'te anld,
therefore, silver and lend were lprodnued ais b)yv-produicts. The (ltput.
of the lby-)produ1(ct of zinc for 1!90(4 lind 19I)09 to 11314 wa, ias follows:


I
YV,'-:r I O I| lill-'!.

190uds
1909.. .. .............. ......... .::............: 2 ,.001,
1909.. ................ ................................. 1,431.000
1910.. .............. ................................ 1, 91. j
1911............................................. 1.. I ,371,4(7 i'
1912. .......... ................................... I ,747,I 1ll
191:j ..... ............................................. E. .n',l lJ
1914 ... ... ........................... .. ....... .. .. 7 O
'""' """"'''""'" "" I


o.Ire


Poods.
rfi, fl00
UG, 157
120 )00S
79,321
1s 1,012
125,455
110,2sI


L --ad uil- Silvetr l.-
f:iinrd. rained.

Puoda. Poods.
39,137 5ti
l4,0.56 15.1
a14, 691 15:1
iN', 17i5 127
9.1, 43 257
.N0,672 241
t... 1.S 131.


Besides the Sldoll Inllii, thr't' are mother silver-lead mines that have
been s tIrveyed, iuch :is thlat belonging to the company Elborus"
long the upper reachels of the Kulbn River. For 30 versts (about
20 miles) there are veins 1of silver, leaid .Iiilphide, and zinc blende
3I feet thick. The content of lead sulphide in the ore runs is high
as 1i per cent, of zinc blended, 10.5i per cent. alnd of silver, 0.05 per
(ceni This mine is provided I not only with nre but also with fuel, as
coal fields i1re situated some \vers!- iwavy.


..
)
)
)


'l',r ,g.,\u 1a'ni.i h nhi'lzili I ../1 .i:1. .11 D. l, I l9 b.







RUSSIA-THE CAUCASUS.


There can also be mentioned here. a of importance, the minefl of
the Terek Mining (o. in the Terek Territory. anid mines of other
companies in the Sukhurm district, Kutais Go( eminent, and in the
Government of Erivan.
After the zinc ore from the Sadon mine is washed at the Mizur
mill and put through other processes that remove some of the water
and increase the proportion of zinc, it is sent for smeltiing tt. a works
in V'ladikavl~ az. The production of zinc in this works for the years
1910 to 1914 is slown in the following table:

Years. re Zilne Years. ""re Zinc
ars. smeltld. obtained. -a-,sin. Ited. ohb ined.

Pord.. P i'ods. Pnr, i. Por,.I.
1910...................... 3R., 140 134,734 1913..................... 44ri.2'N 179,940
1911...................... 31i,;,0.4 13'- 4453 19 1 ...................... 40i., i.S 146,'55
1912 ...................... 523,476 111,239

Cobalt and Nickel.a
There are several deposits of cobalt and nickel chillyy cobalt) in
the Government of Elisavetpol in the neighborhood of the Kedalhek
copper mines. The most important lies at Dashkessan, and belongs,
like the adjoining iron mine, to Siemens Bros.
The cobalt ore forms irregular nets with epidote, garnet, and
hornblende in a porphyritic rock, which incloses at the same time
magnetic iron ore and occasionally galena and zinc blende. The
walls of these nests are tleml-elves colored by the cobaltine.
Analyses of the mineral gave the following results:

Component m3iterils. Analysis .A1 l Component nmatrials. An -ly' is .A n 'i
I. II. I.nt1.

Pcr c(di. P(r cent. Pe r cil. Per cet..
Cobalt....................... 17.0 17.55 Iron ......................... I. 44 9. SI
N ie el ........................ .2 Ar ic....................... 3 .97 31.63
Copper.................... ... .21 .......... R x ........... ................ 44.26 40. 1


In recent years the extraction has been almost stationary, amount-
ing to about 12 or 15 ton-, per year.
Antimony.
Antimony ores are not of frequent occurrence in Caucasia and the
deposits known are not worked; all of them are found in the higher
parts of the main mountain chain in Georgia. One occurs near the
Gorbalo Mountain, northeast of Tilli-s and shows two veins of stib-
nite in clay schists, samples containing over 60 per cent of metallic
antimony. The same kind of ore exists, also near the Kazhek Moun-
tain, where it wa.s aVrcidentally uncovIredlc by a landllip that hap-
pened some years ago. a"iple, taken fr-.m it contained 68.66 per
cent of metallic antimon y but no arsenic, nor lead, nor gold. Small
quantities of ore were then extracted by thle peasant owners of the
land, but no proper working ever took plaice. An examination of the
place by experts would certainly be worth while. Tlie third deposit
is known in Svanetia.near Utzeri. northwest of Kutais, Georgia. The
veins here also lie in clay schists and were formerly worked in a small
aThe sections ou cobalt and uickel. antimony, and sulphur were adapted from Cham-
basbidze's Mineral Resources of Georgia and Caucasia.







SUP'PLE'MI'I.ENT T)O COMMIlIcE IPI-I'TK'S.


way but have now been idle for many years, probably on account of
lhe generally low prices obtained for antimony ores before the war.
Stibnite occurs also in North Caucasus, in the village Kholondoi,
near Grozny. Samples from there contained 61.6 per cent of metal,
but further details about. the deposits are not available.
As the value of antimony ores has risen enormously and is likely
to remain at a high level, the exploitation of these mines could now
be taken up or resumed on a very profitable basis.
Sulphur.
The most important deposit of native sulphur known in Caucasia
occurs in the Government of Erivan, about 30 miles from the rail-
way line running to Persia. It is comparatively easy of access, the
greater part of the road from the railway passing through a well-
cultivated plain, whence the mountains rise gradually.
The deposit has been opened up only superficially and beds of
sulplur have been disclosed in two adjacent creeks through which
.mall rivers have cut rather deep winding courses. The sulphulr oc-
'iur~ either as crystals in bed, of gypsum or as amorphous masses in
imetamorphic limestone. Many of the crystals are. well-developed,
almost transparent, and up to 1 inch long, while the amorphous
iiinerals permeate the cavities and pores of the limestone. The de-
posits are confined to the more recent sedimentary strata and are
.pecially associated with the gypsum and marls of the saliferouis de-
posits and with similar rocks of the Tertiary period.
In the first valley there is an outcrop only Labout 100( yards from
the main road and showingl on both sid es of the creek: it dips ver-
tically and forms a bed 8 feet in thickness, carrying 40 per cent of
.-ulphur. At a short distance up the va lley another outcrop is seen,
2 feet wide, of practically pure sulphur. Farther up in tlh valley
three more outcrops occur, of widthxi ranging Ibetweenl 2 :ind 5 feet;
they contain about 40 per cent sulphur, except one, wl.icl seems very
rich indeed, as clear sulphur was expol-edl on opening up 1lie out-
crops. Altogether in this valley there Sre lidiinct oulterops, all of
good workable width, with the ame -1trike :liil4 dip. andl carrying
Sulphur of 40 per cent and upward.
In the second valley there is : very line oIt-rop. which strikes
into the mountain with a width of over 10 feet Ild e('lr'ies over its
whole width a value of at least t;5 per cent of sulpllhur. Higher up
in the valley there are two more outcrops, 2 feel an1d 5 feet. wide,
respectively, containing 35 to 40 per cent of sulphur. East. of them,
in a deep cutting, there. ocuCrs what is probably tli richest deposit
of all. It has a width of 8 feet and contains pure sulphur over its
whole width. It strikes into the mountain and from its appearance
should give a large output. Within 100 feet from it there are two
more outcrops- of good workable widths and high value.
As all these outcrops have been examined only superficially, it is
impossible to calculate their total contents with any degree of cer-
titude, but from what has been ascertained so fur, about. 800,000 tons
of sulphur are assured at the surface.
These deposits are ricler tlhn tho.-se of Sicily. where some. ore
with as little as 25 per cent of sulphur is extracted. A sulphur re-
finery established in the Caucasus could therefore compete with
Sicily and produce all the qualities of refined sulphur that are now







RUSSIA-THE CAUCASUS.


being imported in southeastern Europe and Transcaspin. The quan-
tities received in the ports of Batumn and Tutp-e alone amount to
about 5,000 tons of raw briiislonre. mostly in the shape of flowers
of sulphur used in the vineyard-, of Georgia. The raw brimstone is
required for the man ufacture of pure sulphuiri' acid. as the product
obtained from iron pyriter-, although clhaper, is unsuitable for many
purposes of the chemical indiiustry on account. of its arsenic content.
The use of refined mine sulplhur therefore will increa-e with the
expansion of the chemical industry, especially the imnufactiire of
wood pulp by the sulphite process, which was projected before
the war.
Sulphur also exists in Daghestan, in the Samur district, but it is
difficult of access; and the same may also be said of the deposits
known in the Askhahad district of the Transcospian territory, which
are sitiuted far from any means of transport.
Pumice Stone.
Among the mineral resources of the Caucasus are some large de-
posits of piumice stone in the Province of Kars and -ome smaller ones
in the neighboring Government of Erivan. The only one that had
been worked before the war is located 7 versts (about 5 miles) from
the town of Kars, where the stone occurs in large pieces. Later two
large deposits of small pieces, each about a square kilometer in area,
were discovered about 40 versts (27 miles) from Kars. Here borings
were made to a depth of about. 40 feet without reaching the bottom,
and it is estimated that each contains about 180,000 short tons.
A concession to work the first-mentioned deposit was granted by
the Russian Government in 1909 to an engineer in Tiflis. The con-
cession was for 16 dessiatines (about 43 acres). Only about one-
quarter of this area contained any pumice stone, and the deposit was
nearly exhausted in 1013. In the immediate vicinity, however, an-
otlher deposit of good, large pieces of pumice stone was found. Dur-
ing the first four years that the first deposit was worked about 301
short tons were obtained each year, or a total of about 1,444 tons.
Some 300 workmen were employed the first year prospecting and
starting operations, and after that about 50 men carried on the
work. Most of them were Armenians, Greeks, and Molokans. The
work was carried on with picks and shovels, and the men averaged
about 144 pounds per day for the large pieces, while for the ~mall
pieces and powder the amount varied considerably, ranging from 36
to 542 Ipounds per day. All the pumice stone, wlhther large or simll
pieces or powder, contained about 25 per cent of water and about 25
per cent of sand or gravel, ao that after being cleaned there was left
for use only about half of the gross, product.
Under the former conce-sion the lRtisian Governm ent received .3
cents lir 100 pounds, regardles-s of the quality of the stone, whether
consisting of large or small pieces, whereas it is said the Italian
Government takes only one-half that amount for the large pieces and
small amounts for the small pieces, varying according to their -ize.
Coal Deposits-Small Output-Cement Industry.
Coal is found in the Kuban Territory and in the Province of
Kutais, the principal region heing the Tkvibuli, 20 miles from the
town of Kutais, according to the Russian Yearbook. The quantity







SUPP'L L EK N t' T I COMMERCE l1 P I IPRTS.


produced is imall, ;ntid the inialIity very inferior. It does not bear
carriage anid th -,,' has hin heo bIriqitet.ted. lI yields a dense, strong
4oke iusedi for si, itiilg pi, iron and for general IImetallnurgy.
Other ciil hi'l ,p-it-. ;ir .,itiut.ed at Olty and near Tchartala, in
both of which lIr,.alitis. very rich varieieies, somewhat similar to
WVel-ls cn:il, are -t;lled to exist. The Olty coal mines, however, can
Jiot he, ;,\ Ic l :aItII''osly worked until chlieap and easy means of trans-
porl to and i'lrom the district are provided. The coal field at
Tchartala is not far distant from Poti. to which port a narrow-
priillgi rajilway could l 1 deconstructed witliolt much difficulty, but in
this ca-e lack of capital lhas precluded the exploitation of the mines.
The output of coal in the Caucasus for tlie years 1911 to 1915 is
:;s follows: 1911, 13,571 tons; 1912, 60,917 tons: 1913, 69.,314 tons;
1914, 6i,122 tons; 1915, 50,252 tons.
Rich deposits of clay inarl (a natural mlixtlure of clay and lime)
are found along the coast. of the Black Sea and near Novorossiisk.
a:nd here are a large number of cement works.
The largest. number of cement works is situated in Soutih Russia
and the Caucasus, which have 29 out of a total of 60 works for the
whole of Ru.-sia. The predoinating power used appear- to be
-tain. Cement is usually packed in barrels.
Sulphate of Soda-Asbestos-Asphalt-Other Minerals.
Sulphate of soda is found in the Batalpaishin.k district. of the
Kuban Province, but exploitation on a large scale hasi not begun.
Asbestos is produced in the Caucasus in an insignificant. quantity in
the Sharopan district of the Kutais Government, at the Vzhinevi
.,sesto, minei-. In the same Government of Kutais, asbestos is
known to exist far from the deposits already named, to the north-
west, in the Letchgumsky district, in the Svanetsky police circuit.
It is also found in the extreme southeastern corner of tle Caucasus,
not far from the Persian frontier, 12 miles from the town of
Sliu1,la.
Asplalt. extend.i over a cons-iderable area in the C(aucasus, aplear-
ing in tle form of nests, and more or less important deposits in old
and new alluvial formations. In all those deposits there are pe-
troleuml outcrops. In spite of this extent of asphalt there is little
production. There was an inlportant field at Notanebi on the Batum
Railway, where boring for oil is being carried out at present. As-
phalt is alh- produced in the Government of Tiflis, in the district
of Signakh. This Caucanian asphalt is consumed locally.
In the Caucasus there are also quicksilver, salt, excellent bitumen
(on the Black Sea coast), and iron ore (Tchatakh mines in the Bort-
chalinsk district of the Government of Tiflis and the Dashkessan
mines in the Government of Elisavetpol). The total supply of ore in
the Dashkes.san mines is about 800,000,000 floods (12,900,OQ0 long
tons). A part of these mines was surveyed by Siemens Bros., who
found a supply of 400,000,000 poods (6,450,000 tons) of ore containing
60 per cent of iron.
Famous Mineral Springs of the Caucasus.
Mineral springs are abundant in the Caucasus, and together with
an excellent climate and beautiful scenery, make the Caucasus an ex-
-eedingly fine center for health resorts. More than 50 mineral springs
are located in the f:anmoivu glro'p" minieralnya vody," which are located







TRUSSIA-THE L'ACASUS.


at the following town: Pyatigior-k. Jelezinovotl-L. Fs-ent ki. :ind Kis.
lovodsk. These tons are united by)' railrn'al ald hiI .-a n!, close, to one
another that the time consumed in journeyinll flrolll oit' tiowni to tile
other is less than one Il1lr. No other locality i" k ilwn whrie s pin s
of so many dift'erent ki nd o cur in such close I'prximity. Thi i. 'r
is situated. ill a picture!l-(le imolntinou lli county o-" I pied hIv -1)1rs
of the main Caucnsiain ridge. Kislovndsk, is rentwndt for ii springt
Narzan, which in the native dialect mlleains "sprlinLg o thtle hir;ive."
For years past this water has had a wide reputation, :ind of lite years
it has) become a favorite table water in Russia. It I'ntalilns sellphatts
of soda, potashl, 1ind ingnesiliim; cnr hnoites of sodl. linn-. alnd mni'-
nesilin ; chlo'rntes, and traccs iof bromide, iodide of soda. eitc. Tlere
is a real opportunity at Kislovodsk for more anld I)ettern hotls..
Jeleznovodski is renowned for its ferrnilinoui spring,, the Russian
nnme meaning iron water." Pyntigor-k. which means" ive-inoi-
tain town." has a number of -ul)phur springs, while Essentki pos-
sesses numerous alkallie sounic-ve-. The mineral water oCf IlorlIlom. a:
spring well-known throughout liRussia, not only is used at the -oirl'ce
but is put iup in bottles, andl slipped to all pa'ts of Ruslsil anid aIbroad.
The shipments of minerall water from this spring to Ru-ia llnd
foreign countries amoniilted to 11.000,000 bottles in 191-1. Other
important mineral springs are Mikhnilovski, Goryatclhevodski,
Abastumnn, Anapa, Matsesta, etc.
Water Power."
As the C(a:lI;l-uIs is divided by one of the highest. molntl.llin chains
of the globe, at several points covered by eternil snowi., its great
number of rivers and .trealnis, shown by the nmap. might onl belt ex-
pected, and if nature has dealt parsimoniously with the count ry with
regard to coal, it. has substituted water power as an inexhau.,tible
source of energy. Through the position of the country between the
two seas the length of its river's is somewhat limited, the l' !,!'t'.t one,
the Kurai, attaining S25 miles, while the Kuban and the Terek run
for about 300 and 400 miles, respectively. But their fall i, considr-
able, amounting in niany places to rapids, and waterfalls in the
smaller Stretln is ae also very numilerouS.
Occasions for tile erection of hyidrailic power statioin.s ar'e th -erlore
to be found in allmo-stl every part of tile country. The River Kura,
between Tiflis and Pirns in Georgia, iha, a1 fall of aholut ;1r)i mi1eters
(1 mIeter=3.2S feet) and could give 800,1)(i0 hor-e.powe!r by tlie iuse
of 100 cubic mnters of its water p)el' ecnd. Iii Nor li' (';iauri-ii. tlle
River Kuban could produce 17( 0o00 horsepower oin :,)1 iieterli'. fall
between Batalpalih and Krvkhaz Station ;-ind a further 45.0ii I i)hor-.e-
power between the latter station and Eka terinolalr. Tlhei:e figure
result, from superficial and incomplete in\vetipgietion.- only. The
many smaller rivers and affluents in their i:pperc,' reaLhi.e- have ; coil-
siderable falls and abundance of water all the 'ar r'lllund. The
streams of Georgia are said to have a potential powe(1r ;lil1ntintg to
nearly 2,500,000 horsepower in winter and to overi 4l'i,0i t.1,11)i horse-
power in sulimmer.
This natural store of energy has scarcely been tapped. The power
and light, installations now exi-sting in the country are all due to
*Adapted from Ghambashldze's Miucral Rsouirc.t of (iu.lrgin nl i .'ll.:'iu.






40


private capital, which i i- iui:-Itici.nt for t In- proper developmentt of
this kind of industry.
Hydraulic establishment generating electric current for light and
power exist now at the following place.: IIn Nortlh C(aucasuls, near
the Station Mineral Waters, there is a power stationn of 1,000 horse-
poer. Tifli-,, the cal ital of Georgia, poI.-e.-.-es 1Sl electric stations
and substations, the largest ole.s belonging to the Belgian Tramway
Co. and to the Georgian nobility. The Gori electric station belongs
to Prince I G. Amilakvari. JKutais has two stations on the Rion
River, for power and light. Adzhamethi, near Kutais, Borhlom,
Akhaltzilh, and Akhalkalaki have local stations for lighting. Batum
is provided with current from a station built about 10 miles distant
in the Tchorokh Valley. Of the Georgian coast towns, Sukhumn pos-
sesses a station of 600 horsepower about 4 miles inland; New Athos
and the meteorological station, Gagry, are also provided with current,
the latter from the River Zhokvara.
An ambitious project was worked out a few year.- ago by .an English
engineer, who proposed to supply the greater part of Caucasia with
electrical current from two generating stations of large dimensions,
one of them situated near the Kazbek Mountain and the other in the
south near Lake Goktcha, for which purpose concessions were
grUnted to him in 1912. The Kazbek power plant was to utilize the
upper Terek River near the Georgian military road, where abundant
water and a considerable fall were to produce 40.000 kilowatts, while
the water from the lake was to be conducted to tihe second plant by
Iowans of a pipe 4 miles in length and producing :I fall of 2.400 feet.
By means of these two installation-, ad11 a network of conductors
covering the whole country, high-tension current for light and power
was to be supplied to the railways, tramway ., port,. factories. mines.
mtiunicipalities, etc. Unfortunately the exec'titofn of this great plan
could not be started within the stipulated time, allnd the 'i(oncession
lapsed.'
The wmiatr-power possibilities of the Caiucas,.-u, oild be utilized
chpecially in the manufacturer of ferrinlan,;in' es. caln'iu a carbide,
and nitrogen compounds for fertilizers, etc.. for which the raw ma-
terials are already in the country.. It has been found also that where
cheap electric current is available, all sorts olf -,mall local industries
spring up, and the Caunctas. would ilolltles- Ie no exception to this
rule, though it is at pre-tent an agricultural rather than an industrial
region.
A speciall hydraialic lepartiament, exist. in Titlis (capital of Geor-
gia), which supervise- thhe twole itilizration of water power on Geor-
gian territory.
Caucasus Railway Facilities.
The principal railway lines in tli Cautcasu.s arc tlhe following:
Vladikavkaz Railway, the main liin of which extends from Rostof-on-
Don on the Azof Sea to Baku on the Caslian Sea and which has many
branches to various important trading centers; and Transcaucasian
Railway, the main line of which extends from Baku, via Tiflis, to
Batum on the Black Sea and which :also hls nuiTcIrous branches.
The length of the Vladikavkaz Railway in the Caucasus, including
its many branches, which terminate at Ekaterinodar, Novorossiisk,
Stavropol, Georgievsk, Prokhladn ya-Guderme-. Gudermes-Kisliar,


SUPP'AiMNT T' COM.M1HI'. I;l'(*1RiS..







RUSSIA-THE CAUCASUS.


Bataisk-Torgovaya, Tikhoretskaya-Tchablievsknya (contniuing to
Tsaritsyn), is 2,699 versts (1,790 miles). This line is connected with
the railroads of Russia. Portions of this railway from Ros.t.of-on-
Don to Mineralnya Vody and from Ekaterinodar to Novorossiisk
are double-tracked.
The length of the Transcaucasian Railway, ti.gether with its
branches, which terminate at Sanmtredi-Poti, Rion-Kutais-Tkvibuli,
Mi khailovo-Suram, ilMiklhailovo rz-Bozom-Bakuriani, .aropan-
Tch iatul ri-Satcl klieri, Tiflis-Djull fa. Alexa nd ropol-Ka rs-Sn rykamysh,
is 1,814 vests (1,203 miles).
The Black Sen-K ubhan Railway (Ekaterinod;I r-Pri iorsk;a-Akhty-
skrya- ilKyskayn-Kuitchevska) is 387 versts (2.,7 mile,) hlng. The
Kakhetinskava-Tiis-Telaf line is 140 verstk, (0'3 miles) long. The
length of the Armavir-Tuapse line, with its two branches. is 221
versts (147 miles). The Yeiskaya Railway, from Yeisk to Susyka on
the main line of the Vladikavkaz Railway, is 133 versts (88 miles)
long.
'1 lie total length of all railroads in the Caucausus in May, 1916, wae
5,394 versts, or 3,576 miles, averaging 2 miles per 100 square miles,
which is le.s than one-fourth of that of the United States, aid 25.5
miles per 100,000 inhabitants (the population of the Caucasus in 1916
can be figured at 14,000,000), which is one-tenth of that of the United
States. In tli United States the figures for the same year were 8.55
miles per 100 square miles and 250.3 miles per 100,000 inhabitants.
Except the Transca uia sian line, all the Cauca sian railways were owned
by private interests.
Extensions, New Lines, and Plans for Railroad Construction.
In 1914 work was started on the Black Sea Railway from Tuapse
to Kvaloni (station on the Transcaucasian Railway line) for a dis-
tance of 215 miles, but. it was suspended owing to war conditions.
This line runs along the coast of the Black Sea at a distance of 200
feet inland. There are pe plans to extend this line to Novorossiisk-
Kertch (through a bridge over the Kertch Strait), connecting it with
the railways of Rusiia, and also extending it to India, which would
thus make it become a rival of the famous Bagdad Railway. Some
progress was w made during 1916 on the Novo-Senaki-Sudkhumin
section.
The Russian Yearbook gives the following plans for new railroad
construction in the Callucass:
The Commitrive for New Railways in 191i( examined various Iproj.it,' relative
to the construction of new lines in the Caulcnaus, with the object of facilitat-
ing conmulnicaftioni I tw\\.eenl tliht district and Central Russia. The first pro-
posal was the construction of a line from Prnkhi;l:];iya (on thie Vladikavkaz
line) to Kozlof, a di;tflance of abouiit 1.16li versts (7T1i miles), which woulii
shorten the journey t'rcll Moscow to the Caucasus by about .'*.. versts (16f
miles).
The Goveruenleit enliJier's who Inull'. the iurvey.s reloiunliondld two routes:
The first fl'rm A.tchal.. iin the Translcaucainaii Rail"iay, via the Arkhotsk
Pass to Slyeptsl.f, iin the Vlilaiknvknz main line. The Ihellcr alternative,
from Vlndikavknz li, Titlis, following the Georgian military rcild, would be
longer and ulr'e cstly. The cost of the former route was estimated at
101,523,988 rubles andl of the latter at 104,216,312 rubles, exclusive of rolling
stock and the electrification of the line, which was sure to be done in view of
the abundant ouiiplly .f watlr for hydroelectric purposes.
The Rutsis n <;,\ Railway Co., the object of which was to carry into effect the long contem-







SUPPI'KiI.ENT t) C IMMElI(' II .FPr"il'rs.


plated Iprojec t tf ci'l.iis rulill' a railway from Br'1ho11 o Kll'ars, with a branch
line lo Olt.y oi the Tiurki- frontier. The railway ;ia in its liranCli were to be
aipproxinmately :.' l1 versts (2-:1i miles) in lengtli na11 were e.-tilnlted to cost
62,000,0010 ruililes. Tll It rritiry Iihrough wiclh the railway will pass is reputed
to be rich in ;I'riiiltiir;il mil min inig ponsiilities. O(Ine of the concessionaires
owns a very extensive c(.;l Itichl ll ilty. whicl is said to contain a practically
unililitd il 11supp1ly of .' (ild cial for steam and other fuel purposes.
A (*o,0111:1.ny was fli lmed for tlhe construction of a standard-gauge railway
from lli. station of .ly;lt. 43 lilles from the junction of the Vladikavkaz and
Trarfin.i-li.J.,lii Railwanvys at HIlallzh;arl, through Salynn and Lenkoran, to
Astara on illl Persian frontier. The scheme also provided for the subsequent
extension of this line frioiiI As.tinra through Persian territory, touching the
more important conmmeriial centers of that country. The estimated cost of
the railway was nearly 13,700,000 rubles, which it was proposed to raise by
the formation of a comlill):ly with a capital if" 14,000,000 rubles. This railway
was iilln-ltdl to form 111e 'nnecll tilg link liitwerli thei Russian and trans-
Persian systems.
The Talbriz-Djulfa Railway, w ith it branch from Sofyan to
Shlrefkhani on Lake Urumiah, was completed in 1916 and opened to
tIa;ffic about the middle of the year. The Shahtahti-Maku-Bayazet,
or Alashkert, Railway was also working as far as Bayazet before the
clo^e of the year. This line is being extended southward in the di-
rection of Lake Van. The Batum-Trebizond Railway was begun
about August, 1916, and by the end of the year work on several
sections of the railroad was reported to be advancing favorably.
The Baku-Djulfa, or Araxes Valley, Railway progressed fairly
rapidly in 1916, and much work in connection with earthworks and
bridging was completed.
Market for Agricultural and Other Machinery.
There is a considerable field for the introduction of agricultural
machinery in the Caucaiis. Agriculture is the leading industry of
this entire region, but even in the more settled parls of Transcau-
c('i;i. the peasants may be seen to-day plowing with crooked sticks.
All their implements are most. primitive. There is some improved
agricultural machinery used in North Caucasus, most of which
came from Germany and the United States, but no statistics are
available to show the amount imported from the latter country.
The various agricultural societies are doing good work in intro-
ducin" modern agricultural implements and in keeping small stocks
in their stores, such as iron shovels, forks, hand mills for grinding
corn, pulverizinlg, etc. They are also introducing chemical fer-
tilizers and disinfectants.
American manufacturers of machinery must bear in mind that
nmalchinery, to suit local requirements, should be extra strong and
not complicated. They should insist that agents sell machinery
adapted to the work for which it is purchased. A case was drawn to
the attention of. the American consulate in Batum in which a small
ste:zini shovel, used in the United States for light ditch work, was
sold for digging out iron ore. The consequence was a broken shovel
and the seriously damaged reputation of the manufacturer, who
in this instance was not informed by his agent of the nature of the
work that the machine would be required to perform. This inci-
dent is of special interest, because the market for steam shovels in
the Caucasus is bound to become of great importance, and manu-
facturers must assure themselves that agents understand the busi-
ness sufficiently to see that their customers get the size and type of








RUSSIA-THE CAUCASUS. 43

shovel suitable for the work required. This is particularly impor-
tant because some Russian works are in a position to compete in this
article.
Hardware, Leather, and Footwear-Other American Goods.
Hardware, leather, a'nd footwear havee nii imported principally
through European corn is~ision houses and in. many instances have
been entered :is of European origin. The following articles of
Americant hardware and cutlery are best kniwn in this market:
Saw-,, files, plumbing iifpplies and pipes, brass fittings. pipe joints.
razors, ice-creamn freezers, clips. etc. The hardware trade in the
Cauca sus offers a wide field for expa:n-ioni to Amevri'-in miiian iffnf-
turers who are able to study local requiremient.- and willing to meet
local conditions. American leather and footwear were beginning
to obtain a firm foothold in all the principal cities of the Cau-
casus; the sudden -tol)pagle of imports toward the end of the year
1914 1vteated a .erisous cri-is in this trade. Mo-st of this trade was
handled, however, through European agents. Complaints reached
the Aimerican consulate that shoes of certain well-known makes
were not uniform in quality, and it is believed that many imitations
flooded the market.
Among articles of American origin imported to this market in
1914 on a limited scale airv musical instruments, chemicals, elec-
trical supplies, refrigerators, photographic appliances, toilet requi-
sites, and groceries.
The value of Amnerican goods sold in the Caucasus in 1914 is esti-
mated at. $4,000,000 to $4,500.000. showing an excess over exports to
the United States of $2,238,000 to $2,738,000.
Exports from Batum to United States.
The declared exports to the United States invoiced at the Batum
consulate during the five years ended in 1917 were as follows:

Articles. 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917

Almonds...................................13 ................... ............
Antiquities ............................ .. ...... ...... 43 .... ............
Casings, sheep......... ...................... 1,75 524 3,26 48,467 19,615
Glue stock................................ 174 ....................... .... ............
Licorice root .............................. 1,023. -1 4133,3:P 235,247 52,029 ............
Manganese ore............................. b5 9S7 I19. 923 ............ ............ ............
Nuts ........ .. ........................... 13,2 .1 ............ ......... ...........
Potash. e' rbonact of.................. ..... 2, S 12,31 ....................................
Raisins.................. ........ ... ... 1 ......... ............ ............ ............
Rug ....................................... 1S, 'Ii4 121,655 12,753 198,455 196,143
Skins:
G(;o l.............................. ....... 6 j" 1i, 79 ............ ........................
Sheep ................................. .52 h,6 0,297 ..................... ............
Sunflower seeds................. .............. 33 .. ...... .........................
Tobacco......................... .... ... 1-1, 7 ,373 ...................................
Win ............... .................... .. 1 .........................................
Wood:
Box ................................... ... ... 1,112 ............ .....................
Venccrs................................ ,92 14,097 ........................ ............
alut............... ............... 4 IS9 115,754 ............................
W ool..................................... ,. .i 71 ,825 .......... .. ..... ...........
'Phonogr. ph records ....................... .......... ................. ... ..... ...... 359
Totalf ................................ 3,11.i 750l 1. 7L 2.195 301,266 298,951 216,117

Credit Conditions and Trade Methods.
A point that militates against Aierican products is the lack of
credit. It may be taken as an established principle that. Russian
merchants, under usual conditions, will not pay for manufactured







SUPP'i.MEIENT TO L'O.MIL3EEH i- iu-':l'iiTs.


goodi- bfore the ,nis are received. Thle liuial credits received by
local deaIers ion '. 'frm :11 do ,ays to 12 imonthi- from date of delivery.
On tlh otihe' iinll'. .\Allt'Ii." lil Itilim nIufact I 'el's, ;, a.- ;:L 'ull refuse to sell
otherwise 1Ii:in i-h witli order or f. ii. b. seaboard. Theli result of
this co, (illiI otf 'iitoms is to throw American trade with Russia
largely into t In' li:,ds of European commission houses.
(One i11ii1,pirt;lit ('icnni'rcial effect of the war noted in 1914 was the
brenkinu aw:i v from trade with German firms, which were numerous
an I wlil-estal)lis!Iedl throughout the district. The average local
de:adlr \va; arccustomed to buy German and a large proportion of
other fireig n goods from Germnan commission houses or agents, who
not only -,olicited orders. displayed samples, and arranged credits.
but were al:o able to work out the price of the goods delivered at
the iierclant'.s warehoiiue. The only mental effort required of the
local l dealer in placing orders was to choose the. goods preferred. Al-
most any goods could have been sold in the Caucasus toward the
close of 1914 if they had been introduced on the market in as thor-
Moghi and efficient a manner.
Trade with Persia.
Tle Caucasus liha to be considered as a distributing center for new
and wide fields of the fufrmer Turkish Empire and increasingly so
for the Provinces of northern Persia.
Russian trade with Persia continues to increase rapidly. This is
due chiefly to Russia'- great advantage in having control of the prin-
cipal routes leading to the several Province, of northern Persia. The
articles exported from and through the (auelasus to Persia include
.such commodities as sig.ar, four, kerosene. and manufactured goods.
The cities of Astranklhan. Baku, Batuim. ;nd Tiflis are situated on
the trade routes from ihuii-ia to Pelria. Tih most important part in
this trade is taken by the city of Baku on account of its harbor facili-
ties and advantageous situation on the Caspian Sea. This city has
frequent steamship .communication with the ports of northern Per-
sia. Other goods from' Russia are shipped via Poti or Batum to
Titlis and thence to Ijulfa. This trade is materially assisted by the
con:t ruction of the new railway from Djulfa to Tabriz. If the con-
leilmplated railway froin Batum to Kars is built, it will be still easier
to seld merchal ndise from Russia to northwest Persia.
Th' ll oo1 landed at Baku from Persia in 1912 were as follows:
Tons.
Cerf .---------------------------------------------------------- 6262
Col, In -eI-- --- ------- ---------------------------------------- 210, 45
Fir iwt',.tl----------------------------------------------------12,045
1Fis!_ ----------- -------------- ----------------- --------- ,82
I'Fti ..----------------------------_---_----------- -------_------_ 5,914
Linseed ----- ----------------------------------------------- 573
Oil seds ------------------------------------------------2, 010
Rice ---------- ------------------------------ -8,135
Tier-------- --------------- -------------------- 2,033
Tobalcco and cigarettes ------------------------ ------ 787
Vegetables----------------------------------------- 601
Walnii logs ----------------------------------------- 2,046
Wool and c rpets -------------------------------------- --- 0,516
Total ------- ----------------- ----------------- 194.249







RUSSIA-THIE CAUCASIUS.


The goods shipped from Baku to Persia in 1912 were the fol-
lowing:
Tone.
Buildill iiatrial --------------------------------------- 1, 3;48
.Cereal.-, ..... .- ---- ---------... ------------ -------------------. ---- 1,000
Coopers' goods- _------------ ----- ------------ 338
Flour -------------------. .--------------------..-. --. ..----- 9, 692
GlIasswo ro_ ---------_--. -----------------------------------------------. 660
Kerowse --_ ---------------------------------------------------- 24. 302
Mainuftactureti goods --------------- ------------ ----- 1,701
Metals ----------------------------------------------------------- 2,095
Sugar --------- ---------------- ---------- ----------- 49,796
Tea------------------------------------------------------ 14
Total ..------------------------ _. --- ... ----------------- 90, 946
Bourse Committees in the Caucasus.
Eight principal cities of the Caucasus have IourI', c olliiitteet-, or
exchange co itte, whi conittch correspond very nearly to American
chambers of commerce and boards of trade, although their functional
are usually rnore limited. They endeavor to build up trade relations,
to introduce modern methods of trade, to obtain municipal and har-
bor improvements, to olitnin desired changes in the tariff regulations,
to regulate prices, to settle disputes among merchants, and, in general,
to promote the industrial and commercial welfare of the. cities in
which they exist. They have nothing to do, however, with finances
or commercial ratings.
An idea of the functions of the bourse committees in the Caucasus
may be obtained from a brief review of the activity of the Batum
bourse conunittee during 1912. This included an attempt to investi-
gate the markets of the Near East; an application to the customs
officials to decrease the tariff on wood for petroleum cases, so as to
facilitate the export of kerosene to the markets of the Near East;
the consideration of the question of loading and unloading vessels in
the port of Batum on Sundays and holidays; the consideration of
methods of facilitating and improving the conditions of work in
the port. of Batum and of other needs of commerce and industry; the
consideration of the insurance of workmen and of regulating the
hours of labor; a study of tie question of railway freight rates on
manganese ore from the l lines at Tehiaturi to Batum: the estab-
lishment of a fixed tariff for carrying baggage from ste:amers; an
application to the inspector of schools in the Caucasus to have a
commercial school established at Baturn, and other mnitttrs, of timely
interest.
Activities of Cooperative Societies in North Caucasus.
The cooperatives play an important role in tile ,ollil0norce of the
Caucasus. The following data are furnished by tie Anieriall Com-
mittee of Russian Cooperative Unions:
At the end of 1918 there were over 1.000 credit sociieties and saving
organizations in North Caucasus united in various local unions,
which in their turn are members of the Southeastern Association of
the Unions of Credit and Saving Societies, with headquarters at
Rostof-on-Don. Tile latter is the central purchasing organization for
all the credit cooperative societies of North Caucasus. The number of
individual members in these cooperative societies exceeds 600,000.
The total of the balance sheets of these unions at tile end of 1918







. nI'II.I:.M.INT TO COM.I.ERE('E ]l.I'oU l'Ts.


exctedeld _,). .uJ I.I,) rubles. while the yearly turnover is equal to
500.nI.(iii u rul"ili-. 'irio, un ions of these cooperatives own many
inldusll i;l i1 lc i ,(:Iin --. ,such al flour mills, factories for making
agricuiltlirll iiacliln ry, and Iarley-grinding plants. The same
union- polsse their own warehouses and elevators. The central
banking- inl-titution for their financial operations is the branch of
the Mo,-, ow Narodny Bank located at Rostof-on-Don.
There are : ,000 consumers' societies in North Caucasus comprising
1,800,000 individual members. Their cash capital is equal to
20,000,000 rubles, and their yearly turnover for 1918 reached the sum
of 300,000.000 rubles. Their importance as distributors and collec-
tor-, of r1 w iiaterials can be judged by the fact that there is no more
or less important hamlet or Co-sack settlement where there is not a
cllisullers' 'tore. lTlle consumers' organization is also operating suc-
ces-fully :iiniong the city and working population. There are many
conslur.lll' societies in the mining districts, and there is a good num-
ber of railroad consumers' societies that have 10.000 members each
and 50 to 60 storess with a turnover totaling many million rubles.
All the con'-um crs' societies are members of one or another of the 25
big local unions, the most important of which, practically uniting all
lthe other-,, is the Rostof-on-Don Regional Union of Consumers'
Societies. founded in 1913. On December 1. 1918, the cash capital of
this regional union was 3,990,000 rubles. The gross earnings in 1918
were 3.1,1i,.7:21 rubles, the trade turnover exceeded 90,000.000 rubles,
and the value of the industrial plants is estimated at 13,000 000 rubles.
The union has the following departments: Groceries and foodstuffs,
leather and shoes, textiles and notions, hardware and tools, paper and
office I'ipplliie. and agricultural seeds and supplies. Moreover, the
Rostof-on-)Do!l Regional Union owns its own workshops for making
ready-made clothe., underwear, and hats and has its own fishery, with
fith .salting and curing plants. Finally, it has three big industrial
plants: (1) A nail factory with an output of 9,167 tons of nails per
year; (2) a soap factory witl a yearly output of 4,000 tons of soap;
and (3) also a soap factory (" Milovar"). the biggest of its kind in
South R i,-sia. with three sections: (a) Oil-crushing plant, (b) hard-
soap factory, (c) soft-soap factory. The annual production is
7,500 tons of vegetable oil, 5.000 tons of vegetable tallow, 15,000 tons
of -o;p, and 500 tons of glycerin. This soap factory is owned in con-
junction with the All-Russian Central Union of Consumers' Societies
(Centrosoyuz), which holds three-fifths of the share,. Under the
auspices of Centrosoyuz the buying of foods is now conducted in
North Ca:ucaus on a Inrge scale with a view to supplying Central
Russia with dry fruits.
To further foreign trade a new body ha-, been organized by the co-
operatives called the Southern Cooperative Council for Foreign
Trade (Yulskvet), composed of Centrooy\uz. tlhe Moscow Narodny
Bank, and all the cooperative organizations of North Caucasus and
the Don Territory. TIh headquarters of Yuskvet are at Ekaterino-
dar. Yuskvet is intriuted with the representation of cooperatives
before hiuiime and foreign (Governmll nts. the fixing of the quantities
of oil- to i)' imported and exported. andl the distribution of goods
iuiiiong tihe l- (loprative.. The execution of trade orders abroad is
intrutred to Centllcsovuz for consumlers' societies and to the Moscow
Naarodiny Bank for credit societies.







RUSSIA-THE CAUCASUS. 47

Cooperation in North Caucasus has been almost exclusively rural
cooperation and unites 80 per cent. of the famning population, both
Cossacks and peasants. This is because the average landholding is
larger in South Russia than in other parts of the country, and the
population is correspondingly more well-to-do.
Cooperatives in Transcaucasia.
Unfortunately at present little information is available on the de-
Svelopnient of the cooperative movement in Trins in ur-i;. In 1917
there were two large cooperative organizatiolns-one in Baku, called
Cooperation, and the other in Tiflis.called the Tran-ena n. ;ianl Union
of Cooperative Societies (Zaksozii). Each of them unites over 500
cooperative societies with one or more store-. The union Cooperation
in Baku counts among it members two societies in Turkestan and
two Persian societies in the city of Enzeli. Thui tur-nover of this
union for 1916 was L2, 3,923 rubles. The union lhas its own printing
establishment, publishes a journal, opened a large cooperative dining
room called "The Health," and al.-,o a cooperative people's house
for various educational purposes. This union has its own work-
shops for ma nu facturing soap, candy, native cakes, coffee substitutes,
---1-L7 7----c
and various confections in which grape juice is used instead of sugar.
The Zaksoyuz in 1917 had a turnover of 2,9l01.,24 rubles. These two
unions unite 14 local unions, each one representing from 10 to 50
societies.
The other forms of cooperation were still le.. developed in 1917
than the consumers' branch. There was only one credit society in the
whole of Transcaucasia.
Principal Commercial Centers."
Ekatlernodarr.--Admin istrative center of the Kuban Province. In
1915 its population was approximately 100,000. This city possesses
tramwayn~ electric lighting, waterworks, and telephone service.
The inhabitants of the neighboring districts are engaged in growing
tobacco and fruit and in fishing. An oil pipe 96 versts (64 miles) in
length, which was opened in 1911, brings 150,000 poods (18,000 bar-
rels) of oil daily. This oil is obtained from the MaIikop field. There
are 10 steam flour mills. 8 oil-crushing mills. 12) brickyards, 8 foun-
dries, 4 breweries, etc., in the city; also about 15I banks and an ex-
change committee.
Nooro-o..'i; lek.-Adminisistrative center of Black Sea Government.
Its population was about 75,000 in 1915. It hnI, hle trici lights and a
sewerage system. It has an exchange committee and is a center of
the grain trade and the cement industry. The mino important
cement works are the Tehernoomorsk Cement Works (capital,
4,500,000 rubles: production. 13,000.000 piod,)): T.sep (capital,
1,500,000 rubles: production, 350,000 barrels) : Titan (capital, 1,675,000
rubles; production. 250,000 barrels): Tal se-Tchermoiiiorsk Co.
(capital 1,200,000 rubles; product ion. 5( 0,(J00 barre-) ; Tauz (capital
1,200,000 rubles; production, 500,000 Ibarrels). Beton, Pobeda. and
Aindar. In Novorossiisk and its vicinity (Bakanskaya, Toiinelnaya,
Gaiduk) the production of cement increases each year, and in the
near future it may become not only Russia's center but also one of
aThe data in this section cover approximiatelv the year 1 :11. The deCcrilitious of
Elisaretpol, Kars, and Kutais were taken largely from an article on the economic re-
source-s of the Caucasu, published in Russia for September ;aid October, 1917.









SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE rEPORTS.


the world's renteri of the cement. industry. The quantity of cement
in this territory i. known to be enormous, and its quality is con-
sidered excellent.
The h)av of Novorosiisk is sufficiently favorable for anchorage,
and the wind Nord-ost." or Bora," does not handicap shipping,
as is generally believed. There are seven loading piers of which
five (inclutling two elevator piers) belong to the railway company,
one to the French Standard Oil Co. and one to the Russian Steam-
ship Co." There is accommodation for some 22 steamers. The depth
of water at the end of these piers averages 24 to 26 feet. There are
two breakwaters. The freight-handling equipment includes cranes
of 5, 10, 20, and 2.) tons, and a floating crane of 40 tons. There is a
grain elevator with a capacity of 6,000,000 poods and storage ware-
houses with a capacity of 5,000,000 poods. Novorossiisk is connected
by rail with Petrovsk and Baku and with the railways of Russia
via Tikhoretskaya on the Vladikavkaz Railway.
The principal articles of export through Novorossiisk during the
years 1912 and 1913 and the first six months of 1914 are shown in
the following table:


Articles.


Cerc ls ........................................... .. ..........
Coal................................................. ...... ........
Flour.............. ....................... .... .............. .....
Licorice root.......................................................
Oak staves ................................... ....
Oil cake..................................................... ..
O il products.......... ...... .............. ........ .... ...........
R ails .................... .. ................................. ....
W ool................................ .......................... ....
A ll or her art icles ................. ................................


1012


Tuns.
703,742
13.5
I. 4m6
10,11 1
149. 1,2'
213, 1i6s
2,673
1,140
167..7,96


T otal..................... ................................... 230, 65


1913


Tons.
940,357
412
3, 166
17,472
149,244
219,162
3,206
183
3g, 501


Jan. 1-
June 30,
1914.

Tons.
844,944
175
............
9,157
73,864
149,340
............
2141
14,710


1,372,203 1,092,214


The exports of various oil products from Novoro -sii,,k to foreign
countries are shown in the following table for 1912, 1913, and 1914:


Products.


Illum inati g il ...................................... ................... ..
P itch.... ... .........................................................
Spirits (gasoline, i'i.)....................................................
Residuum ....... ................................................. .
M machine oil......... ...... .................................. ..........
Ligroin ................................. .. ...... ........................
Crude oil............................. ..................................
Total....................... ... ....... ...........................


1912 1913

Tons. Tons.
41,611 67,000
.......... 422
140, 2%8 1 87,610
19,786 12,223
.......... 96,070
9,344 46,137
2,139 ..........
213,16S 219,462
I


At Novoro siisk 323 vessels, of 631,299 tons. entered into the for-
eign trade of the port in 1914, as compared with 419 vessels, of
841,514 tons, in 1913.
Arinai,' (Kuban Province).-Population, about 60,000; turnover,
more than 5,)(,(100.000 rubles. It has electricity, waterworks, telephone
service, 13 bank-, and an exchange committee. There are several oil-
pressing mills in this town. It is connected by railway with Tuapse
(one tunnel on this line is 4,032 feet. long) and is on the main trunk
line of the Vladikavkaz Railway.

a All data on port accommodations are for the year 1913.


Tons.
52,123
57,442
7,600
32,175

149,340








RUSSIA-THE CAUCASUS. 49

Maikop (Kuban Province).-Population, more than 52,000. This
town is the center of the Kuban oil region and lha. a large trade in
tobacco. It. has waterworks. telephone service, electric lighting, and
banks.
Y'u isi.t (Kuban Province).-Port on the Azof Sea, with a popula-
tion of 50,000. Its inhabitants are engaged in fishing, the salt in-
dustry, and the cattle trade. The length of pier is 2,5S5 feet;
depth. 11.8 feet. It has an exchange committee. It is connected by
rail with Sosyka on the Vladikavkaz Railway.
Fladi'kakuaz (Terek Province).-Population, 8,00(j0; center of
exchange with the mountaineers and their cultural center. There
are several banks and a mining chemical factory. Alhgir."
In this region there are also Geor/ v',sk/', with a pIIpulation of
26,000 and many flour mills, and Mozdok, with a population of 14,000,
whose inhabitants are engaged in producing wine, growing fruit, and
fishing. Both of these towns are on the Vladikavkaz Railway.
Grozny (Terek Province).-Population, 35,000; center of Terek
oil region, which is second in importance in the Caucaii^s.
Derbent (35,000) and Petirosk (18.000).-Fishing enterr in Da-
ghestan Province on the Caspian Sea. The cultivation and preser-
vation of fruit have lately been attempted, and extraction of sulphur
was started in the neighborhood of Petrovsk. The city of Petrovsk
has several refrigerating plants.
Bakiu (on Caspian Sea).-Population, 350,000; chief center of
Russia's petroleum industry. It is a thriving port and a railway
terminus. The shortest railway route to Persia lies through Baku.
It serves as a distributing center to a large tract of agricultural coun-
try in which cotton, rice, tobacco. fruit, and vines are grown. Silk
is manufactured. The citv is connectedd by railway and telephone
with Tiflis. It has an exchange committee. The water front is 22
versts (15 miles) long. It is a modern city with a mixture of Occi-
dental and Oriental culture. It is a good market for American oil-
well drilling machinery, and for pipes, belting, compressors, electric
motors, and all so-called oil-country goods."
The following table shows the shipments from Baku of the princi-
pal oil products in 1913 and 1914, together with the routes and desti-
nations:

To interior
Oil products and years. o Russia By rail. l road To To. Total.
via (local). Batuni. Persia.
Caspian.

Lubriicating oils: Tons. Tons. T,,ns. Trns. Tons. Tons.
1913................................. 97,212 17,,Sa 4,734 1S7, 21' 33 307,005
1914.................................. 95,950 11,584 5, 337 62,731 62 175,714
Illuminating oils:
1913 ..................... ......... 83.5,400 94,260 20, 50 36W ,716 23,504 1,339,460
1914............................... 822,327 59,S39 21,2 1 I f163i, 2 .31,23ri 1, 09' 265
Residuum:
1913. .............................. 3,014,035 120,444 13, 87 75,531 2,662 3,22i,559
1914 ............................... 2,613,901 139,911 15,210 4S.3,4 2,661 2,S20,067
Spirits (gasoline, etc.):
1913.................................. 587 53.029 1,001 1 73 54,704
1914................................. 374 19,.311 10 10 _92 20,597
Tolal:
1913.......................... 3,947.231 2.5,341 40,202 628,479 26,272 4,927,728
1914 ....................... 3,532552 230, f45 42, 6K 274, 6i7 34,071 4,114,6431







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


T7';fl;.--CCapittl of the Caucasus and one of the oldest settlements
in the world. It is a modern city, with a population of 350,000, and
is the distributing center of manufactured goods for the Caucasus
;illd northern Persia. The turnover is about 50,000,000 rubles. There
is an exchange committee. Industry is little developed, its turnover
reaching 10,000,000 rubles. The most important branch is the pro-
duction of cottonseed, sesame, castor, and linseed oils. Tobacco is
grown in the vicinity. There are sawmills, seven or eight metal
works, four large leather factories, three large soap works, brick-
ynIIds, and three large oil factories.
E'iri,,,' tf)pol.-Administrative center of the Government of Elisa-
vctpol. The population numbers 60,000. mostly Armenians and
Tatars.
Thir Elisavetpol district is situated along the middle portion of
the River Kura and is traversed from the east to the west by the
Tr:insicauc;ian Railway. The region enjoys a very generous share of
the enormous natural resources of the Caucasus. It has white and black
marble, jasper, trachyte, nephrite, barytes, bauxite, aluminum, gold,
cobalt, rich iron ores, petroleum, asbestos, etc., and copper ores with
a content of pure copper attaining in some cases as much as 23 per
crnt. All these riches, owing to the lack of enterprising capital, lie
undeveloped.
The cultivation of tobacco, flax and hemp, etc., forms a very im-
portant industry in the district, while cotton has recently been started
at an experimental station, in response to large demands and the
high price of this commodity. While the initial undertaking owes
its inception to these two facts, there is little doubt that the cultiva-
tion of cotton will be continued and will undergo a rapid and sub-
stantial development. The needs of the cotton industry have re-
quired the establishment of many ginning works. some of them of
considerable size and equipped with up-to-date machinery. The
utilization of the oil in the cotton seed i4 also occupying attention
;nd is giving rise to new undertakings.
Viticulture occupies an important section of the community, and
the wines that were made in this district before the war were sup-
plied in large quantities to the interior of Russia. The quality of
the products would be much improved by the adoption of modern
improvements, wine presses, and other machinery necessary for
wine making. Suitable patterns of machines for this purpose would
be welcomed by those engaged in the industry and would find a. ready
sale. Silkworm culture proves a means of subsistence for many
thousands of inhabitants, but the silk industry itself is organized
only on a very small scale. At present there are about 100 silk-
winding and silk-twisting factories, together with about 200 small
and unimportant workshops.
The mineral resources in the district are practically untouched,
though worked in ancient times.
Nvw'hu.-A town of 38,000 inhabitants and a center of the silk
industry.
S~luslha.-A town of 42,000 inhabitants, who are engaged in the
silk and carpet industries.
Erivan.-South of the Caucasus wall, the Erivan district is situ-
ated on the extreme i south of Transcaucasia and includes Lake Gok-







RUSSIA-THE CAUCASUS. 51

tcha, which has an abundant supply of fish and is also a source of
hydroelectric energy for the district.
The chief town is Erivan, with a population of 30,000, on the banks
of the River Zangi. The railway line connecting the town with
Alexandropol, Kars, and Tiflis played an unimportant part in the
commercial life of the town, but. much better results have been ob-
tained from the new line to Diulfa, which affords communication
with Persia by raid to Tabriz and by highroads to Teheran, the chief
markets of northern Persia.
Horticulture and fruit, growing play an important part in the
economic life of the population. EriVan vegetables and fruit, par-
ticularly grapes, are distributed throughout the Cautisl'i-' and even
in Russia itself. In addition to this, there are many rice pinatations
in the vicinity. Cotton growing and brandy distillation also occupy
a certain nuillber of the inlihbitalts.
Alcx.andropol (on the Tifli -Djulfa Railway).-Popilation,
53,000. Gardening and the silkworm industry are well developed.
Ka-rs.-A town of 35,000 inhabitants, connected with Tiflis by
railway. In the Kars district there are many minerals and imetals
that have not been exploited nor even properly investigated.
In the Pokkhof section there are rich deposits of many-colored
marble covering several square versts at a distance of 4. versts (30
miles) from the town of Akha]tsikh. The stone is found in hori-
zontal strata in subterranean caves. Rock salt also is found at great
depth between Olty and Kulpa. Other minerals in this region in-
clude gold, asbestos, borax, and many mineral pigments, which could
be utilized for industrial purposes.
Kutfals.-Population, 55,000. The Kutais region comprises the val-
ley of the River Rion (the Phasis of the ancient Greeks) in the west-
ern Caucasus. The most important industries are the extraction of
S manganese and the working of timber. Manganese is found in the
Tchiaturi district and in the Kvirili River villages. The sawmills
produce beech staves, sleepers, deals, and logs. In this district, it
is suggested by Russia," considerable interest might be taken in
S the construction of rope trolleys running overhead and in the utiliza-
S tion of the water power of the River Rion. Two concessions have
already been taken, it is stated, for overhead lines in connection
with the manganese industry.
SBatutl (on the Black Sea).-Population, 30,000. Batum is con-
S nected by railway with Baku on the Caspian Sen. In order to
facilitate the transportation of oil from the Baku fields to Batiin
on the Black Sea, there was constructed an important oil pipe 560
miles long. Batum has an exchange committee. The harbor has
water 5 to 10 fathoms deep close to shore. The entrance is 300
fathoms deep. There are no docks but there is a breakwater for
the use of petroleum steamers with 30 feet of water alongside,
where five steamers can load at the same time. The one 40-ton
crane is owned by the port. authority. There are numerous ware-
houses for different kinds of merchandise.










52 .sI'PI.E.MENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


The principal nrticle.- of import and export throu thougthe port of
Bl;itln for the \ca;ir 1910 to 1914 are shown in the following table:


rticles.


IMPORTS.
('C miu nt................ ... .......................
Chem icals ......................... .................
Colonial wares (Iropical products)..................
copperr iron, cast iron, 7enc, and steel .............
Copper, iron, iin, and steel wares .................
Fire hricks. clay, and tiles.........................
I.'nit, dried fruit, wines, and spirits.................
Tidln................ ......... .............
Maclihery .........................................
lr r and lead.....................................
ilphate of copper.................................
S lphur...... .....................................
Stone and marble...................................
Tin plates ..........................................
All 1 her articles....................................
Toltl imports.............................
EXPORTS.

Albumen and entrails...............................
Almonds, nuts, and raisins ........................
Carpets and rugs...................................
Cotton seed................. ........................
Grain and lour.....................................
Licorice root........................................
Mango nese ore......................................
O il cake............................................
i'etroleum products................................
Salt................................................
Seed, grnss and lucern.............................
Silk, raw silk, and cocoons.........................
Skins and hiaes....................................
voya benns.........................................
Tobacco....................... ...............
Wood, boxwood, walnut, chestnut, and veneer......
W ool............. .................................
.ll other articles.................. .................

Total export................................


Tons.
439
184
643
794
4,606
2.284
81
1,443
490
516
s95
364
11,922
3,073


27,764


152
804
783
52
24,791
10,886
43,119
19,359
645,080
192
2,679
1,801
204
21
3,916
2,C08O
7,2 92
763,4411


Tons.
......-....
451
147
541
1,016
6, 377
2,155
133
1,884
363
1,045
2, 65
2s2
7,410
3,023


27,542


114
2,498
943
2,378
42,992
ib, 186
129,233
12,758
695,271
743
2,141
1,524
118
..........
379
3,961
3,793
2,860

816,892


1912 1913


~----1--- !---


Tonsa.
2,200
1,063
114
1,499
1.883
6,009
1,596
20
1,956
319
1,201
1,649
275
7,938
2,244


28,971


Tons.
1,911
119
1,307
1,797
5,573
1,667
1,719
491
1,160
812

8,815
6,575


i I1:


31,946


49 ..........
731 ..........
78S 734
19,293 13,856
25, .91 28,017
15,617 24,291
277,499 429,900
11.193 12,445
545,725 024,022
1,111 1.601
1,357 983
1,076 1,238
699 ........ .
.......... ..........
513 411
5,062 1,494
4,264 4,492
2,258 2,721

912,659 1,149,235


'he shipments of petroleum products through the port of Batunm
during the years 1912 to 1914 were as follows:


Illumlnat- Lulricat- Crude and Other
Destinations and years. ioil ingoi. crude petroleum Total.
g o ing residuum, products.


foi ei,-ni count rips:
19 12 .... ..............................
191:.... ..............................
1411 ..................................
T,' liussin:
II2 ...................................
1913..................................
1911 ................. ................
Totall:
11...........................
1913............................
1011 ................. ............


Gallons.
M6,574,413
95,491,505
61,752,764
7, 8$3,505
12,63.,120
16,03;, 949

94,457, 918
10, 128,625
77,790,713


Gallons.
47,722,188
47,869,557
26,061,860

664,323
1,016,077
241,890

4S,3S6,511
48, 755,634
26,303,750


Gallons.
12,765,757
13,805,900
10,291,765

334,580
103,2.0
298.910

13,100,337
13,914,170
10,593,675


Gallons.
44,222
460,906
............

............
4,080
............

44,222
464,986
............


Gallons.
147,106,580
157,627,868
93,109,389
8,882,408
13,765,547
16,578,749

15, 988, 88
171,393,415
114,688,138


The number of ve.sels of all nationalities that entered into the
foreign trade of the port of Batum during 1914 was 365, with a
tonnage of 609.936, as compnlared with 534 vessels, of 1,015,634 tons,
in 1913. In 1914, British vessels took first place in tonnage (131,977
tons), followed. in order, by German (90,235 tons), Russian (85,590
tons), and French (2.:I4l tons).


1914


Tons.
i64
344
528
963
2,161
4,669
227
23
2,403
198
1,761
1,715
753
6,460
15,792


38,551


102
1,659
1,050
5,083
14,867
10,294
312,129
6,547
300,022
..........


1,250
2,366
325

531
3,586
3,921
2.049

665,71







RUSSIA-THE CAUCASUS.


The following particulars with regard to the Batum district were
taken from "Russia" for October, 1917:
The Batum district is particularly interesting by reason of the
beauty of its subtropical vegetation and its very rich natural re-
sources. Favorable conditions of climate and soil have permitted
the successful cultivation of tea in a very short time, especially near
the station Tchakva, where there is also a tea factory. Tangerine
trees also are grown successfully and profitably. They were brought
from Japan, as were also Japanese bamboos. This cane is now grow-
ing plentifully, and workshops have been erected in this district to
manufacture furniture from cane. The demand even now exceeds
the supply.
The timber wealth of Batum is enormous and has been little ex-
ploited. Forests cover about one-third of the area of the Batlum
district, whi-.h occupies about, 6,130 square versts (2,700 square
miles). The forests owned by the Government cover about 250,000
dessiatines (i673,000 acres). The principal trees are beech, horn-
beam, ash, chestnut, spruce, pine, fir, and some oak. Particularly
interesting for exploitation are the beech forest-, where the trees
are 150 feet high and nearly 5 feet in diameter. The beech is very
good for staves, furniture, parquet floors, boards, boxes, cases, etc.
The beech forests extend up to 5,500 feet above sea level, and above
this altitude give pl;we to coniferous trees, to an altitude of 7,000
feet. These include fir, spruce, and yew, the last yielding red tim-
ber, which does not rot. The minimum reserve of timber per dessia-
tine (2.7 acres) might, be taken as equal to 30 cubic sazhens (10,300
cubic feet; about 3,800 cubic feet to the acre), half of which is suit-
able for building purposes and half for various other purposes.
This great wealth can not yet be exploited owing to the absence of
roads. Meanwhile only valuable trees are cut down, such as walnut
and box. The total area of timber exploited at present equals not
more than 1,700 of the entire area of the forests, a great part of
which has deteriorated owing to neglect. The production of timber
in the district is lower than the demiiand, and considerable quantities
of timber for building purposes are brought to Batum from other
Russian ports (up to 1,000,000 poods and more). The Caucasus con-
sumes a large (quantity of three-ply board used for tea and fruit
boxes, and nearly the whole of this comes from Pinsk through
Odessa. Beech staves were formerly exported to Hamburg but not
in very large quantities.
The Batum district is said to be rich in minerals. Recently many
claims were registered by local people, but they have not yet been
worked. Most of these claims are for copper ore, and the others are
for manganese, silver-lead, marble, etc. The largest number of claims
have been lodged for land situated near the basin of the River
Murgul Su. The chief obstacle to the development of the mining
industry in the Batumi district lies in the lack of roads and railways
for the transport of machinery and other materials required by the
mines and for the exportation of the ore.
One of the pressing requirements of the district is the building of
a railway along the River Tchorokh. There is sufficient water power
for industrial purposes and possibly for electric railways.






SUPPLY EMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


From the port of Batunl to Ardanutch the distance is 92 versts (61
miles). The cost of building an electric railway would be well
covered when it began to operate. Besides mining materials for the
district. there would lie about 050,000 poods of marble and 100,000
poo(kd of fire clay for building purposes, granite. etc., to be carried.
/'ot; (on the Black Sea).-Population, 20,000. There is anchorage
for large vessels in about. 10 fathoms of water 1 mile north of the
lighthouse. The depth at the entrance is 28 feet, the length of quay-
;ige, ;,000 feet, and the depth alongside, 17 to 26 feet. There are
only seven berths for foreign steamers.-. The north entrance to the
ihaiiror is now opened.
The principal articles of import and export through the port of
f'oti in 1912, 1913, and 1914 are shown in the following table:


Articles. 1912 1013 1914

IMPORTS.
Ton. Tons. Tons.
I'em ent..................................................... ............. 4,923 2,500 ..........
\ l l her articles .......................................................... 29 25 15
Tot:il imporl ................. ....... ......................... 4,952 2,525 15
EXPORTS.
' :injomile lower.......................................................... 17 18 15
I'orn...................................................................... 21,419 17,520 5,507
F'lour................................................. ...... ..... 85 75 11
Manganese oie .............. ....................... ........... ..... 634,200 649,780 415,016
Wood:
Boxwood.................................... ................ .... 400 W85 98
Pine................ ...................................... .......... 8,000 8,300 2,860
Walnut............................................................ 1,840 2,226 490
\ 1 other articles........................................................ 408 165 75
Total expoits..................................................... 666,369 678,972 424,072

At Poti 77 vessels, of 175.551 tons, entered into the foreign trade
of the port in 1914, as compared with 159 vessels, of 331.260 tons, in
1913. Most of the shipping was British and Austrian.
Sukhm. (on the Black Sea).-Population, 30,000 to 35,000. This
town is a center of tobacco raising. It has a bank. As a port,
Sukhum is quieter than Novorossiisk and larger than Poti.
Stiavropol.-Administrative center of the Stavropol Government,
N\ itl a population of 60,000, situated on a branch line of the Vladi-
kavkaz Railway. It has electric lighting and telephone service. Its
inbli;iitants are. engaged in the grain trade, the turnover being
10,000,000 rubles. There are flour mills and three breweries. The
construction of a railway has been started from Stavropol to
Arna vir.
Present Conditions in the Caucasus.
A reliable per.on who left the C'luca:lus May 15. 1919, gives the
following information:
A former American consul in Tiflis has organized a corporation of
'1,000,000 to encourage the exportation of goods from the Caucasus
to the United States and the importation of American goods to the
('aicasus. The Armenian merchants of Tiflis have already sub-
-cribed $750,0001 and thel( American is to provide the other $250,000.
TI'l Armenian nlerchliant, will ass-emble goods. in Tiflis for exporta-
lion to the I'nited State-. ;and the American will arrange purchases







RUSSIA-THE CAUCASUS.


and transportation of American goods in the United States. Re-
cently orders were obtained by the new corporation for .1,000,000
worth of American goods. The arrangement is a matter of barter,
and this is the only possible way of conducting business between the
Caucasus and the United States at present, because of the deprecia-
tion in the value of the ruble. There are in circulation newly printed
Georgian rubles, which are much depreciated, 40 rubles being equal
to the dollar.
British textiles are already arriving in the Caucasus. There is a
regular line of British ships between England and B;itlllI, and
French goods reach Batumi through the regular French st.amhipl
lines frcom Marseille. There are already awaiting shipment in
Batum large quantities of tobacco, wool, manganese ore, oil, and
caviar.
The port of Batumn provides alderquate. shipping facilities for any
normal development in trade. There are regular lines between
Batum and Novorossiisk.
The agricultural possibilities in the Caucasus have not yet been
touched. Thou-ands (of acres of tihe finest land for wheat and corn
have never been planted. Large tracts of land that could be culti-
vated by machinery can be obtained at a small rental. The country
is well adapted to the growth of fruit. Apples of an excellent quality
are grown all through this region. Large grazing interests could
be developed in the C'acasus.
The railroad beds are in excellent condition at the present time.
The rolling stock is in surprisingly grod condition in view of the
strain that has been put upon it by the war. The mines are work-
ing and there is a fairly large supply of mineral products on hand
for exportation.
Labor is in a disturbed state on account of the low wages paid and
the great depreciation of the ruble. It seems almost impossible that,
people in these cities are able to live. All wearing apparel is very
high; for instance, a suit of clothes I costs 4,000 rubles (at the lpre;lent
rate of exchange, $100), a pair of shoes costs $25 to $30, and other
articles are proportionately high.
At present (September. 1919) three so-called Republics have their
seats of government in Transcaucasia: Georgia, with Tiflis as its
capital; Azerbaijan, with its capital at Baku; and Armenia, with
Erivan as its capital. There is also a military sphere in charge of
the British, with Batum as its center. The Tatars and Moham-
medans are large merchants in the Azerhaijan section. The Russian
portion (Erivan) of the Republic of Armenia, has excellent, water-
power possibilities. At present freight transportation is Lbing
hindered by the customs duties and other taxes imposed at the
frontiers of the "de facto" governments.
[The following articles on the (Caucasus have been published recently in CoM-
MERCE REPORrs: July 2-Insurance avnillhble for Britikh trade with Russia;
July 7-The southeastern district of Russia ; July 14-Recent trading with
South Russia: July 15-Exchanme of goods with the Cauic;isiis; July 17-
Customi charges in Transeaucasia ; July 22-Facilitating British trade with
Russia; August 16-Manl anese industry of Transcnucasia; September 26-
Government export monopoly in Transenucasia; October 8-Polish commercial
mission to southeastern Russia; October 9-Capacity of Batum oil wells.


WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1919




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1lllliiill l ilIiIIIII ii lillII lllI IInIll* i
r 3 1262 08485 1889

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