Supplement to Commerce reports

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Material Information

Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00046
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00046

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text







.. DAMIL CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
BT THE ."B MEAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTInC CoD ER
APARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, .
4 -jf'-.'l' -- : --------------------------


Nd 61a


I;.','
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June 10, 1918 *


NEW ZEALAND.


ljtr Coimul General Alfred A. Winslow, Auckland.
de:.conslar district comprises the entire Dominioa of
,lith cone nlar agents at Christchurch and Dunedin in
"Ad Wellington at-the lower extremity of North Island.
iAuckland has a population, including its immediate
..bout 130,000 and is located on a very accessible and com-
well supplied with dock facilities for quick handling
equipped with up-to-date machinery.
several streets of the city were paved, and attention
completing and connecting the sewer systems. A move
S'i6e city,council to give concrete street paving a thor-
*. "e near future in connection with the concrete road
Connect the city with the: surrounding country.
water-impoundmg d for the new 550,000,000-g.llon
t:e city water supply made good progress during. the
when completed will ~rnish an ample supply of good


ons in New Zealada at the beginning of 1917 were
tarising, but as thu'shortage of shipping space be-
business began t, slow down very materially; at
lye ar the volume of business had decreased from 40 to
i ut 5any promise of iherease during 1918. The stocks
ods ini the-warehousesin New Zealand at the close of
3 .very much bdeow normal demands, with a good de-
t lines from the count trade. The balance of trade for
l eaed' from $88,810,758 for 1916 to $51,965,858 for 1917;
tirely due to the diffidUlt sin securing the necessary sup-
i,- : :the impossibility-of gettii1 shipping space to bring them
.l ports .showed a decline of .$8,221,418 as compared with
it.ei eofz.i17 the. British G.vernment had taken New Zea-
I. a....tt.e. of $225,000,000, and if sufficient shipping
A,- K.qi.i epcteid hat shipments of meat, butter,
STs, ,is.eto, to Grat Britain for 1918 will reach a


..[isation iiN.w Zeiland at the beginning of the year
Sva, Rik Wi e drodnypralp~ism g, but as time passed 14e
in ""p" 1 ; aao.fs "ng mM7ade it difficult to ex$4t




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1C .. 'SUPPLEMBNT TO 0OMM0ERE REPORTS.

products or to bring forward the necessary imports. This Id to a
disposition on the part of the people of this country to economist
which has increased until at the present time the finances of the coun-
try are at the lowest ebb since 1914. This does not mean that the
country is not fairly prosperous. There is plenty of money here; in
fact, more than the banks know what to do with, but there is a dis-
position to wait for developments, and this doubtless will continue
*until the close of the war. The finances of the country are per-
fectly safe, only a few failures, which were of minor importance,
having occurred during the past year; there is no indication of a
panic or a shortage of money, but the outlook is not bright for busi-
ness during 1918.
Notwithstanding the large amount of money in the hands of the
people of this country, interest rates on mortgage loans have stiffened
materially of late and are expected to increase in the near future.
This is thought to be the result of the heavy war loans placed in this
country, which are to be called for during the early months of 1918.
Banking Interests Prosper.
New Zealand banking interests had a fairly prosperous year, with
an increase in deposits at the end of June, 1917, amounting to $97,-
330,000 more than the banks doing business in this country had
three years before that date. The banks were crowded with funds,
and the demands for loans were rather slack, owing to the fact that
there was little doing in the way of general improvements.
At the close of 1917 the six banks doing business in New Zealand,
with branches in the different towns and cities of the Dominion, held
$90,014,273 in free deposits, $67,049,664 in fixed deposits, and $48,-
204,259 in Government deposits, making a total of $205,268,196.
These figures compare with $87,751,472 free deposits, $64,382,248
fixed deposits, and $30,945,407 Government deposits for 1916, making
a total of $183,079,122. Bank loans for these two years amounted to '0
$144,354,897 and $123,114,703, respectively. At the same time there,
was $31,460,438 paper currency in circulation in the Dominion, and i
the banks held $48,632,837 in coin and bullion.
In the latter part of August the New Zealand Government offredil,
the second war loan of $58,398,000, which was largely taken coantr.i:l
of by the banking interests of the country, who advanced money t
the subscribers and prepared to carry a portion of the loan for th iii
to be paid month by month. This loan was oversubscribed to th:e.
extent of about $19,466,000, and was placed at 4j per cent free of
income tax and 5 per cent subject to income tax.
Government Receipts and Disbursements.
The receipts of the New Zealand Government for the fiscal yea'
ended March 31, 1917, amounted to $89,385,667 and the total erpendi- ;
tures to $68,412,13k, as compared with receipts of $70,613,58 4 and. a::.i
total expenditure of $60,797,705 for the previous fiscal year.. h
direct taxation for the year ended March 31, 1917, amounted to:
101,497, a gain of 162 per cent over the previous year while the.-
rect taxation produced $2,354,622. The estimated yield "0
direct taxation for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1918, is .P
M$3.5,82,125.
Notwithstanding the fact that there was a marked shortage
toms and excise duties during 1917, the receipts and disbur ,i







n.. za..... Xwn V LM. 8S

H ion show &s liberal balance in favor of the Governmeht as
ot of a great increase in income tax. The following table
S .ti~h percentagee of income derived from different sources for
$*W heal: years:
S- Sources of revenue.
i, + Yers,.
Customs. Land. Income. Death. Other.

SPer cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
............................... 74 9 6 4 7
,.....6............. ............ 66 131 7j 6 o6
................... ................ 60 13 94 10j 7A
................. 56 133 9 131 71
.... .............................. 4 144 19 8* O9
38J 61 40j 51 9

ihe New Zealand Government revenue receipts for the calendar
r 1917 show a gain of $14,493,902, as compared with 1916, the
1ime tax having made a gain of $14,985,705 for the year, while cus-
i::ms duties showed a loss.
:i:The expenditures of the Government aside from war claims were
t)Ilw the average, while practically all of the war claims were cov-
ieed by loans. The New Zealand public debt amounted to $447,-
E;:A882 on March 31, 1914, and to $611,098,644 on March 31, 1917,
i iiwhich should now be added the sum of $77,864,000, the amount of
h:. -second war loan.
Another war loan of $48,665,000 is.to be offered locally in March or
lpril,.1918, with interest at 4j per cent free of income tax.
g.3Ilt Improvements.
:i ~'ttle was done in the way of public improvements during 1917
Ih f eri on the part of the New Zealand Government or.of the different
B?.witipalities of the Dominion, save to complete works that were
i.: er construction and greatly needed.
.':."During the fiscal year ended March 31, 1917, the New Zealand
I'ieovermnent expended $6,221,737 on public improvements. The ap-
plipriation for the year ending March 31, 1918, together with bal-
i ni:: carried forward, amounts to $10,330,556. The Public Works
Pilt: rtment expended only a portion of the appropriation for the
lS t fiscal year, having carried forward a large balance. It is the
tuiR Eyto hold a large portion of the present appropriation, so as to
I ve it ready for development at the close of the war and thus be
e::: to give employment to the returned soldiers on public works.
SWork on the parliamentary buildings at Wellington has proceeded
I t;o,:ugh the year, and the building is expected to be sufficiently com-
ri:te' to accommodate the opening of the next Parliament some time
iiI -: e, 1918.
The municipal government at Auckland constructed a public mar-
.1iblt at a cost of $224,978 and expended about $200,000 additional on
1l teit development of an outlet from the business section of the city.
i .ti'paration has been made for extensive developments, such as ad-
Sditional boulevards, parks, roads, etc., when conditions return to
Snormal at the close of the war.
: flwvas sad. Tlegraphs.
.:Not much has been doing during the past year by way of railway
construction in New Zealand, but considerable preliminary work has
t..=:" rE:..







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


been in hand preparatory to railway development at the close of thl .
war. Few miles of new railway were taken over by the New ZeS
land Government. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 1917, the.
Government expended $3,021,839 on railway construction, brmi ing :
the total investment in railway construction in New Zealand to
$168,145,424, covering a mileage of 2,983 miles.
During 1917 the passenger-train service was reduced very greatly,
owing to the shortage of trainmen and the disposition on the part of
the Government to curtail expenses as far as possible. There is now
only one through train each way per day between Auckland and
Wellington. and between Christchurch and Dunedin and Invercar-
gill. Passenger fares were increased twice during the year and
freight rates were increased about 8 per cent, but the receipts of the
Government railway show a marked decrease.
During the fiscal year ended March 31, 1917, $989,418 was ex-
pended on the extension of the Government telegraph lines, which
have cost to date $15,610,379, covering 50,320 miles of wire. A
telegram can be sent to any part of New Zealand for 1 cent a word
with a war tax of 4 cents for each message, the minimum cost for
each telegram being 16 cents. Urgent messages are double the
usual rate. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 1917, there were
10,734,168 telegrams transmitted over the telegraph lines of the
country, with 2,779,696 messages for the quarter ended June 30,
1917.
Cable Service-Harbor Improvements.
New Zealand is served by two cable lines-one direct from Van-
couver, British Columbia, and the other via Australia, India, etc.
These lines during the past year gave very satisfactory service, al-
though at many times they were overcrowded. The rate is 56 cents
per word via the Pacific line from New York to New Zealand and
89 cents per word via the Eastern line through England. During
the year week-end and deferred messages were discontinued.
The new central wharf at Auckland, with the necessary dock sheds
and buildings, was completed during 1917, which gives this harbor
very up-to-date shipping facilities and accommodations for freight
The Harbor Board also proceeded with reclamation work to provide
additional room for shipping and industrial interests adjacent to the
water front. During the year the Harbor Board refloated a $729,9728
loan locally at 51 per cent. Since 1904 there has been expended on
harbor improvements in this port the sum of $6,083,125, which brings
the total assets to $13,412,035, with liabilities at $8,218,453.
Agriculture-Government to Take Wheat Crop.
The 1916-17 crop season that closed June 30, fell short of normal,
owing largely to light rainfall in South Island and to the seeding'of
fewer acres in wheat and oats. For the season 217,743 acres were
seeded to wheat, compared with 329,708 acres for the previous season,
the yield being 5,051.227 and 7,120,770 bushels, respectively; 117524
acres were seeded to oats, compared with 213,585 acres for the p-
vious season, the yield amounting to 5,371,436 and 7,673,601 b i
respectively; 29,646 acres were seeded to barley, compared' wfi t
30.435 acres for the previous season, yielding 738,050 and :g LS
bushels, respectively; 6,359 acres were planted to corn, Compa .
.; ..< w i .









!ii !.8 acres for the previous season, yielding 274,283 and 34,780
i/i:,; respectively; and 26,156 acres of potatoes were planted, com-
pared with 30,886 acres for the previous season, yielding 4,989,301
ja 4989,B562 bushels, respectively.
i.....ae outlook for the 1917-18 harvest is good. There are 290,000
iif wheat seeded, and other small grains in proportion, with a
so of more than an average yield. The New Zealand Govern-
I4 has arranged to take over the entire wheat crop at 5s. 10d.
) f. o. b. railway station ot port, with a slight increase in the
as time passes.
I g the 1916-17 season there were 844,642 acres in New Zealand
:nider cultivation in grain and pulse crops, compared with 1,034,375
for the previous season, with a grand total of 17,064,797 acres
cultivation, including sown meadows, orchards, gardens, etc.,
SF.mpared with 16,984,174 acres for the previous season. There
16,154,021 acres of native pasture, compared with 16,704,067
'lis for the previous season.
S'm inValues and Labor.
The value of farm lands has very greatly increased during the
Spast decade. Average farm and pasture lands sell at $175 to $225
L:- Ie acre, and many tracts are held at $250 to $350 per acre.
iaris can be realized when it is understood that a farmer
i: th a herd of 40 cows in the Auckland district realized $16.42 per
Scow during November last, and that such returns are not uncommon.
there are about 20,000 persons employed on the farms of New
Zealand in agricultural pursuits, not including the owners' families.
Farm labor has been very scarce and wages high during the year,
and now it is almost impossible to get sufficient harvest hands at 30
to 40 onts per hour, and some are demanding 60 cents per hour.
Since New Zealand is essentially anf agricultural and grazing coun-
try it is not at all probable that manufacturing will ever be given
much attention other than for home consumption, and then covering
Snly a few lines, such as plain woolen cloth, boots and shoes, certain
ines of ready-made clothing, carts and. wagons, light agricultural
Siasplanents, etc.
Consolidation of Shipping Companies.
Following the consolidation of the New Zealand Shipping Co.
with the Oriental Steam Navigation Co., a part of the Peninsular
i~: a Oriental Line, near the close of 1916, the Union Steamship Co.
*as absorbed by the Peninsular and Oriental Line about the first of
j ilay, 1917, thus putting practically all of the shipping interests of
this part of the world under the control of one corporation. Freight
rates increased to some extent, and it is feared that the combine may
Ob:: itrol'after-war rates to the disadvantage of the country. An effort
: M being made to organize an opposition line, financed by New
Zealand capital.
Shipping between the United States and New Zealand and Aus-
ltraliavery fully satisfied the demand at the beginning of 1917,
Swhen the Luckenbah Line was averaging monthly sailings to this
S o inion, but- has gradually fallen off until at this time (Febru-
ary1918), there is a marked shortage, which is curtailing American
sports very seriously.


4.0
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SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE BEPORTB.


The charges for unloading cargo at this: port are from: 86 c9ant
48 cents per ton, owing to class of cargo, with a charge oa.t A4
cents per hour for overtime of customs officials.
War Bonuses Granted-Pig-Iron Plant Established.
In order to overcome the heavy increase in cost of living, wages
have been increased in some cases, but as a usual thing war bonuses
have been granted rather than increased salaries, with the idea that
salaries will return to about pre-war rates when things become nor-
inal. This is especially true of all Government civil employees, in-
cluding railway men, telegraph operators, etc. Frequently the labor
arbitration board fixes the war bonus rather than to increase the
regular wage.
During the year a new industry was opened in the neighborhood
of New Plymouth for the production of pig iron from the extensive
deposits of iron sand in that vicinity. The new plant was able to
produce 15 tons of iron per day, which is said to be of a high quality.
It is proposed to develop this plant until it is able to supply the
greater part of the raw material for this Dominion.
The Dairying Industry.
Prices for butter and cheese have been very high in New Zealand,
and the British Government has taken the entire surplus production
at $38.20 per hundredweight of 112 pounds for butter and $0.19 per
pound for cheese.
During the dairying season from July 1, 1916, to June 30, 1917,
there were 374,641 boxes of butter valued at $7,292,762, exported, as
compared with 475,707 boxes, valued at $9,260,103 for the previous
year. During the same years there were 83,361 and 62,071 crates
of cheese exported, valued at $2,434,058 and $1,812,411, respectively.
The United Kingdom took practically the entire export. At the close
of 1917 the butter and cheese cold-storage warehouses were crowded,
but many shipments have been made since that time.
About 777,439 dairy cows were in New Zealand at the beginning
of the present season, as compared with 750,323 for 1916 and 633,788
for 1911. Approximately 50,000 persons are employed in the dairy-
ing industry in this Dominion, aside from the owners' families.
Growth of Fresh-Meat Industry-Live Stock.
The fresh-meat industry has grown to quite important proportions
in this Dominion, and extensive cold-storage plants have been erected
in connection with the slatighterhouses. At the close of 1917 it was
estimated that there were 2,000,000 carcasses of mutton in cold-stor-
age plants in this country, with additional space being provided for
1,:300,000 carcasses.
Prices for fat live stock were very high, averaging about 15 cents
per pound for lambs, 144 cents for lambs over 42 pounds, 1% cents
for ewes. from $11.19 to $12.65 per 100 pounds for best steers, from
$10.46 to $11.92 per 100 pounds for cows and heifers, with other
stock in proportion. ..,
New Zealand is a grazing country, with a larger number of domse-
tic animals according to population than most any other co i
the world. Much attention has been given the breeding of
stock and fine breed of sheep for wool and mutton combinedjil







*, 11KW ZMiiLAID. 7

iwk n atte;ition has been given to the raising of cattle for slaugh-
ti p 1rposes, especially in the North Island.
," M..Jiellowing table gives the numbers of live stock in New Zea-
aibiu 1.908, 1916, and 1917:
i : -Live stock. 1908 1916 1917

Number. Number. Number.
S....................... ............... 245,092 297,501 278,186
...... ..... .. ....... ........... .......363, 35 371,331 367,167
I' ...................... ................ 536, 629 750, 323 760,108
.,. .......-v....................... ....... ...... ... ...... 1,236,697 1,667, 168 1,742, 592
i..:.. ........................ ............ ............ -.. 22,449,053 24,788 150 24,753,324
i. tal.i, :. ...................................... 24,830,730 27,874,473 27,901,377

iifle future for the stock-raising industry in New Zealand is very
tow'!itaising, as there are large tracts of timberland that have not
i. been cleared and large sections of swamp lands to be drained.
eiuld seem that the number of domestic animals could be easily
:l led in this Domiiion. There are about 57,000 persons employed
:i.'' ~t stock-raising industry. -
iii t Industry of New Zealand.
h: During the 1916-17 season the fruit crop in New Zealand was
bdlow the average, especially for apples; there are prospects for
mi re than an average crop for the 1917-18 season. During the year
i: large number of fruit trees were set out and much attention given
i:i it culture in general. The climate is well adapted to this indus-
tf -and much is being made of it. Land that would be worth but
$0. to 6$80 per acre for other purposes sells at $500 to $1,000 per acre
.7 wbhen planted to producing apple orchards.
Thete were 1,514,607 young nonbearing fruit trees in the country
fr the season of 1916-17. There were 856,979 bearing apple trees,
lo productionn of 618,625 bushels being marketed at an average price
d $1.23 per bushel; 100,359 pear trees, yielding 105,785 bushels,
tdch averaged $1.35 per bushel; 202,454 peach trees, from which
1L3,271 bushels were gathered, averaging $1.56 per bushel; and 68,218
S' ticot trees, from which 40,580 bushels were gathered, averaging
$.6 i per bushel. At the close of 1917 there were 49,655 acres planted
'to commercial orchards.
: Fruit growers of the country have organized a national associa-
tion in order to better handle the business, both for home consump-
Uion and for exportation. It is proposed to standardize fruit pack-
s C tput up for local consumption so as to be sold without breaking
lk with an idea of greatly increasing the demand for fruit.
'T" e imports of fresh, canned, and dried fruits for 1917 were
gi~led at $2,101,472, of which the United States supplied a sub-
i taatial proportion, according to the best information obtainable at
tis time. The outlook for this business is fair during the off season
I ie, which-is from August to December.
Woal Clip Bought by Government-Sugar from Fiji ISands.
'The wool clip for the season 1916-17 amounted to 546,300 bales,
which 821,121 bales were taken from sheep and 25,179 bales from
ii iil~d as. compared with. 510,656 bales for the 1915-16 season and
I"i S,014 bales for the 1914-15 season* The 1916-17 clip was valued at

Lii



L-iiiiiiiii" J




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8 SUPPLEMENT TO OOMMRREB EEPORTB.

$58,801,404 by the Goverament ppreiers, or about $107 per bai
The entire clip was taken over by the British Government at a "spzJ
price, and the 1917-18 clip is to be handled in the same way. ~he
price fixed was 55 per cent above the average prices for the dflfe~ae
classes during the three seasons prior to the war. The 1917-18 wool
clip is coming forward earlier than usual and is of a fair quality and
heavier than last season's clip. About 11,000 bales of this season's
clip has been allotted to the United States.
Sugar for New Zealand comes almost entirely from the Fiji
Islands and is under control of the Colonial Sugar Refining (o,
(Ltd.), which, according to present arrangements with the Dominion
Government, is supplying the trade at $107.66 per ton of 2,240 pounds
for granulated sugar. This is all cane sugar and of very good qual-
ity. The company has a refinery in this city where practically ll
the sugar for this Dominion is refined.
Scheelite Production Increased-Coal and Gold Mining.
The production of scheelite increased very materially in this Do-
minion during 1917, but complete figures of production can not be
secured at this time. One company has invested $500,000 in
plants for the development of this industry, and the future looks
promising.
The mining industry in New Zealand has been declining since the
outbreak of the war, and the year 1917 suffered more than any pre-
vious year, according to the best information obtainable at this time.
The decrease for 1916 as compared with 1915 was $1,925,557. The
loss was very largely in the production of gold and silver, but there
was some loss in the amount of coal mined, owing to strikes and the
slowing down on the part of coal miners.
During the first 11 months of 1917 there were 1,756,849 tons of
coal mined in this Dominion, as compared with 1,949,326 tons during
the like period of 1916; with imports of 283,814 tons, compared with
290,672 tons for 1916.
During 1917 the Waihi Gold Mining Co., operating mines in the
Thames district, took out gold to the value of $1,608,291, as compared
with $1,808,002 during 1916. This is by far the largest group of gold
mines in the country, having produced gold to the value of $57,-
612,649 and paid dividends to the amount of $24,109,307.
Shoe and Leather Trade---Prices Increase.
The shoe and leather business of this Dominion was quite seri-
ously handicapped during the past year, owing to the difficulty of se-
curing supplies, especially of leather, as but little of the better grade
is produced in this country. Before the war most of the leather came
from England, France, and Germany, but of late American interests
have supplied much larger quantities.
Boot and shoe factories prospered during the year, although there
was a shortage of skilled worlmnen and it was difficult to obtain sup-
plies. Prices were high and imports much lighter. American shol
have Iben increasing-in favor, notwithstanding the preferential duty
lor British-made shoes.
The prices of leather has increased very greatly in this colaty
since 1914 and is quoted now as follows: Kid for shoes from 48at
5i cents per square foot; tan kid 91 to 97 cents per square f't:








"* NEw ZEALAIND. 9

't a kit p 25 to 85 cefits per square foot; waxed kip 68 to 81 cents
Tpt saqtuare fo6t; and heavy sole leather $1.10 to $1.15 per pound.
i j.'' eorts of Rabbit Skins and Xeat.
Ubi: bits-are a great pest in some parts of the Dominion, especially
'i the-drier portions of the South Island, where they seriously
Aige crops and pastures. The New Zealand Government under-
:: s to destroy them on the Crown lands and requires private owners
t- assist in keeping down the pest. The rabbits are trapped, shot,
II: ined or. killed in other ways. In some localities rabbit-proof
i ces are being employed, and the use of this will probably increase.
t any of the rabbit skins and some of the carcasses are put to prac-
i T use. During 1916 there were 5,869,410 rabbit skins exported
Ar: m New Zealand, valued at $371,825, as compared with 6,090,872,
ainwd at $243,345, for 1915. There were 3,255,728 frozen rabbits
p!:iorted in 1915 and 1,813,409 in 1916. The United States took 851,-
i3. k rabbit skins in 1916, as compared with 412,555 for 1915. At the
il .ieof-191-7 there were 100,000 cases of rabbits in cold storage in the
rI Oiieminion ready for shipment.
i lnp and Tow---Lumber Industry.
" | Hemp and tow interests in New Zealand had a prosperous year,
l nsidering the difficulty in getting their products to market, due to
1 shortage of shipping space. The yield was good and warehouses
w eere kept -well crowded during the year, with prices higher than ever
i Jefore. Hemp was quoted at the close of the year at $262.79 to
2.E77.39 per ton of 2,240 pounds, and tow at $43.80 to $53.53 per ton.
::There were 54,242 acres of hemp under cultivation in this country
during the 1917 season, as compared with 55,405 acres for the pre-
vious season.
Owing to the slump in the-building industry the sawmills of the
aeaontry were not busy, and imports and exports were light as com-
p jaied with normal years. The outlook is not promising for 1918.
'Official figures state that there are 4,540,525 acres of virgin forest
:hnds remaining in New Zealand, and this is being cut so rapidly
S that it is not expected to last more than 40 years.
S. The imports bf lumber for 1917 amounted to 13,941,820 board feet,
Sas: compared with 18,030,363 feet for 1916, of which the United
States supplied much less than formerly.
S There is but a limited supply bf New Zealand lumber suitable for
: i it cases and butter boxes, for which there is a rapidly growing
demand. There should be a good opening for this class of American
S.itmber here.
ptth Pacife Island Trade.
The trade of the South Pacific Islands means much to the mer-
giantss of New Zealand, and of Auckland in particular. This port is
Closer touch with most of the islands than any other port either in
S ewr Zealand or Australia and should be a splendid distributing
: oint for the New Hebrides, Fiji, Cook, and Society Islands, includ-
Sampa, with a total population of more than 500,000.
.~move is on foot to arrange, at the close of the war, a compre-
;eive steamship service from this city to these islands. The busi-
iss-odfthese islands, which amoiits to more than $50,000,000 an-
62282 -18-61a-2









10 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE BEPORTL
4
nually, is growing rapidly. The imports consist largely of meaub.
tured articles and exports are principally raw material.
Prices of Staple Articles.
The following table gives the wholesale price of some of the staple
articles in common use in this country at the close of 1917:

Articles. Price. Articles. PIri.

Apples..................60-pound case.. 52.43 Linseed oil cake..............short tan.. 5.14
Barley.............. ....... bushel.. 1.82 Oats....................... bushel.. 1.1I
Cn. ...................do.... 1.70 Oatmeal....................lo tn.. I3.
Corrugated sheet iron.........lon ton.. 374.72 Pig iron..................... .... ...
Fencing wire.....................do.... 218.99 Potatoes, white....................do.... 86.0O
Flour.............................do.... 18.16 Salt.................... ... 72
Linseed oil.....................allon.. 2.92 Sugar..........................do.... 107.06

Below are given the retail prices of some staple articles in demand
in New Zealand for the years 1914, 1916, and 1917:

Articles. 1914 19W 1W0

Apples, eating.................................................... pound 0.10 0.12
Bacon.................................................... ..2 ..1
Beef.......................... ......................................do .... 14 : .25
Bread.............. .......................................2-pound loaf.. .07 .10
Butter................................... ........................ .. pound.. .28 .48 .40
Cheese ........................... ....................d.. .1 .33 .24
Coal .................. ...........................................long ton.. & 52 10.2 1 0.94
Corn floor................. ............... ........................ pound.. ....... 11 .16
ggs.............. .................................................dozen .40 .
Mutton....................................... .......... .........pound.. .12 .18 .19
Potatoes....................................... ..........hundredweight.. 1.29 38. 2.6/
Raisins....................................................... ..pound.. .08 .16
Salmon, canned....................................... .......do.... 22 2 .2
Salt, common........................................... ..........do.... 02 .02 .04
Sugar......................... ........ ......... .......... ........... do.... .04 .05) .06

Tourist Department-Public Highway Construction.
Of late there have been more tourists traveling in New Zealand
from the United States than for many years, which did much to
bring about the large revenue reported for the Tourist Department
in this Dominion, the amount being $161,261 for the fiscal year ended
March 31, 1917, a gain of more than $9,733 over the previous record
year. The receipts for the rest of 1917 probably fell somewhat short
of the first three months of the year, but the travel has been heavier
than usual.
The New Zealand Government has a very complete Tourist De-
partment, with two specially good tourist stations-one at Botorua
in North Island, and the other in the vicinity of Mount Cook in
South Island. These are not only very popular for New Zealanders
but for Australians and Americans as well.
The rapid development of the rural districts of New Zealand by
the farmers, dairymen, and stockraisers, together with the very gen-
eral use of the motor car, has brought to the fore the necessity for
better highways; the campaign for this improvement has been inan-
gurated and will open in earnest on the return of the soldier at thl
close of the war.
Concrete road construction will be an important feature in this
general scheme. It is proposed to construct the principal teu*
roads of concrete, with stone and dirt roads as feeders. This it










ii .ij f much up-to-date road-construction machinery, in which the'
::Amricain manufacturer excels.
i.;,The. construction of the principal trunk highways is in charge of
i eiNew Zealand Government, while the feeders and the unkeep of
the main roads are at the expense of the local district road boards.
In March 31, 1917, the New Zealand Government had expended only
4,802,13.3 on highway construction in this Dominion, including all
:!i the bridges of importance in the country.
"'1f.lit Trust Office.
Du: Llring 1917 the Public Trust Office in New Zealand, which was
funded in 1872, was reorganized. This office has done much effec-
tiv11eS work in handling estates, investigation of and auditing of pri-
I: %t-trust estates, acting as custodian of trusts, etc. The cost is very
mi nderate, being about 2- per cent for administering estates and
.theri charges in proportion; and this is without any danger of loss
S6 the individual, as the Government guarantees the business. There
r t:re .branches in all of the more important centers of the Dominion,
with efficient officers in charge. This Government undertaking has
Seen a great success and promises much for the future. It has the
i'entire confidence of the public and is often called upon to act as
: banker rather than a bank. Trust funds are loaned and credit is
t: :ien for all moneys earned.
In 1905 the several offices had in charge 2,965 different, estates,
4t:sts, etc., valued at $11,955,662; at the close of the fiscal year ended
with March 31, 1917, there were in charge of the Public Trust
O Ofices 13,632 different cases, valued at $39,218,569. The offices have
handled trusts exceeding $389,320,000 in value and now give employ-
inent to 700 persons.
hydroelectric Development.
In discussing the industrial development of New Zealand, the
Capital and Labor Review, a publication in the interest of capital
'and labor in New Zealand, makes the following statement relative
.to water-power development in this country:
S.ere is no country so lavishly provided with uniformly distributed water
Shower as New Zealand. It is estimated that there are 3,500,000 horsepower
of potential hydroelectric power running to waste in this country, and this
estimate does not include sources of less than 1,000 horsepower.
;The Government has put in an extensive hydroelectric plant at
Eake Coleridge that has done much for the development of Christ-
c ehtirch and vicinity, with great possibilities for the future, as only
.8 -of the 8 or 10 2,000-horsepower units have been installed as yet.
This plant supplies power to the public at only a very small margin
abovee cost with fair interest rate and reasonable depreciation allow-
'ances. The city of Christchurch gets free lighting for the city streets
from the Lake Coleridge Government plant, paying about 11 cents
per unit for current for other uses. Christchurch supplies current
to private parties for lighting at 7 cents per unit and for industrial
uses at 1i cents per unit. The Lake Coleridge plant supplied the
dity. of Christchurch with 6,000,000 units during the year ended
Mrcha 31, 1917, as compared with about 3,000,000 units for the pre-
tious year.


"__" i I~I .1 __ _---J -m ) ........ a_


111


NEW ZEALAND.








12 SUPPLEMENT TO OOMMflBE BBPORTB.
Additional hydroelectric plants will be installed by the wan.
ment following the close of the war, and a strong company has bea
formed to make use of a large amount of this power in the manufac-
ture of different products, principally nitrate and carbide, both of
which are extensively used in New Zealand and Australia.
It is proposed to open two or three plants in North Island and
connect them up with a trunk line from Auckland to We ton so
as to supply both cities and all the near-by towns and cities aIong the
line. Additional sites will be developed later as required to supply
the demand. It is estimated that 500,000 or 600,000 horsepower coda
be developed for such a purpose at a comparatively reasonable cost.
Xoving-Picture Business--Farmers' Cooperative Associations.
The moving-picture business in New Zealand enjoyed a prosperous
year. There has been an improvement in the class of films shown
under the supervision of the Government censor, who p
4,368,370 feet of films during the nine months ended December 81,
1917. During this time 37 films were rejected, while cuts varying
from a few feet to 700 feet were made in 232 films.
There are about 320 theaters and halls where moving pictures are
regularly shown, the charges being from 12 to 24 cents according to
location in the theater, with a few picture shows with a general ad-
mission at 6 cents. Fully 80 per cent of the picture films shown in this *
country are from the United States.
The farmers of New Zealand have organized cooperative trading
associations that are accomplishing much for the agricultural and
grazing interests of the country. [See COMMERCE REPORTS for June
15, 1917.] The capital stocks of these cooperative associations vary
from 75,000 ($364,988) to 1,250,000 ($6,083,125), and they do a
very large annual business, amounting to $17,477,164 for the calen-
dar year 1916 in the case of the largest association.
Foreign Trade of New Zealand.
The foreign commerce of New Zealand for 1917 amounted to
$255,573,064, of which $101,803,603 was for imports and $153,769,461
for exports, as compared with a total foreign business for 1916
amounting to $290,171,000, of which imports supplied $128,180,121
and exports $161,990,879. The returns for 1917 show a trade balance
of $51,965,858 in favor of the Dominion.
American interests in New Zealand made relatively important
gains in trade for 1917. The total imports into the Dominion de-
clined by $26,376,518 as compared with 1916, while imports from
the United States showed a decline of only $337,088, and a gain of
$7,872,497 as compared with 1914. Imports from the United King-
dom show a loss of $24,585,245 as compared with 1916. The decrease
occurred in most all lines, but especially chemicals, dyes, tin plates
galvanized corrugated sheets, wire, hardware, motor cars, rubber
tires, food products, and paper supplies.
Imports from Japan amounted to $3,060,164 for 1917, as compare
with $2,739,712 for 1916 and $912,473 for 1914. These imported on-
sisted largely of silks and cotton fabrics, imitation Panama hats
made of paper, buttons, notions, toys, curios, and glassware: J4
is supplying a large number of the cheaper lines provided by.
many before the war.











XNW fMLANTlTD.


I.isel~eyonafintries.

SThe value of the foreign commerce of New Zealand, including
speie, was as follows by countries during the past two years:


Conntrise.
5: i''::: .:-' :__________:__ :;.

w"------ ------------------~~--. -- --
la .Kingdom.............................

: 9aW m......................................
X, g -sm.----....- ..- 1 ------- -...............

"L e ls"s.......f...........
X. Islands.................................
...................................

'Ott. 1 .States........... ........

f athor countries..............................
Total.....................................


Imports froft.


1916 1917 1910


367,495,703
3,685,333
19, 476,565
21,072
551, 628
20,863
503,615
344,840
500,149
336,392
2,739,712
152,176
19,319, 639
13, 032,434


128,180,121


842,910,458
3 684,236
17, 915,
2,015
164,151
3,568
386,467
101,577
483,238
344,114
3,060,164
128,421
18,982, 551
13,736,723


101,803,603


Exports to.


1917

$126,691,521
4,744,993
7,109, 859
2, 344, 641
29
380
...........i
102
876
21,354
813
9,218,693
3,636,200


153,769,461


$130,762,797
3,367,550
10,665,066
10
1,485,952
24
161
5
44
813
535,533
10
12,136,988
3,035,926


161,990,879


!Piiacipal Imports by Quantity and Value.

The quantity and value of the principal articles imported into
-New Zealand during the past two years are shown in the following
table:

1916 1917
Articles.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.


Agiultural machinery ......... .........
pe, fresh .....................pounds..
as, bolts, and rods, iron...............tons..
ezine_...............................gallons..
imadin e, gasoline, ete................. do....
Bicycles and tricycles (including motor cycles),
mmbr ....................................
Books, paper, and music, printed.............
Boots, shoes, and slippers.........dozen pairs..
Caovas........ ................ ..........
.tbiddet calcium.................... ons..
Otpeting, matting, and oilcloth.............
gs .......... .................pounds..
i ...MBi ........ .......................
.......................................tns..



_Ctoni piece goods .............................
Currants .......... ............... pounds..
Dairying machinery........................
Drapery...................................
BEathen and china ware........................
Sachinery......................... ..
gn, etc......................umber..

S .s..., ......................ponds..
slin .................................
I%% daq% ma d prunes ................pounds..
0ll Md glssware................ .
l.tlinaaa praise, etc ..................pounds..
i'rdiW9are......................................
R'E and caps.......................dozen..

KBe .. A ............................. .o....
I Mhib goods (other than tires)...........
Eellrne.............................gallons..
l ...........................pounds. .
aunuactures and saddlery............
al........................ .al ons
....... .....uperflesl feet..

...............................t ..
...................gilss boxes..
as...':::::.:. ::... n.::
.- -....................a ddwe ht..
oe, aid vatishes...................


..............
2939,495
17,580
6,319,614
2,90, 408
13,180
..............
]31,2481
........ i;
2,750
..............
379,515
52,967
293,956





..............
..............I
141,469
1,571,232



2,075
1,405
7,239
2,758,546
25,312,400
..............
84,570
..............
5,619, 886
817,158
865,612
18,030, 33
101,109

1,"i423, 10
e,8561


5678,307
124,062
1,227,779
1,801,457
867,055

608,765
1,256,165
1,920,730
443,080
172,512
1,245,693
1,552,389
112,100
922,328
877,396
574,135
941,979
8,245,179
170,371
413,025
1,516,090
773,598
2,308,935
333,331
117,789
639,755
174, 97
1,048, 955
502,384
1,861,115
675,095
1,786,473
231,115
768,654
951,167
425,391
338,411
711,550
1,66, 703
228,606
478,207
5M6,300
495,118
1, 097,654


..............;
2,271,524
5,705
5,018,193
3,259,707
6,214
..............
115,287
..............
850
..............
431,0736
42,188
291,597


21,427
..............
1,808,475



2,154
1,238
3,355
2,415,312
..............
779,775
..............
73,071
..............
4,334,862
721,666
..............
146,813
13,941,820
90,478
223,133
..............
934,973
45,081
.......... I.....


$563,672
99,014
504,057
1,723,719
1,136,902
346, 9;2
1,149,740
1,952, 52
460,819
78,185
751,422
707,954
108,031
1,042,171
223,148
469,033
174,444
6,418,996
246,848
434,252
957.352
472,357
1,618,535
293,937

152,789
399,072
199,531
653,357
1,778,224
1,251 785
712,597
1,020,705
207,965
653,897
1,244,617
362,914
175,744
716,081
1,539,930
243,734
374,419
S471,07
8321, 57
861, 570


I


AV -.- ----. -.-.....-...... .. --... ..--..... .. .. ... ........- .











SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


S1916 IM :
Articles.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Vdl.
-------------------- .--- :--- -------*


Plper:
I'rintlng..................hundredweight..
Other ................ ..............do....
'ianos.............................. number..
I'ig and iar lead.......................tons..
'ig and scrap iron.....................do....
Pipes and fit tings....................... do....
Railway and tramway plant .............
Raisins...............................pounds..
Rice..........................hundredweight..
Sacks.....................................
reedls, grass and clover.........hundredweight..
Sowing machines.....................number..
Silk piece good ..............................
Spirits............................ gallons..
Stat inery..................................
Sugar ....................... hundredweight..
Ta...............................pounds..
Tinnc.l sleCrIs and plates......bundredweight..
Tol.:'ceo, ranufactured..............pounds...
'Tool~. ........................................
Vehicles, motor.....................number..
hearing g apparel........................
Wine.............................. gallons..
Woolkn piece goods............................
Ill other artielcs..............................
Total.................................


316,671
91,789
3,426
611
6,530
11,880
6,253,293
103,794
39,496
9,080
1,418,934
..............
1,249,096
7,982,195
131,681
2,785,365
..............
6,174
175,855"


1,424,926
918,621
476,173
101,642
168,113
1,237,229
457,850
697,058
291,397
1,366,343
660,092
238,677
1,426,376
3,416,788
863,268
4,802,097
1,880,007
887,859
1,815,895
641,692
3,907,951
5,957,667
414,544
4,096,722
46,185,420


.............. 128,180,122


298,264
40,728
1,972
477
12,864
4,537
5,479,282
130,184
40, 900
11,724
782,993
..............
1,365,878
9,476,220
74,618
1,982,127
..............
4,692
.....,47.........
7,477
..............
..............


1,3 1,H4






U1,0
910
1,5310
2,614,

5, 5,
(33482
1, 2, 4W
688,530
3,113,348
4,606,682
856880
2,614, 26
33,851,710


101,803, 03


NOTE.-1 hundredweight, 112 pounds; 1 ton, 2,210 pounds; an] 1 English gallon, 1.2 Americin gallons

The foregoing table shows a marked decrease in the value and
quantities of imports for 1917 from 1916, and quite a decrease from
1914, when imports were valued at $106,362,691. The decline covers
nearly all lines and is due to shortage of supply, difficulty in getting
the goods forward, and an inclination to economize, rather than the
inability to purchase, as money has been plentiful here during the
year.
Principal Increases and Decreases in Imports.
Gains in imports for 1917 were few and of little importance and
in general were accounted for by increased prices. Leather imports
showed a gain of $293,450 in value and a decrease in quantity of
85,4G1 pounds; pig and scrap iron, $131,702; sugar, which comes
almost entirely from the Fiji Islands, $729,761; tea, $207,293; and
large increases in wheat and flour imports as a result of the short
wheat crop for the 1916-17 harvest.
Exports from New Zealand.
Exports from this Dominion for 1917 amounted to $158,769,461,
as compared with $161,990,879 for 1916 and $127,801,332 for 1914.
The British Government took more than 82 per cent of the exports,
which consisted very largely of butter, cheese, fresh meats, and wool.
The following table shows the values of the principal exports for
1914, 1916, and 1917:

Articles. 1914 1916 1917


' of, tfr en ................................................. .....
Im li r ........................ ................................
I.'lcr r.............................................................
Lm.: fr 'irn...................................
1iiroin mand larnbli Iint', lron.en......... ...................
MIlt iJI, tIr .4n ................... ..........................
Pot tdl ,iii prL",'rrveJ I,.ris ...................... .......
W u..................... ................ ,


$5,010, 203
11,380,680
12,478,314
12,431,557
164,147
10,293,037
541,238
45,346, 02


110,312,391
12,810,054
17,102,389
11,860,147
115,677
12,312,104
1,214,284
60,276, 829


9,769,231


iB
1,m6


1.


---~-~------









NEW ZtILAND. 15

p Sl.waftJgpefrt to vaie staes sby Conalar Districts.
The declared exports to the United States from this Dominion for
191f show a marked gain, amounting to $14,988,510, not counting re-
taned American goods nor exports -to the Philippines, Porto Rico,
or Hawaii, as compared with $10,853,678 for 1916. This gain is ac-
wanted for by increases of $46187 in cocoa beans, $280,348 in copra,
and $159,429 in tallow at Auckland; $210,204 in casings and $2,594,-
79 in sheep pelts at Christchurch; and $577,345 in gold and $1,776,766
in hemp at Wellington. There was a decrease of $1343,751 in wool
from Christchurch and $254,195 in grass seed from Dunedin.
The following table shows the value of merchandise invoiced to
the United States and possessions at this consulate general and its
agencies in New Zealand during 1914, 1915, 1916, and 1917, including
returned American goods:

.Plaes. 1914 1915 1916 1917

A. ................. ..... 2,10 0 S,465,613 $1,S11,701 $2,283,069
std ch.. ........... .................... ,41135 4,522,647 3,452,559 5,138,416
Dumaia-....................... ......, 1,5 ,242 1,040,970 427,676
Wellington................. .................. 03, 81 6,407,293 4,645,942 7,212,95
~Ttal........................................ 4,411,719 13,966,795 10,961,172 15,062,106

Exports to United States from Auckland.
The principal exports invoiced at the consulate general at Auck-
land for the United States, not including returned American goods,
were as follows for 1916 and 1917:

19l6 1917
Articles.
QuayQuatiity. Ve. Quanty. Value.

Beans,coooa..................................pounds.. 41,456 SS,209 353,924 $54,346
Casings............................................................ 3,304 ............ 20,277
Cinematographer films............................ feet. ............ ............ 8,379 1,863
Copra........................................pounds.. 21,637 6,613 3,451,632 286,961
--..........................................do.... 2,385 718 233,496 2,792,206 379,920
arm gm.........................................do.... 8,516,935 1,353,475 7,359,709 1,141,059
n masa. ................. -........... ..... ..... 2,280 465 10,176 1,861
............................. ........ ............ 119,122 ............ 152,975
--i--- ....-........................... .. p .. md ... ..... ..... 115,014 53,898
S bas,heep-------------.... .......... ..... ......bumndles.., 200 15,556 ............ ............
Wa w....... ....... ........... ......... pounds.. ........................ 1,215,678 159,429
NO* ---------- ------ons-----------1,215,078 159,429
A o ies..................................... .......3,951 .......-.... 8,716
.tE l............................................ ............ 1,744,191 ............ 2, 261, 305

There were no exports to the Philippines or Porto Rico. Exports
to Hawaii were valued at $17,271, as compared with $61,900 for 1916,
and consisted almost entirely of preserved milk and onions. Re-
turned American goods were valued at $4,493, as compared with
:$,610 for 1916, and consisted principally of photo supplies, tools,
motor tires, and watches.
Extension of Americaa Trade In .ew Zealand.
Indent business is an important item in the import trade of this
country and indenters make very good agents, as they are free to
approach the different dealers in the same line, and act as sort of a
free lance; but when the lines are of sufficient importance small
stocks should be kept in hand by the agent to fill rush orders. There
Ii
ti '








16 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

are many reliable indent agents in the different centeirwsntI
Dominion. ,X
The cooperative trading associations of the Dominion are befat.
ing important factors in the import business of this countrylalnd it
will pay to cultivate them studiously. They are strong intaoilna.s
backed by the farmers and stock raisers of the land, with amplear
at hand. They deal direct or through indent agents. -,-:
American manufacturers should remember that the average New
Zealand trader prefers to handle British-made goods rather tha
those of any other country and will sometimes pay a higher prieb
so exporters must be prepared to offer a superior article with a better
finish, attractively put up for the trade. This favorable treatment
of British-made goods will be strong for a time after the war close
but American goods should find a good market here.
In this connection attention should be called to the importance of
selecting a reliable and active representative in New Zealand. Too
many American manufacturers and exporters have been unfortunate
in placing their business for a term of years in the hands of people
here who do practically.nothing to push business. This is a serious
handicap and should be avoided.
These matters are well covered by the British trade commis-
sioner in his 1916 report to his Government as follows:
It is my opinion that short of establishing their own branch house in New
Zealand, which owing to the size of the market would not be worth while for
more than a very few trades, the best method of operating in most lines is
through a pure commission agent holding consignment stock if possible. My
reasons for holding this opinion are chilely that it forces the manufacturer to
take care in the appointment of his agent; that it requires him to watch the
market closely; that it prevents undue profits, which are often loaded on to the
price by buying agents if stocks are hell ; and that it facilitates'sales in a mar-
ket far distant from the source of supply. It is unreasonable to expect the
agent to bear all the risks and responsibilities of the business, and it is a
short-sighted policy to deny him the fullest information at all times to assist
him to sell the goods lie carries.
Suggestions to Exporters..
American exporters who wish to enter these markets should under-
stand that many of the leading New Zealand importers have branches
in the principal centers of Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, and
Wellington, and in some cases branches in some of the smaller cities,
with a growing tendency to locate the head office of the importing
house at Wellington, because of its central location. These import-
ing houses send out salesmen to all parts of the country.
When branches are not maintained it is difficult and expensive for
an agent to cover the entire country, as it is about 800 miles from
Auckland to Dunedin. With this in mind American exporters
should liberally back an agent to introduce a line and then stand
by him to the limit as long as lie gets results. This country imports
nmn1l fa1ctircd articless annually to the value of about $100 per capital,
:liil it will pay to cultivate the trade carefully.
This is ai rapidly developing country with great natural resources,
and it will pay better to work for future than immediate trade, as
indicated lhy the following extract. from the 1916 trade report'6f thi
I ritish Tride Comnmissioner:
It is to the New Zo'i:llnd of the future that manufacturers at. home. shold
liIok rather tliInl to tlim :i'Itnl market '.f (he present. II will be sometime before







If'


NEW fZAS.ND.


.pwI jeaan4d can beosee ,anything. of an, industrial country, so that for a
great aany years it will offer increased opportunities for the sale of imported
goods.
De4qe4 Shipping Documents-Trade Publications.
During the year there has been considerable complaint because of*
the delay of shipping documents for shipments leaving the eastern
Sees of the'United States via Panama Canal. In this connection it
aQuld be understood that vessels leaving New York for New Zealand
make the voyage in 25 to 35 days, while mail scarcely ever arrives
from New York via San Francisco or Vancouver in less than 25
days; and, since the steamers leave San Francisco and Vancouver
*very alternate fortnight, if mail just misses the steamer it means
t fhat the documents do not arrive in New Zealand short of 39 or 40
d:ys. This is very inconvenient when shipments are to be delivered
direct from the docks to the different purchasers, as in the case of
indent agents and many wholesale importing houses. A mail pouch
should be forwarded by each steamer taking cargo and the exporters
be urged to make use of this in sending forward all of their shipping
documents.
"This consulate general is now receiving 4 daily papers, 90 trade
publications, and many catalogues, all being placed on the tables and
racks in the reading room connected with the office, or made use of
in other ways, and later distributed where they will do the most
good. The city public library takes from 30 to 40 trade and indus-
trial journals regularly for the tables in the public reading room.
The daily papers of the larger cities have large circulations and
measure up well with the daily papers at home in cities of 80,000 to
d00,000 population. There are also some weeklies that reach the
farmers, which offer good advertising space.
CHRISTCHURCH AGENCY.
By Consular Agent John H. Stringer.
Notwithstanding the increased taxation necessitated by the heavy
war expenses, the farming community of Canterbury experienced a
prosperous year for 1917. The taking over of practically all the
pinmary products by the Government is an experiment which, tried
for the first time in 1915-16, proved to be on the whole distinctly
successful, and if prices alone had to be considered the farming com-
munity could be said to be in a particularly fortunate position. The
pastoral industry of the Canterbury district represents fully 80 per
cent of the exports from that part of the country.
Dairying Industry-Fruit Growing.
The dairying industry, although comparatively small in Canter-
bury as compared with other parts of the Dominion, benefited by
the arrangements made by the British Government to take the whole
b-tha cheese output at 19 cents per pound f. o. b., and by the high
Slices ruling for butter. There are thousands of acres .of land in
Oaterbury adaptable for dairying, and it is believed that, as Can-
prury dairying land can be purchased much cheaper than in most
thie localites in other parts of the Dominion in which the industry
b- Iibeen established, dairying in Canterbury will before long show
Sgeter progress than has been the case hitherto.







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


The fruit-growing industry in Canterbury as in other .pa*lp 1
Dominion has received a temporary setback consequent ony'g
most complete suspension of the export trade, a result of theam
seas shipping problem arising out of war conditions. The
made for cool storage of fruit, however, has been a great it.l
growers and consumers alike-to the grower in preventing th ismaS ::
ket, being glutted, and to the consumer in providing fruit at reas ::
able prices throughout the whole year. The planting of or&card:
continued, its many believe after the war the industry will come into
its own.
Agricultural Development.
Owing to the increased demands upon the farming interests of th
country as a result of the heavy taxation growing out of the wa
an effort is being made to get the best results in the Canterbury diW
trict. A movement to encourage the planting of lucerne (alfalfa).
is meeting with success. This is the result of an investigation made
by Mr. Alexander Macpherson, of the Department of Agri-
culture who visited the United States and Canada in the
interests of the New Zealand Government at the time of the Pariama,
Pacific Exposition. Also the shortage of farm labor has called for
a greater use of agricultural machinery and implements. Demon-.
strations have been given along different lines, and especially of the
once-over tiller, which has met with general commendation. It is
admitted that the production of the Dominion falls far behind the
productiveness attained in many of the more advanced agricultural
countries, and there is a disposition to speed up and meet as near as
possible the more advanced ideas along this line. The New Zealand
Government is recognizing this by a more comprehensive scheme of
agricultural education in the different public institutions of the
country.
On account of the shortage of the wheat crop during the season
1916-17, the Minister of Agriculture personally conducted a cam-
paign in the Canterbury district, urging an increase in the acreage
to be sown to wheat, to insure, if possible, that ample wheat should
be raised in the Dominion for the requirements of the people. The
response by the wheat growers was highly commendable. The min-
ister was able to announce, early in the present year, that 263,571
acres had been sown in wheat in South Island (the larger portion
in Canterbury), and 8,178 acres in North Island, a total of 271,749
acres. IIe also stated that harvest prospects were such that he hoped
there would be no necessity to import from Australia during the
present year.
The Use of Hydroelectric Power.
Of increasing importance to the Canterbury farmer and the Can-
* terburv industrialist is the Government hydroelectric installation,
at Lake Coleridge, 70 miles west of Christchurch. Power from the
Lake Coleridge installation is at present largely used for agricul-
tural operations, and as transmission lines are extended further into
the country districts power is being readily taken.
The current from the Lake Coleridge power plant has done much
to develop and enliven the city of Christchurch and its suburbs. The
city is now almost entirely lighted by electricity, and very cheaply,










i.. that. The power is also exteos~l vly -ued in the industrial plants
I!ltheqity, and the growth is regular but quite rapid. The consump-
tle:~ion f current in Christchurch and vicinity amounted to about
4,ii, 4~00, units for the fiscall year 1915-16, with about 12,000,000
'ai tS.for 1916-17, and an estimated consumption of 18,000,000 units
'i jMA917-18. During 1915-16 individual consumers took 77,000 units,
ai d it is estimated they will take 250,000 units in 1917-18.
Ifeiiaotta lrig Indtistries.
The industries of Canterbury suffered to some extent during the
eai. owing to the depletion of labor. Nevertheless, the principal
industries in Canterbury were fairly busy. There were no great
i.; 9velopments in establishing new industries, owing to difficulty in
swuSuing machinery and the absorption of capital in other lines.
TI Shshortage of shipping facilities has brought the attention of the
jo blic to the importance of the development of industries along
m any lines, and it is quite evident that when conditions return to
p .rmal more will be done in an industrial way in the Canterbury
district.
SDeelared Exports to the United States.
-The following table gives the quantity and value of the prin-
Seipal declared exports (not including returned American goods nor
exports to the Philippines, Porto Rico, or Hawaii) invoiced at the
Christchurch consular agency for the United States during 1916
and 1917:

1916 1917
Articles.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.

Casings.......-- ........ ----................ bundles.. 345,761 1347,393 579,481 3557,597
w hair ......................................pounds.. 5,401 192 2,770 515
Grassseed .................................... .... 55,440 9,242 17,800 1,803
Hemp ...........................................do.... 5,702,906 474,567 5,648,685 620,023
Ieather............................. .pacages................ .......... 20 12,895
P lts.........................................bundles- 1,096,620 1,259,511 355,016 3,854,090
eep........................................ number.. 285 10,188 119 5,791
kins:
Rabbit..................................pounds ............ ........... 5,203 2,536
Sheet -....................................bundles.. 25 2,821 ............ ............
STallow.....................------------------------------pounds.. ............ ............ 1,623,307 70,864
W ool............................................do.... 3,610,251 1,343,751 ............ .........
Allotherarticles............................. ......... .......5..... 335 ............ 541
Total........................................................ 3,448,000 ............ 5,126,655

DUNEDIN AGENCY.
By Consular Agent Frederick O. Bridgeman.
The local industries of the Dunedin district prospered during the
past year, the woolen mills particularly being kept very busy on Gov-
*runment contracts for khaki cloth and woolen underclothing. A new
industry has been started since the outbreak of the war, namely,
canning rabbit for export. Two canning factories were established
h r Central Otago and their prospects were bright. But owing to the
scarcity of tin and also to the accumulation of the output through
Sthe lack of shipping space, the factories have-been practically closed
A mot of the time. A considerable quantity of these canned rabbits
:, are in the freezing stores awaiting shipment.







20 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMEBOE BRPORB8.

Fruit Industry Increasing-General Exportl* ,...ii it;iL
The fruit industry is still increasing in the Otago district,
output will be very large in a few years. Unfortunately, thi 6i"
market for apples, viz, South America, is now closed, owing -'
discontinuance of steam service via Cape Horn to ArgetiU l n
Brazil since the opening of the Panama Canal. Previouslyim
shipments of apples were made from here to Argentina wth a
vantageous results, the demand from South America being muni Lt
Other markets for the fruit have yet to be found.
The principal exports from Otago are dairy products, frozen meat
wool, hides, sheepskins, tallow, flax, grass seeds, and rabbit ski ne
the total amounting to $9,065,944 for the year ended April 30,1917.
* Wool is usually the principal export to the United States from tlis
district, but the whole clip of the Dominion has been commandeered
by the British Government during the period of the war. T ,
growers of wool are getting good prices, ranging for this season's
clip at from 14d. to 22d. (28 to 44 cents) per pound according to
grades. Payment for the wool is made by the Government 10 days
after valuation. Rabbit skins have been in good demand, and a fairly
large quantity is going to the United States. Prices for these have
advanced very considerably since the outbreak of the war; skins
which brought 20d. (40 cents) per pound before the war are now
realizing from 4s. to 5s. ($0.97 to $1.21) per pound.
Increased Cost of Living-Shipping.
The increased cost of living in consequence of the war is not so
high in Dunedin as in some other centers of the Dominion. The
increase is from 25 to 30 per cent.
Shipping has been dull at this port during the year. Many of the
ocean steamers with cargoes from abroad have arrived and discharged
at Auckland or Wellington and not come further south, the goods for
southern ports being transshipped to coastal steamers, which is
detrimental to the interests of traders in the South Island.
The following table giving the imports and exports by weight or
measurement for the year shows quite a decline, particularly in the
exports.
Imports. Exports.
Routes.
1912-16 1917 1912-16 91
average. average.

Tons. Tons. Toni. Tons.
Over-sea ......................................----- 95,553 67,039 33,630 16,14J
Intercolonial and coastal............................... 191,842 190,086 122,413 111,027
Tolal............................................. 287,395 27,075 156,043 127,175

During 1917, 446 vessels, with a total tonnage of 596,979, arrived
in the port of Dunedin, as compared with 616 vessels, with a total
tonnage of 819,030, for the previous year.
To reach the town wharves at the upper harbor of Dunedin, vessels
have to proceed up a dredged channel from the deep-watr harbor of
Port Chalmers, a distance of 10 miles. This channel gives a mini-
mum depth of 19 feet, and vessels drawing 22 feet can be brought Up,
Owing to the necessity of reducing expenses and to the scarcity of
:


dUE








aw; EwAIAND. 21

'i mborthe harbor -oard has stopped-tedging operations since May,
iB..:L .; It is reported, however, that the depths and conditions of
the h..arbor and its approaches have been well maintained, although
t will ibe necessary, in prder to prevent the harbor going back in any
yajri to expend approximately 5,000 ($24,333) in dredging certain

interestt Rates-Declared Exports to United States.
"l Money continues to be plentiful in this market in spite of large in-
Ivestments in the war loans. The bank rates for discounts and ad-
vances are from 54 to 7 per cent, and on mortgages of first-class se-
curities 54 to 6 per cent.
J;: The principal exports invoiced at the Dunedin agency for the
United States (not including returned American goods nor exports
Sto the Philippines, Porto Rico, or Hawaii), for 1916 and 1917 were
i as follows:
Sr:.e1916 1917
Articles.
.., Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.
-------------------------------------r ---- --,--- -------
fing .........................................casks.. 24 $8,293 8 3,493
H esmp.......................... ............ bales.. ........................ 1,623 82.342
Pelts............................................ask 11 3 99 ............ ............
Seeds, grass.....................................saks.. 1,216 336,206 3,95i S2,hll
Skins .................................... bales.. 334 95,445 584 24R,969
Tallow...................................... cask.............. ............ 21 2,418
Wool........................................pounds.. 1,700,360 595,067 ............ ............
All other articles ......... .... ................... ............ .505 .......................
Total............................................. .... ........ 1,039,315 j............ 419,233

Returned American goods amounted to $7,509. No exports went to
SHawaii or Porto Rico. Exports to the Philippines consisted of one
dredging plant, valued at $934.

WELLINGTON AGENCY.
By Consular Agent Arthur E. Whyte.
Trade at the port of Wellington during 1917 was generally well
maintained, despite the shortage of shipping, and merchants report
a very profitable year. The presence of the main military camp here
is a contributing factor to the general prosperity. Not being a manu-
facturing center, the gradual withdrawal of men for military service
is not felt to any extent in Wellington.
Import and Export Trade-Building Katerials Needed.
The import trade has fallen very considerably and a further de-
cline must be looked for, the main cause being the inability of the
manufacturers to attend to the wants of this small community.
SThe demand for the produce of the country, such as wool, meat,
Butter, cheese, and hemp, is at present almost insatiable. The cold
storage and freezing works are full, and unless shipping is available
soon the lack of further storage accommodation may become serious.
SSo far the British Government has purchased its supplies delivered
o n the wharf or in cold storage, giving financial relief. Money is
very plentiful, although the public is chary of investments.








22 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Building operations are carried on with extreme difficulty -M*,
greatly enhanced prices. Steel, wire rope, fencing wire,
tramway, and mining material, and builders' requisites are
almost unprocurable at even the present high prices. If
has these goods to offer, now is the time to get a good footing PeP6
sonal representation and business push will accomplish much; aesft
spondence is very unsatisfactory. Most commercial houses are wa -
tent with their present turnover and are not anxious to expand, t'r
main reason being the imposition of an income tax of 7s. 6d. ($1.88)
in the pound sterling ($4.8665) on all income over 6,400 ($81,146).
Labor Conditions-Declared Exports to United States.
The labor available throughout the Dominion is fully employed at
highly remunerative rates, which have increased out of all propor-
tion to the increase in the cost of living caused by the war. Skiled
tradesmen, carpenters, plumbers, mechanics, and miners, particularly
the latter, are badly needed. Coal and gold miners can easily earn on
an average from 20s. to 30s. ($4.87 to $7.30) per day. The cost of
food at most mining camps averages slightly under 20s per week.
These conditions are likely to prevail until some time after the war.
The following table gives the quantity and value of the principal
exports declared at the Wellington consular agency for shipment to
the United States during 1916 and 1917:

1916 1917
Articles. -
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.

Bullion (gold)......................... .. ...7 ...........2 $3, M,9
Casings, sausage....................... ..... ......... 444,645 .......... 8
Grassseed...................................pounds.. 1,120 204 90,720 18 h
Hemp..........................................tons.. 4,673 873,157 8,577 2,651 1,
Peas ........................... ..........bushels.. 1,386 4,576 795 2
Pelts ... ................ ................dozen.. 69,265 523,099 46,761 862 433
Rubber, scrap.................... ..............ons.. 231 2,84-1 1i 1,6
Sheep, live...... ........................number.. 12 4,202 124 8,479
Skins:
Calf...................................... do.... 9,913 11,87-1........ ............
Rabbit..............................bl....es 41 18, 20
Sheep ....................................num ber.. 13,317 29,170 ........................
Tallow. ..... ............................. ons.. ..... ................. 431 12 127
Al' other articles ... ............................ ........... 3,826 ............ 1 544
Total....................................................... 4,622, 172 ............ 7,181,317

There were no exports to the Philippines, Porto Rico, or Hawaii.
Returned American goods were valued at $31,628, as compared with
$21,'49 for 1916. The most important items consisted of cotton piece
'oo $s, $2,097; electric appliances, $1,873; picture films, $5,572;
periodicals, $4,548; and motor tires, $12,930.
Exports from Wellington to the United States showed a gain of
$2,5'.-,145 as compared with 1916, principally in bullion, hemp, and
pelts. There is promise of an increase in the export of hemp and
pelts to America during 1918, and there will doubtless be fairly heavy;
shipments of wool and tallow during the year.
Outlook for the Future. .
The prosperity of New Zealand depends on the prices obtain d :
abroad for its produce, mostly foodstuffs and wool. It seems rmaoaE
able to expect that prices will remain high for some years afLter t ii
:::" i*:ii:;



















o Iutedly be dlimcult, but tle financial stability ot the country must
i|.aot be underestimated, and one can confidently urge American manu-
iieturers to endeavor to secure a footing here.





iJ .


ii :





I p.
;;: ::


WASAINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OBPICB: 1918


4'fc ,




S. UNIVERSITY OF


4 3 1262


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U.S. DEPO TOY .
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UNIV. O. FL Lit
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