Supplement to Commerce reports

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Material Information

Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00042
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00042

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text




















ji. prodmits which are in constant demand and the
rn-ich are war necessities. Toward the end of December,
t-tade of the colony' suffered' on account of difficulty in
ithe export trade, a shortage of available bank credit having
ghtr about by the restricted sale of India Council Bills in

in. for 10 Years.
jlowing table shows the annual value of Ceylon's imports
:s (excluding specie and coal for steamers) for the 10

SImports. Exports. Year. Imports, Exports.
|-.;S..... ..,Ma 841,971,371 itE:........... .... 6,880,615 14,547,602
:..... .. 71260 41, m, 625 V13'............... 60,36,312 75,888,731
.9... 4 47659140 11..................... 55,90,553 70,84,14
f. ...... 48;72 475 5, 35 tSl ............ :.. 53,09,540 88699,'83
... i: ......... .m...n. : :
Wii-- ^981,526 as, 73 pV...........:,.,.... 68,617,95 ,67M 90,520835
erable increase in the value of imports in 1910 was
to enhanced prices, ow* g to the war, and larger pur-
cotton goods, fertilisers metals, metal ware, motor
berdashery. Of the total exports in 1916, $92,410,937
value of Ceylon pru.ce and $4,109,898 that of im-
eepegiorted.
ilaegtdioem an Xsportait FTator.
., which until 1910 had been well ahead in the
: i Ceylon, now enjoys only a slightly better share
~aoesso3ns and foreign countries, respectively.
bi:sabrfhought about chiefly by the large exports of
Afi dte. to tohe United States and by increased im-
ii e States and Japan. It is siificant that both
ie w supplyy goods of a greater value than Germany
ilr.a t the total value for Japan and the United
S191 g $,96,689 and-. $,50,606, respectively,





L ..E "













1 2 3.1-per e 1t ueyion's imports, compared witn Y. per cent in. IuI
and l1.3 cent in 1914.
^"TtmT united Kingdom leads in the foreign trade with Ceylon,1 i -
ing nearly 35 per cent of the total value of imports and expd ti';
1916. The United States ranked second for the first time, havmng'i
shared 18 per cent of Ceylon's foreign trade. In 1915 the sare of
the United States was 13 per cent and in 1914 only 8.5 per cent.
British India ranked third in 1916, and France rose from seven-
teenth place in 1915 to sixth in 1916, the rise being due to increased
purchases of Ceylon produce, chiefly tea, rubber, copra, cardamams,
and cinnamon.
The United Kingdom. and British possessions enjoyed 67 per aemt
of Ceylon's trade in 1916, while foreign countries shared the re-
mainder, more than half of which was accredited to the Uaitole
States.
It will be noted that Germany still appears in the statistics, but the
small trade accredited to this country is accounted for by the dis-
posal of prize goods during the year.
Distribution of Trade.
The following table shows the distribution of the trade of Oeylcai
(including specie) with the principal countries of the world in f1N1
and 1916:

M Imports from. Exprt to.
Countries.
1915 1916 1915 I2t 1

British Empire:
United ingdom.............. ............. 11,630,980 $15,310,683 $47,711,7 ,I ,
Australasia................................ 623,506 738,987 6,081,510 5
British Africa..... ........... ........ 853,885 476,849 1,531 m
British America.-....-....~~--........- 1,380 8,858 1,53 ,747-
British India............................ 23,88776 26,673,671 2,751,2 5
Burma ..................................... 3,5 605 10,062,989 17,74
Hongkons............................... 522,860 587,975 5 5
Maldive Islands.............................. 735,998 769,908 66,0 T6i9
StraitsSettlements...................... 5,528,270 5 : ... 5, 270 5,512,012 372,755
Austria-Hungary. ........................... 8,600 9,325 ......................I..
Belgium..................................... 30,613 39,92 3
Borneo.......................................... 301,086 880,824 6,
hina........................................... 399,337 3 788 ,
Denmark.................................... 43,369 20,822 1,8~ ,1
France......................................... 337,727 35,588 7,IM mi
Germany....................................... 98,147 77............. ..
India (not British)..................... 217,6 251, 676 ,787
Italy..................................... ..112,167 15,966 47,5
Jnpan ...................................... .. 1,711,822 2,963,M 179 I SO0
Java .......................................... 1,171,395 1,057,911 6, 01
Mozambique ..................................... 1 175,843 39,7 Ii
Netherlands....................... .............. 329,666 533618 814 10
Norway..................................... 190,0 2 03481 776,9B
'ersia......................................... 265,910 3321,426 186
Philippines................. .................. 6,800 5,253 113,
Russia: i
In Asia.................................... 11,405 35,034 1,779,141 | anll
In Europe ................................ 198 184,050 8, 471,07
Biam........................... .......... 414,429 330,851 1 7
p in........................................... 16 6 29,31
wedn......... 15M353 19, m .
Switzerland... 10,473 254 264 J .
Unitedtate........................... ......... 1,567,08 2, 09, 06 27,03
All other....... ......................... 24 0998 1 230,984


_ __ _____ __


Total.... ........................


~o4, 6, 510


73,385, s355


88,MtW, "
















L0 t list of the principal articles imported, with their quan-
S tuheues, for' the years 1915 and 1916 is given in the follow-


S 1915 191G
Articles.
'I:; Quantity. Value. Quantity. Vale.

me............................ number.. 119, 992 $197,694 105,254 $356,822
........................ hundredweight.. 11363 40,968 1,235 44,29,7
S .0 a ............................gallons.. 152,896 113,859 170,803 130, 90
............................... pounds.. 666,895 125,801 1,387,191 246, 20.
.................. ............do.... 400,480 116,155 469,222 140 76S
B ........................do.... 1,522,06 274,805 1,598,565 316,201
st ery....................... .....do.... 952,612 16;833 1,013,038 177,531
tus ...................hundredweight.. 216,373 805, 26 209,547 765, 521
.....ed ............................ do.... 243,119 638,677 257,344 (GS ,960
Timed......... ..............o.. ounds.. 362,663 47,833 343,95 59 848
ther.....................hundrweight.. 78,594 738,109 81,857 772,400
tWr _wheat ............................. do.... 168,558 497,374 192,099 566,011
Fresh..................................do... 7, 523 26,720 6,370 26, 65
SPrieerved.............................do.... 11414 80,467 11,819 105,249
.................................. do.... 3,170 41,152 3,032 39,501
R; Beans....................................do .... 52,307 115,276 30,897 7t0,351
Gram...................................do .... 87,135 142,845 00, 42 170,20:5
O; O ..ts............................do.... 20,518 61530 15,261 37, 0.2
Paddy..........................................do.... 559,042 00, 326 718,725 813 571
S Peas.................................do.... 196, 571 439,634 194,630 447,20i,
Ris .......................................do.... 7,173,778 16,432,907 8,073,964 19,841,6903
.....................................do.... 1,325 39,695 1,629 59 ,12
rown ................................do.... 5,590 87, 54 4,755 85,707
prserved.................................... ............ 162,015 ............ 176,428
.........................hundredweight.. 257,947 244,572 317,086 308,621
....................................do.... 102,195 ,0 107,543 177,115
Iie a Om ..............................do.... 3,725 112,064 23,102 74,1171
dy...............................gallons.. 40,638 112,391 82,882 156, 870
...................... ...........do.... 76085 101;545 130617 162,94S
his y..................................do.... 1, 581 249,085 1573870 3068 8S
.........................hundredweight.. 407,762 2,28, 175 548,934 2, 52,627
m -C M ......................gallons.. 2,142 17;269 2,744 20, '
.......................................do.... 13,362 14,400 50,522 175,091
............................number.. 273 1,89 551 4,7011
S .................................. do.... 5,694 166,187 070,354 184,24
..L........................ hundredweight.. 5862 81,529 71,038 93140
aDiAntMes.........................umer.. 4,549869 83,360 4,526,808 10843
.........................hundredweht.. 1250 99,626 15,5 141,051
W d sooks.......................numoer.. 26,035 109,192 15,470 155,732
.... ...............hundredweght.. 331,372 231,671 315,598 311,223
ndrs..........................do.... 561 278,521 10,038 394,620
.....................................do... 156 ,480 17, 1 15
rt.................................... ........... .520 ............ 17073
............................... es.. 1,514,95 2,910 1,27,441 4,001
goS.................hundredweiht.. 2,163 40727 3848 01,74
.... ........................yards.. 1,087,111 57 4 2,353 110 171047
.......................................... .. 2 ............ 204 4 2
............................ases.. ,213 403 10,992 1 794
............................... oes.. 6404 17920 6,508 20,363
.....................hundrodweit. i0 134 845 22,181 230,09
b ..... ....................... .... 16,111 107208 23,294 10,6 52
l.......S............... .................... 434 ............ 698
18., 041... 26M,1177
a lm nts.............................aes.. 748 0 764 877i
.... ..........................number.. 156,985 34,6539 203,127 87
.... ...... ....huadreudwslght.. 1,2m0 onw oii2 aa i
..........................grsaboe. S 115 41 3076 13a1
huadrsdwelght. 13,i wtsm ,i SS
i ...................................... .. 15,.465 130,57 17 3 3a3,006
S .... ... i.............. 1761 i4;3 4 8 ,






.iiiL........ ..... ...0... S












Articles.; ... -
Quantity. Value. Qu iy. j |

Manufactured articles-continued: I'
Shoes ..................................... pasir.. 75,452 9 ,273
Soap........................... hundredweight.. 29,061 2,333 7,7
Staionery ...................................cases.. 2,275 0,021 3
Tea chests ................................number.. 3,221,127 962,40 3,0 145
Umbrellas ..................................dozen.. 22238 113,04 W
Watches ............. .................. number.. 14,424 41,158 1,6
Metals: .
Barbed wire ......................hundrdweight.. 5,318 20,500 10, 3
Brass ware .................................do.... 1,997 71,046 2,93
Hardware....................................do.... 30,953 393,481 51,441 7
Iron-
Galvanied............................do.... 78,919 390,832 53,Mi 5i7
IHoop ....................................do.... 42,054 178,325 61,W 5:
Lead-
Pig ................................... do.... 96,073 0,82 2 15,2 .
Tea....................................do.... 24,578 109,431 13,13 ,1
Nails and rivets...................... ....do.... 32,618 132,149 33,361
Steel, east.................................do... 54,800 147,170 55T,7
Steel ware............. .................... o.... 591 7,271 4M
Tinslabs .................................do.... 1,237 48,859 7 N
Other............ ........... .............................. 363,128 ........... .
Tobacco and manufactures:
Cigarettes...............................pounds.. 214,840 222,370 236S,?9 S46,3
Cigars...................................do.... 22,890 22,872 31,36 31,811
Tobaco--
Mannfactnred...........................do.... 17,327 12,837 2,423 1,810
Not manufactured.......................do.... 7,357 2,116 2,973
Raw materialsand miscellaneous:
Coal............................. .......... ....tons.. 641,586 3,945,252 575,677 4,=8,7 1
Cotton--
Raw.........................hundredweight.. 8,064 73,088 7,477 i405
Waste................................ do.... 2,401 17,715 1,683 11
Hides.....................................do.... 530 3,920 245 2019
Fertilizers..................................do.... 1,571,892 2,306,589 2,05,03 ,6286 ,
Oil-
Castor.................................do.... 4,694, 34,265 5,39 37,518
Kerosene.............................gallons.. 5,675,959 963,503 4,8,7 110,1
Liquid fuel............................do.... 7,514,182 365,677 4,96',18
Lubricating..............................do.... 261,268 92,154 62,743
Petrol.................................do.... 607,774 183,804 070,8
Precious stones............................................. 101,043 .......
Rubber.....:........... ... ..... pounds.. 3,005,906 1,611,338 4,409,18 2,
Seeds-
Cotton............. ..........hundredweight.. 34,929 66,946 03,446 4
Tea........... .......... ............do.... 654 28,34 1,8 431
Timber...................................tons.. 7,844 368,087 7,510
Other................. .................... ............ 258,001 ............ 3;68 5 i
Textiles:
Apparel............... ................... ..............2... 292,659 ............ m Fl
Lace and net........................... yards.. 1,929,965 01,869 2,36663
Piece goods-
Dyed............................... do.... 4, 85,944 1, 16,768 1 5 W
Bleached........................... do.... 9,788,072 7 30 10,142,
Gray.................................... do.... 4 742,470 019 2 I
Printed.................................do.... 4;33, 334 303 58 7,76
Muslin.................................do.... 78,547 4,365 334W
Other.......................................... ............ 19 ...........
Silk and satin.............................. yards.. 410,041 134,051 844
Thread.................................... cases.. 1,424 112,271
Woolens....................................................... 164..........
Yarn and twist, dyed...................pounds.. 199,183 49770 O10 3
Mixed material.............................................. 210473............
All other ......... .......... ....................................... .... 4,60,18 ...........
Total....................................... ......
Speci...............................................70............
rand total....... ..................................... .......... 5, 5190 ............
.. .. :
Cotton, Bilk, and Woolen Goods-Increased Automobile Imports.
Imports of cotton goods rose in value from $8,076,820 in- Mi .9.t:
$4,204,130 in 1916. The largest increases were in printed
from the United Kingdom and dyed piece goods from BntiAA
the United Kingdom, and Netherlands. Considerable derea
shown in the imports of cotton waste, bleached and gray piee


















E. f the 590 imported in 1916. The increase of duty from 5#
At~ 8M per cent failed to check imports; however, the 100 per
i* posed early in 1917 is proving prohibitive. This increase
WI not apply to motor trucks or motor cycles.
Wi uXetals-Kerosene and Gasoline.
ere was a largeincrease in the value of imports of metals and
Iware over the previous year, the figures for 1910 showing
U118, as against $2,428,274 in 1915. The United Kingdom fur-
55, per cent of the value, Burma 17 per cent (chiefly supplies
I lead), and the United States 12 per cent. Supplies of gal-
aed iron, barbed wire, nails, hardware, hoop iron, and cast steel
4, tho United States showed good increases: Imports of iron
ma and tanks, tea lead, silverware, tin slabs, and corrugated iron
tdW decreases. The most important item is hardware, which
ted an import value of $721,999, an increase of nearly 100 per cent
the previous year.
he quantity of kerosene oil imported in 1916 failed to maintain 6
record made in 1915 and fell slightly below the figures for 1914;
IIanie, however, showed an increase. The decrease was chiefly in
iOa from the United States, which dropped by nearly 2,500,000
s: as against an increase of 1,600,000 gallons from Borneo.
lo; e Uimports recovered from the slump in 1915 and reached
figure of 776,092 gallons. Very little gasoline is imported
- th: .lUited States, the chief source of supply being Borneo.
mbate o;f duty allowed to consumers of gasoline and kerosene oil
re of motive power was abolished in September 1916, except
ieWt of stationary engines and motor trucks used for conveying

ipjtrts of kerosene and gasoline by countries for the years
i 916 are shown in the following table:
1915 1916 Countries. 1915 116

ius Gaelo...ow. Kerosene-Continued.
.......... 4,11,051 5,222 Bulk oil--Cntinued. Gallon. GaUos.
I- K tufg JBritsh Ind ......... ..........
O:..s ,o250 1,37 O6 Rusia in Europe..... 3 ........
1.... 1275328 1,87 United States........ 1,50,07 1.14U
....... 7 as7 o ..ne................. 007, m4 'wt77
....... ,471 46. 60 Borneo (excluding Brit.
.. ... IiS4 s 1,325,56i s4 .ih).................. M54214 ,655
S.um.tr................. 477
S ,9036 184,070 United States........... 31,m M
n a.po rtt.
S flufa'm important bunkering station and as a consequence
.d h.ble coal supplies. The imports fell to 575,677 tons




I... .. ..











in 1916 from 641,586 tons in 1915. These figures exclude i.
Admiralty and Ceylon Government coal, which in 1916 wee-i
and 120,367 tons, respectively. About 80 per cent of thm it
brought from India, the remainder coming from British
possessions, the United Kingdom, Mozamb~quje Japan, andg' 1?c |
China. Welsh coal is practically unobtainable except for igwrI!
ment purposes. '.. M:I.;
The year's imports of cement amounted to 315,598 hu~darse
or 15,774 hundredweight less than in the previous year. The U *el
Kingdom supplied 155,988 hundredweight, Japan 136,628, and Hsmn:
kong and Denmark most of the remainder. .
Fertilizers (known locally as manures) showed a large ia reaB
in imports for 1916, except groundnut cake, which comes fron India
Of the fertilizers supplied by foreign countries, supea hoepates
came from Japan, and nitrate of soda from Japan and Chil e.
Ceylon's Export Trade by Articles.
The value of Ceylon's exports in 1916 showed an increase over tim
previous record year of 1915. This increase was almost entimly due
to larger shipments of rubber and graphite, both articles being i
great demand as necessities of war. Rubber enhanced only sligDh
in value, but plumbago brought record prices, quotations f. l
Colombo for large and ordinary lumps averaging $284 per ton.
Tea and rubber alone comprised 73 per cent of Ceylon's export,
followed in order of importance by plumbago, copra, coconut il,
and desiccated coconut.
The quantity and value of the principal exports (excluding speie)4
from Ceylon in 1915 and 1916 are shown in the following table:

1915 19U
Articles. .
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Vale.


Animals, live.................------.. number..
Areca nuts......................hundredweight..
Cacaon...... ............. ..........do....
Cardamoms..... ................ ........ do....
Cinnamon....................-.........-- do-....
Coconuts:
Desicated........................ ..- do...
Fresh .............................number..
Coffee...............................undredweight..
Colr:
Fiber..................................-d....
Rope ............................. do....
Ya .................................... do....
Copra........................... .......do....
Fertiliers..................................do ....
Fish, cured................................ do ...
Kitul(fiber ............................. d.......
Oils, vegetable:
Cinnamo ..........................- ounces..
Citronella .......................-.. pounds..
Coconut .....................htmdredweight..
Palmyra fiber .......................... .. do....
Plumbago ............. ................do....
Pona .................................... do....
Rubber ................... ................ pounds..
Shells, chank ...........................number..
Skins, dressed ...................hundredweigb t..
Tea....................................ponds..
Textiles........... ................ .............
Tmber .......................................tons..
Tobacco................................. pounds..
All other ..........................................


227
171,854
3,843
5,190
57,607
349,009
5,B27,600
185
195,743
21,491
907,3413
1,208,529
2, 81i
4,310
1,803
101,035
1, m, 684
501,510
2,588

51,6 730
1,512,950
7,569
215,032,727
..............
2,927
3,119,188
..............


811,473
1,086,460
1,o15, 133
27339
648,111
2,805,836
161,102
1,860
292,125
13,734
334, 36
5,728, 475
4,221
36,116
32,592
13 427
48, 1,337
20,577
2,569,434
323,245
27,061,05
19,634
151,073
39,729,404
48,447
27,77
188,646
1,340,711


45
73,11
TI







32,00


328,017,
4a;
1,306, 8








2, aW
32.,017 .

liSIr
58.5tajK
lsa3:ToL
"""aIaI'r
aTOil
s.***** i^**-


wM
IMB


a,..~ -


Total ........................................ .... .4,I
V___ iM :












M Zl M SI S r W :VwUwVWW & LJC& WLF M IL A? AC A LALI IJA .L VLAU Lufl-
nmoetly from India.
Tea Trade.
with the record figures of 1915, the 1916 tea crop, on
f of unfavorable weather in the early months, showed a slight
The production figures, however, were well above those of
except 1915. Prices fell below the 1915 figures but never-
$nzained highly remunerative,, the average price per pound
being 16.8 cents (American gold) compared with 18.4 cents
". Only 4,000,000 of the 203,000,000 pounds exported repre-
reen tea, Ceylon tea being black.
trgest increases in the exports of tea were to Russia, China,
t, each country showing an increase of more than 2,000,000
The notable decreases were to the United.States and Canada,
W. i 4,839 and 2,820,741 pounds, respectively, less than the previ-

jrem4 Production of Rubber-Advance in Prices.
oiE908 the shipments of Ceylon rubber amounted to 7,808 hun-
itiight of 112 pounds; eight years later, in 1916, the figures in-
lsM-to 486,690 hundredweight, exceeding the previous record year
1i95 by 50,942 hundredweight. The export value of Ceylon-grown
niubr was only slightly behind that of tea, and, if the same relative
repsf continues, rubber will be considerably in the lead by another
.1ge rubber prices from 1912 to 1916 were as follows: 89 cents
S n gold) per pound in 1912, 62 cents in 1913, 46 cents in
Agents in 1915, and 58 cents in 1916. First quality crepe until
: ie of May 1916, was auctioned at from about 1 cent to
a0ove smoked sheets, but from then until the close of the year
sold at about the same prices. Medium and good scrap
well all the year, being anywhere from 3 to 10 cents below
k' rd first qualities. Plain biscuits, of which very little is now
riS sold at about 3 cents per pound below standard cr6pes.
thfirst time in the export history of the colony, the United
^is took more Ceylon-grown rubber than the United Kingdom,
P; American purchases being 26,236,435 pounds and the United
jifgdcmn's 24,696,285 pounds, the two countries consuming close to
S r cent of the colony's entire rubber production.
1 ll i the G eat Palm-Deerease in Cacao Exports.
etouat is the one staple Ceylon product that has been seriously,
'etd war conditions. The total value of all coconut products
in 1916 amounted to $13,680,474, as against $13,928,191 in
uad $16,681,088 in the record year 1913. With the exception
coir fiber, and desiccated coconut every item of coconut
allowed a decline, coir fiber increasing in quantity while
S..coonuf decreased in quantity but increased in value.




K ,*!!i!'.,






SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Coconut oil was particularly affected in 1916. It showed at
in value of exports of more than 80 per cent compared wtilt
which was also a poor year. The exports were the lowest in I yarsn
In the beginning of the year the price of oil reached $209 Vp eag
ton but toward September fell to $146 per ton; in December it re-
covered to $182. The exports of coconut oil to the Unitd States
fell to $162,564 in 1916, compared with $1,169,107 in 1915 gad $O ,-
688 in 1914. Preference in freight space for other p and
Government restrictions were factors in reducing tihe ti and
it is reported locally that there was a lessened demand lyCqlon
coconut oil in the United States.
The cacao-growing area ranges from 500 to 1,800 feet above sea
level. There are about 22,000 acres under cacao, mostly in the hands
of English planters. The value of cacao exports decreased approxi-
mately 10 per cent compared with the previous year. The average
price for all grades during 1916 was $12.52 per hundredweight, No.
1 quality ranging as high as $20, and No. 2 as low as $9.5.
Exports of cacao to the Philippines increased by 5,000 lijdred-
weight, while there was a decline of more than 14,000 I~pdred-
weight in shipments to the United Kingdom, which takes~,ost of
the exports.
Cinnamon, Tobacco, and Other Products.
The cinnamon industry suffered on account of low pridn, the
finer grades of quills remaining unsold for lack of a market.' Ex-
ports of ordinary grade cinnamon quills amounted to f176,970
pounds, about half of the quantity for 1915, the prices obtained'
ranging from 8 cents (gold) to 10 cents per pound, which is said to
be approximately the cost of production. Cinnamon oil exports
showed an increase in both quantity and value. Exports to the
United Kingdom, United States, and Spain decreased, owiMngto war
restrictions and shipping shortage, but there was a large grease
in exports to France. ; o .
Shipments of manufactured tobacco decreased in valuo from
$188,648 in 1915 to $160,931 in 1916. The island has for thrat.ears
had the services of an American tobacco expert and has wqgaged
another American to continue the tobacco experiments, with fe. view
of improving the quality and cultivation of the Ceylon.pr-duct.
Citronella oil exports decreased somewhat, owing chiefly high
freights and difficulty in obtaining drums. The price fluctuated con-
siderably, but the average of 28 cents was 2 cents above that of
1915. The distribution shows a decrease of 200,000 pounds in ship-
ments to the United States.
Approximately $1,000,000 worth of areca nuts were exported in
1910, principally to India. Other native products on the whole
showed normal conditions during the year, although rice suffered
in some districts. As not enough rice is cultivated in Ceylon to
supply the wants of the natives, some is imported from other,
countries.
Xineral Production of Ceylon.
Plumbago, Ceylon's most speculative industry, had a phenomenal
year owing to the demand created by the war. The total quantity
shipped in 1916 was G08.216 hundredweight, valued at $7,298,128, a












A'i o the remainder to Russia. France is said to get her. supplies
Sfim -Madagascar.
i;i. urging 1916 the average price of large and ordinary lumps of
go was $283 per ton (English ton of 2,240 pounds) and that
fi: dust, and lying dust $155. The best grades of ordinary
IaIap for as high as $500 per ton. Plumbago for many years
bisbeen subject to an export duty of. $1.62 per ton. This was re-
placd on August 2,1916, by an export duty of 3 per cent ad valorem.
A report on the plumbago situation in Ceylon was published in
SCXMMERCE REPORTs for Oct. 4, 1917.)
The market for stones was poor, owing chiefly to the absence of
tourists who make purchases of gems. On account of high insur-
ance rates, sending stones on consignment has not proved very prac-
ticable.
Besides plumbago and precious stones, no miinerals are exported
from eylon. During 1916 a survey was completed in search of
monatte sands, but no deposits of sufficient value to work were
found. Newly-found areas of sedimentary rocks in the northwest
of the island were surveyed in the hope of discovering oil or coal-
bearing beds, but without results.
eeblarq Ifzports to United States.
Tli1tftal value of declared exports from Ceylon to the United
States in 1916 greatly exceeded that of any previous year. These ex-
ports, exclusive of returned American goods, were valued at $28,-
887,805, as compared with $17,774,767 in 1915 and $10,983,925 in
1P14J. t "
Th;1tr.gest increases were shown in exports t'rubber, plumbago,
and deilccated coconut, rubber rising in value' fom'$11,449,319 in
1915 to $18,947,782 in 1916. Plumbago increased in quantity from
13608 ttis to 25,237 tons, and in value from $1,957,197 to $6,922,081.
T.Ihe Irgest decreases were shown in exports 6fcbconut oil and tea.
Cooo~gI oil was practically under embargo to all neutral countries,
and tdIMrops in Ceylon were below those of the previous year.
ThirIhillowing table shows the value of exports from Ceylon to
the Uflted States and the Philippines in 1915 and 1916, according
to the hivoices certified at the American consulate at Colombo:
1915 1916
Artles.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Valn.
UO mWInD MAUB.
......a................. ..... .......... po. uds.. 140,842 163,155 82,417 X3,142
.us.a ........................... do... ............ m............ ,2
......... .........................do.... S9,99 18,175 901,310 122
Ol.e 1...............................do.... 914,894 3274,0 M 774
=..=....... ..d=.......... o ..... 2 1... 70,913 132,, 05,
Ib 1......................... do.... 4,89,947 325,331 t,733,700 ,
.................:::::.........:do.... 1987;,987 1,1151107 042,g 15,3
.................................do.... 242,g7 2,6 5,0 7W
............................... ..:do...an... M42 21019 ,43 9
...................................tow.. 400 10,519 S 2713
.............................. :: p ds. 123,20. 2,., ,
.............................. ... ......do.... 6,005 2oM 40 5,381 16,0a



..:'.










0115
Article.
Quantity. Value. Quantity.

TO UNITED STATES-CntilnUd. .
Plumbago................................... ..ons.. 13,008 71,95,17
Preciousstones...................................... ....... 241 .....
Rubber.....................................pounds.. 2, 511, 449,a 30
Tea .............................................. do.... 10,60, 637 21 0,
Teafluof ........................ ............... .... 279,300 11,70 M g8
AU other ..................................... .................. 1, 62 ...........
Total ................. .......................... 1...777477 ....... 05


TO PHILIPPINE ISLAND.
Cinnamon ..... ......... ................. pounds..
Citronella oil............................. .... do....
Ca o ...........................................do....
Coffee ................................. ........ do....
Pepper .............. ........................... do....
T ea.................... ...... ..... ............ do....


............ ............
494 147 2,0 AD
044,552 122,000 1,50,j r l 0144
1,120 281 ......... .............
6,'727 1 1i6,379 -%,0 17
------.'------ -* :


Total.................................. : ..................... 138,876 ...........,
_____-__--_____ ____-:-_ !_____. 41_ _
Market for American Goods. C'.
Imports to Ceylon direct from the United States increased in
value approximately $1,000,000, being valued at $2,509,606. 9 1916
and $1,567,083 in 1915. Of the foreign countries, Japan aloe was
ahead of the United States as a competitor in the markets of Caylon.
There is a general shortage in Ceylon in many lines of dru, such
as quinine, salts, sulphuric and carbolic acids, permangat of
potash, and other disinfectants. Acetic acid (used in co ag ion of
rubber and obtained chiefly from Japan) has greatly advanced in
price. Paints are scarce and high priced, having advanced over
50 per cent. Building materials in general have also advanced fully
50 per cent in price. Steel and iron goods are difficult to procure,
and zinc ware, solder, lead, brass ware, and plated goods have in
cases gone up in price more than 100 per cent. Printing paper,
leather goods, clothing, soaps, and glassware are among the.articles
needed in Ceylon at present which might be imported from -the
United States. -
Although it can not be expected that American cars will-eottinue
to share close to 90 per cent of the local automobile trade After the
war, it is the opinion of Ceylon dealers that the American-car has
come to stay. An automobile service station in charge of aniAme"A
can mechanic would do much to retain the Ceylon market for Anm ii
can cars.
Merchandise Marks Ordinance-American Trade Extension.
All goods imported to Ceylon must be plainly marked with respect
to where made. This ordinance hts been effective for several years,
but was strictly enforced during 1916, with the result that 194 cases
of infringement were detected. The goods are usually released alt
being marked with the name of the country of origin on payIent
of a penalty, and confiscation is enforced only in flagrant cases. M
is important that American exporters take care that goods -ippel
to Ceylon are plainly marked as to country of origin. j; :
The war has largely nullified the well-known handicaps toA i
can trade, nnwly, tlie lack of Amerienn banking and shiilar~















ween Ceylon and the United States should justify the establish-
St of an American-bank in Ceylon. It would help to overcome
tM iS tin financing Aierican trade, which during the past year
ai' serious at times. At present American exporters rightly
:i upon- confirmed credit American port of shipment, but after
Swpar it will no doubt be necessary to grant at least as liberal
les; ias payment against documents Colombo, in which case a local
J~ie rican bank would greatly facilitate transactions. It is hoped
F.American interests will seriously look into the feasibility of estab-
blunug an American bank in Colombo.
ti1arsov9emeats.
STheoiiauguration of a bimonthly shipping service direct to Ceylon
. by the Pacific Mail Steamship Co. is a good. he. ning in giving
.sippers opportunity to send American goods in American bottoms.
A;:: It is uiferstood that two ships, the Santa Cruz ap" the Colzua, will
sail bWreen San Francisco and Colombo via Honolulu, Manila,
i: Suwa e and Calcutta. The service will be both passenger and
St is believed that if a similar sarervice were started between
d: o lom "and New York via the Mediterranean. it would prove to be
Ea g'ea' jon to American-Indian trade after the wtar.
The distribution of vessels according to nationality, omitting war-
T:h'ip and vessels calling to coal, for 1915 and 1916, is shown in the
following table:

i 1915' 1916
Nationality.
SNumber. l' ons. Number. Tons.
L.1I.;' N^ ..t ... : : .'. _____
iO .. ................B ........... ........... ... 1,847 S 1,6372 10,36,646
1 ..!i 1,s47 288,988 1,37 106
:L~ risu.. .......................................... 2,900 ,776,950 3,024 3,471,493
: AmUSrXt 8.................................................. 11,745 4 14,062
a h f.............. ........... ......................... ... 8.. 3 3,666

~ "t................................................. B1 2,89 12, 191
I".........................................1 5,4153 1 4,8
lFnia ....................................................... 18 50, 453 15 44, 16.
.f .. ............................................... 139 573,542 102 341,517
|;;:,. ^ ................................................ 54 CO,173 79 10 070
S...................................... .................................. 1 1,452
.................................................... 10 13,614 3 5,319
T .=.=.====== .............. .... .... 28 2,83 25 58 2B
.. ............. 30767 14 32,848
Tatu, treI ....................................... 4 1 4m, uo0 3831, 1, 85


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