; P..ER:SIA. .
irb, :,..i TEHERAN.
Sy Goauuml Ralph H. Bader.
17 was onefi industrial depression and economic dis-.
eheran consular district. This situation was attribu-.
ing x4-the avenues of trade, crop failures, and the
reign troops. ..
I times goods are imported into this district from. and
iS, verland from Trebizond, via Itertans1~h from
d through..the various gulf ports. Owing Ato the --tar,.
*tn Russia tl.are been greatly restricted, imports, from
es through Russia have ceased, and the Trebizond: and
Wnmshah ;routes are. closed. It will be seen, therefore,
rly remaining way of access to central Persja was via the
rotation facilities of thaee trade routes were overtaxed
...break of the European wair, and owing to the fact that.
.t'pack Iai iaaha be en taken for military purposes,
S.impossiblei to~ l th needs of this district by im-
Ssouthern a..' Trip.ortation charges per ton on
mi Mohemmni t6i ITpahan have increased by four
pi-war fate- (ifom $10 t0 $428), and the rate from
Teheran has ddubled (fr;n $63 to $126). It should also
j tthe activities of predatory tribes near Ispahan have
sed the difficulties of imhirting goods by this route.
..-4merican 2 .t. 4
tglmfnty rih ib l ana snowfall during the winter, the har-
t, .barle~ iia e wns not more than 60 per cent of a iX
9 perhaps, sufficient grain produced to sup "i
S he tMioi, bt dn account of inadequate tran-
hoarding .by large landowners, unheardfof
a.tuimiesitwa imunpossile for the poor to ol
1emnment, uidertookr to regulate -the p
v "hut gucceSs.
te nd the scarcity of foodstuffs,
Reports indicated tbat.simily
ipal cities of this district. .I.F.t
rg.nize-a relief committee uni
wstr, consisting of prominent.:i':
t *s Funds were received fronr Ae N:'i
0 kn -in the capital; the activi ii:.o .:
Monetary iSyafen-Exchange Rates.
Persiahas nominally a double monetary standard, but, asa|
of fact, the finances of the country are on a silver basis. T
sian monetary unit is the kran, consisting of 20 shahis. TSi
pieces minted are 5 krans, 2 krans, 1 kran, 10 shahis, 5 sltAh
shahis. Nickel 2-shahi and 1-shahi pieces are also coined.
coins arc the ashrafi (10 krans), penjhazari (5 krans), and tfio'
zniri (2 knins). The gold coin is a commodity only and is aea ....
presents and hoarding; it is bought and sold on the market, an6d4i
price fluctuates according to demand. Ordinarily the gold taii
worth just twice the value of the silver kran, e. g., a 5-kran gMd u
was worth 1 toman (10 krans) and the ashrafi was worth !SO :l.
(2 tomans) silver. The value of the gold kran fluctuates .a i
daily. i.. i
In normal times the exchange value of the kran is $0.08765 aat"l
the abnormal rate of $0.179 in March, 1918. The rise in th wi '
of the kran is due to conditions resulting from the war, suchA ;a, r 4a1
in the price of Ailver, presence of much foreign money, and twlirimn
mense decrease in the volume of business with foreign countries.
The usual interest rate in Teheran of 12 per cent has been incetasi:l
to 18 per cent and 24 per cent. Even at these enormous rates Uiti ,
money is obtainable. Practically no credit is being extdded, by, ;
foreign firms operating here. i
Increase in the Cost of Living. :
Even before the war Teheran was one of the most expenswie cities
in the world in which to live. The high cost of living was attril
butable to its remoteness from the principal markets of the worli:.!,
the absence of industries and manufactures, and the lack of modern
transportation facilities. Coal, for instance, was transported by, ::
donkeys to Teheran from the nearest mine, a distance of 50 mile'.;
Goods transported through Russia were subject to a heavy transit
duty, and luad to be transported over the mountains from Enzeli (a .
distance of 250 miles) by wagons or pack animals. Goods imported::
through the Persian Gulf fiad to be transported to Teheran by'cara-
van. requiring at least two months.
The rise in the price of articles of local production has not been so
marked us the rise in the price of imported articles. Col.:has in-
ereased in price from $20 to $50 per ton; apples, from $8.50 to $7.50
piir bushel: butter, from $0.50 to $1.25 per pound; mutton,from $0.11
to $0.25 per pound: chickens, from $0.15 to $0.80 each; eggs, from
$0.14 to $0.65 per dozen; Persian flour, from $5.50 to $55 per barrel;
rice, from $0.05 to $0.28 per pound; and Persian bread, from $0.0:
to $0.20 per pound.
Articles of foreign production are, of course, scarce and many
ordinary articles are not to be had at all. Prices are largely.. g
by the rapacity of the seller and the size of the buyers apiI.
Tlih writer recently paid $1.10 for a cake of a certain meri
He had failed to find soap anywhere else in the city, so the
got his price. The price of sugar has increased from $0.08 I
pound; coffee, from $0.80 to $1.80 per pound; tea, from $0A8Q W
Tx gooas, sugar, matcnes, nour, rugs and chemical products,
..paper, soap, rubber overshoes, shoes, haberdashery, bicycles,
g, harness, leather thread, crockery, glassware, beverages,
glass and mirrors, groceries, precious metals, candles, lamps,
,*locks, watches, and roofing. Generally speaking, there is
ket in this district for agricultural, electrical, or other ma-
The samofanay be said to be true of automobiles, although
1.6w are now being used.
wits'to United States.
IfEngs continue to be the principal article elportel from the Tehe-
n consular district to the United. States. The value of rugs in-
,iced at this consulate during 1917 was $1,210,263, compared with
116,833 for 1916. Although the quantity of rugs being woven and
ported is much less than formerly, the value of rugs invoiced here
is increased considerably. The increase is due to the elimination
f Constantinople as a buying place for Persian rugs (many shfp-
ants for America having formerly been invoiced there), and the
prohibition of the importation of luxuries, including oriental rugs,
r many European countries.
Tiihe following table shows the value of exports from the Teheran
nsular district to the United States during the years 1916 and 1917,
wording to invoices certified at the American consulate:
i,; Articles. -
}- Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value
tr gacanth ..............................pounds.. 22,256 817,500 77,615 W.,44,
ieloS d effects......... ........................... .... .... ..... .... ....... 5,MO40
*il .................... ................pounds.. 6,640 30,524 4,179 32.76S
. : ...........................square yard.. 121,384 429,526 160,763 1,210,2 1
............ .............pounds.. 43,731 M3965, O 1.718
d .. .. ........ ",
oI l arifa t ........................................... I-.-- ......... 199 .............. ......
etal, ........................................ ............ 482.,719 ............ 1. 138,9 9
!i:aaddition to the above articles, the following items were invoiced
thbe Tabriz consulate, while the Teheran office was closed from
i 1 i to December 31, 1916: Gum tragacanth, valued at $13,280;
ratal rugs, valued at $387,807; sheep casings, valued at $5,759.
t articles invoiced at the Tabriz consulate for export to the
S: states during 1916 and 1917 were: Persian rugs and carpets,
at $184,652 m 1916 anti $96,742 in 1917; sausage casinos,
1916 and $6,656 in 1917; and tobacco, $1,104 in 1917.
.': WASHINGTON : COVEINMUNT PRITNTI N OnCn : 1 .::
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