Supplement to Commerce reports

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Material Information

Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00034
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00034

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text















", '.'; :, ... 65,


August 7, 1917


A:.rAFCA AND UGANDA.
L : .L flwumHewn P.l .Bt.. Im o basss.
iii.i of trhe ailway to Lake Victoria Nyanza, is
A1r Atlthe s-pa-bornei trade of the seven Provinces'
i icaUgdai, and adjacent territory, which region
e.ean ~ eive .commercial development. despite the
#Btidition of world trade. During 1916 the,
o Brit"ih East. Africa and Uganda increased very
ih~h ex&nge of commodities.w~th foreign countries.
t ea t i'. ,
foreign trade of British at Africa and Uganda during
be to $20,460,337, of whih $13,203,532 represented im-
ease of 52 per cent) and $7,256805 exports (an increase,

aimW and India continued to supply most of the imports
the Netherlands, the United States, France. Italy, and
xcept the United States increased their sales to this
literally. A comparative statement showing the value
aeiiuntries of origin for 1915 ain 1916 follows:
, _....... ... < *.. : ... : ^ ..:i. <-.--


L- .* -.




S.,...
b .,

w s!.1
.P~ k^il'


1915


7)
124


15, 194



.:.. 17)91B


$40707
26,094


.t, me
11, 4
13,309
4951


a, Rn9
* ^Sym8


Countries.


Prt al and Colonies......
Sweae ...................
Swit|erland ...............
Uiaan of South. Africa......
United Kingdom...........
ti ted States...........
.Zanibar..................
AlRotber count *..........
Total...............
G odB- transit and trans-
s lpment...... ..........
amn4dtotal,.........


1915 .


(a)
115,619
1W%724
3515,817
774.719
(Sas 7
68, 975
8,605,729
202,671
8,708,400


. 1916


028,956
83, 554

M 102
64,000
547,660
12,779,204
424,328
s13,20, s


* liot aeparntey stated.


s into this district declined in 1916
ng and the extremely high freight
i' sent by way of England or South
bass. When normal conditions are
i with the United States is estab-
t~adel houl~ d epand material.
, uiarismd eyn and from 1te
ta.iin. 10A. Japan, the Nether"
W Oahtrtne whi incieased"their
inge~"~~q~ i~F.. p..


i.i ...!I

Iii i iV : :. :: ::
~Ii~iiiii tii,,, H!" 'ii~,,Z ,'iL,


n


" ''


w














The following table gves the qnua=uy ana viae or
imports into Mombasa m 1916:


ArticleoL Qualt. IValu AartM. I k L j Iy.


Ag Nuurml Implem'nts..
Ae and beer........galls..
Animals, w.........No..
Am sand amuwltlon ....
Bead m ab sm......eOt..
Bage sam .o.. ...........
Beads ................lbs..
Beverages, nomauagh e...
B~oks and dher pried
matter...................
Building materials, n. s.
Batter................Ibs..
Omdles. ............ ct. -
&arned goods and preserve
mCnvas..............yds..
Oaentt........... wt..
Obese ................lbs..
Ciuettes......... .do....
ars ............do..-d ..
oal and coal products,
tans.....................
Cotton goods:
hakets....M. o. -
Piece goods-
Blea hed.....yds..
Unbleached...::
Dyedd..... ..d...
Prints......:do..
Yam .......,.....I..
Other ...............
Ctlery .................
Drugs, chemicals, and
medices ................
Blustrial apparatus--......
FPla, grami, .et.:
Dat...... .cwt..
Flour and wheal meal,
ctW................
Bies ... ...' .ewt..
Wheat..........do....
Other...........do....
noodstufts,n.e. ...........
Fruit. fresh................
Furniture................
Glessware ................
l. bullian ......... ao...
eryJ .............
PO ta, i 4.e. a.........
ad e.................
&toumnBts, mnusfeda, sci-
mant ete.............,
Leather and leather goods:
Boots aondhoe. pr..
Harness and y..
Leather, nmannta .
tured................
Othrer..................
Limm, heap, and jute
ana at re...........
Machinery:
Agrlcuturall...........
Industrial.............
Other..................


............
183,004
3W
............










34,659
ma
24,362
104,2528


3 1



1,162

i 2,35,535
4,560,270
23,078,168
2,7,26778
............'
............
............
AIo


5,133

Scm
3,415










41.. .
".. .. "48'





...........

......:./

............


...... .....


Di,415
176,205
8,MB

"a
230,404
50,472
m,4s
34,122
9,40
28,375
5,480
313,308
100,35
0,857
14,638
.Sm,
32,160
22,818
M, 6au
384,617
1,809,868
87 ,147
3 450
240,203

111, 884
12,652
14,975
,3,041
208,239
9,393
27,8l9
44,351
4,990
28,800
40,737
5,063
2,441
18,182








18. 842
140,402











14,940


Matches......gross boxes..
Hets, peerved...........
Metals and manufactures:
Brass and copper......
Iron, galvanised,
sheets..........cws..
ln and L..........
Other...............
Milk, cndemned......ewt.
Minr water............
Oils and greass:
=1. |(eluTrlad aiterhk
cwt.................
iarse. e.........
Petrola e... ..... ...
Other...............
permey, oft............
Paorcelasin amd china and
earthen .wm ............
Playing cds..............
Railway and road ma-
terals...................
Rope and twine............
eal ................. cwt..
Ships, boats, etc...........
Silk goods..............
op ................. cwt..
Spirits:
Brandy.......gls..
Gin.............do...
Whisky.........do....
Liqueurs and other,
alls................
Staionary.................
saow-............... .ew..
Tea..-................ sb..
Tobaoee:
Manfantured.....do..
Unmanufactured. .do..
Tos ad games...........
Tress, plants and seeds....
Motor................
Other ................
Watches and clocks... No..
Wearing apparel...........
Winae..............galls..
Wood, and manufactures..
Woolen goods:
Blankets.........No.
Carpets and rugs. do...
Other...............
All other arteles.......
Tetal..............
Cdin admitted to cirula-
tion......................
Goodsin transit am treas-
shipment................
Orand total.........


' I


108,.=
............
.........ra .

.......j.,,.



.,



............

354...13.:,














%as
m'
.~~
... ... ...
... ... ...


Otse GoodL, lea.dtufs, ana Xaahllery Leadilg Impart.
A new trade record was made by cotton goods, incidu
which constitute the largest group item, with a total of I
1916, against $1,931,891 in 1915, an increase of nearly 1
This was due to better financial conditions; difficulty i
sufficient supplies of unbleached goods from the United :
eusly the chief source of supply; and the ability of the i
to satisfy East African requirement. [A detailed x
cotton goods trade of East Africa was published in Qa
POTrs for Mar. 15, 1917.]


....... M.'
...........




0E,
.B




- nf**" ^ fl
...........
Or
,-~q~t


i -





*-.














ana nam, irom the umnes Jmingaom; conaensea miuK,
~m'" Switzerland; butter, from India; cheese, from the
K:inagdom and Holland;- sugar, from Asia other than India;
.lndia.and Ceylon; and fresh fruit, mostly from Zanzibar
Duited Kingdom.
nias and machinery, largely from the United Kingdom,
,213 in 1916, against $607,461 in 1915, an increase of 54
b The leading items were: Machinery (agricultural, in-
fc), the United States furnishing some of the agricultural
~itut 25 per cent of the miscellaneous machinery; hardware;
Ia fair proportion from the United States; cutlery; fenc-
Sabout 10 per cent from the United States; railway
aent and road materials; and other metal manufactures. in-
m-nall importations from India and the United States.
( P~rohases of Liquors and Tobacco.
wines, and malt liquors had a combined value of $788,532
.compared with $473,725 in 1915, a gain of 66 per cent. The
items were: Spirits, consisting of whisky from the United
i|pm, liqueurs from France, and gin from Holland; ale and beer
:8rnouth Africa and the United Kingdom; and wines from
se the United Kingdom, and Italy.
irs cigarettes, and tobacco accounted for $431,512 in 1916
:;46,834 in 1915-a very small increase. The cigarettes came
pj~ lly from the United Kingdom, with about 5 per cent from
r| cigars, from Holland, the United Kingdom, and India; and
ll,-mostly from Holland. The bulk of the smoking tobacco
Itthfe colony is a very cheap grade sold in 3-ounce paper pack-
the Indian and native trade.
E::emand for Motor Cars and Wearing Apparel.
Import of vehicles, $347,265 in 1916, against $219,383 in 1915,
Cwied68 per cent. Most of the automobiles were from the United
~aud the United Kingdom, and these countries, with South
Finapt the wagons, carts, carriages, and other vehicles. Despite
.igt rates, there was a material increase in the sales of
t-motor cars, which are well favored here because of their
ty, ightness, and low cost, and are peculiarly adapted for use
.r. on. A much larger market may be developed as soon as
s return to a more normal basis.
and haberdashery were valued at $261,989 in 1916, against
1915, a gain of 121 per cent. These imports came princi-
tie United Kingdom. Recently more interest has been
can goods of this class, and local merchants are begin-
j bciery canvas shoes, neckties, and underwear, there
iOvejal demand for the cheaper grades.
AMj~~ e-AameroanBehool Bupplies Introduced.
t m. also furnished most of the imports of soap,
inpared with $120,433 in 1915, an increase of 114
i h. The chf demands for a cheap grade of washing soap
"iiE. "








4 sourPrBur TO OOMMW OXn u.na.ea

(mottled blue and white) in 1-pound bars The sale of E
grades of toilet soaps has increased; English, French, aadi
manufacturers have furnished most of them.
Stationery worth $125,561 was imported in 1916, against.,
in 1915, almost doubling in value. The market is widening .
owing to new schools, especially those conducted by the
societies, and to the general development of the country. SM.
pencils, note paper, and ink are the articles most in demnd
tofore the United Kingdom and Germany have furnished metE I
these, but recently importers have sought American source om p
ply. The few trial shipments sent from the United Sttates haie-*~b
well received and had a smaller percentage of broken goods tbI
similar consignments from other countries. Importers are.eaar
large supplies, to be shipped as soon as freight space can Im- ube
xisceeaneous Imports. i
Among other imports, bags and sacks were valued at 0380404l
1916, agaiAst $139,210 in 1915, coming principally from- !ndFt
cement, $55,857, compared with $38,548, from the United K
dom (East' Africa now needs large quantities of this material, Wi
present freight rates are prohibitive); chemicals, drugs, and unwS
cines, $111,884, against $90,660, from the United Kingdom;, a
$22,813, representing a great decrease from the previous ye.r's i
portation of $92,837, practically all from South Africa; glaus
porcelain, and china and earthen ware, $77,432, compared W
$43,402, from the United Kingdom; matches, of which Sweden ic:l
nished 70 per cent, Japan about 10 per cent, and the United Kigsic
and Norway the remainder; mineral water, furnished largely by*.
United Kingdom, with .ome from France and Italy;. ke .c
$93,913 in 1916, against $112,422 in 1915, from the United ia
Persian Gulf ports, and Egypt; rope and twine, from the Ui
Kingdom, India, and Zanzibar; salt, $45,505 in 1916, against
in 1915, largely from India and about 20 per cent from Adena u
woolen goods, $67,475, compared with $48,210 in 1915, froIm
United Kingdom, India, and Persia.
Export Trade Larger.
The following comparative statement of the principal
from British East Africa and Uganda for the past two yeas
an increase for 1916 of 47 per cent. Although larger quantitie
shipped during 1916, much of the gain was due to incmre*d' j
About 70 per cent of the exports went to Great Britain and I
most of the remainder to France, the United States, Italy, and l
Articles. 1915 1916 Articles. I
Bimnal, rve ................ (0) son4 Iv y........................
Beans and peas............. $17,40 75,871 Mai .......................
Beeswax .................. a 115 22,54 Peanuts.....................
Carbonate of soda........... (a 13,466 Potates...............
Chuiles....................... 39,677 101,943 Pule......................
Case..........34,8 67,0 e............. 41, ubb .. .... .............
Oora......... ............. 56,45 9 0 ,378 Beds:
tO .... ............ 1,10,75 57 C ..................
Fiber, isal ................. 375,677 523 538 .......
Ghee (carilled butler)....... 2 ,117 15,864 Woods.......................
Goatskis................... ( 215,462 Wool, raw-..............
Gold......................... 1,86 5M 1,84 W,16 Allo arsrfc a...........
Hama and bac............ 4. ( 9,00t
BMles, cattle................. 9 477 08 M, Total.................


a N"e separaaly stated


SY














JULUVI'* U 4U i V UtJlI U VJULll UJL. FU UUJ.UV, ,*1OU IJLU11 ULlBt i,
by England. British East Africa produced the sisal,
to Liverpool and London. About 80 per cent of the
grown in this Protectorate and the remainder in Uganda;
Kported to India, Aden, and Italy. Most of the ivory came
ada and the Belgian Kongo for shipment to the United
..and India. The carbonate of soda was all produced at
di, in British East Africa; 1916 was the first year in
Wrwas exported in any considerable quantity, the United King-
Sng the entire output. [A report on the development of a
deposit in East Africa appeared in COMMERCE REPORTS for
1917.] The chilies, from Uganda, went to the United
Egypt, and France; a small quantity to the United States.
atskins were largely purchased by American firms for de-
Wl Liverpool and New York.
:p united States.
iB'declared value of articles invoiced for the United States at
'boibasa consulate was $241,289 in 1915 and $190,006 in 1916.
itaiasu'ate was moved from Zanzibar to Mombasa in March,
iuo :the figures for that year include shipments from the former
ith:he items in 1915 were: Cloves, $204,493; goatskins, $22,167;
ishilies. $14,629. The quantity and value of the articles ex-
M6ini 1916 follows: Eleven thousand three hundred and seventeen
i *s of coffee, $1,162; 423,112 goatskins, $76,502; 21,930 sheep-
, $5,276; 64,363 pounds of chilies, $31,884; 42,600 pounds of
-$5,457; 1,600 tons of mangrove bark, $69,212; and all other
bEf $513. Returned American goods were valued at $110.
bbtere no shipments to United States possessions.
jfll7 mangrove bark and skins are likely to be eliminated by
iertage of shipping space and the lack of facilities for comply-
M*thb the recent requirement of- the United States Department
l.caulture for the disinfection of all skins from East Africa on
t of the prevalence of certain animal diseases. This would
ey chilies, cloves, ivory, and coffee available to American

of American Trade in East Africa
opportunity for American goods in this market was never
.at present. Practically every line suitable to a tropical
i Od the needs of a large native population may find an out-
ias not even Great Britain enjoys preferential tariffs.
i ietioa should be made of agricultural machinery and
:d all kinds, small hardware, industrial machinery, en-
biles foodstuffs, and textiles manufactured to meet
of the native trade. Many lines formerly furnished
J .iWti and: other European countries are now difficult to
E..any pice because of the shortage of shipping and other







SUPPLEMNT TO OOMMERRO BHPORTB.


The Indian merchants here are anxious to establish
connections, but the best results may be obtained by d
the Indian distributors through local European or Ameca
or commission houses; this is perhaps the only safe way w~ia~
question of credit is involved. Unfortunately shipping spaM
New York is at such a premium that much of this opportum t'
be lost unless American manufacturers insist upon the e.tab.ImEl .
of a regular American freight steamship service to thisloao a.,i
South Africa. Unless facilities are improved in some wrysMAma i
can trade in East Africa will have to await the end of the warimn-baid
any important extensions may be expected. i
The possibilities of this market for the consumption of. fae
goods are evident from the necessity of importing all the mai
fractures needed here, despite which the annual import trade aiik
$2.35 per capital.
[The development of American trade with British East Africas Bte uhM
in detail in Supplement No. 65a. published Apr. 7, 1917.]
Transportation System and Equipment. A
The railway and lake steamer facilities in the Protectorates
British East Africa and Uganda are owned and operated by'ti
Government through the management of the Uganda Raiffwy.'"n
At the beginning of the military campaign in 1915 against tAb
neighboring colony of German East Africa the transportatioan s
ter was taken over by the military authorities, the natural redo
being the development 6f abnormal traffic conditions; on Januaryt
1917, the system was returned to civil jurisdiction. Notwithstal i
ing the extra work devolving upon the railways and the laite tMeo
ers, from much of which no revenue was obtained, net eatrinrgiwq
the fiscal year ended March 31, 1916, showed a considerable ineriM
over those for the previous year. The figures for the.palt twh
fiscal years are: 1913-14-Revenues, $2,658,788; expendituAw4ia fit
872; and net earnings, $1,038,916; 1914-15-$2,510,742, $1,6il
and $878,840; 191--16-$3,065,864, $1,667,719, and $1898,14, J...
The lines operated are all of meter gauge. The Uganda itiltw
proper from Mombasa to Kisumu, on Lake .Victoria Nya i~i d
a total mileage of 618. The rolling stock consists of 97 lIioti...
234 passenger cars, and 1,292 small freight cars, mostly et i:
Uganda the Busoga Railway has 61 miles of track andtlihmen
Bell-Kampala Railway operates 6 miles. The marine e ur~.
of this system comprises 10 steamers and tugs ranging in lu
from 50 to 1,200, all of British manufacture.
Shipping Services Beduced-American Line Needed. :,, .
Ocean steamship lines calling at Mombasa were np
1916 to restrict their services materially, owing to war
The only line maintaining its regular monthly shebe in
Italian Maritime of Genoa. The British-India, to India w
Africa; the Union-Castle, from Englind; and the
sageries, from Marseille, were forced to reduce their
than half. The consequence has been a congestion of mnati
at East African ports awaiting shipment abroad. lumpnSl.i
tically confined to actual necessities, other articles being
or denied space. "














excluded trom tnis market. isven those which now reach this
could not compete with similar goods made in Great Britain
ltter were able to supply them; The westbound rate is more
Switch an average for general cargo of about $31 per ton
(2,240 pounds) to Liverpool, compared with $46 to New York.
for Mombasa is accepted for transshipment at Durban,
ia, to the .vessels of the British-India, Union-Castle, or Clan-
rman Lines. This practice. adds to the expense and often results
lng 'delays. Although most of the shipments from America
this port via Durban, some are sent via Liverpool and the Suez
al. It is said here that if New York could offer a regular through
to Mombasa and Zanzibar with a definite monthly sailing, all
cargo destined to these ports would be diverted from other routes.
the better facilities would encourage larger and more frequent
hases from America.
sflial Conditions--Currency and Ezxhaage.
i, 'flie banks report a very satisfactory volume of business during
: 1j6, representing commercial activities of a character less specula-
tive than during the previous year. A general readjustment in many
lShm was necessary in order to check the effect of overstocking, which
Sirbalzaar merchants had initiated because of a false conception of
Ei" i market requirements and an overestimate of the demand for
Tri he : unit of currency in use is the Indian rupee ($0.3244) and this,
g. ether with the large trade between East Africa and India, makes
d"ii exchange in the latter country dominate this market. Most
i:tee banking credit -obtained here is derived from the sale of bills
liiionmbiy, for which only a small charge (usually from to 4 of 1
S t) is made. As the balance of trade lies with India, Mombasa
cover their losses in such transactions by the purchase, at close
Sand lirdgh their Indian branches, of bills on Bombay, the
settlement being adjusted through the sale of Bombay bills on
.On the cost of transferring the silver rupee to Bombay is
.I....iticid -the East African rate of exchange on London.
l. Wanttances to London or America stood practically at par during
iillyear; those to New York are made direct by the banks having
;aebehi or correspondents in New York, the rate following the
iiiih:d.on market.
.Ai ~t end of 191 the rate for foreign exchange rose, owing to
th t demand for money on London. The par of exchange in English
p3easy is is. 4d., and in ordinary times, depending upon the balance
t~arade, it is usually d. more. During the latter part of the year,
.cadeantde to Is. Sd. The tightness of the local money
afs.falurther accentuated by the impossibility of importing
Sw-Sbthl Afr'Aiea and the added expense of importing silver
from India occasioned by high freight rates and war-risk
*EEE:EEEE...:
f tEEEEEEEEE
L iiiiii B~i







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPO SB.


insurance, which latter at times was as much as 5 per cent.. N'di'r |
theless many rupees were brought into the country by the :eva
meant for the army pay roll. Another event affecting the loeljiMag
market was the opening to trade of the occupied portion of~i~si
East Africa and the consequent need for cash to finance thMiair
tional commerce. ..
Banking Facilities Adequate-European Indent Houses. IJ1r
Two Mombasa banks have established New York branches and.pi
prepared to offer American exporters general facilities fo r eiic-
tions and handling properly indorsed bills on local merchanti s,'
institutions, the Standard Bank of South Africa and the atioIal
Bank of South Africa, have made strong efforts to encourage a larger
volume of American trade.
Prior to the war German and Austrian firms offered them.eliberal
credit terms, 3 and 4 months being customary and 6 and 8 months' e
unusual. The actual distribution of merchandise is through th
Indian merchant, who operates on small capital and narrow margz
So that he could succeed, long credits appeared necessary aid it
accorded to him. There evolved a system, peculiar to Africa and A
East, of European indent or commission houses, which solicited j
received orders from local merchants for all sorts of goods bou
;.nd paid for them, and carried the merchant with the aid of
banks. The manufacturer seeking business in this field must eiti e'r
depend upon the indent houses for orders or, in the case of niiy
staple lines, be prepared to grant terms to the importer.
Since the beginning of the war credit terms have been greatly
reduced. Early in 1917 not more than 30 to 45 days was consider.
The present tendency is for slightly longer credits, and there is much
trading on the basis of 60 days from date of draft. *.
Government Revenue and Expenditure.
During the fiscal year ended March 31, 1916, the total e ndi
of the Government of British East Africa were 1,072,9 (
350), the amount fbr the preceding year being 1,151,730 ,,
The total Government revenues during the same pos WM
1,165,561 ($5,672,202) and 984,756 ($4,792,115), respecjv.Jy. i
Government railways provided 58 per cent of the income Wii A
licenses and taxes, 20 per cent; and customs duties, about 12 pe r
The increase, due largely to the railways and the customs, re4 cti
revival of commercial activity after the shock caused by the out
break of war had passed and shows that the Protectorate is oal 4 self-
supporting basis and no longer in need of annual financial assistance
from the British Government to meet ordinary expenses The co"-i
struction of additional railway lines, harbor improvements, aadather
important public works, however, will continue to be financed with
the aid of parliamentary grants.
Agriculture-Iganda Cotton. :
It is estimated that 1,800,000 acres of land within the t
British East Africa is sown in crops, out of a total area of H
acres. In Uganda the total acreage is 32,06,250, of which$4 t0
acres receive cultivation.














fmip::re..P of t.e Irotectoratl -The necessity tor extensive irri-
s kin nOfstemaBS border troubles, and other causes forced an entire
,S esiQon. .d the work.
Wla Uganda cotton is the kergest and most valuable crop produced
jfreexport The '.acreage is about 100,000 and the: production for
1916-17 estimated at somewhat less than 40,000 bales of 400 pounds
aklt. It is lgrwn entirely by the natives, the European planter pre-
iq to. cultivate: coffee and rubber. The staple is exceptionally
although not equal in this respect to the Egyptian variety.
i ~ ssld by the native to the European ginnery operators at
a and Kampala under Government supervision. 'More than
,000,0 is invested in the cotton industry, which has received the
vs support of the Government inot oil in th scientific study of
Snd plant diseases but also in the encouragement of extensive
.pistings. Its regulation of eed distribution aid cotton sales
is of transport facilities have all contributed to the suc-
stablishment of this industry in Uganda, where many natural
had to be overcome. [For a complete account of cotton
pr L ucion is Uganda see ConwnE II pRTs for Apr..10, 1917.]
ia*.iot Coffee, Slsal, and Copra-Other Crops.
:y .i te end of 1916 the total area devoted ito coffee in British East
Africa had increased to more than. I00 acres and in. Uganda to
#Qh-ta total of 16,000 acres in the two colonies. This is the most
i ai leeconomuc plant grownin British,, ast Africa; it is a type
$"'Arabiea." ,and .is said to be of high quality. The product sold
&L m ttblf.n market during the year at'prices ranging from $340
l5 per 'ong ton (2,240 pounds), somewhat more than Uganda
.ci, brolr"ht. -- -
th esiil (Agoae si smeia crop the outlook is better than for
other cultural product of British East Africa. This fiber
iuarl'akdapted to the soil and climatic conditions of both the
ivialands. and the coast and matures more quickly here than in
tLier~;isalgrbwing countries The exports during 1916 were about
3tJmtons, which may be doubled in 1917. At present London prices
(about. $ i. per king ton) such an output would make sisal East
;Aftick' mst valuable export product. A large part of the 18,000
meag. devoted to this crop is new planting; the area is being extended.
g a detailed report on the production of sisal in East Africa see
OO= MBE IBArPOwTs for June 8, 1917.]
The coconut industry is the oldest agricultural pursuit on this coast,
having been started by the Arabs when slavery greatlreduced the
habr cost. Since European control was established in 1895 old
i' %6 ~l~i rehabilitateed and new areas developed under
senBtift management, Some new planting was done in
a ineatily ll f"the product is converted into copra, and
I il b' ippig ace to the European markets was very







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE BNPOlnB.


limited, low prices resulted. Ordinarily copra sells in the Maialea
lndl Zanzibar markets for from 5 to 6 rupees ($1.62 to $1S. r)p
fra si I: (;3 pounds); at the end of the year quotations were notiba
above 34 rupees ($1.18). [An account of the coconut and' :ora
industry in East Africa was published in COMrXMEa Rarome i
May 8, 1917.]
The rubber industry in British East Africa has been abandon.
Both Ceara and Parn rubber have been planted in Uganda with -
success, the foi mer variety offering greater returns with more cer-
tainty as to quantity and quality of production. In 1916 there were
about 1,400 acres of Parn trees over five years old in that Protme
torate.
About 5,000 acres in Uganda are devoted to cacao. The grade pro-
duced brings about $20 per hundredweight (112 pounds) on the
Liverpool market. Corn, beans, potatoes, and sesame the other
important crops of East Africa, were produced in goo quantity
and realized slightly higher than average prices in 1916. ''
Live-Stock Industry-Trade in Hides. .t
The number of live stock in the two colonies at the beginning f
1916 was about 1,800,000 cattle, 7,000,000 sheep, and 5,300,000
By the end of the year these figures were reduced by about 25 %
cent, but prices are higher and the grade of the stock is improyling.
Although anthrax, tick fever, rinderpest, and foot-and-mouth dis-
ease (the last in Uganda) were fairly prevalent throughout the year,
the liberal use of vaccine furnished by the Government reduced the
mortality. The authorities are handicapped in the control -f these
diseases, because most of the cattle herds are owned by native tribes.
The unfenced ranges add to the difficulty.
No export trade in cattle or dressed beef has been developed, chiefly
because the supply has just met domestic needs. The shipment-of
hides is now practically confined to Europe, the American market
being-closed because of United States requirements for' disinfeetiai
Shortage of Labor-Increased Wages. ..,
The military campaign in German East Africa drew arv nfum-
ber of laborers from agricultural work for duty as posters n a. y
service. This demand has resulted in a shortage of labor for ordinwy
purposes and a general advance of wages. Before the war.6 rupees
($1.95) per month and food for farm work was considered fair, but
now less efficient labor must be paid at least double that amrnnt.
The general development of the country is likely to maintain tbhi
scale, even after the war. Although from 12 to 15 rupees ($8.89 to
$4.87) per month, beside the cost of food (about 6 rupees) is appar-
ently a very small sum, the average native African laborer is only
about one-fifth as efficient as the white workman and requires much
more supervision.
Cooperative Interprises.
The recent agitation for a cooperative buying and selling q~
tion resulted in the appointment of a committee of the settler
recommended the formation of a society with $130,000 capitaL .
objects of the organization are to purchase supplies, export a.l



4 ." *
























The waterworks and sewerage system 'planned by the Government
Sfor the town of Nairobi, the capital of the Protectorate, will neces-
s i a. total expenditure of $570,000, of which only about $20,000
een paid out. It is not likely that the project will be completed
,: the end of the war.
p: r war reasons the extensive harbor improvements at Kilindini
.(,ij port for Mombasa) are temporarily suspended. This scheme
: provides for a deeper channel; the construction of extensive docks,
warehouses, and cargo-handling apparais; the establishment of
Eange lights and other aids to navigation; and the erection of cus-
itomsoffices and other necessary buildings to facilitate the trade of a
ykmodern por It is estimated that ahbout$3,500,000 will be needed
this work.
i. are was a decrease in general building operations during 1916,
i' g.: h a few substantial business structures, arranged for during
i:ou~ year, were completed. There is an urgent need for more
WIniding s, both for commercial and for residential purposes, in all
S the important towns of the colony, but the present high price of
eemnt makes the cost of such improvements prohibitive.
(I4t outbritk of bubonic plague at Nairobi early in October, 1916,
Soillhed more than 100 deaths before it was brought under control by
Government"medical officers. The epidemic spread to Uganda and
Sfor several weeks business houses in Kampala, the chief trading town,
were closed. There was a slight increase in malarial cases, probably
due to the arrival of many Europeans unused to the climate. Except
i o a few scattered cases occurring in the lake district, no sleeping
id enes. was reported during the year; the Government has ap-
S parently succeeded in controlling the spread of the disease among the
naizte in this Protectorate.
1mii9at German East Afries Open to Trade.
SOn1 December 1, 1916, certain areas of German East Africa occu-
Spii !..by British forces, principally that lying north of the Central
iy running from Dar-es-Salaam to Tabora in the interior, was
qiii pened trade, and is under the jurisdiction of the civil administra-


".. i.E:: iiiii: .": .. .. ...

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M : .:' ..:E "E E:..........
... *:: ":; d ? i :
v::i..:.. :... .E




Y1111EN1M osTY


12 SUPPLUEMrNT TO oMKE 0aSealS,
tor of conquered territory, at Wil lSJstal Traders
permits from the military authorities.
No steamships other than Government transportsl c&
East African ports at present; freight is carried I.xt-
along the coast and on Lake Victoria Nyanza n
As that territory was closed to the rest of the world to~
its need of all kinds of foodstuffs and manufactures s. i
Since December the merchants of British East Africa ali
have been taking advantage of this opportunity and.-ve'
means for the transportation of goods to that territoryhTis


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