Supplement to Commerce reports

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00032
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00032

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text




SUPPLEMENT TO

" COMMERCE REPORTS
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Annual Series No. 52h December 19, 1917

CHINA.
By Consul General Thomas Snmmons, Shanghai.
China has reached the billion haikwan tael point in its foreign
trade. Expressed in gold dollars, China's foreign trade for 1916
amounted to $826,812,672. This represents the high-water mark in
China's business with other countries. The increase in China's
foreign trade in 1916 over 1915, when stated in gold, amounts to
$292,330,500; in haikwan taels, only 124,867,478. The smaller gain
expressed in local currency, as compared with the gain in gold, is
explained by the difference in the rates of conversion for the two
years-$0.612 to 1 haikwan tael in 1915 and $0.8283 in 1916.
On account of the differences in exchange comparisons of gold
S values for different years are misleading. A better idea of China's
growth in foreign trade can be obtained by comparing values in local
currency, as in the following figures, which show the total foreign
trade of the country in haikwan taels for the last 10 years: 1907-
680,782,066; 1908-671,165,881; 1909-757,150,881; 1910-843,798,222;
1911-888,842,109; 1912-843,617,434; 1913-973.468,103; 1914-92-- 5,-
468,011: 1915-873,336,883; 1916-998.204.361.
Trade Increase 46 Per Cent in 10 Years.
In 10 years China's foreign trade has increased more than 46 per
cent. The increase in 1916 to record figures indicates a more or less
complete readjustment to the changed conditions brought about by
the war, and this increase was effected in spite of numerous serious
obstacles. Shortage of tonnage, high freight rates, increased cost of
production, and scarcity of labor abroad causing delays in delivery,
all exercised a retarding influence on imports; while a great rise in
the gold value of silver, added to the difficulty of finding cargo space
for shipments, interfered seriously with exports. Trade was also
hampered for a. time by a serious scarcity of silver due to heavy ship-
ments abroad, and by the political unrest that existed during the
first half of the year.
SIncrease in Both Imports and Exports.
Notwithstanding the foregoing obstaces, both imports and exports
increased by more than 50 per cent when expressed in gold values.
Imports amounted to $427,739,914 as compared with $278,139,140 in
1915, although this apparently large gain does not represent a pro-
portionate expansion in the volume of the import trade. The higher
cost of goods imported is largely responsible for the increased valu-
ation, though increased costs were partly offset by the higher price
20836'-17---512h --1








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


of silver. Refererii- to the import table that is presented later will
show decreas.edI quantities and higher values for numerous articles.
Of the total trade incren-e of $2i92330.500 Shanghai was respon-
sible for over l$104,1(I (1,000; Dairen. for $2's.(.),O00O; Canton, for
$_5,0,,00,~ii'; T iiitau, for .$-'1I,00,000; Tiernt,.in, for $19,(1 00000;
Mal;nclioui, for r. 11,)00,000; and llankow, for $13,000,000.
Increased Tonnage Rates and Increases in Values.
Tli. increased tonnalg r:;tes, as well as inlre:.ses in the value of
u.arlv all living necessities and conimodities the world over, have
been lhneufii:.l, rather than otherwise, to the general trade in China.
Markt.i fluctuations have been so great that no standardd price has
been maintaintiiied for any one alricle for any definite period. Con-
sequently the tr;ailr, whether foreign or native, has necessarily had
to provide for himself a greater margin of profit in order to protect
himself against market fluctuations. Although possible a smaller
volume of business has been done, the profits thereon have been so
much greater than in normal times that all the merchants and
traders who have confined themselves to legitimate business have
done well.
The fluctuations in exchange during 1916 were speculative in the
same way as the unstable value of goods and the continuous increase
in freights and. so far as China was concerned, the effect of the rise
of silver was beneficial in the average to the import trade. While
the gold values of the goods and the cost of freight rose phenome-
nally, the rise in freight was largely offset by the increasl in the
value of silver, which is the basic coinage of China. Consequently,
the Chinese buyer w;as not calleil upon to pay much more in silver
for his" trade comi.ilmoities. and traders were confident, that they were
safe in pircha.sini and keeping up their stocks.
Demand for Raw Products from China.
The demand for raw products from China was strong through-
out the year and, with keen competition among buyers, the prices
of the various export comunodities-notably silk, skins, and hides-
reached unheard-of values. There was a great demand, especially
in Europe, for exports from China regardless of price, and even
bulky cargo was shipped in imrnmjnse quantities to Europe at ex-
ceedingly high freight rates. The export prices were very profitable
and the Chinese exporters had no difficulty in clearing stocks.
China had a most prosperous year in 1916, and 1917 seenis to
iffer equally gol prosplects. The fluctuations in the silver market
and in freights have not interfered with general trade, but have
simply resulted in competition on healthy lines, with ample profits
and margins e-tirnated to cover the ri-ks involved. There has been
o no ticeable tendenI'y in Chinese trade to cut prices in competitive
tra diII2'.
Foreign Trade Classified by Ports.
The value of Sh;anghni's foreign com nmerce exceeded by more than
-_s1,000,000 that of ,Cainton, its nearest competitor, and by more
thali $84,000,000 the comb0'lined trade of Canton and the next four
important ports-Dairen, Tientsin. Hankow, and Kowloon. Shang-
li;ti's share of the foreign trade was more than 42 per cent.











CHINA. 3


The following table shows the import and export trade of China,
by ports, in 1915 and 1916:


Ports.


Aigun ...................
Amoy...................
.Antung..................
Canton ..................
Changsha...............
Chefoo..................
Chinkiang ...............
Chunking...............
Chinwanetao............
Dairen (Dalny)..........
Foochow................
Hangehow .............
Hankow................
Harbin.................
Hunchun................
Ichang .................
KJaochow (Tsingtau)....
Kiukiang ...........
KjLngchow..............
Kongmoon...............
Kowloon ................
Lappa .................
Lugcehingt sun.........
Lungchow ..............
Lungkow................
Manchouli..............
Mingtsze.................
Nanking ................
Nanning.................
Newchwang.............
Ningpo..................
Pakhoi..................
Samshui................
Sansin .................
Santuao.................
Shanghai ................
Shasi...................
Soochow.................
Suifenho.................
Swatow .................
Szemao .................
Tatungkow..............
Tengyuch ...............
Pientsin...............
Wenchow ...............
Wuchow................
Wuhu...................
Yochow..................
Total...............
Reexnnrts


Imports.

1915 1916

$89,474 $107,836
5,615,153 7,088,879
7,961,085 14,868,002
15,934,864 21,485,831
523,543 955,128
3,554,388 5,617.338
1,789,629 2,948,158
432,178 395,04.3
1,103,6S3 1,083,963
15,217,658 27,630,596
2,763,154 4,754,904
150,765 186,329
17,088,094 29,764,472
165,723 68,102
183,136 342,649
65,059 114,603
2,620,242 11,808,813
1,110,315 2,017,419
2,136,419 3,069,911
2,152,639 5,427,835
19,842,781 26,492,801
7.1 5,3M 560,621
21-5,13S 439,875
18.434 55, 461
147 16,079
4.106.76.5 5>,458,675
3,300, 4S 1,615,079
.345,087 981,842
233,730 755,101
.3,308,258 4,608,103
1,792,481 2,863,607
1,097,187 1,345,826
2,111,648 3,647,303
22,273 4,7'2
21,895 24,019
121,307,203 171, 46,875
54,284 123,395
9,604 13,722
3,912,771 13,657,676
9,740,765 11,961,553
106,663 131,324
209 424
1,341,762 1,417,776
21,869,812 36,717,148
7,009 6,192
5,857,392 6,934,030
453,677 1,271,732
3,132 9,974
291,963,172 143,362,837
13,824,032 15,622,923


I;xports.


1915.

1280,096
1,522,261
2,427,721
25,782,192
1,11S
3,213,542
30,462
56,962
1,424,212
21,800,945
1,326,685
9,971,216
1,241,8.34
123, 54

1,99s,092
740
1,426,425
610,516
7,120,746
3,219,646
.3j,018
9,492
1,0431250
ij,001,186
1,189,099
1,28 ,52i9
3,740,038
I,876
766,227
64 3, S
1,192,775 :

123,279,921 \
140

9,935,212
7,184,331
20,236
16,028
157,171
10,341,454
2.599,234
902
54


Total.


1916

$292,634
2,044,629
4,028,504
45,618,111
1,787
4,976,518
211
160.410
1,579,659
37,865,269
5,057,24.3
10,294,767
810,960
223,416
.............,
13,.547,355
1,127
1,916,122
1,246,713
10,878,745
2,939,354
S93,248
9,829

13,6&61,222
7,776,000
3,072,613
1,.S24,949
1,084,129
2,417
1,130,611
1.028,366
390,301
1,720
177.203,031
305

12, 075,629
9,31S,393
21,228
7,542
520,485
17,701,303

5,652, 319
2,707
18,797


256,343,032 399,072, 7 8


Nettotal........... 278,139,140 427,739,914 256,343,032 1 399,072,758.


1915

1369,570
7.137,414
10, 388, .06
41,717,056
524,661
6,767,9.30
1,820,091
489, 140
2,527,895
37,018,603
7,089 39
1.50,765
27,059,330
1,407, 557
306,684
05,059
4,618,334
1,111,055
3,562,844
2,763,15.5
26,963,527
10,405,027
271,156
67,926
147
5, 1.0, 015
9,303,669
1,514.186
1,517.259
7,048,2%
1,794,357
1,'563,414
2,755.528
1,215,041
21,893
241,587,121
54,424
9,604
13,847, 983
16,925,096
126,899
16,237
1,798.933
:1, 211,266
7,009
,4.%6,626
1.34,579
3,186
548,.306,204
13,824,0132
534,482,172


1916

$400,470
9,133,508
18,896,506
67,103,962
956, 915
10.593, 956
2.94S,361
523, 45;
2,663,622
65,495, S6
9,812,147
186,32!)"
4n, 059,239
,479,062
56, 065
114,603
25,356,170
2,018,547-
4, 986,033
6,674, 54.
.37.371,546
11,499,97-
533,123
65,290
1'), 07'9
19,111,897
12,411,087
4,054, 4,5
2.5S0,030
',62 6,232
2, 72.024
2.176, 439
1 675,66'1
395,093
235,734
341, 69,9011
123,700
13,722
2.5,733,305
21,279,946
152,552
7,966
i,938,'261
.4,418, 51
6,192
12,586, 419
1,274,439
28,771

842,435,595
15,622,923

826,812,672


Foreign Trade by Countries of Origin and Destination.
The following table shows the value of the imports into China and
of the exports from China, by principal countries of origin and des-
tination, in 1915 and 1916. The original sources of supply of the
imports into China from Hongkong and the countries of destination
of the exports to Hongkong are not of record with the Chinese Mari-
time Customs, from which the figures were compiled.

Imports. Exports. Totals.
Countries. _
1915 1916 1915 1910 1915 1916

Austria-Hungary......... $44,930 $19,670 $20 373 544,950 $19,743
Belgium................ 2,120,400 6,381 ............. ...... 2,120,400 ,381
British India............. 24, 833,170 27,073,876 4,860,910 5,458,496 29,694,080 32,532,372
Canada................... 510 476 1,514,766 896.718 1,274,888 1,407,194 2,789 654
Dutch East Indies....... 3,785,826 4,238,255 1,674,305 1,933,862 5,460,131 6,172,117
France................... 1,469690 2,331,050 18,648,061 22,581,081 20,117,751 24,912,131
French Indo-China....... 1,965,028 2,928,675 1, 5, 933 1,195,924 3,050, 961 4,124,599
Germany.......:......... 9q, 200 20,292 52 266 9, 252 20,.' 5)


I


-- i


R e o t ................











SUPPLE.I"IINT TO COMMl.:I-HI REPORTS.


I '.IIn 1r .


Iongkong................
Italy.. ...............
Japan i nt-li, h ng Chosen).
.Maca ... ..............
Netherlands.............
Philippine Islands........
Russia...................
'i pr. ip.irr .-tr.ut: Settle-
li II1-. i'l ..... ........
United Kingdom.......
I "nth i c I Stat res..........
All other countries.......


Iml


1915


?-1 ', ~', 1
72, < 150
;. ., 184
'1'-,958
S". '1 1. .


I, "; I. \.li


Total............... 278,139,140


* 121.808,375
296, 763
131.010,7 "7
4, 2';21, 7.. I
180,922
1,877,012
16,427,704
.1, .1 160
7:, P., 113
43,438,092
3,085, 700

427,739,918


F63,7 '.,:2(m2
5,71'., 4'
51,( il,". '
3, 01".. 122
1,319,313
482,075
36,351,973

5,442,540
19,543, 988
37, 074,505
5, -l., 720


Percentage of China's Trade Held by Various Countries.
The Iat rg ii'Ile-; e in the trade with China of Japan and the
United St:ate are ,igiiiiiiallt fitr~iI irCs of the foregoing table. The
fluctuations in the percellta'ge of the total trade held by ;achI country
bring out even more clearly the recent commercial rec;aju'-tiillwnt,
which are due largely to the war. The following table shows the
1pel.enta;ge of China's trade held by various countries in 1914, 1915,
and 1916:


Countries.


Austria-Hungary ..........
Belvium.................
British India.............
Canada.....................
Dutch East Indies.........
France......................
French Indo-China.........
Germany...................
Hongkong.................
Italy....................;..
Japan......................
Macao.....................
N, ti. rland: .. ............
Phi ippines................
Russia.....................
Sincapore, Straits Settle-
ments,etc............... .
United Kingdom..........
I ni. d .;t1l:es


.Ill other countries ......... .6 .66 .74 1.77 2.15 2.21i 1.09 36 1.45

Total............... 100000 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00


Foreign Population and Foreign Firms.
Japan's polpll:lion in China iiicri'I-d by "2, 0 persos, although
Japanese firms decreased by ':;'1. The decrease in the number of
firms is somewhat surlpril.-il in view of the expansion of Japan's
trade with ('Iina. It mnty perhaps be accounted for on the supposi-
tion that tHe i ,rr I.';-, of more than 100 per cent during the prIlcedlling
year w~; accidental and temporary or else consisted of small firms
that l:vt' ,-iii n coinlllined or joined larger firms for better cooper nation
in the extension of this country's trade. The Russian population
decreai ed by nearly 1,000, but the number of Ri -.iian firms increased
by 6li4. Great Britain and Germany eah incre:sed their popula-
tions and their firms proportionally more; while the American popu-


Imports.


I: \pi,.,rL.


1914


P. ct.
0.41
3.16
7.00
.21
1.12
.88
.99
2.52
28.65
.14
21.91
1.07
.24
.33
3.34

1.32
18.76
7.: 0


1915


P. ct.
0.02
.72
8.54
.18
1.41
.51
.68
.04
31.04
.08
26.50
1.10
.10
.76
3.57

1.06
14.97
7 76


1916


P. ct.

6.33
.35
.99
.55
.68

29. 18
.07
31.33
.99
.04
.44
3.84

.82
13.50
10 15i


1914


P. ct.
0. 34
1.46
).97
.23

6.62
.51
2. 98
27.05
1.51
19.81
1.22
1.35
.33
12.02

2.01
6. 18
11 F5.


1915


P. ct.

1.90
.35
.65
7.27
.42

24. 87'
2.2i
19. to
1.18
.51
.19
14.18

2.12
7.62
14 46


1916


P. ct.

1.37
.32
.50
5.66
.30

24.79
1.31
24.80
.77
.21
.22
13.60
1.74
7.22
14 96i


Total.


1915


P. ct.
0.01
.39
5.41
.26
1.06
3.68
.56
.02
28.20
1.09
21.44
1.14
.30
.49
8.53

1.59
11.55
10 .0f


1914


P. ct.
0.39
2.50
5.06
.22
1.02
3.08
.82
2. 69
28.05
.67
21.11
1.12
.67
.33
6.66

1.59
14.02
8. 91


1916


P. ct.

3.93
.34
.75
3.01
.50

27.06
.67
28.18
.88
.13
.33
8.55

1.26
10.48
19 48


I


$98,969,963 $1 ', 949,278 $2- ',778,338
5.22: .211 5,961,226 .20.004
'1i. il .t' 123,839,452 213, 1,011916
3, 061, 870 6, 21,306 7, 24, i04
j1;. 098 1, '0,; 71 1,097,020
O9i, 453 2, .'9., 2"2 2,767,465
54,265,416 44,190,897 70,693,120

6,915,257 8,534,783 10, 1'., 417
28,923,031 62,423,028 86, '.1l., 144
59,704,448 56, 629,360 103, 142,540
8, 756,849 7,461,570 11,842,549

399,072,754 534, 482,172 2"', ~12,672


5,, '1.3.;, 032










CHINA. 5


nation and the number of American firms each increased by about 1.5
per cent. There was a total increase of over 3,200 in foreign popu-
lation and a decrease of 11 foreign firms.
The following table shows the foreign population alnd the fot'rigan
firms in China, by nationalities, in 1915 and 1916:


Nationalit ies.


American................. ....................................
Austrian................. .....................................
Belgian ....................... ........................... ...
British..........................................
Danish.......................... ............................
Dutch ........................................
French................. ...... ........... ....................
erm an.............................................. ..........
Hungarian....................................................
Italian........................................................
Japanese ................. ....................................
Norwegian...................................................
Portuguese................................................
Russian.................. .....................................
Spanish ......................................................
Swedish..................................... ..................
Nontreaty powers............................................


1915

4,716
241
172
,641
352
253
I, 649
3.740
109
101,589
259
:3,300
>,210
30S
181
143


Total ................................................. 182, 04


OnU. Firmn.

1916 1913 19

.',5.80 157
296 18
286 11
*I. U9 -.99
T37 15
277 20,
2,374 102
3,7u2 244
34 2
400 .31
104,275 2,189
329 9
2,293 .37
.5,.213 1,25.5
366 25
121 3
157 1
1S5,613 4,735


Further Decline in Shipping.
The shortage of tonnage that was felt in 1915 was still more .ev\ere
during 1916. Freights in all directions were very high, the minimum
rise in rates to Europe being 25 per cent. The withdrawal of a large
number of smaller-type coasting ships by the British Government
caused a shortage of such craft in Far Eastern waters, which resulted
in offerings of increased prices by the trade for coastal shipments of
cargo. This had the effect of attracting to the China coast a con-
siderable number of Japanese ships. As compared with 1915, there
was a total falling off in foreign shipping of 1,881,004 tons. British
shipping was less by 1,835,000 tons and Russian shipping by 377,000
tons. The American flag showed a small loss, while Japan increased
its shipping by 360,000 tons.
The following table shows the nationality, number, and tonnage of
foreign vessels entered and cleared at China's ports during 1914,
1915, and 1916:


1914

Number. Tonnage.
. _


American ......................... 13:1
Austrian. ........................... 51
British.............................. 32,951
Danish...................... 100
Dutch..................... ........ 276
French................................. 520
German............................ .1,906
Italian............................. .........
Japanese........................... 22,407
Norwegian......................... 692
Portuguese......................... 1,748
Russian ........................... 4,035
Swedish........................... 15
Other nationalities..........................
Total......................... 69,834


1,047,422
174;233
34,266,765
139,326
398,271
898,644
4,026,493
23.996,972
771,235
311,696
1, 954,925
40,985


1915.


Number.

3,148
3:1,339
82
287
537
979
20,141
726
794
4,873
26


71,027,167 61,'22


Tonnage.


1916.


Number. Tonnage.
I


501,411 3,062 799,913
..... ....... .......... ....... ..
37,675, 657 34, 132 35,840,573
115,628 115 206,7.11
196,661 233 463,995
561,955 409 A36,237
.5S,263 1,151 66,532
.. .. ...... 57 979
231,873.016 21,598 24, 33, 835
771,873 472 636, 217
152,021 440 129,478
1,922,055 3,790 1,345,08.
6Q, 450 34 101948
....... 2 1,466
66,50 3,996 65,515 64,622,992


17
Is

1,41
I;
2'I
116
241
2
41
1, '35
7
.17
1,422
26
1

4,721


Nationalist es.


~


j








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


China's Railways in 1916.
Lack of money frmiin the several powers whose nationals hold rail-
way Cii ,j'esin.s in China plrevCented all but a few extensions of lines
operating or under conI.t auctionn and, for the .-.anl rea.,sn, little new
work was iUndleritaken. The se'tion of the Hankow-Caiton line be- *
tween Wi\\ch'lai and Changh:ia;i \\sj open (in part at least) at the
close of the year and was expected to reach Changsha by the autumn
of 1917. By the openingllr of the Lun-hai line froil Chang clhow, in
HIItoi;ii. to H-iicliowfu, in Ki:nlLg-lu, a connection has heenl made be-
tween the Peking-Tn I kw and the Tientkin-Pukow Railway The
schedule is -.iich that Kaifeng, the capital of Honan, is now within 24
hours of Sh:niuih:ii. and it is possible to go by rail, although in a rather
rollundlabout way, from Sl:hanghi;i to Hankow.
In Manchuria one of the five lines granted to the Japanese is now
under c( n.-( ruction. This is the Chengelhiat iing-Shihpingkrii (Japan-
ese Ssupingkai) line of 52 miles, which will be a valuable feeder to the
South Manchuria Railway. The director general is Chinese; the
chief engineer and the auditor are both Japanese.
The only important event in Chiin's railway history for 1916 was
the cutllr lce of Ameriiran capital into the field in the Siems-Carey
Railway and Canal Co. The company has been allotted 1,100 miles of
lines in various Provinces and, while most of the first allotment proved
undesirable, other lines have L.eeC substituted under the contract of the
company with the Chinese Government, and several surveying parties
are in the field. Aside from the activity of this company and a short
branch line connecting the Shanghai-Nanking and Shanghai-Hang-
chow lines China's railway building has been marking time, although
many improvements have been made and some increases in revenue
obtained on the older lines. Regarding the outlook when the world's
money centers shall have been relieved of war expendit res, an expert
on railways in China has stated that in his opinion no new ventures
will be undertaken, as some 3,000 miles are awaiting construction
under concessions previously granted. These. he asserts, will ablsorh
all the funds that can be spared for railway building in China.
Piece-Goods Trade.
China's most important trade with foreign countries is in piece
g(,,ods. The trade declined in 1915, owing largely to the increased
done etic production, and there was a further decline in 1916 in silver
values, amounting to more than 12,000,000 haikwan taels; but, owing
to the high rate of silver exchange, the value of the imports in 1916, ex-
pressed in United States currency, exceeded the imports of the pre-
vi tous 3y.r by 2-14,000,000. Consildering quantities rather than values,
a -.rioiis falling off is shown in American and British piece goods.
Japanese shirt in-, jeans, and T cloths increased considerably; but
Japanese a-eet wings and drills appear to have felt the competition of
Chi.nee mills. The trade in plain cotton prints, turkey reds, vel-
veltee1s, and handkerchiefs increased.
There w.-s a big decrease in imports of yarn, and it is reasonable
to assume tlhat a (continued development of the spinning and weaving
indli-hi \ in China and grc-atr- production of the finer count, of yarn
may eventually lead to an export trade from China. As China's
cotton is of short staple and not -uitable for finer counts than
twenties. a development such ;ti indicated would mean the increa-ed










CHINA.


importation of American and Indian cotton unless tie qua;tity of
the native crop can be greatly improved.
Statistics of Piece-Goods Imports and Stocks on Hand.
The following table shows the imports into China of cotton n1anu-1
fractures, woolen and cotton mixtures, woolen manufactures, and
other piece goods in 1915 and 1916, the values being expressed in
both haikwan taels and American currency:


Kinds of textiles.


Cotton m anufactures..........................
Woolen and cot ton mixtures.................
Woolen man LI factors ..........................
.A 11 other........................... ............


1915 1916

Haiku:an Ilaikw.an
taels. tels.
. 130,00-1,210 136, 679,3816
459 934 723. 680
1, 72, 173 2, 293, 559
.5,460, 456 3,i 11, ;O


Iq15



'1I1,) ',2, 77
2S1.4St)
1,.157. 642
2, 117,799


S ll 211.'..S
599, 421
1,899, 7.34
3, 19?, 21


rota ...... ....................... 133152,77. 1 I113,538,9l 2i9, .I 9, S IS, 2, 'l.1' "


The following table shows the stocks of different kinds of piece
goods on hand in Shanghai on December 31, 1915, and the corre-
sponding date of 1916, and also the imports of these goods into
China in the calendar years 1915 and 1916:

Shanghai stocks on Imor
hand. Imports.


Kids of piece good'.


itray shirtings:
European........................................
Japanese ........................................ I
American .................... ................
I' cloths:
32 inches, English............................... .
36 inches, English.............................
.12 and 36 inches, Indian...........................
Japanese..........................................
Drills:
English, Indian, and Dutch.......................
American ................. ...................
Japanese ....... ..........................
Shanghai ....... ......................... .
..l'uns:
English, Indian, and Dutch.......................
American.................... ...............
Tapanese........................................
Shanghai......... .......................... ...
Sheetings:
American ............. ..........................
English and Indian ...............................
Japanese................. ........................
Shanghai ................ .......................
Bleached T cloths, 31-inch, 40-yard ....................
White shirtings:
European.......................................
Japanese........................................
Shanghai ........................ ..... .... ......
Printed cottons ..................................
Turkey reds:
25-yard .......................................
Japanese..........................................
Velvets and velveteens............................
Lenos and balzarines.................................
Spanish stripes, cotton.................................
Cotton lasting, italians, and venetians...............
Camlets, woolen.........................................
Long ells, woolen....................................
Lasting woolen and mixed..........................
pai stripes, woolen...........................
andkerchiefs.............. .........................
Cotton yarn:
Ind an ............................................
English.................................. .
Japanese........................... ..............
Shanghai.......................................


Dec. 31, Dec. 31,
1913. 1916.

Pucta. Pieces.
1,191,142 412.6333


25,500
472, 680
108, .78
11,358
5,4841
2?7, fn0O
7, 56
149,220
45, 000

423,71.3
(a)
39,030

(")
49,952
60,000
ta)
106,340

1,002,004
22,000

101,102
179,346
3,500
24,864
5, 635
265
1073, 711
1,390
1,205
2.980
744
Pounds.
23, 858, 267
400
10, 222, 133
2.939, 87


5, 670
I, 580

3, 390
10,935


2, .10
60
1,880
13,230

87, 453
(a)
3,960
2,040

(a)
13,668
1,000
35,380
119, .537


1915

Pieces.
2,994.982
2 7, 408
10
276, 2.59
5S,357
24.968
365, 057
:16, 276
90,243
91,91,24-8

1,001,083
4,657
807,318

542, 706
46,261
2, 457, 405
214,337


I'IllJ
19111

Pitc s.
1, 621,50
6O6, 472
. S
151, 0-l
25, SO2
23, 20'
743, 501

21. 434
.5, 709
976, :0i2

177, i <
75-
,2.31, 70';
............
353, 73;
50, 76W
1,921, 1;7
..-........
'223,04-1


924,152 3}174,2 3,469,398
19,50) ............ ..........
G1, 1Si 122,67.5 113, 11l
97, 648 36,09
10,262 360,0. 43,
7,328 1,326,130 & 1.591,340
2,560 94,209 59,4.;7
216 34,060 16,997
529, 872 2. 682, 14.3 2, 499, U02
1,610 6,971 ..........
2,655 21,530 10,22.
2.980 I ', 896 11, 58A
996 70,568 b 40,4.S7
'<,62o0 '49,848 c 1,78.076
Poun ds. P.un ds. Pounds.
9,233.2010 157, 250, 400) 142, 443, 73.1
. ........... 49,333 ..........
2ri.S,000 193,712,000 180,134,1 3.1
1, 234, 800 1. ..... ..........


a Not given. b YarvI5. Dozen3.


a Not given.


b Yards.


SIliozecl.








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Cotton Crop-Improvements in Cotton Cultivation.
The crop of cotton in 1916 was good, and Chinese cotion was the
cheapest in the world. Exports increased to 113,471,600 pounds, a
gain of 16,677,000 pounds, due primarily to the larger crop and to
the low opening pric-e compl;red with prices in India, which resulted
in the pla.ingl of heavy orders with China by Japalnese spinners.
Large as were the exports, they amounted to not much more than
10 per clcnt of the total crop of China, as e(ntiInated by foreign
experts, who place it at about 2,000,000 bales of 4 piciils (.;:' pounds)
Ar:ili. or approix.imlately 1,066,600,000 pounds. This ,s-limniatl appears
to be coii.-l' ;Ili\e, in view of China's v;at population and the many
uses to which cotton is put in Clina. Cotting wadding takes the
place of wool for winter clothing and for bedding, and cotton is
IN,(ed for nmny purposes for which we-tlern countries use other
iiaterial..
Some intere ting experiments in cotton growing have been made
in Slianghiji, which have demonstrated that, by improvement, in
cultivation and by careful selection of seed from indigenous plants,
Chiinti's present inmien.-e crop can be trebled without increasing the
:crei;age under cultivation. This would mean an addition to the
national wealth of about $100,000,000 per annum, not. to mention
the inlpetus that would be given to the spinning and weaving indus-
tries and the saving that would be effected by nmanufact during at
home instead of importing from abroad.
To bring about this important result, it has been suggested that
experimental farms be established for the production and distribu-
tion of selected seeds and that the farmers be encouraged and assisted
in the adoption of a more careful system of cultivation, through
loans from agricultural banks on the security of the crops. If, in
addition, the cotton industry were relieved from taxation, there is
no reason why China should not eventually surpass India as a pro-
ducer of cotton and cotton goods.
Silk Trade.
In the Shanghai, or northern, district the raw-silk -sason covers
the period from June 1 to May 31. The present ea.-on has been dis-
appointing, owing mainly to unfavorable weather conditions and
to disease among the silkworms. The crop of wild cLoins in Man-
churia was abnormally small, and there, as elsewhere, there was a
.-,irious falling off in quality. In China there is an alinost total
absence of scientific methods in cultivating mulberry leaves and
rearing silkworms. It has been claimed that legi-lation relating to
silkworm diseases and the adoption of scientific methods would
easily result in doubling the exports of silk in a short time. In
support of this contention, there are pointed out the results obtained
in Japan by the careful furtherance of the trade through legislation
and education. In 180-1 China's exports exceeded those of Jupan
by $4,500.000. In 20 years Japan l;.- nearly quadrupled its exports,
and in 1914 they exceeded those of China in value by $47,7:.,000.
In the Canton, or southern, district the year opened w\ith an active
d'1ta:n1i from Europe and the United States, and higher prices
prevailed; but in April the trade was Ibrought to a practical stand-
still by political disturbances, and it was not until Aug iist that it








CHINA. 9

resumed its normal aspect. There \was difficulty in bringing the
silk down from the interior and in sending money to pay for it.
Increased Silk Exports to United States-Export Statistics by Countries.
In spite of the small production, the unusually poor quality of the
silk, high prices, and almost prohibitive exchange and freight rates,
exports of raw silk to the United States increased in 1916. but there
was a decided falling off in shipments to other countries.
The following table shows the exports to the most important
markets of various kinds of Chinese raw silk in 1910:

Raw.
Countries. a--- ---_ -- -- ___ -Cocoons Total.
White. Yellow. Wild.d re e.

Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. PounJd. PoundI Pound.'
British Ludia.................... 176,533 1,413,200 1,G0O 133 .4.133 l,675,5'JU
France........................... 2,418,933 511,600 30,667 4,953,533 2, 9-7, 2 10,93f6,931
Hongkong...................... 4.923,200 37,867 202,000 3,975.200 730,933 9,S71,200
Italy........................... 46,'00 22.933 1,333 4,346,400 3,261,467 7,6,;,93
Japan and Chosen.................. 23,600 ........... 1,020,933 590,267 2,2S4, GG7 3,919,467
Macao............................ 533 .......... 32, 133 ............ 32, 66,
Russia ...................... ... 171,467 78,400 22,000 .... ...... .. 271,S67
Turker, Egypt, Persia, Aden, etc. 80, 267 247,20 ........... 2,60t;,b7 40,53.3 3,011,667
United Kingdom................ 339,600 17,467 37,20 ........ 400 394, G7
United States. .... .............. 3, 19, SOO 59,46 1,143,o67 2,020,267 ..3,31 ; 914,933
All other countries .............. 16,267 2,000 ........... .. .. 4,667 22,934
Total, 116 ................ 11, 38,000 2,420, 133 2,490,9:33 18, 47,467 9,937,.333 44,733,866
Total, 191 ................. 12, 19' 93,j4 2,346,,A 0 4,5.33, '-7 15,7 ,St7 10, 2,400 45,0.37,868

Decline in Tea Trade.
The tea trade of China is not keeping pace with the world's increas-
ilg conIsumlption of tea. Effort, are being made to regain the lost
ground by the introduction of scientific cultivation and the use of
machinery. The Ministry of Agriculture :in C'omlmerce has estab-
lished a tea-planting model farm at Anhwei. and the first batch of
the :W packages of tea grown ol this farm'n was sent to the Hainkow
market during tle year. It is said to have been of good quality.
but no details are yet available of the equipment and methods em-
ployed. Foreign tea men seem to have little faith in the results of
thii. attempted reform, and consider it unlikely that Chinese teas
will ever regain the leading pla,.e in the markets of the world. It
i1 ..sid that Chinese teas hl;'ve less tannin than other te;i.-, and that
the finer grades are unsurpasued in delinca; of fla\vr, but the average
tea drinker seems to find the teas of Indiia 'ian Ceylon <.;tisf,:-t'ry..
Black Teas Lower-priced Than in 1915.
The tea trade of 1910 wa, disalppointing to the traders in black
leas. who hoped to realize the same large profits that they enjoyed
during the precedin-g year. They did not under'-.tanid, apparently,
that the great rise in the gold value of silver and the high freight
rates to Europe made buying for London absolutely out of the ques-
tion at the previous year's prices. In the hope of obtaining such
prices they competed in the tea-producing districts, witl the result
that the prices of black tea named to foreign buyers in Hanhow and
Foochow were prohibitive, and had to be red(lucel :31 per cent before
purchases could be contemplated. The Chinese tea dealers in Han-
kow are said to have lost about $1,050.000.
268360-17-2'h-- 2









10 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Trade in Green Teas.
The tr:ale in arvcin teas was more favorable to the tea men, although
supplies w (vIt about 10 per cent le*'-, than for the preceding year. The
shortlage W\Ias largely in PinILgseys and Hoochows, which comprise
;lwbot 45 per cent of the crop of green tea, and which are exported
principally to the United States. Accordingly there was a falling
off in exports of grien tv;a to Almer'i;, although more black tea was
shipped, the total exports being about the same as for the year 1915
and anmounting to 18,604,000 pouind.i4 There was a good demand for
the teas that go to olter parts of the world than the United States
(such as Foong Mrhs,. Hysons, etc., exported in large quantities to
Russian Turkestan), and prices generally yielded satisfactory re-sults
to the tea men. Growers of the leaf in the country districts had a
priifit ble ';I Ir.
Exports of Black and Green Teas by Countries of ]Destination.
The follovwiii table shows the qiii;atity of black and green teas
taken by various countries in 1915 and 1916:

Black tea. Green tea.

1915 1916 1915 1916

Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. Pounds.
Anstralia, New Zealand, etc.................... 2,045,467 319,200 533 400
British India.................................. 125,;33 111,200 2,1i. 400 1,316,133
Canad ....................................... 1, 2 1 ?0 7 SW4, (167 1, -' 600 718,933
Central and South America .................... .i, -*.7 175, 067 ..........................
Dutch East Indies............................. 290, 533 226, 2X6 267 933
France........................................ 1,'4' ,467 1,573, 867 7,.i 57. .7 2,554, 6t7
on kon ................................ .... 14,943, 67 16,495,(067 .:' I 56 5,.i7
Japan (including Chosen and Taiwan) ......... '.1. 13 117,466 507, ((06 365, i6
Macao ......................................... I I, t. .,7 587, 6(10 400 .............
.Plliliil.;ui- Islands ............................ 55, 200 45,67 133 ...........
1:i I .......... ..... .............. 53,590, 133 44,0 M2,-00 11,776, 400 17,553,600
. i. j*r. Strait.s -*. l in.I -, etc............. 844,533 751,200 7.,o(i7 42,400
Siam....... ..... ....................... 801,733 60S, )0 4,267 4,66i7
Turkey, Ecypt, etc............. .............. 3917, 47 402, 533 .',*'-, ...; 1, 40, 267
United Kimido .............................. 17, 91, 467 9,7M4,933 l. i ,.., ; 6, 18, 400
United Stales (including Jawaii)............. 6,656ii,66f 10,06il, (i7 1, 69i,600 8,542,133
All other countries ............................. 356,000 1;,0 00 116,400 106,400
Total.................................... 102,818,'-00 86,430,400 40,843,200 39, 30, 400

lar ge Increase in Exports of Eggs and Egg Products.
The value of China's exports of _si and egg products in 1916
I'aIchcd the astoni-hingi total of $10,27 9,!2:_,. which wasi nearly 100
per cent gr'-ter than the value of the exports of the previous year.
Fifty per cent more in quantity of albuLmei and yolk was shipped,
70 per cent more of fii :',ii ,*.-, and a m-ii:ll percenlt:,ag m: ore( of
fii -l and pri-irved 2-,:.-, but the high price of ,i2-. and the high
value of silver' were important factors in the in.reV;j-id gold value of
the exports.
The Chin' -c produ-i'r!-. realizing that there was a niod mark t for
their ergs, took adv:l lt:ig, of the deniwI1n by n;king more for them.
,.il,,iiiii. in July pri i.'- steadily advaicd,. and the year closed
with -g'.- at $2, \r-xican, per 1.000, equivalent to aboil $13, United
States currency, the highest figure ever raclr'hd. In former .years
the -:Lin!' grade of -,-g,- could be purchased for half the money.
Moreover, the high rate of 'x.la inge in'rea.sed the laid-down costs
in foreign count ies by 30 to 35 per cent, and exorbitant freight rates








CHINA. 11

tended to restrict exports still further. Notw\ithstanding these ad-
verse conditions, exports increased not only in value bt ;also1 in
quantity.
There was a decided falling oif in shipmlent.-, of fresh egg-. t, toth
United States, but there were large gains in frozen and preser\'ed
eggs and in egg albumen and.yolk, as is shown by thle following
values of declared exports in 1915 and 1916:

Years. Fresh eggs. Dried and Albumen. Yolk. Ital.
_. ... .. ...I |
1915.............. .............. $95,202 $10C,095 $870, 127 $475,537 $1,54-t.,J l
1916................... ......... 83,372 744,235 1,323,227 1,128,482 3.279,31C,

Instances of heavy losses have been reported in shipments of fresh
eggs to the United States, owing to the prohibition of interstate
shipments if 5 per cent of the eggs are defective. A prejudice against
eggs from China has also been created on the Pacific coast, which is
attributed to the activity of egg producers there. However, Chinese
eggs and their products seem to be in demand in other parts of the
United States, as is shown by the fact. that twice as much money was
expended for them in 1916 as in the year before.
Chinese eggs are readily distinguishable from American eggs,
even without ; label from China." by their color and small size.
At the present tine some enterprising Chinese are endeavoiring to
impl)rove conditions by introducing Leghorn hens, and they are now
able to supply, in limited quantities, eggs of th ie size nd nttractive-
ness of those offered for sale in the United States.
Hides and Skins.
The Chinese dealers in hide.,s aid .kin.s had a very prouita ile
year. but, as usual when prices aire high. they were tono anxiolu, to
realize, and in many instances goods were shipped without. having
been properly dried. At a result, considerable cargo reached its dles-
tination in a damaged condition. but, as the d1ie lers had ma le lh rIe.
profits, claims on this score were readily met.
Business with the United States, in both hilde and skin.-.. was
greatly hampered by new disinfectant regulations received from
.Washington in March to be put into operation inlnedliately. II i.-
claimed by some. prominent dealers that the strict enfonrcer'ient of
some of the regulations would preclude any shipment-, at all. a-. the
methods prescribed would result in dainagped hidele and skin-.
Cow and Buffalo Hides.
The exports of cowhides to all countries during 1'.)1 ;11 amunt.1ed to
40.000,000 pounds, of which 55 per cent, went to the United Stiates,
25 per cent to Japan, and 12 per cent to Italy. leaving ,only per
cent to all other countries. The market wa- stetldy( during thei early
part of the year. American buyers found prices ruling ratlhe.r hliglh
and held off during the summer, during which time there wa- ; fiod
demand from Japan. The Americans entered the niarkel i again in
September and competed for supplies at advancing price-. IIn N,-
vember gold-dollar prices reached the highest point on recoril. 5i per
cent higher than the opening prices in January. A -lii'ht reaction
set in before the close of the year.








SUPPI.I-ElNT TO COMMElt'E RE:POnl'.,.


)Owinir to the insufficient supply from the belligerent. i'olntries and
tllcir colonies nearly all cla-se-. of cowhides were shipped this year to
the United Sl:(tce-. Even grai.-s that could not be placed there prior
to the war funii a re:ildy sale, .American tanners apparently having
developed :-oii nlm:siil of ta lning these hides to good ad\ant:age.
There \\x;- not so large a de1mandl as formerly from the United
States for buffalo hides of the ordinary grade. but a fairly large bIusi-
1ine was dollne with Europe, which, however, was well below normal
:isi.:. The best grades of bfllfalo hides found a ready sale.
Big Demand for Goatskins.
The exports of goat-kins. from China in 1916 amounted to nearly
10,000,000 piece-s, of which 95 per cent went to the United States.
The' market opened at the high closing prices of last year and further
advancedl until the 1915-16 season closed in April. The new .-ea-son
opened in October with an extraordinary deImand, culminainaing in a
seonsational advance in price that reached its highest level toward the
end of November, when gold-dollar prices were three times as high as
the pri.i-s pirevailing during the preceding season. In Decemlberic the
demand fell off and prices weakened considerably.
The growing demand in the United States has resulted in a great
incIVa.-e; in the supply of 'a,;t-kins in China, especially in Szechwan
Proviince. which furnished 500,000 to 600,000 more skins in 1916 than
it had formerly supplied in any one year. Native buyers in the
interior offered such attractive prices during the year that the breed-
ers killed many more and younger goats than usual, which will prob-
ably result in a smaller supply and still higher prices next year.
Other Rides and Skins-Wool.
Noteworthy in China's export hide and skin biisini..-s is the quan-
tity of horse, ass, and mule hides shipped, a total of 3,4(;60,)33 pounds
having cni exported as :Ig.:iint 1,815,067 pounds in 1915. Sheep-
skins w,.r, exported in quantities nearly double those of last year
and at price--, 50 to 60 per cent higher, in sympathy with the wool
ma rket.
The total amount of shpJl,'S wool exported from China during
1916 was nearly 45,000,000 pounds, of which over 90 per cent was
shipped to the United States. There was a steady d'.i-mand througih-
out the year and gold-dollar prices closed 20 per cirlit higher than
the opening rates in January.
Iron and Steel Tiade.
The Cliiin,,. metal dealer does not he.-itate to pay high prices so
long as the market is strong and there are contlinued lprospects of
higher prices; but owing to extremely high freight rates during the
early months of 1916 (as high ashg ; a ton from New York to
Sli nglhai), the price, for n:ilerial delivered in China worked out to
such a large figure and the incr,:i.se had come so suddenly that com-
paratively little material was purchased during the early iimoths of
the yuer. During the summer freight rates declined approximately
54 per cent and although prices were still higher than in tiral
tijmeiv- there was a strong., demand for steel material. This demand
continued with iii;i ul fluctuations to the end of the year and at
inli.ir'.-iuniug prices in ,an'c1r; i e with the increase in market prices in
the United States.








CHINA.


The steel imported into China canie almost entirely from the
United States last year. The British Government placed an em-
bargo on the export of steel from Great Britain, which accounts for
the lack of steel materials from that source. It permitted, however,
exports of wrought iron, and consequently a considerable amount of
wrought-iron gas pipes and other products have reached this market
from the United Kingdom. Japanese rails and bars came in as com-
petitors of American material, but generally speaking the home de-
mands of the Japanese have prevented their making very large
strides in the exportation of steel materials.
In certain special lines, such as thin black sleets, galvanized sheets,
tin plate, and shipbuilding materials, many American manufac-
turers were compelled to withdraw from the market at intervals.
owing to the fact that the mills were filled with work for at least a
year in advance. Meanwhile other manufacturers, who still had
limited available capacity, were able to book these products at typi-
canl war prices."
The price of silver worked to the advantage of the Chlinese steel
importer last year, for his local currency on January 1, 1917. was
worth 40 per cent more than it was a year before in paying gold
drafts for goods purchased abroad. Consequently gold prices have
not appeared so high to him as they have to American manufac-
t Illers.
Effect of High Price of Steel on Railway Construction.
Railway construction on the Canton-Halnkow Rail. ay proceeded
trom Wuchang toward Changsha, but the railway wa-, compelled to
pay a much higher price for its steel rails than they were originally
'.ontracted for. This was due to the fact that no time limit had been
set, in the contract for the delivery of the rails- and the Chinese mills
that had the contracts maintained that they were too busy on high-
priced materials to roll these rails unless thle price was considerably
increased. New arrangement- were therefore mlde with them at a
higher price.
Except under old contracts such as the above and a few orders for
locomotives and goods wagonn, that were absolutely required, the
purchase of steel material- Ib th', Chilese Government h:- Ieeon very
limited.,
Kerosene Trade.
Kerosene is the most important article imported into Chi na from
the United States, but imports have steadily declined since the be-
ginning of the war, owing to the higher first cost, on account of the
increased demand elsewhere, as well as to the enormous advance in
freight rates. The two causes combined to make American kerosene
too expensive for general consumption in compari,,on witl native il-
lumuinants, such as bean oil. During 1916 American kerosene imports
fell off 20,000,000 gallons, following a decrease of 3:3,000.00c gallon-
in the previous year. However, kerosene remains the principal im-
port from America, and America is still the source of supply for
most of the kerosene used in China. Imports from the United State-,
in 1916 amounted to 108,000,000 gallons, which is nearly three time
as much as imports from all other countries combined.








SUPPJ.LMI-NT TO COMMl.ICHE REPORTS.


A further result of the high price of kerosene was the enlargement
and establishment of a considerable number of electric-glight plants
provildinlg i ser\ ice at a low rate.
Excli.nge-Exports of Silver.
During the year silver and eastern exchange-, reached levels un-
heard of since the ,lin-iln of the Indian mints to the free coinage of
silver in l'. This resulted in active speculation in gold to the em-
barrin;i,-iieti of hlgilimtte trade. The desvire to ,periilate while ex-
('changel was high was general on the part of the Chinete and was
stimulated by political unrest. Great quantities of silver were sent
from the Provinces to Shliznghai, and the exclhange banks, to cover
the ptr,'li:i-,s of gold, exported sy3ce (silver bars) and dollars in
lar!' quantities. Forei.gn.rs also remitted freely for inve.-tmelnt in
war loans and subscriptions to war fund-. The result was a scarcity
of silver that was felt throughout China. All silver securities fell in
value. Everywhere money was tight and a deficiency of subsidiary
silver coins xfas comlpl;inl,'l of, as well as of copper coins, which
wst,' melted down in large q(Iuantities for export in the form of cop-
per ingots.
During the year exports of silver amounted to about 57,500,000
ounces, while the imports from all niilres were only about 19,000,000
ounces. In addition, about 9,000,000 ounces were exported to India
from Hoingkonii in the form of dollars and subsidiary coin. The
amount of silver left in China must therefore be barely sufficient for
trade requirements and it would appear inevitable that Cllina Imuust
:1L;;,i be a competitor in the silver markil.
Notes on Imports and Exports.
Electrical materials and machinery are wanted in China in incr-.eas-
ing quantities ev y yv;r. as are also photo(gr:iphic mat.ri:ils, print-
ing and litbhograplhin(Yg materials, railway materials, safe-, soaps, mo-
tor cars and cy'.1, and wine and spirits. Among sundry articles im-
ported in a11-2-' quantitieS in 1916) may be mentioned 'i,:liettes, win-
dow gl.I.:-, hosiery, paper, s 12:11', lumber (softwood), and tbl;:cro.
Somewhat -iirpl i-ing .i-. the increase in tea imports, amounting to
6,(600,00 pounds, valued at .<'.700.000. This came chiefly from India
and was imported largely to blend witli Cliriit teas. Loitinl~livc s and
tenders valued at $11.750,942 were imported by the Chinese Eastern
Railway at Sinfeniho, under Governmlnent certificate.
Exports of bean oil increased by 71,000.000 pounds and in value
$5.'228,000. The price rose 50 per cent owing to the heavy .\nt iat
a~,l European demand and to its use in China as a substitute for
kern-, *i' on account of the high cost of the .liiir. Bristles, exported
chiefly from Sli;i;ilih:.i and Canton, went in hlai. quantities to the
iUnited States, EI'r1:lii iil, Japan, and France, and the quantity in-
(reased by ,3G.800 pounds. Hemp and ramie fiber inl'TreCied 50 per
cent in total (jiqantity, the value of the exports of the-oe two pr.Idu'ts
reaching .-:.744. Tlie United Statel, took inll'eas.ed quantities.
The exports of peanuts it'iirt:-i-'l' by ',2.2 tons and in value $.,..-l>;4.
Shelled peanuts ire ,idually taking the place of IunihellCd iones on
account of the saviil in freight.
Antimony regulus irr'i.':i-ed only -o0! t, ns but gained in value
;'.!.:;000. while six times ;i, much :uirti iony ore wa, e-,nt away as








CHINA. 15

in 1915. Wood oil was in much greater demand, principally by
the United States, and exports increased in quantity 27,310,000
pounds, and in value $2,721,554. Sesame seed showed a heavy fall-
ing off, from 153,214 tons to 103,873 tons, due largely to the curtail-
ment of exports to the Netherlands. Furs, dressed and undressed,
particularly of the fox, marmot, raccoon, and weasel, were exported
in large numbers. The total value of the exports of these four
varieties amounted to $437.731, as compared with $116,290 in 1915.
Shanghai the Center of Foreign Trade.
Shanghai handled 42 per cent of the total foreign trade of the
country in 1916, and the United States, for the first time, led all
countries in both its import and export trade with Shanghai. The
increase in the foreign trade of the port amounted to $104,000.000
and the total reached record figures. Of this increase, $50,000,000
was in imports and $54,000,000 in exports.
Several prominent American houses opened offices in Shanghai
during the year. Americn an manufacturers, in large numbers, have
sought and made connections with American firms established in
Shanghai; some have made careful investigation of conditions
through personal representatives. The reestablishment of the Pacific
Mail Steamship Co.'s service was a pleasing feature of the year to
American business men. Shortage of American bottoms is an ob-
stacle to the proper development of America's trade with China.
Decline in Importance of Amoy.
For a long term of years Amoy was prominent in the trade of
China as a tea port. The trade gradually declined, however, as teas
of better grade entered the market, and the last shipment of Amoy
tea to the United States was made in 1809. The tea merchants of
Amoy, marking the decline in the market for Amoy teas, turned
their attention to the exportation of Formosan teas and Amoy con-
tinued as a flourishing tea port for a number of years. The foreign-
firms had their tasters in Taiwan but the tea was warehoused in
Amoy and shipped from that port. Gradually, however, under the
Japanese administration of Taiwan, the market moved its center
to Keelung and the trade was entirely lost by Amoy, which has
lapsed into a position of small importance in the trade of China.
The Amoy district is not large, but it offers possibilities for more
American goods than are at present imported. Hardware, canned
goods, condensed milk, drugs, paints, varnish, cotton goods, and
other manufactures could find a market there if properly handled
by visiting salesmen, but the trade does not justify the establishment
of branch houses or agencies.
Trade Conditions at Foochow.
The trade of Foochow continued to suffer in 1916 as a result of
the war and political and financial troubles in that and the neighbor-
ing Provinces. The native business uf the port was also adversely
affected by the serious losses suffered during the year by fire. Up-
ward of $5,000,000 worth of property was destroyed in the 25 fires
that occurred. Conditions at many interior points, making ship-
ments of stock unsafe, and a long drought resulting in poor harvests,
also proved detrimental to trade.








SU IlPP'lLEMEN TO CO .\1I l:Ct:1; REPORTS.


The ytear saw the completion of about 8 iil-, of well-colnsru1.ed
imacadain r ;:d, resulting in the introduction, in less than a year, of
>83 rickshawis, !0 bicycles, and 48 cal riage-.. Previous to the con-
struction of this short stretch of road there wias not a single it k-
-1iaw. bicycle, or carri:ig, in the district, the complete al,-ciice of
roads preventing their use.
Tea is the great staple of this port. The total amount of tea
sliipped from this district in 1916 was more than 40,000,000 pon111tis.
~of which 3.823.000 poilmls wenii to the United States. T'he tea trade
with Europe and the United Slates is controlled by eight local
British firms.
An iri' -.11 manufactured goods are said to be in high favor in this
district. Under present trade conditions it would s-eeI lihat the
promotion of American trade in this and other lo.a;lities in South
lChilal could best be accomplished by periodical visits of n-presenta-
tives of Ainri'-rai firms established in Shanghai or in llongkong.
Hindrances to Trade in Canton-Trade Conditions-American Prospects.
In Canton and other southern ports trade was serioii-ly hampered
b!y political disturbances ending in revolution, the -'a reity of silver
and subsidiary coin, the violent fluctuations in Chinese exchange, the
dearth of ton:age, and high freight rates. Political conditions inter-
fered with the suppr-,.-ion of opilum smuggling.
Inrc:-.c.1 imports of Japanie-e goods and a growing demand for
Chinese industrial products were in evidence everywhere. C(ol ton
singlets, drawers, and hosiery manufactured in Canton are firmly
established in the public favor. The production of various ores
is increasing in this district, but there is some difficulty in disposiin
,of them to Europe and the United States becau--.: smelters will pay
onlyl on thle result of tlhe outturn. GCuaranties of percentt:; -. b-,.-
upon Chinese analyses, are sometimes found to be unsatisfactory.
.lal,:pnese slmelters, however, buy the ores freely even without a
,iranty. The miningl idltistiry is in great need. of development.
Thle lack of American trading firms and adequate shipping and
askingg facilities constitutes tlie chief obstacle to Amlerican trade in
Sttt China. 1Under present conditions American exporters are
compIelled to lok to their natural competitors to transport their
god, o sell iAnd distribute them. and even to finance their ship-
inenl.-. Reliable Anmerican firms, if established in (anton. should be
bile to develop a stable and profitable business in some of the many
lines of supply indispensable to the people of Chinal and could albo
'21,a1,&' protIitablyl in thl exportlation of (hinese products.
TI i'-. of Ch i r -jsha-Demand for Dyes and Marine Motors.
C lmangsha Is dependent upon the L.i ,g' ports of Shanghai and
IIankow for its imports of foreign i nr'lriiidise. To those ports
Chinese merchants in Cli ,'-l.. are in the habit of going to replenish
their stocks. It is impossible to tell how much of tli -, imports come
fromt the United States. but it is known that large purclia-i-t of min-
ing lnachinery wi\ere ivmide dulr-ing the year front Anwli 8lii manu-
faicturers and that ( 'ons-idr'ab le qantity of Ameri.' in window glass
(101-ie ill.
De (larc(l exports to the lU united States \, \ valued at $2,805,778,
con-i-ting prinwipally- of ,atimiony reg iilus. the value of this product








CHINA.


exported showing an increase over that of the previous year in spite
of the drop in price from 45 cents a pound to 12 cents a pound that
took place in April. A tungsten mining company was organized and
three shipments of tungsten ore were made to the United States
during the year. While the present output of the mine belonging to
this new company is small, the prospects are bright, as the ore is
said to average 60 per cent of tungsten content and the absence of
tin and copper makes it easy to work.
The disappearance of aniline dyes and artificial indigo from the
customs returns of this port suggests the opportunity awaiting the
foreign manufacturer who can supply dyestutfs at prices competitive
with those of German manufacture, which formerly monopolized the
market.
There is an increasing demand in this district for small kerosene
marine motors. Probably 95 per cent of the area of the Province is
accessible to boats by reason of the numerous waterways. Such a
condition affords an excellent opportunity for the sale of cheap,
durable, simply constructed marine motors that could be installed in
Chinese junks.
Trade Conditions at Chungking-Hankow.
Trade on the upper Yangtse was seriously hampered during most
of the year by political disturbances and by the withdrawal of vessels
for use in the transportation of troops. The rice and wheat crops
were good and trade should have been flourishing. Money, however,
was tight and exchange on Shanghai was against Chungking. The
bankers had a prosperous year. In fact the banking business was so
profitable that 10 new banks were started in Chungking during the
year.
The native population of Chungking is estimated at about 460,000
and the foreign residents number about 210. The population of the
Province of Szechwan probably exceeds 70,000,000. The United
States is already a large buyer of Szechwan products but, except in
specialized lines, contributes very little to the imports into that
Province. The only American firms represented in Chungking are
the Standard Oil Co. of New York and the Singer Sewing Machine
Co. Most of the foreign trade of this Province is handled at Shang-
hai and Hankow.
A branch of an American firm, established at Shanghai or -Han-
kow, could, it is believed, build up a growing business in both exports
and imports by opening a branch office at Chuingking. The most
important exports would consist of hides, skins, wool, bristles, and
medicines; while imports would include principally hardware, ma.-
chinery, and electrical equipment and supplies.
Hankow's foreign commerce improved by $13,000,000, and the
improvement was chiefly in the import trade. Declared exports to
the United States advanced by over $6,000,000. Cowhides and wood
oil account for over $8,700,000 of the total. The latter comes down
from Szechwan to be packed for export.
Japanese Predominance in Trade of Antung.
Antung is chiefly important as the point through which all rail
shipments pass between Manchuria and Japan via Chosen, and as
the center of an extensive production of silk cocoons from which


I








Si l''l.l..\Il Nr TO CO.MM1.:L'I,' REPouIS.


pongee fabrics are woven. and of a large trade in soya beans and
t imber.
The abnorinall high value of silver in 1916, in exchanlige for gold,
stimulated the importation of gomls from gold--ta;nd:i rd countries.
The advantage, however, a' Terne almhnost exclusively to Japa lese im-
ports. since high ocean freiigt rate- from other countries co('IIter-
acted the favorable ex\chli:iji'e to a great extent, whereas practically
all Japaniese 'goos entering soutilhea'ten Maalnchuria arrived by rail.
,Japanese manufactliirers were also favored 1bei aIe they had direct
ivrepre.,I station, quoted prices deli ered at Antung, gave admillate
credit, and ,oiild ,:guarantee prompt shipments; w0here;as tlhei Amer-
ican and European rivals were not directly represented, would quote
(nly f. o. ). a foreign port. gave no credit, and cou-ld not deliver
l'promptly.
underr existing conditions there is little p(,ssibility of Americani
manufac(lurers capturing or holding any appreciable share of the
trade of this district except in lines in which Japane.se manufacturer-
do not compete. American keroeiine has held its own, although Japa-
nese kerosene, which made its appearance in this market in 1915,
increased its sales to an estimated 10 per cent of the total. Its price.
is exceedingly low as compared with even the cheapest grades of
American or Sumlatra oil, but it is of inferior illuminating power and
its 1ise is said to be dangerous. Its use is practically confined to the
coolie cla:-, which ldeiminds a cheap illimiinint regardless of quality.
Cotton piece goods and flour have, with kerosene, heretofore con-
stituted the principal American imports into this district. America i
piece goods commandedl the market a few years ago, but their im-
portance has so decreased that during the year 1916 they constituted
only a negligible percentage of the imports, while imports of Amer-
ican flour have also practically ceased, owing to the war and to the
ieir:ttly increased Manchurian production.
The autumn crop of cocoons was a partial failure, which. c(ouple(l
with a strong (dcll:iiid, raised prices to record heights. There w;is a
brumper bean crop. The demand for Yalu timber in North and Cen-
tral China ports i:;i- strong throughout the year.
Increase in Dairen's Exports to United States-General Conditions.
The declared exports from Dairen to the UniTd States in 1916
showed a gain of 55G per cent as compare.1 with 1915, and coili ,tel
chiefly of soya-bean oil and kaoliang. The American demand for
sova-bein oil, though it is a competitor of cotton-rced oil, is steadily
in,'-i.';i'. During 1916 direct shipments wer made from Dairen
to Seattle, and steamers were chartered to take oil to the same pl:ii.
during the early part of 1917.
'There is a growing tendency in this district to patronize Japan's
hoeii industries. This applies particularly to the Sii l, Manchuria
Railway. which is the lalrg'.-t buyer in Manchuria, as instance in its
buying Japanese lubricating oil for the first time. This experiment
ij said to have resulted in the -,ldiii' of 700 freight cars to the
shops for repairs at tlih height of the bean season. The supeli'rity
of the American oil ltsed before was thus strilkigly demonstrated,
1,ut it is doubtful whether the company will return to its l.-c. In-
stead. the Japanese suppliers were invited to come over and inve\-ti-








CHINA.


gate with a view to providing a product better adapted to meet the
conditions.
It is difficult to find foreign firms in Dairen in a position to take
over new agencies, and this condition operates against the possible
extension of American trade with this district. Indeed, the number
of foreign firms is decreasing; one large British firm closed its office
during 1916.
Chefoo's Chief Exports Pongees, Straw Braid, and Hair Nets.
The United States is interested in Chefoo principally as the
center of production of Chinese pongee silks, straw braid, and
human-hair nets. A serious feature of the year with relation to
Chefoo's trade with the United States was the falling off in the
imports of silk cocoons from Manchuria. In 1915 more than
23,000.000 pounds were imported, whereas in 1916 the imports
amounted to only a trifle more than 10,000,000 pounds. With the
increasing demand from the United States and the depletion of
stocks, the shortage of cocoons has caused an advance of as much
as 30 per cent in the price of some grades of pongees, and there
seems to be no prospect of improvement during 1917. The shortage
of cocoons is attributed principally to disease among the silkworms,
though the establishment of silk filatures in South Manchuria and
the holding of stocks for advanced prices by Japanese speculators
may have had something to do with it. The pongees of Shantung
Province are handmade, and the Japanese machine-made product
can not compare with them in either appearance or wearing quali-
ties.
Declared exports of human-hair nets from Chefoo to the United
States increased in value from $19,321 to $143,290; and of straw
braid from $179,660 to $385,142. These figures do not, however, rep-
resent the values of these products actually imported into the United
States and originating in Chefoo, because large quantities of both are
shipped to Shanghai firms, who do the actual exporting to the United
States.
Changes in Tsingtau's Trade.
The year 1916 was the second year of the Japanese Military Ad-
ministration of the Leased Territory of Kiaochow. The trade of the
port is rapidly being restored to pre-war figures, but the effect of the
Japanese administration (and of the war) is clearly shown by the
reapportionment of the shipping of the port and by the comparative
increase of imports from and exports to Japan.
In 1913, the last year before the war deranged the trade of Tsing-
tau, German shipping at Tsingtau amounted to 44 per cent of the
total, British 31 per cent, and Japanese 17 per cent. In 1916 German
shipping had disappeared, British was reduced to 11 per cent, and
Japanese amounted to 84 per cent of the total. Similarly Japan
leads in the direct trade between Tsingtau and foreign ports, with
78 per cent of the imports, 95 per cent of the exports, and 86 per cent
of the entire trade (by values). These percentages do not indicate
that Japan is the original source of supply of most of the imports,
or the ultimate destination of exports; but they are of interest as
showing that so far as trade routes are concerned Tsingtau is served
almost entirely through Japanese ports.








.-1 I''LEi31ENT Ii ( ti .\..1J.IUE REPORTS.


Ex(orts of l peanut oil \were almost double those of 1913. Tsingtau
peanut oil is b)ioiiing \ well known in American markets. Exports
of' wheat, salt, leaf tobacco, and wool were also much in excess of
pre-war aliirci, and castor oil, not listed at all in 1913, was exported
to the cxt:.nt of 1,000,000 pounds. On the other hand. exports of
cattle, meal. peanuts. and straw braid, in which Tsingtau led all
(Chinese plrts in 1913, were still far behind nor1mial figures, but the
insist ni,,.ible gains were in liel:i and shelled peanuts. Straw-braid
exports amouintid to over 2,000.000 pounds, but this w a- less than
20 pe r cent of the exports in 1913, which comprised 85 per cent of
(Ciiia;'s exports of straw braid in that year.
Satisfactory Trade Conditions at Tientsin.
Statistics show that Tientsin'ts trade in 191(; was well maintained
in spite of the many difliht -iie, with which merchants throughout
(Cliia had to ,(iiitn,. Import figures showed an inD'ea e. Direct
deliveries from foreign countries wvere, however, not largely ivre'ived,
; merchants contented themselves by buying small lots from Shang-
hai and other southern ports wlherever g,,od terms were obtainable.
The imports of cotton piece goods were, on the whole, not much be-
low normal in spite of the sudden rise in prices in the summer when
it became nown that te klon t American cotton crop was short. A large
business was done in overco;:ii g cloth, as the natives show a tendefiik
to use the foreign-style over. oat. which they wear over their native
dress. Iron and steel manufactures fell off' considerable owin'_ to
the high cost and the continued demand abro:ul, a"nd shipments were
often delayed. lMany items were practically unobtainable.
The export trade was go1(o during the year. Tle demand brought
about Iby the war has caused a continual demand for cotton, wool. and
hides, and the trade in these items was very bri:k. It is anticipated
that the demand for this class of raw materials will continue for a
long time to come and that Tientsin will be unable to satisfy even a
1'. 1't of the demand.
The winter of 1915- 1i was milder than usual. and for the first time
ill the history of tlie port tlhe River lHaiho was kept open by ice
breakers. Steamer service was maintained by the shipping com-
paitie and much business was done during the season when. ini or-
dinary years. the port has been practically closed except for a reduced
amount tt of trade carried by rail via C(hinwangtao.
A flour mill was established by (hinese and Japanese capitalists
and the product of this mill will collimpete with the Shanghai i flour
\hic(h -irs been imported into Tientsin. The new mill draws its
wheat .-"Ui)ply from the northern part, of Shantung, where it is said
to l)e of particularly good grade. lThe flour is expected to compete
fa voiabl) with the Shanghai product.
The textile industry lias made .grt.t pi)'"g're'ss in this district: not
only native cloths but piece go(,l- in imitation of foreign shirting.s..
ilc(t ltiig-. drills, and other kinds of cloth are being succ('--fui ly
turned out.
During the year the coal output of the minei- of the Kailan Miniig
A.\(linlistration :amounted to _2.800,000 tons, or o\ ti 100,000 tons less
tlan 1915. The sales reached 2.(i5000 ton-. The Fuchung Cor-
poIr.tion doubled its 191.) outlipit.










CHINA.


Origin of China's Imports and Destination of Exports.

As statistical data indicating the origin and destination of articles
entering into China's trade are not available for 1916. the following
summary has been prepared from the Chinese customs returns cover-
ing imports and exports of the previous year:

Articles. Amount. Per cent credited to-


l.PORTS.
Cotton..........-.. lue..
Cotton yam ......... alue ....
Wtons...
Iron and mild steel bars v"au..
Iron nails and rivets.... tvoue...
galuelons..
Kerosene............. llons..
[poalue...
Leather.............. lu
Svalue....
Lmber (softwood.).. ..
m O m.............. value..
SPlace goods, cotton:
Drills............. ae..
Jeans..............iee..
pIvalue..
Sheetings, gray.... ples.:
Shirtings, white... Jlues..
Ipieees..
Shirtings, gray.... tvalue..
Railway carriages, wagons. lo-
comotives and tenders, in-
cluding tramcars...... value.
Railway materials, includmg
sleepers ............. valtie.
TbnhPpn pounds..
Tobacco............. lvapue....

EXPORTS.


Jtons...
Anfcmrony regl .....\alue..
Beau ake............. value.

Beat ............. tons...
ivalue..

coal................... v e.
Cotton...............vaue....
Egg albumen endlpounds..
yolk. jvalue....
Hides, cow and buf- pounds.
falo. lvalue....
Silk, raw:
Rereeled ......... value...
Reredeld fpounds..
Filatures........ oue..

Silk pongees......... olue
-- -numbe
Skins, goat untannt- valu r .
Tea:
Black. ........ pounds..
.......... value....
Green .......... ovu....


49,544, 000
94.207.140
358.613, 67
$41,140.881
22,080
5875,129
15,244
3827,459
IS5.15.5, 546
$17,164. S4
12.382,676
53.418.629
89.024, 03
1.5 37.423
614,627
515,694,020
1,759.399
54.015,573
1,8106,008
S3,787, 120
3,053.837
55.812.936
3.417. 53
S8,.857.164
3.313,908
$6,441.637
$1,637,545

52,112. 160
10.411,6600
5934,290


23,931
$2,856,101
792,922
$12.672, 13
782,699
$12,373,975
1,31.5i,542
33,717,696
9t6,794,000
58,384,7904
25,4628.267
52, 77, 334
58,319,333
510.292.427
3.32C.,667
.$S, 16, 414
7,96S.2G7
524. 595,727
303.467
$5,328,747
7,306,984
52,459,015
102, 818. 00
S16,889.236
40, 43.200
9, 333,446


SIndia, 70; United States, 19; Japan, 8; others. 3.
}Japan 51: Honongong. 25: India, 22; others, 2.
iUnited States, .50; Hougkong. 14; United Kingdom. 12;
Japan, 11: Russia. 7. Philippine-. 3: others. 3.
\United States, 57: Hongkong. If, Japan. It. United King-
dom. 6: Canada, 3: others. 4.
i fu, iav i-Ki. ; trs _in ei e.


Suited Stl'U ates, 53; llHongkong. 2.3; Straits Settlements, etc.,
9, Dutch East Indies. 8; Japan. 5: others. 2.
Hongkong, 90; Japan, s: United States, li; others, I.
Japan, 46. United States, 40: Canada. 4: Russia, 3; Hone-
kong, 2: others. 5.
India, 53; Bongkong, 4-: Japan, Singapore, and Macao, 3

Japan. 90; United States, 6: Hongkong, 2: others, 2.
United Kingdom, 54; Japan. 42; Hongkong, 2: others, 2.
Japan, 741; United Stales, 21); LUnild Kingdom. 2; others,

JnJited Kingdom. 71; Hongkoug. 21; Japan, 3; others, 2.
}'Jilcd Kingdom, 76; Hongkong, 12: Japan, 9; others, 3.
Russia, 65: United States, 15; United Kingdom. 14; Japan,
5. others, 1.
Japan, 48; United States, 12; United Kingdom, 30; Russia,
6M; others, 31.
Bongtong. 40; United States. 30: Russia, 16: Japan, 9;
ot hers, 5.


Japan, 45; United States, 30, Ru.ssia, 12: Canada, 64;
Hongkong, 3N; United Kingdom. 2.; others, i.
,Japan, 91; Russia, :S others, 1.
(Russia, 51: Japan, 23; Dutch Fast Indies, 7; Hongkong,
6: L united Kingdom. -1, Turley, tcr., 2;: ingapore,
traits Settlements, etc., 24; others, 3*.
Japan, 63; Hongkong, 19; bmgapore. ttrails Settlements,
etc., 9j: Philippines. 4; Dutch Last Lndies, 2; others, 2).
Japan, 80; United States. 15; United Kingdom, 3; others 2.
IJnited Kingdom,56; United States,30: France,8); Nether-
f lands, 4: others, 1L.
.Jnited btares, 36; Italy, 19; Japan, 19; Hongkong. 13;
If race. 5; United Kuigdom. 4; others, 4.


UUnited States, 45; France, 19; United Kingdom, 6; Japan,
f 4.; Hongkong, 23: others, 1.
,Honglong, 42; France, 20; United States, 26; others, 3.
Hongkong, 324; United Kingdom. 2G; United States. 15;
India, 10; France. 4t: Canada. 21; Turkey, Egypt, etc.,
24; Australia, 2,; others, 44.
United States, 75; Japan, 16; France, 7; others, 2.

iRussia. 5.; United Kingdoni, 16; Iongkong, 11i: United
States, 7; Australia, 2; France. 14: others, 5.
United States, 30: itussia. 28; France, 19; Turkey, Egy3pt,
Aden, etc., 8, India, 7; United Kingdom, 34; Canada, 3;
others, 14.











'22 I'l1' I.:11:.\ r TO COMMI-.HCE REPORTS.


Principal Impoi ts into China.

The following table, cin pilcd froli the Maritie Cu:tituls rcorUd-,
-ho\w the qualtily and net value of the principal imports into China
luring 1915 and 1910:


Quai
Articles.
1915


Arms and ammunll ition........................................
utomobiles................................. ..... ...
nre ........................number.. 47.877,344
li Li' i",- i .". ........ ...... ........... tons.. 90,692
I I .. ............................... ...........
I: 1i i i.IcI ghee) ...................pounds.. ,. 3
* i, I l ... .................................. ...........
Canvas and cotton duck ..................yards.. 2,124,956
chemical products (except iiiled i.-. match-
,i .ikine u]|.lll r:il-, .1... l uda) ..................... ............
CrlliL i\ I .i l 1 lh,'i .*n l'. .................... .. ..........
I l,,ck' and watches......................number.. 338,270
CIhl hinlL. hals, gloves, etc. (except hosiery, shoes,
and haberdashery)............................... ...
(oal.........................................tons. 1,400,382
Confectionery (except chocolate)............... ..........
Cordage................................pounds.. 3, S9s, 0(0

Bars, rods, sheets, plates, and wire....... tons.. 448
Ingots and slabs ............. .....do.... '. I1
Cotton i .,l ..'-
Blankets..........................number.. 375,699
Cambrics, lawns, and i ii i- n- ..........pieces.. 472,322
Drills...................................do.... 1,717,767
Flannelettes .......................... do... 625,146
Handkerchiefs....................... dozens.. 849,848
Italians, venetians and l.i.~n;I-, plain fast
black.............................. pieces.. 1,219,385
Italians anid nrcIi.In-. I'1..red...........do... 724,898
Italians, 'n i,- 111- |..i li.- and l.1,-ilg fig-
ured................................. pieces.. 737,865
Teans.................................. do... 1,813,058
Prinls, plain............................do.... 422,675
-tli. i. ..............................do.... 3,046,372
lu rin,' ................. ........... do... 6,496,515
liro.l ... ................................... .............
low.el ................. ............. dozens.. 1,526,398
T cloths...............................pieces.. 1,138,978
Velvets and velveteens ...............yards.. 1,326,130
Yan ................................ pounds.. 358,070,400
,tcl riw. ..............................do. 47,709,467
I, .*. I -.lor -, :Iud paints:
la' in anrd paint ............................ .............
All other..... .......................................
Electrical materials and lilngs.................... .............
Enameled ware................................... ...........
Fish and fishery products................... .............
Flour...................... ......... pounds.. 21,103,067
Fruits, dried............ .....................................
Furniture, and materials for........................ .............
Gasoline, benzine, etc....................gallons.. 693,129
i incn, ....... ........................pounds.. 550,537
'.l. a llI LU .l % jre-
\\ in l .................................boxes.. 102,.'i17
All other....................................................
liaberdashery...................................................
Hemp.....................................tons.. 1,079
Hosiery.................................dozen.. 1,367,110
Instruments, musical............................ ...........
Iron and steel, and manufactures of:
Bars....................... ............ tons.. 12,441
Cobbles and wire shorts .................tons.. 7, 876
Hoops..............................do.... 3,446
Lamps and lampware ....................... .............
Machinery and fittings....................................
Nail rod...............................tons.. 1,287
Nails and rivets..........................do.... 14,317
Pig and kentledge......................do.... 6,109
Pip. anl liiul. ..........................do.... 6,969
Platr r i ii ng< ........................do.... 12,992
Rjil .... ... ............................do.... 8,992
Sheets anl plates, n. e. s.................do.... 15,929


entity.


1916



42.171,817
28,552

1,129, 200

: ::..... :::;::::
2,445,405
.............
2'*. .952


1,421,991
4t468,533

638
1,737
464,812
375,769
1,056,645
660, 383
I. ". 7 Il7n

1,133,243
787,544
578,838
1, I I', 129
613,841
2, 326,191
S6,233,776
........" i..
1,614,837
1,168,593
1,591,340
328,924,267
54,352,533

.............



31,128,'.533

685,906
511,568

203,192
.............
.............
1,143
2,091,983

24,480
5,610
6,668
.............
805
20,906
12,102
10,304
3,853
9,828
22,075


Value.


1915



2', '1,22
.,221,435
-. ,.ill, 401
217,023
I' I, 1;:5
284,807
412,085
505,286
477,110
354,544
2,311,714
4,959,207
175,640
2 ., ..5 5

153,117
625,523

168,745
846,482
3,916,711
1,301,237
227,078

4,626,927
2,263,863

3,252,697
3,779,931
67S,668
5,797,983
14,715,660
794,870
505,822
1,631,304
257,710
41,069.,04
1,ii'I ,1,7

735,482
816,532
1. 2,2,751
282,148
9,114,087
486,624
131,993
24;4, 515
154,517
2,018,423

493,706
253,201
412,553
142 253
564,848
469,690

475,291
203,361
152,390
452,545
2,638,067
43,917
776,887
127,529
353,808
316,284
254,294
708,586


1916





liiiH'
.*', 17 I


297,849
607,469

1,493, 145
801,393
I'l, ,'7

Ij 1 '.* .
204,829
430,632

344,9411
605,5s.

268,539
851,88(
2,745,047
1,984,782
514,094

5, 478,123
3,398,523

2,934,209
3,868,324
1,598,003
6,711,5-,..
19,41 i,:t.,
1, 1h5, 711
801,381
2, 21':, i .,
349,411
51,326,203
6,683,'379

1,200,067
1,776, 871
2,842,370
532, t32
1I,390,411
J973, 7-.
704 311N
09 46'.
-278,247
t, 115,t.1 1

1,381,725
'01;, 6.S',
708,987
238,589
1,602,609
4-79, %74

1,861,917
271,04 2
709,272
555,736
3,334,441
52,401
1,354,295
442,382
962,417
189,794
510,982
1,784,966


I-











CHINA.


Quantity.
Articles.
1915 1916


Iron and steel, and manufactures of--Continued.
Sheets, galvanized ....................tons..
Stoves and grates............................
Wire,n.e. s.............................. tons..
Lead, pigs and bars........................do....
Leather.................................pounds..
Imitation and cloth ...........................
Manufactures of (except boots, shoes, and
gloves)..................................
Lumber:
HEardwood.........................cubic foet..
Softwood .............................. do....
Machines, knitting, sewing, and embroidery.......
Matches...... ............................gross..
Match-making materials.................... ......
Medicines.......................................
Milk, condensed ....................... dozens..
Needles...............................thousands..
Oils:ti-
Kerosene-
*T American ,.................. allons..
Borneo..;,.................... do....
.. Japanese..........................o....
Russian.... .............. ........ do....
Sumatra............................. do...
Lubricating..... ,....................... do....
Opium ... ...............................pounds..
Paper............. ...........................
Perfumery and cosmetcs........................ ..
Photographic materials...............................
Printing and lithographic material...............
Railway materials:
Railway and street cars............ .........
Locomot i es and tenders......................
Sleepers .............................number..
Rice and paddy...............................ons..
Safes and strong doors............................
Scales and balances................... .....
Seeds..........................................
Shoes and boots, leather.................pairs..
Soap, and materials lor.............................
Soda........................ ............ ..tons..
Stationery (not including paper)................
Stores, household .............................
Sugar:
Brown............................... ons..
W hite.... ..............................do....
Refned ................................ do....
Confectioner's........................do....
Tea............ ........................pounds..
Telegaph and telephone materials............
Tinjng slabs ....... .................... .tons.
Tobleo, and manu4qurcs of:
garettes........... ..............thousands..
rs.......... ........................ do.....
Tba eo............ ..................... pounds..
Toilet requisites......................... ......
Umbrellas...........................number.
Wines, beer, spirits, etc.:
Beer and porter..............................
Spirits.................................
W ine s .....................................
Woolen goods:
Blankets and rugs.................pounds..
Coatings and suitings..............yards..
Woolen and worsted yarn and cord.......pounds..
Woolen and cotton unions:
Alpacas, Iusters, and orleans............yards..
Coatings and suitings.......................
All other articles..............................

Total net im ports............................


7,535
.............
461
6,265
12, 24,267



2.125.654
82.522, 746

20,970,934

375. 717
399,457


128.939.563
23.890.925
1,220 263
857,155
39,136,405
4,408.912
592,973


1,694,001
565,070
.............


136, 728

32, 077


112.018
65,802
131.935
8.683
24,337,467
.............
2,927

5,245,852
32,584
10,230,133

2, 729, 492


226.988
137,012
S633,067


347,579. 390,148
...... ...... .............


6,353
......... .
504
5, 121
15,192, 133



1,891,758
223,975,813
.............6
20,620,717

.............
464 567
396,420

108.775,017
10.447,512
6. 46. 4UO
1, N7,372
19, 214,569
4,358 t00
199, 757


1,746.571
752.268
.............

115,226

2, 809


126.995
62,063
143,925
11,752
30.943,733
.............
3,137

6,656,244
42,608
19,617,600

2, 603, 084.


71,501
112.551
569.200


Value.


$570, 486
78.384
27,286
572.063
3,376, 753
42,404

143,037

583. 710
1,418,561
175.941
3,2 10.271
472 754
2,4jS 240
424,617
72,830


11,517.460
2,36.). 668
149.127
136,204
3,083,241
867. 148
15 116.154
3, S77. 04S
228 408
128, 5.9
167,651

355,815
1,073, 824
952.S47
15, 503. &3
51, 799
34,905
398.243
184,042
I, 422, 475
812,773
516.291
1,551,514

4,854, 60
4,362.458
8, 4Q, 135
587,411
2,841,553
251,044
1,248,531

7,428,717
326,612
917.800
452,491
796,959

447,412
720,502
617.660

98,410
111,806
362,054

60,564
267.544
37,743,958


........... .............. 78,139,140


1916



$953, 130
81,388
70.423
897.275
6,246. 629
74,366

203,679

784.982
3,882.888
2.5 254
5.778 237
1.525,334
4,229.961
6K3, 157
261,773


19,265 166
1.686 750
1,286.520
517,415
2,404.422
1.518 280
8, 520 445
7, 82, 570
734,412
364.010
340,347

443.650
11,750,942
1.552.874
27, 9'.. 466
i,5.579
100,902
582,537
151.099
1,452,987
284.254
886,128
1,554,786

7,279, 94
5.125,714
16,217,850
1,329,053
5,579,422
506,209
2,000,983

21, 534,209
999,928
2,713,312
602,933
1,018,578

675,357
760,307
1,013,826

45.314
545,746
544,119

121,393
215,725
66.302,930

427,739,914


............. .............
.. ........ .............
............. .."...........










24 SUIPPI..1II'NT TO COMMIT' R E1L REPORTS.

Principal Exports from China.

The following table shows the ,quantity and value. of the principal
exports from Chion;i in 1915 and 1916'. :l,'irdingt to the Chinese Mlari-
time( CulstolllS r1i i'iii:

Qu 1nti3. Value.
.\rl icls.
1915 1916 1915 191 .

Animals:
1 Lil,. sliee), goats, ad pigs.........mllner..i 391,535 III.."j7 $2,780,866 $3,4.1 iiJ
I oI l..., as5ses, and mnules................ do.... 3,095 :I, <22 "1. '15 205,092
Poultry ........................ .. do.... 3,l41921 4,083,845 .i 690,607
.. ..... ..... ..............d... .Ji. 2I 6,1260,530 2'.31, 7 J;,)' 744
:ans...... ...... ......... .... ...tons.. 782,649 '."., Jt, 12,373,976 14. :.- .1,.;
Itreadstltlrs:
ran: ................ .............. do.... 50,397 22,008 614,883 283 451
Wheat ............................... do.... 100,.i(' 77,012 2,525, 692 1,841,421
lIristles...........................i.....- I ,l 7, 4 t11 2 8,371,600 2'.' *, 13 34,583,994
Chinaware, earthenware, and pottery........................ 2,384,133
Coal.............. ....................... tons.. 1,315,542 1,314,822 ",717, 4. 7".2,."
('ot on:
R aw..... ...........................pounds.. 96,794,000 113,471,6000 ,74 14, ,.3.
Nankeein.'...............................do.... 6,098,933 6,668,667 1,3~ ,..52 2,.3 .';,
Igg's:
Albumen and yolk................... do:... 25,462,267 38,446,133 2,977,334 b, ., %',-
Fresh and preserved...................dozens.. 28,694,121 29,500,833 1,643,475 i, 52,;, 411:
Frozen............................ pounds.. 14,156,400 24,150,067 536,076 l,.1;J,51
Featliers, fowl, etc............................ do.... .*, *.'1''3.'1 7,658,133 366,925 I '.,
I r ,, -
iemp) ...................................do.... 9.99, 667 1. 173,200 5.20,703 1,407,589
Jute ... ........................ do.... 13.. ,40 1, 1,1, 667 -2."., 184 409,155
Ramie. ................................do.... 21, 7 0000 28,124,133 1,395,826 ,331,,' .I.
Firecrackers and tireworks...................... 1,440,606 2,9's, 1'
Fish and fishery products.................. .... ton... 15,692 9,615 1,076,638 .. ',
Flour......................... .........pounds.. 26,212,800 38, 632,933 426,584 94.5,676
Fruits:
Fresh ..... .................... o .. 31,414,133 29,884,133 314,687 .,
Dried .................................... ............. .385,977 I, 1'
.alls. ...............................pounds.. 6,719,733 6,275,733 560,639 '5,221
Sin"cer 104,349 I ,74?
Sih ... .. ............ .. .. ......... .......... ......................... 104,349 i 7
S w.r, bangles, etc ... ............... ............. ............. 280,653 .37,,
rass cloth.............................pounds. 1,828,267 2,090,667 807,021 1,416, 671
Groundnuts (peanuts), shelled and unshelled .tons.. 36,502 42,784 1 ,i1. 243 2,166 607
Hair......................................pounds.. 3,756,400 6,060,133 I'.3'J 982286
fiats:
Rush...............................number.. 2,238,241 2,853,349 30,495 93,303
Would-.sli: ing or chip ...................do.... 871,620 t.1, 7 I6 18,810 20,436
Tndi.o. I-Inl. ..........................pounds.. 7,154,667 12,'K;, ,i7 275,413 626,700
Leather ................. ..................do.... 2,541,600 3,', 474,496 1,033,663
Lily flowers, dried .......................... do.... 4,779,600 4,699,600 272.716 375,367
Lum ber ............................................ ,443 1,371,i
Mats .................................... number.. 27,137,891 25,76.1,.i. 1,188,186 l,5., .
Matting......................................rolls.. 115,003 17, 692 510,957 1,007,74'
Meats:
Fresh and frozen....................pounds.. 28, 641;,'.I.l 40,761,867 1,192,738 2,137,518
Preserved or prepared...................do.... 2,651, I3.3 5,465,067 355,844 699,628
Poultry and game.......................do.... 6,881,600 4,793,333 281,867 274 757
Medicines ....... ............... ........................... 1,943, 861 2,6547
M 23r9i-.l..
Il ifnliut -
It '2iul: and crude ................. tns. 23,931 24,740 2,856,101 9,793,408
Ore ................. ..............do... 1,843 12,968 81,954 1,145,740
Copper, inrjs and slabs.................do.... '3,005 497,182 27,655 7,509,932
Iron-
J .............................. do.... 106,412 159,475 1,.19,271 4,286,431
Ore...............................o .. 40, 579 311,982 427,254 757,981
Lead .................................... do 757 1,244 40,119 209,841
Lead ore. .................. ........ lo ..... 63 2,074 1,670 %9,215
S1k iIr ......... ... 384,464 12, 613
ir n, i -l. .......................:...t::ons.: ,, 406 5,659,049 7,157,421
Zinc--
re ..............................do ... 9,415 452 78,029 4 ,022
Spel er ........................ do.. 2,566 803 269,976 202,833
Muk....... ..................... ounces.. 26,367 25,190 263,365 427,354
Oils:
ilean...... ..................... pounds.. 137,722,933 208,752,000 4,578,473 9,801,412
Essential...... ..................... do 1,050,267 1,257,467 587,218 727,943
\ I i1. n. e. s ............... .. do... 4,905,467 9,900,267 123,317 450,193
\ 1 .. .. ....... ..............do .... 41,379,200 6, 733 1, 843,554 4,565108
P'aler ... ............................ .. do... 33 735 067 3.5, 57.1, '00 2,607 764 2,920,123
$amsh j (native win.c .................... lons. 2, 'l/350 1,455,450 689,275 402,452











CHINA.


Articles.


Seeds:
Apricot..................................tons..
Cotton.................................. ....
Melon...................................do....
Rape................ ....................do....
Sesame.................................do....
Seed cake................. ............. do....
Silk and manufactures of:
haw and manufactured, white........pounds..
Raw-
White filature .....................do....
W il .................... ..... ......... do....
Yellow ............................. do....
Cocoons .............................. do .
Waste.................................do.
Coco ns, refuse..........................do....
PieA a goods..........................pounds..
Pongees ...............................do....
Al other......................................
Skins and bides:
.'.Cow and buffalo& ....................pounds..
.:.q at, untanned.,-....................number..
Horse, ass, and mule.................pounds..
Sheep...............................number..
Skins, dressed:
Goat, tanned..........................do....
Lamb .................................do ...
Skins, dressed made up:
Dog-Clolhing, mats, and nigs..........do ...
Goat-Clothing, mats, and rugs.........do....
Kid-Clothing.....:.....................do....
Lamb-Clothing.........................do....
Sheep-Mats and rugs...................do...
Skins, fur, dressed and undressed:
Fox............................... .........do..
Marmot................................do....
Raccoon...............................do....
W easel ................................. do....
Straw braid ...........................pounds..
Suar, including confectioner's and cane....tons..
Tallow:
Animal.............................. pounds..
Vegetable..............................do...
Tea:
Black....................................do....
Green ................... ........... do...
Brick-
Black..............................do.....
SGreen...............................do....
Dust and tablet.........................do....
Tobacco, and manufactures of:
Cigarettes .............................do....
Leaf and prepared......................do....
Varnigh...........................................
Vegetables, n. e. s.................................
Woolt
Camel's ..............................pounds..
Goat's..................................do..
Sheep's.................................do...
All other articles................................

Total net exports..............................


Quantity.


1915 1916


- -I _____________


3,759
37,741
4,248
72,775
153,214
0, 181

4,230, 667
7, 96. 267
4,533,867
2,346,800
4, 566,933
15, 725, 67
5,594,800
2, 184, 267
3,303,467
.............
58,319,333
7,306,984
1,M15,067
662,499
935,027
233,704
717,339
.368,137
146,206
52,9358
76,5-49
22,765
99,506
20,258
143,961
6,016,800
25,547

15, 151,467
24,197,600
102,818,800
40,843,200
52,009, 867
33,499,200
8, 267. oi.i

597,067
29,756,133
.............

4,137,867
1,368,533
50,362,000
i ............


2,227
24,870
4,654
41,599
103,873
54,103
",612,933
8,775,007
2,490,933
2,420,133
4,044,400
18, 21,867
5,728,400
1,980, rf67
3,235, 467

62,061,467
9,888,271
3,460, 933
1,198,253

494,771
238,395
805,8 55
163,042
114,949
53,252
27,029

56,167
093,313
61,582
486,871
7,010,667
22,891

40,800,400
34,261,333
86,430,400
39,830,400
52,849,200
21,842, 133
4, AbS, 400
994,800
26,979,867
.............

3,971,067
1,737,333
44, 04, 800


............. i............. 23 ,34.3,032 399,072,758


Fluctuations in Declared Exports to United States.

The declared exports from China to the United States. Hawaii. and
the Philippine Islands in 1915 and 1916, respectively, are given in
the following summary: United States, $60.131,701 :and $S93,0899.075;
Hawaii, $44,750 and $11,514; and Philippine Islands, $611,706 and
$1,687,500; total, $69,788,157 and $94,788.089. There were no exports
to Porto Rico. The increase in the value of declared exports to the
United States proper amounted to $23,957,374. In 1915. however,
gold bars to the value of $5,634,881 were exported, as compared with
only $114,122 in 1916. If this item is omitted from both totals the


Value.


1916


1538, 555
404,785
301.6; 6
1,947,437
5, M4, 251
88q, 958
9,&81,171
2 1,593,727
3,941,136
3, 5.A. 513
1,580, 859
" 3.518,6.
f609,315
7, 861,794
5,328,747
221,8:39

10,292, 427
2,459,015
184,905
169,990
459, 800
163,224

363,226
279, 065
108 154
S3',300
60,865
77,584
11, 609
8, S01
18,296
1,752,393
847,723
71L, 293
1, 200, 54
16, 88'i, '23c
9,333,446
5, 436, 451
1,705,506
G02, 92U
115,831
1,917,072
443,923
747,169
584,187
191,717
S., 10,735
39, '06, 213:


.156, 318
343,647
463,S11
1.663,891
5,796,237
948,421
9,792.751

44,53, 143
4,377, 645
6, 116, )07
2.155,353
6, 7'0, 50
811,12.5
10,110,717
5, 09, 18L
791,293
14, 5(3,74t5
4,527,524
448, 321
410, 805
402,329
222,848
571,605
176, 407
121,367
195,216
35,579
222,260
103,730
35,571
76,161
2,603,575
I, 008..20

4, 187,115
2, 4 4,587

15,713,072
11.757,791
6,607,296
1,-14:, 295
5 1., 579
40.5,145
2,521,984
653,237
989,047
886,966
352.174
8,861,701
S75,n74,a57


I I








S11'PJ.I.1MI.NT TO COIM1II:HCE REPORTS.


in-r,.i-ed value of exports would amount to `2'.',478,136, a gainl of
I4; per cent. Higher value-, of the products exported and higher
silvr exchI lage ac''count for a good part of this gain, but there was,
nevertlhcle--, an important increase in the volume of (hina's export
trade with the United States, in spite of high exvchainge ;11111 freilght
rate, and a serious .shrlage of shipping facilities.
Exports of the following articles each illncea.,ed mIore than
$1,000,000 in value: Raw silk, $5,828,213 incease; goakin-
$4,388,216; bean oil. $:.0.s'.8; wood oil, $2,;79,922; cow and calf
hides, $2.321,792; antimoni regilus, $1,0;3,130; eirg yolk and albu-
mIen. 1.10C),045; waste silk, $1.03S,.)0; straw braid, $1,027,508.
Anltimony r.gulus was exported principally from Hankow and
Shanghai, although the chief source of supply is Chavngsha. Tient-
sin, Hankow, anl Shg;lat hai were the chief export centertl- for goat-
-kins and for cow and calf hil.1-. Dairen and Hankow were the chief
export centers for bean oil. Practically all the wood oil was ex-
ported from IHnkvw. Shanghai and Canton were the principal
silk ports. Tientsin and Chefoo were the chief exp 'ilrs of stlr\\
l:raid; and Shanghai, Hankow, and Nanking of egg products.
Other important increna-es in 1declarted exports were made in
curios and porcelains; raw cotton, nistly from' Tientsil; cotton
waste, from Shanghiiai; firecrackers, from Canton; walnuts, from
Tienitin; hair nets, nearly all of which were made in Clhfoo or
vicinity, though Tientsin and Sha.nghai shared with Chlefoo in the
export trade; horsehair, from Shanghai. Mlnkdi.l and Tieintin;
rush, wood-ihaving, and straw hats, mii ly m11ade in Chefoo; horse
and pony hide-, camel's wool, and carpets andi rnug-. from Tientsin:
sausage casings, dried and frozen og,, feathers and down, soya-
bean oil, tea, and tobacco leaf, which increased from $175 in 1915 to
$151,377 in 1916, practically all being shipped from Shanghai.
Exports of sheep's wool fell off by $947,270. Other decrea-es of
consequence were in gold bars, before referred to, and in aniline dyes
and indigo paste, of German origin, the stocks of which are gradu-
ally being exhaulted.
Statistics of Declared Exports for Last Two Years.
There follows a condensed table of the declared value of exlports
to the United States and its possessions, invoiced through bthe
American consulates in Chiina in 1915 and 1916:

Articles. 1915 1916 i Articles. 1915 1916

TO UNITEDl STATES. TO UNITEDSTATES-contd.
A ni imionv Chemicals-Continued.
Crude ............... 208, 114 $441,981 Dyes-
Riulu ..... ....... 2,274,148 3,337,278 Aniline........... 1,865,723 5i40,122;
Art, works of: Indigo paste...... 2,577,726 .46, 471
Porcelains ......... 6S,380 : 7,985 Galls............. 288,534 150,3G.
All other............. 11,014 47,869 Licorice root...... 50,512 82,517
Beeswax ................. 198 247 Musk............ 76,674 79,711
IIrec tl.l ill:1T Rhubtrb......... 14,734 18,956
Ilr.n.................. 53,503 ........... Soda, benzoate of. 7,607 68,069
All other............. 3,948 ............ Turmeric......... 3,914 56,080
Bristles........ .... 1,72, 127 1,891,207 Cotton, and manufactures
i h-mical.-: of:
Albumen ............. 70,127 1,323,227 Raw.......... ..... 1, 97, 52. 2,431,637
Cantharides.......... 3,288 12,137 Waste............... 5,481 110,120
Camphor ............. 419 21 698 W aste yarn........... ........ 8,138
I.-ve oml rnidprie ,ei c., 6,471 67,220









..-
" "






,,

Fi.l


X*


Articles.


TO UNITED STATES--CODtd.

Curios ....................
Earthenware and china-
ware...................
Eggs:
Fresh.................
P ried and frozen.....
E yolk .................
1rams, palm-leaf. ..........
Feathers and down.......
Fibers, and manufactures
of:
China grass...........
Hemp ................
Jute.................
Embroideries, etc.....
All other.............
Firecrackers ..............
Fruits and nuts:
Apricot kernels.......
Peanuts..............
r..Walnuts......,'.,....
Amnd skins, and man-
ab f uresof: o '
Dressed-Dog mas...
Undressed-
Deer anddoe-...
Cat...............
Dog..............
Fox..............
Gnat.............
Marmot ..........
Rabbit............
Sheep and lamb..
Weasel............
Allother.........
Gold:
Bars .................
Coins.................
Hair:
Horse.................
Huma...............
Nets..................
Hats, rush, straw, and
wood-shaving ..........
Hides:
Buffalo...............
Cow and calf.........
Horse, pony, and don-
key................
All other.............
Household effect s.........
Iron, pig..................
Joss sticks...............
Mattjng, mats, and mugs..
Meat and dairy products:
Sausage casings.......
All other.............
Oil, vegetable:
Bean.................
Cottonteed .........
Peanut..............
Rape................
Sova-bean...........
Wood...............
Allother............
Paper, and manufactures
of:
Books...............
Cigarette stiffeners....
Allother............
Seeds:
Linseed............
Mustard..............
Rape ................
Sorghum kaoliangg)..
Allother...........
Silk, manufactures of:
Embroideries. etc.....
Pongees.............
All other.............


1915


$56,051

48,330
95,202
100,095
475,537
36,665
169,239


73,530
11.826
94,909
6,568
122,318
178,795

17,626
143,777
254,416


80,210

114,868
9,772
350.564
16, 135
3,327,243
r16. 146
9,178
420, I:0
7.033
75,614

5, 634, C _81
100,520

127,159
79,263
23,852

36,305

291,566
1,588,175

117,537
11.214
45. 750
100,106
12,647
229,957

154,282
475

527, 22
545,980
13.411
417,060)
63,1275
1,662, 353
9,802


7,601
6. 570
3, b34

88,739
57,549
48,847
18,984
6,867

59,319'
687,045
4,450


1


Total...............

TO ppr .PPINES.

Brcadstutsff
Flour.................
Vermi elli............
All other ............
Candles.................
Cement................
Coal...................
Cotton, and manufactures
of:
Nankeens.............
Yarn.................
Earthenware, etc.:
Chinwvare ...........
Firebricks and fire-
Slay ................
Fibers, and manufactures
of:
Fish nets............
Grass lorth..........
Twine ...............
Fruits and nuts:
Arbutus, dried......
Pennuts.............
All other............
Iron and steel, and manu-
factures o1:
Cast iron........ ..
Pie iron........ ....
Distillery fittings.....
Sll otier.............
Mert and dairy products:
Canned meats........
Frozen meats.........
H e.m s................
Milk, storilized........
Oil, vegeapc le:
Pc:Ian It ...............
All ct her..... .......
Paner, and manufactures
of:
P.ooks, nrinted.......
All other..... ......
Photographic goods:
Film s...... .........
Silk, nd rr.an'ifacturesof:
Ha v .... ........ ..
.Fiec' goods...........


46,908
7,715,459
131, 95
44,703
401,709
32,055
247,099

114,122


579,244
83,771
376,601

300,897

866,135
6,909,967

328,284
6,911
43,392
152, 172
16,876
407,434

372,753
732

3,258,619
728,926
21S,221
53,595
562,686
4,342;275
84,209


10,426
17,717
7,230

113,426
81,462
15,789
79,863
3, 228

102,299
1,239,019
15,165 1I


1916 Articles.


TO UNITED STATES-contd.

$210,551 Silk:
Raw..................
75,434 Waste..............
W ild .................
83,372 ocoons ..............
744,2335 Silver cein- .......... ....
1, 12, 482 Spiecs: Casi.i ..........
.50,648 Straw braid.............
451,936 Tallol%, vegetable.........
T ea.... .................
Tohacco leaf............
11,961 Vegetables:
52,858 Beans..............
104, 041 Peas.................
10,004 Wood, and manufactures
297,570 of:
292,779 Bamboo, split........
China and p im reeds.
25,9S1 Furniture and stands.
103,565 All other.............
679,632 Wool, and manufactures
of:
Camel's hair..........
175,703 Goal's................
Sheep's ....... ......
155,311 Carpets and rugs ......
32, 67S Zinc re ..................
461,620 All other articles..........


k22,393,677
2, 20, 693
1,89., 932
45.325
262,291
107, 835
2,027,984
354,728
3,543,798
151,377

38,093
121,687


21,876
73,218
6, 8M
28,242


705, 72
26:, 348
9.462,619
968, 017
7,725
1,337,123


69,131, 701 93,.0 S, 0r5


284
5.068
I.? lI
8,562
41.189
246,001


3.005

1,936

24,486

5,7'18
10,942
19.912
2, IQ1

1,913
997
4,488


2,725
1,940
1,5S9
917

23,429

74,805


. .. .... ...
381


0,550
4,803

3,54.5

1,; 31


8,602
7,818
1,676
6,160
S07,468
367.615


4,516
3,352

2,689

2,298


4,357
110,290
2 454

2,289
9,9118
1,'98



1,208
3,163
21,655

2,340
176.039
7O, 698
2,710

7.013
5,456

0.978
;,825

421

41,408
6,912


CHINA.


S106.36. .464
1, 1G1. 673
1,524-.01
65. '126

642,337
1, 00, 476
462.769
3, u85,535
175

23,243
24,298


11, I
1 S, 738
6.612
21,148


29., 73

10, I'0l, c9
21', '176
37.474
22', 29S




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


IIIW l 1 I IAlA 1 I1 l Ifll 1 1 llllllll
3 1262 08485 0774

SUPPIL.LMMNT TO CO.11-M llt'E REPORTS.


1411; jii


A n .1-, I


TO r4IIILI PINES -conlt Id.
Strai braid........... ..
Tea............. .......
I '-.'nl ....... .......
All other.............
\V>ioo,. antl manlufact'tire
Canes. ...............
(Combs..... ....
All other.............
All other articles..........
Toial...............


A ricl, 1915 1916

TO 11.WAII.


$5, 701
0. 922
3,525
19, 132

1, 99
2,274
910
30, S96
011, 70o I


3:00
s,267
7,4-61
23, 191

1, 113
2, .S
161t
39, 509
1,787. 501)


Cement ...................
Cunrios ..........
Earthenware: *
Porcelain .........
Fire bricks ..........
Iron, i ................
Tea........ ...... ......
All other articles..........


WASl I ll'.IN ;: ; n :II MENT 'lP I INTING )FFICE : 1i01


599
I", :11:
2
4.234
4, ?34
44, 7,50


$2 .. ..........
1,979 S...I-I


2,721
............
"., "
1,271


i. i..