Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
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6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
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English
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United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
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Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
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Washington, D.C
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Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
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Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00028
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lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00028

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text
". ,.




SUPPLEMENT TO

COMMERCE REPORTS
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Annual Series No. 52i December 29, 1917

CHINA.
HANKOW.
By Consul General Edwin S. Cunningham.
A glance at the map of China will convince any observer of the
natural trade advantages of Hankow, situated in the heart of
China, in about the same latitude as New Orleans, and 600 miles
from Shanghai. It is at the confluence of the great Yangtze Kiang
and Han Rivers, which, with their tributaries, drain the entire
western area of China south of Mongolia. These natural carriers
are being supplemented by artificial ones in the shape of railways,
intended to radiate in every direction from this common hub, for
it is the hope of every proposed line in Central China to make the
Wuhan cities (Hankow, Wuchang, and Hanyang) one terminus.
Hankow is situated midway between the ocean and the rich Province
of Szechwan, and being at the head of navigation for ocean-going
steamers must. always maintain its standing as a plac-e of trans-
shipment for various raw products. From Szechwan. Kweichow.
Hunan, South Honan, Shensi, Kansu, Hupeh. and western Kiangsi
are collected raw products at the Wuhan cities to be consigned to
foreign ports. Hankow is about. equally distant from Tientsin in
the north and Canton in the south, and collects and distributes
goods for the extensive central district.
This consular district comprises the Provinces of Hupeh. Kiangsi,
Shensi, Kansu, four-fifths of Honan, Chinese Turkestan, Kokonor
in Tibet, and a part of Mongolia. Omitting the unproductive re-
gion of Kokonor and the poorly defined limits of Mongolia, it ag-
gregates 9504278 square miles. The population of 77,691,000 equals
that of the continental United States at the beginning of this cen-
tury.
Trade Features of the Year.
With the exception of tea, the field crops for 1916 were above the
average. The price received for all locally manufactured products
continued high, bringing satisfactory results to the makers of steel,
iron, antimony, egg products, flour, and oil-mill products. Wages
increased in many instances. On the other hand, the increased cost
of living amounted to 15 to 20 per cent for those who depend only
upon Chinese products and even more for those demanding im-
ported articles.
26836*-17--521-1








SUPPI. F .. NT TO COT\MMT-Ic('I: 'II:l'TS.


The features of the year aifftcling the people, and trade were as
follows:
1. The 1h-lih rate of .xirl ,gic dlue. Irgely to the increase in the
prin' of silver frri :;4 to 75 cents per onlre.
'2. An ai',ll.illt to (li;i' the form of the C(inle-e Governiment.
3. A nrli!.,iorium i-- ,1 by the centrall Goernimcnt.
4. The shortage of river junk facilitie.
5. The scarcity of o,-e.,m bottoms and theit high freight rate-.
Rise in Ex.-.ha-.;e and Its Effects.
TIhe rate of (\'-l i;:, for ('lin,'e-. Ic rii.:.icy, which was on (lie rise
eIl(h,, the clo-. of 1i15, continued to go, up during the early part of
1916. It reacled the highest for over 20 yiars in 1a:y, when the
IIankow tael w:i- nominally 811 cents gild. This xxws cn .iderUd
high at that t ic. and tho! i t!,her wa1. a decline duriii,, the months
of July and Anr_,i-i that high-water mark would have been cnsid-
ered low toward the cl '- of the year, h!rnse during Nok emil er and
1)reiner 'l;id drafts vere -lling nominally at :-i; cents gold,
tIli 11 i ;i Hi el could ofteenhave eeti obt.,i... (Clo-'ly allied to ex-
c'l:111g.' rates was a great carcity of cash during November, when the
ftir ia 'n banks w.xri hardly prin ~ for r.-.:Iy money to meet tile rfliire-
ni -nts of their clients, and -, .i' could not -' -i,',nd to th, i r'i'qie-.ts.
The notes of the (h`i!-- banks \wr.,, at a d-- nt for -m!ie day-v. after
the ili-reit by the central Government of thi moratorium in May,
1916, but tle decision of the local 0,il.-'.il to disrl.c 'rd this mora-
torium did much to maintain the currency and to re tore money to
circulation. This high ,e- I Ige was extremely favor .;ble to inipi rs,
which were bought in incre:ta-., quantiti -. but toward tle latter half
of the y';ir, when the .x.-.:i ,,.,, continued so Iigh; thai exports \ere
Ii,,ina' iiii.'1d with the g.- 17 ~ t diictulty, impl)(.i s ten(ied to d'eli!nc.
VWhen silver is high in the intei-'ational marl. t. the Clii i ;,. peip)le
sii flT, because of their inability to dispose profitably of the d, ie-tLir
raw po io'- ()win to t the abnorliii:; world condiion-, .ow-ever,
there w;i a demand at conlsih. ;.-ily higher value for ,many of Chinla's
raw produ' I -. C(A' i,.,iiuetly thle economic conditions in this con-
sular di strict are not so 1ad as could ., -, Inaly 1I expected, con-
-id:.r;ng the unprecedentedly ligli rate of exchange.
Intern ui. ii of River Tr.ide--IT.. Enterprises.
During the fir-t part of tlii year the markl tiing of the coiililly's
prodi'r-l- was interrupted by the ciil ai!di'.de.il, for military pur-
poses of toh junks and junk men. The return of trip to head-
iji: rters durirjn the third (quarter of the year again interferid with
ii.rc:: !ile transl)ort. Foi ;,ii firm and local dealers .i:tinntered
.,r>. difliculty in delivering their products from the upper Yangtze
.Ii cr and S(hensi ro\ iprr '.
The year saw uarti. activities in ]:any line-,. but did not in-
clude the establishment of large indii-tries. Th'Ie B-ureau of Mines
for Hupeh was or an izedl and did .-oine good pr'liinlinary pros-
pec.ting v..,rk. which it is hoped will in tlie add to the wealth of
the Provin'e. A new telephone "y.-temi fior the Wdiho;n cities was
contracted fr-. Many new buuildiIngs have been Crected in the for-
eign concessions. A number of new American firms have opened
bran;ilcel in ITanlk(ov%., but the biu.-in; of the belligerent intions,
exrIc-t. the Jap)a ,! -, contin uled to be contracted.








CHINA-HANKOW.


Progress on Canton-Hankow Railway.
Considerable work was done by the Canton-Hankow Railway in
the construction of the line to Changsha. The cars, bridges, and
locomotives were supplied by American firms and were delivered in
Wuchang before the end of the year. Most of the bridge work was
completed and 140 miles of track of the 226 had been laid. Work-
shops are well under way, supplementing various extensive buildings
previously erected by the railway in Wuchang. A mixed freight
and passenger train was put on in February, 1917, from Wuchang to
Pu-chi, and it was expected to extend passenger service to Changsha
by August, 1917. On the so-called German section only grading and
masonry work has been performed, and it has been pushed on about
90 miles. The so-called American section of this Hulkuang Railway
made no advancement during 1916, except in the completion by the.
engineer in chief of a report covering the traffic of the district, which
was submitted to the Chinese Government in April, 1910. All these
railways are being constructed from the Hukuang loan agreement
made with China by financiers of the United States, United King-
dom, France, and Germany.
Gross Trade of Four Ports in Hankow District.
The statistics in this report are from the Chinese Maritime Cus-
toms returns. No attempt is made to include the native customs.
The rates of exchange used in the conversion from haikwan taels are
$0.612 for 1915 and $0.8283 for 1916. The former is the rate used in
the reductions for the 1915 annual report.
The treaty ports in the Hankow consular district and the gross
trade, exclusive of treasure and coin, of each port during 1915 and
1910 are indicated in the following table:

Years. HIankow. Kiuldg. Iclung. Shasi.

1915 .................................................... 1 13,940,933 $24,329,799 $5,661,G64 $2,851,237
1916................................................. 166, 939, 027 35,7(, 11 10,664,166 3,644,324

Gross and Net Trade of Hankow and Kiukiang.
The following table furnishes a comparative statement for Hankow
and Kiukiang (the most important ports in the district) of the gross
and net values of merchandise passing through the Chinese Maritime
Customs in 1915 and 1916:

Hankow. Kiukiang.
Imports and exports. I110 f 19 1-
1915 1916 1915 1916

Imports of foreign goods:
From foreign countries and Hongkong......... $17,088,093 $29,764,473 $1,110,316 $2,017,418
From Chinese ports ............................ 15, 757, 526 19,319,764 6,002,573 8,999,692
Totalforeign imports........................ 32,845,619 49,OS1,237 1 7,112,889 11,017,110
Reexports of foreign goods:
To foreign countries and Hongkong............. 6,925 5,874 .........................
To Chinese ports ........................... 6,335,099 8,359,654 269,347 568,589
Total foreign reexpors........................ 6,342,024 8,365,528 269,347 568,581
Net total foreign imports ..................... 26,503,595 40,718,709 6,843,542 10,448,521
Tmports of Chinese products ........................ 18,693,538 29,954,878 4,294,982 5,282,744










4 SUPP.I:MENNT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Hankow. Kiulang.
Imports a1tl exports.
1915 1916 1915 1916

T \,.pl~l ; of I hir. products:
'L. f e .lrl ii countriets.................. 8,80, 832 $2,012,670 ....................
To; i' -p ..rt................................ 7,320,387 11,777,848 -$.2,1,2. 13,808
Total (hineso reexports ....................... 9,125,21 13, 7,ii.,518 S 2.', 212 13, "Os
Net total Clhinc-eo imports ..................... .. 10, oI4, 0o0 4,272,740 5,21i3,936
1'1'-.''l I f ( hinese products of local origin:
To foreign coutri ........................... i .2, '097 740 1,127
ToChineso ports................................ 51,2353,372 ,7.815 12,921,188 19, 407, 130
Total exports of local *i.'. .................. 12, t01,776 87,889,912 12,921,028 1., 408, 257
G ross value of the trade of the port .................. 113,--'ii. 93 166 959,027 24,329,7090 35,708,111
Net valiuo of the trado of the port.................... 98,473,90 14l. *.',981 24,,'.;-, 21') ,125,711

Imports and Exports by '7ouitries.
The following table shows, the g:2 --, imports of foreign g-1,, ds and
the exports pilus reexp)orts of Chinese goods at IInnkow in 1915 :and
1916, by count i j.< of origin and destination:

Gross imports of I:' ...'i I'-ixportI
foreign goods. ..* I .. g ;...-.
C'ontriie:. .
1913 191 191G

Australia, Newv Zealand, et .......................... 1.. ,1231 ', .
lritih India............... ............................. 1, 275 3,
C a t: d ................................................. ...... 1 221 i : ".1 I i l ,2 i
)envm Irk.................................. ..... ..... 17,7 4, 1 ......... ,2
1)r~uh h Ea~t i............................ -1 8, Ih1 31) i......... .
I h Kast Indie........................................ 1..................
FrI e.................. ........................... ..... 1 1, 1 2 :S,: 3 211,357 156,602
.. ......................................................... 1.77S,7' 3 I 3,:3 .t I o ; 1 ,9o 3 7,251
I I .... ....... .................................... i. 1 7 ,931 i G0 ,178 ...........
.1 in. i ................ ....... 2.7, .}, 131;, |5 1, 70,401 3,107,019
S ........................................... 10 7 ...........
Norwav ..... ........ .... ............................. .. 10,5,45 ;, C 's i ... ...... .... ... ..
I l .ii, : ." II lan(ds...................................... :i, 3S .... .. ... ..........
.. ... ........................... ............ .. ......... ... ........... 1,010,788 1,035,744
siatic ............................................. 72, 521 192,75S i1 12.'7 3,575,020
-ii,.. r'.' Straits SettlCemnts, etc........................ ,971 117,499 ............ .........
.. ................................................... 17,579 73,296 .......................
United Kingdom ................... .............. 1,76,2;9 1,991,710 911 2'i 1,501,245
United States i, li,.!. i, Hawaii)........................ 2M;37,2,2 4.7, ., 17 I 'll,.i'.7
All other countries s......................................... 932 15 ...........
Total............................................ 17, 0, 093 29,761,473 9,971,236 10,294,766

Owing to the world war many countries formerly prominent in the,
comln erce of Central China have disappeared from, the list of direct
dealers. A.- \ a expired, Japan hol,- the premier position. Its
proximity places it in the most favorable po-iti!on. but its anlva:nltiage
is due even more to its steamers, which deliver the sale to I:anl ow
and re-( miri wviti pur,%-%a -e. thn-, insuring a larger percentage of both
bringL included a( : direct shipments. The increa-sing :n lllmber of
Ja,1i.Ilnese firms ;:cting ;f- reprol.-e tatives of various lines of com-
merce materially facilitates the interichanig of articles on the most
advantageous ,iondiiun. In 1915 Japan ,,1Ad to ILamkow 43 per
cent of the total direct imports, which was incre;ia cd to 46 per cent
in 1916. The value of impor-i from Japan \was 88 per cent greater








CHINA-HANKOW.


in 1916 than in 1915. In 1916 Japan held 42 per cent of the total
direct trade of Hankow, including imports and exports.
The United States was second in furnishing Hankow imlIports.
Though few of America's direct sales arrived in American bottoms,
its sales of merchandise increased to $1,76S.S5(, or S0 per cent more
than in 1915; but the United States supplied only 10 per cent of the
total direct imports.
The British Indian imports amounted to $3,874,706;, wlich repre-
sents a substantial increase over the preceding year. The $,31,;,240
furnished by Hongkong indicates that this port is regiining" tile
trade lost during the first two years of the war and is resiuning its
position as the entrepot between foreign countries and China. The
United Kingdom, however, which prior to the European war figured
prominently in the trade, doei not now appear so import ant in the
direct trade, its sales amounting in 1916 to only $1,994,710.
Increased Demand for Various Articles-Figures for American Trade.
The total direct imports for 1916 were greater by $1-,I;76,380
than those of 1915, whicl. however, declined by $7.576.. >7 when
compared with 1914. The high exchange accounts in part for the
1916 increase, but therwerere actually greater buyin.gs. for tle ex-
haiustion of Germany's stock :ceumulatedc before Ilie war made the
purchase of many foreign goods imperative. Heavy buying oc-
curred in the early part of tle year in copper. iron and mild steel
bars, nails, tin plates, gunny bags, aUd machiinery of all kinds. The
piece-goods ilnports were extremely satisfactory from tile dealers'
standpoint. The quantity of Japanese yarn was greater than in
any previous year, and the imports of other yarn were inconsirder-
able in comparison with the Japanese.
The declared exports to the United States, as compiled from the in-
voices in this office during 1916, were valued at $141,123,sS3, and in
1915 at $7,732,077, while in the foregoing table they were only $811,-
307 and $517,923. There are likely to be di-crepancies between the
two sets of figures for any port, but an inlaidl port affords the
greatest opportunity for this discrepancy. While the declared ex-
ports as prepared in this consulate general can be accepted as correct
for the export. trade, there is no way to procure more reliable import
figures than are furnished in the table, but it can be stated confidently
that the import statistics represent each nation's trade witlih renter
accuracy than does the export table.
Imports by Articles.
When statistics of imports throughout this report cover specific
articles they show the total foreign imports received at Hlankow
direct from foreign countries and as reshipments from other Chinese
treaty ports, less reexports to treaty ports amn foreign countries. This
fails to bring out the importance of the port as the distributing cen-
ter to other parts of China. On the other hand, the export statistics
of specific articles include reexports.
The table of imports by articles will indicate the diversity of the
demands of this market, though the volume can not be regarded as
large, considering the immense population. The following table











6 SUPPLIMIlN'P TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


'lhowA the q(Illa ity and value of the principal articles imported at.
Hankow in 1915 and 1916 from foreign countries and Chinese ports:

1915 1916
Articles.
Qi'i.niily. Value. Quantity. Value.


Acids: Boric, nitric, and other ................p.-Tid.. I 823,732 1.79 736,000 $37,610
Asbestos: 1crile r -i r.r i'li!,sheets,pr kin, it I'.l...... 70,800. i ; 1'7.'0) 12,511
,Am ,r i 1.:. and parts ............................................. ,,.2..; ............ 33, 212
"'Cl t1i.i, canvas........................... nuuber.. 82,931 25,946 20,958 13,470
Gunny, Uew and old .................... do.... 3,76S,50 314,9S2 4, 1" 131 .> ,021
Bedste:ds.......................................do.... ,9 1 1,158 14,1 t
1l'cj and porter, bottled..................doz. quarts.. 25,549 ,.' 27,269O 40,890
Trllii ........................................... .............. '.047 ............ 77,413
lih .1. .......... ....................... ................ 1,5 ............ 3,782
Boots and shoes, leather and canvas............. pairs.. 2,794 2,9'7 973 2, 9
lh.1 1!.' i. n 11 ............................................ .. .. ......... ''.' ............ 6,402
Brassand yellow i..- 1 ...................... pounds.. 114,100 1.. .I 88,933 20,436
Iridg-con uci ion materials.................... .... .... ........ ,'.. ... .........
.'....................................... ..I, I. ... 7, 3% 1 II 28,950
,r ll*,.Ih : i.L'. ,I, rt,. .l:.it ri unl ni ll .. i .1.-.. 1,153,.733 .1 28i,267 30,212
(., 1, 1 .i I -.. f..','... ................. ........i nl., .. 121,305 .',i. 74,73
Carbon, :! I: ............................... uiin.! ..' 132,800 S, S(~ 3(i,933 10, 160
I' .r -n... ..................................... .. .. ..12. 00 1 .. '2 154,000 29.074
C.,arri .. (iart, wagons, and parts................................ .. ;, ; ............ 23,307
('*-1: rillpty ............................nulm r..' ". 15,0,s3 10,325 21,838
Ci- r. .i ........................... .......thousainds.. 490. 827 735,277 520, I41 1, 7'0. 979
I': ................................. ........... do.... i ",'. 1s,93 1,621 2<.,'"
Chests and !:i' 1 for tea.................. .......... ...... ........ "..514 ............ 117,161
Clocks......................................number.. 31,259 -' 122 20,418 25,430
Coal............................................tons.. 1 459 7.., 555 93,354 463,832
Copper: Ingots, bars, sheets, wire, c ..........il.d.. 1,. .',133 189,526 1,121,133 13,.'";
Cotton goods:
Blankets..............................number.. 41,033 24,932 40,251 31,2:;
Drills:
American.........................?.pi. es.. 14.??5 1 7 1,875 56,70t
British..................................do .... i 1 I'. 1,010 3,843
Japanese.................................do.... "" '-' *i 4), 51 115,717 419,524
Other....................................do.... 1 1-2 1, 9 ......... ............
Dyed vottons, n. c. s.........................do.... *' 1,0 5,5 05 272,(07 1,430,686
Flannels, cotton, plain, dyed:
Ancriran...............................do.... '.723 C2,98 14, 501 42,047
British.................................do.. 1;,s50 3, S8 90f1 2,291
Japanese.................................do.... (.,. 12, s78 16,280 1.1,758
Other...................... ..... do ...... ... ......... 45 11
andkerchiefs............................. do e.is..| 81,979 15,000 108,578 27,172
Italians, plain, fast black..................pieces.. '1. .':s 11i, i.l 147,072 615,190
Jeans:
)uth...................................do.... 2,655 4,472 1,600 '1. 1
1 il .. .... ...........................'. ...' 120,434 232,1560 1 P1l ll,-IIl
Japane:c ............................. do.... '-, ".',.. 17. '71 14... ,0 440. 495
Lawis ........ ................... .....do.... 1 I .' ', <,Ii 17 6i3, 0)J
-} *.'I i '." ;. 1, 'tll-
i ni rli. .................................[ ... 14,530 28,297 5,730 15,994
1 lgili.. ......................... ...... 41,851 117,047 37,238 126,860
Japanese................................do.... 8, 760 15,655 11 31,151
r': rill,." plain!-
I ..'. --
Ameri .............................. ..... .:..0 8,179 520 1,292
Engli.............................. do.... 4*.i,, 7 880,493 351,419 918,217
Japanese..................... ... .. do.... 7.,,).1 151,954 211,033 585 736
utch....................... ......do.... ....................... 350 1024
Whilte--
Amerhic:- ] .......................... ...... 200 803
]utch................................ .... 25,510 67,288 ;..t70 20,851
English~............................. ..... 632 1,321,361 4- (,897 1, 1'.1.716
Japanese............... .............. ... 7,450 I-' 1,I 17,860 58,434
'1 i.Alli-
.n .li l............................ 7.....'... 035 i'9, a, 7 2,414 106,775
Other........................ .......do.... 22,753 31,171 6,508 10,421
Thread, cotton-
alls.................................. pounds.. 30,800 10,939 4 2C 20, 847
Spool..... ............................ rrl 1... 12,116 17, 11 ',.38 27, 11
Towels ..................................... .r.... ,7I.'il ,l I 1'.2,.5'9 92,381
Velvets, velveteens, cords, corduroys,etc....yards.. "ili, ",.. 743 174, w1) 35.751
Yarn, cotton............................... pounds.. 43,327, 200 F,102, 7 37,882,933 i3, 02.,00~
Miscellaneous cotton goods.................................. 9, I,2 ............ 2'. 40!
hi]-. !l.nec'iu- piece goods ..................................... 90,883. ..,27
Covers, bed, including cotton Drapery........................................................... 14, 25 ............ 721,02
3rpery... 14,5 ......... ..1,022










CHI NA-ii.ANIKOW. 7


1915 1916

Articles.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.


Dyes:
Indigo .................................... pounds.. 141,7.3.3 597,492. '.,0:.7 .59, 0so
Other dyes, colors, e .................... do..d.... 1, 40, 000 31,429 ,573,400 111,-171
Dynamite. .....................................do.... 5,067 ... ........ .... ..
Electrical m materials and fittings ..................... ... ............ 2 ........... 177,u3
Emery cloth, sandpaper, powder, wheels, etc.......... ........... 2-1 4117 ............ .5,202
Enameled ironware.................................... ............ 2; 2419 .......... 31., 8 lj
Engine and boiler fittings .............................. ........... ........................
Files.......................................... ozens.. ., 024 7, 256 3.746 *, 5b4
Flour........................................pounds.. 320,000 ,202 135,733 7, 2u1
Fruits and vegetables, canned .................................... 11,975 .......... 19,86-4
Garters, braces, suspenders, etc ...................... ............. 5f ,.157 ............ 143,027
Ginseng:
American............................... pounds.. S, 977 C5..350 9,887 110,393
Japanese.................................... o.... 1,,3i- 9,277 12, 268 25,209
Other ............... ....................... .... 2.226 14,050 2,107 (.0,001
Glass, window, stained, colored, common, etc..boxes.. 13,.-27 70,855 22,744 1i9,99.
Gloves..................................dozen pairs.. 2-14,17 11,253 19,581 7,451
Graphophones and acceesoris................................... (,5 ............ 7,851
Haberdashery and millinery...................................... .I 05 ........... 74.,
Hardware, and part, of .......................................... ,662 ............ 2,697
Hats, summer and straw ....................number.. 23, ,(-.S 1 7,S,- 42,384 17,312
Hosiery, including cotton soclks.......... do.en p:ur-.. 24), 1'0 6N,'91 298,023 1l, 20 ,
Instruments:
Mu.ical-Pianos and organs............. .. ........... ..... ,5 ............ 7,388
Medicr l and surgical ................... ........... ...... ... 1.3,20 ............ 13,151
O ther............. ....................... ......... ... 4 2 ............ 10,997
Iron and mild steel, new:
Bars............ ..... ...................... pound 5,321, 7 t'7,932 5,708,533 203,558
Cobbles...................................... do... 1,737.mh7 j, 2.1 673,333 14,49.5
Hoops......................................do... 2,419,21.7 .,2,279 5,52 1,00 278,455
Nail......................................do.... 5,72._,001 117,394 2,0 ,2W 399,450
Pipes and tube<, wrought....................do... 311,31: *.,i0 1,241,733 40,966
P'late.... ..................................do. L. t3,200 49,33s 1,094 133 20,799
Hails.....................................do...... ... ........ ... 1,408,000 24,798
Screws............................. .........do... :4,b0) 2,22- 121,333 17,818
Sheets nnd plates ...........................do.... 11,ll,0t7 .0,781 2,79:1, 467 106,031
W ire........................... .... ..... o... 317,0t7 ,9(65 336,667 18,677
Olher.................... ...............do.... 1.I951,%7 14i,6S 2,765,467 98,03.1
lion and mild steel, old............. ...... do.... 3,577,t 2,771 R,229,67 127,393
Iron, galvanized:
blolt;, nuul, ri\.ts, washer, ; re, tre llle, rope',
t' ...... ................. .......... pounds.. 1 j,.I) 3,014 210,000 15,061
SorruEIatled sheets...........................do.... 542,800 19,783 726,800 54,581
Ilit sIie ................................do .... 91.33' 335, 30 1,267,733 96,475
Wire .................. ................ ..d .' 1,.7 17,993 430,800 25,666
Wire shorts .................................do.. 2.721,7.33 35,729 492,267 13,119
.nmps and lampware .............................. ... 55,837 ............ 77450
.Lead..... ...............................pounds.. 1,331, 11 20,077 566,867 57,725
Leather.......................................... ............... 5- 709 ............ 120,168
Locomolirvts.... ......................... ...... .. ........7................. 712,70
ILumber:
Hardwood............................ cubic feet. 10,042 2,520 206,978 69,779
Softwood........................... square feet.. 2,599,557 51,461 130,327,608 3,454,412
Sleepers ............................... number.. 557,522 333,360 202,202 150,413
Machines ..................................... .... .. .. ....... 3,124 ............ 1,990
Machinery ............. .................... .... ...... 14,30 ............ 681,631
Match-making materials.................... pounds.. 460,667 198,327 4,488,800 91,155
Matches, Japanese.............................gross.. 763, 54 94,116 163,236 42,588
Medicines, foreign and Hongkong........................ .. ...... 19 ............ 20927
Metals, antifriction, including babbitli and magnolia
metals....................................pounds.. 142,100 22,830 15,733 5,999
Metal, white....................................do.... 13,067 3,596 4,267 3,190
Milk, condensed, in tins.....................dozens.. 29,418 31,950 20,702 30,88
Mining requisites............................................... 12,802 ........... 17,961
Munitions............................................................... ........ 11,222 ............ 41,104
Needles...................................thousands.. 135,760 17,697 33,450 16,735
Nickel...................................pounds. 55,467 25,920 60,766 53,764
Oil:
Kerosene-
American..........................gallons.. 12,5&3,690 1,026,963 8,005,681 802,365
Borneo and Sumatra ....................do.... 11,722,225 1,080,556 4,828,612 600,936
Lubricating................................do.... 281,191 61,235 375,989 99,016
Paints..................................... pounds.. 9,200 29,3253 168,733 29,221
Paper...................................................... .. 144,635 ............ 343,125
Paper-making materials..................... pounds.. 1,352, 00 25,2S7 Yu0,533 30,922
Pepper:
Black........................................do.... 1,404,533 123,713 1,160,800 159,466
White............................ .................do.... 31,467 4,747 19,733 4,475
Photographic materials ........................................... 10,670 ............ 12,534











8 F PI'ITP1.I.MI.'NT TO COMMErCE -REPORTS.


1915 .1916
Articles. --- ---- ----
Quantity. Value. Qui niiivy. Value.

I'r n t i and li' r .l i.. m materials .................... ............ ............ ............ 3,418
I'run i. *uk.................................pounds.. 43,467 S$6,106 50,000 13,732
'r., *i and household stores, n. o. s.a............... ............ 165,294 ............ 191,958
1Ti, nd i.: 4 ... ................................. ...... ...... 554 ............ 10,427
I: I.l .. -. -lant materials ......................................... 247,012 ............ 10, 42
Rlcreal ion reu isites .............................. ............ 3,558 ............. 4
1:,.;..- ....... .......................... 065,000 4,101 200,667 25,0.s
:l ,1.i.i and rubber goods .......................... ............ 19,2(03 ......... 11,277
Safes and .iult.................................................. 3,24 ........... 12, 777
Scales..................................... nber.. 188 2,1(98 334 Si
Seawe dl. o,0i, I... r, fred, e ................... pounds.. 17, 11.I,01;7 228,394 14,,7 1..; 1 291,439
'. .1 I I .1.i maichines............. number.. 205 5,203 .3j7 6,792
-1 ..... i I .... ........................ ......... .... 99,4S6 ............ 3:5,6S
Soap:
ar .. ................................... p, r'i.L 2,050,933 14,938 1 ,*' 2," 1 0 121.313
Toilet and rancy ............................................ 34,799 ............ 4',,-ll
ihii i t iiitin. lU;n I alcohol).......................... .. ......... 31,201 ........... 353,
.1 i11 i11 ............................... ......... .... ....... ..... 31,9G9 ............ 33,661
Steel;
BIamboo,................................ .runl. l,ni. 0,7 I'., 42.0,67 25,839
lar .... ......................................do.... ",, 27,217 ..... 738
Tool and ast................................do.... 242,400 16,867 476,133 85,778
Wire, netting and gauze.....................do.... 11,867 1,126 17,200 5.1 2
(thoer...................................... do .... *',. 135 19,007 310,267 37,51,.
,;..* and gtates................................................ 4,821 ............ 6,586
_.i ................................ ......pounds.. 81, i71. ~r 1,801,525 1,',1,467 3,153,6414
..........................................gallons. ,'',.1 7,795 1,7,774 1-,
'I. '
Dus. .....................................pounds.. 17, .467 2,372,533 62,. ,,21 I 0 .i'.2
h r................................... d.... 6,933 1, 200 5,067 UJ7
T,-!l L'I iq. i. materials ........................................ ... .... 19.839
T .................... ........ pounds.. 66,087 11 !. 31, 533 '1,. 2:
Tin plates, plain and decorated ................do.... 10,316,133 363,550 7,790,900 441,311
Tobacco, leai and prepared......................do.... 10,667 3,589 225,067 31.73S
.ti. ... r sundriea ....................................... ... ... 1 1.I ... 15,2.14
Toilet requoisites............................... .......... .......... .. :.' ............. 29.151
T. l h, -. .-!- and pasto................................ .. ........ 6,408 ..... ..... 15 231
'] [.'. % 11 r and accessories ........................................ ,741 ........... 6,440
1 m1.1r.l; cotton, Japanese................. nmber.. 515,927 111. 4 ..'. 154,714
Under ear ................................... ., 8-1 ,3 'I .' *-i ii 22..7 3),. 22'
Varnish ....................................... .hI.' 10,451 R, 196 11, 190 I, 7I.
Watchtl .................................. rrili.r.. 3,429 3,279 5,986 10.239
.'. table, bottled....................do n (quarts.. 36,310 1.012 23,048 ,i'. '.
li im. I. ., i h. i i, sake ................... do .... ,. *. 11; C,617 65,929 40,871
Woo;len I .. ................... ... ............. ..... '..., ............ 114,494
WVolen and cotton mixtures .......................... .. 1 .. : .......... 101,123
Zinc........................ ................ i !l.. 1 6(8,798 5,557 228,400 67,133
Allother .......................................... ... ...... ...... 2, .03 ............ 2,139,282
S.. ... ...... ....... .............. ................. .. 26,503,595 ............ 40,718,709

a The 1., :dli,: --provisions and household stores, n. c. s.," includes the following items of the Chineso
Mairilime i u-?r-m returns: Biscuits, butter, cheese, chocolate (sweetened), cinnamon, cloves, coffoo
(raw), confectionery, ham and bacon, macaroni and vermicelli, meats 1':: tr'. .-d in tins, milk l: fli.m)I,
uulmegs, Ipre rves, and raisins and currants.

Increase in Value of Yarn and Thread Imports.
Cotton 1,! i, alnd cloth are necessities for all iimust be had r. :trh'l-- of Iite econmliir conditiI!-s cxi-.tiil in the
country. No substitutes ( a i be found. The cotton yarn of all sorts
and fi-iiii all sources imported in 1914 amounted to 57,326,400 pounds,
in 1915 to 67,7!4.400 pounds, and in 1916 to 72,1s'-.133 pounds; these
are the gri-- imports, while the for,"_",iln.. table indicates the net
imports only. During 1916 Ja pa l: supplied practically all of this
trade. Formerly British India and other p:arls of the world sup-
plied a limited amount, but these have entirely disappeared from
the list of ',i,,intries supplying Hankow. J:apalInese yarn was im-
pnrrted into Ilankow in 1916 in excess of the preceding year by 90.000
bale:s. Even the min,',.rized v:yan, which was not imported into
Hankow from Japan until after the Chinese revolution, is gaining
g-round!1 echwl year. This trade both in the old established brands









CHINA--HANKOW.


and in the new articles is controlled by Japane e firms, which keep
large stocks in Hankow, from which they sell daily to the local trade.
The following table gives a more complete analysis of the net im-
ports of yarn and thread in 1915 and 1916 than is given in the preced-
ing table:

1915 1916
Yarn and thread.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.

Cotton yarn................................. pounds.. 43,327,200 $5,102,667 37,882,933 $6,024,007
Gray and bleached-
English............... ............... do.... 6,400 1,235 ............ ...........
Indian...............................do .... 91,467 100,413 458,2d7 6J,097
Japanese................................do.... 41,538,933 4,755,152 36,946,933 5,772,518
Dyed, mercerized, and gassed-
Japanese.................. ........do.... 890,100 245,.67 477,600 IS3,317
O therdo ............................. .. .. .................... .. 133 73
Cotton thread............................................ .......... 28,783 4,2
In balls, mercerized, etc.......................... 30, 800 10,939 43,200 20,847
On spools-
50 yards............................... gross.. 4,039 2,941 3,835 4,479
100 yards......................... do.... 6,423 10,220.....................
200 yards................................ do.... 752 2,573 2,383 13,862
I00 yard .............................do.... 275 1,135 715 4,90
1,000 y rds...............................do.... 10 77 40 608
Other.................................do.... 617 898 1,664 3,588
Total, yarn and thread................... .................... 5,131,50 ........... 6,072,295

The United States does not supply any of the cotton yarn. China
is increasing its output of yarn of the coarser grades to No. 16, but
does not nearly supply the demand. Though the raw product is
plentiful in China, labor is cheap, and other cotton mills are being
erected, yet Japan has a monopoly of the import market, which is
growing rather than diminishing in importance.
Sources of Cotton-textile Imports.
Cotton textiles constitute 18.3 per cent of the net total direct
import trade of Hankow. The following table shows the sources of
net imports of certain grades of textiles in 1915 and 1916:


Tot
Articles.
Pieces.


1915.
Drills............ ....
Flannels, plain, dyed,
and printed..........
Jeans ..................
Sheelings, gray, plain..
Shirtings, plain:
Gray.................
White.................
T cloth.................
Total............
1916.
D rills ..................
Flannels, plain, dyed,
and printed..........
J.Teans...................
Sheetings, gray, plain..
Shirtings, plain:
Gray..............
W hite................
T cloth. ...............
Total............


238,946
33,817
221,649
65,141
54, 368
5441,792
77,495
1,732,208

172,602
31,730
248,179
54,228
563,322
487,427
48,952
1,606,440


al. American. British.

Value. Pieces. Value. Pieces. Value.


$546,671 14,225 $36,985 3,412 $11,105
79,~'0 30,723 62,988 1.850 3,884
412,999 ................. 120,434 232,156
160,999 14,530 28,297 41,8l1 117,047
1,040,626 3,630 8,179 464,578 880,493
1,407,783 .200 803 511,632 1,321,361
148,238 ........ ...... 70,035 139,327
3,797,066 | 3,308 137,252 1,213,792 2,705,373

4R0,071 16,875 56,704 1,010 3,843
94,215 14,504 42,017 901 2,291
602,944 ................. 61,191 15-, 804
174,005 5,730 15,991 37, 238 126,860
1,506,299 O20 1,292 331,419 918,247
1,574,001 .... ......463,897 1,494,716
117,196 ...... ......I. 42,444 106,775
4,548,731 37,629 116,037 953S,100 2,S11,536
1"~I I"''js~~a .1,3


Japanese.

Pieces. Value.


221,309
6,244
98,560
8,760
77,160
7,450
6,660
426,143

134,717
16,280
185,388
11,260
211.033
17,86 )

596,538


$498,581
12,87Q
176,371
15,655
151,954
18,331
7,051
880,821

419,521
49,753
440,495
31,151
583. 736
58,434

1,585,098


26836--17-52i--2









10 SUI1PLEMIENT TO COMMIERCe i REPORTS.

Gross Imports of Various Kinds of Piece Goods.
Considering the importance of this group, the following statistics
compiled by the Briti-h Chamber of ICo.,lnm rce, IIankow, from the
daily customs returns will be interesting as showing the gross im-
ports of piece goods in contrast to the foregoing table, which gave
the nmt. imports:

Cotton goods. 1914 1915 1910

J','n', .. ]'lP -. J'lCL .9.
Cotton printed ........................................... ............. IQ?, 1S2 99,505 64,309
t'. i i.,n.. ,i .rkey ... ..................... ......................... 17 55,782 82,044
Ihl l .......... ................................................ 377,416 281,831 234,445
1-1 nim I ................................ ... ....................... 42,951 1. 'l'i 40,413
Italians, black and colored......................... ...................... 313,127 314,'i12 229,952
.I t. .. a r-, ....................... ........................... .......... .. 255,839 249,276 283,565
I i**,i .. ...................................... ........................ 35,706 37,736 31,999
."I,.. In ray........... ............. .... .. ............................ 76,205 102,485 107, 1'S
S lii i .
.1 ... ...... ... ............... .............. ..... ....... ....... 577, S68 G;N ,321 i51,740
'.', I ,. .............................................................. 712,416 *"..079 620,655
T ,lfbr 1 ra, and(I bleached............................................... 59,461 ,232 51,122
'tI I in an elvc teens............................... ................. 198,807 a417,493 Vcuvtiais, black anl colored........... .............................. 112,523 120,828 106,843

a Yards.
Review of the Year in Piece-Goods Trade.
The following coninient on the piece- goods trade is taken from the
report of the British Chamnber of Comllerce in Hankow:
The year 1916,. i'ri thie phi,'.---_,,i dealers' piiii of view, must be consid-
ered a nl one. With a steadily rising market and supplies in reasonable
Il'l iiity -...1. pri'i- were realized in nearly all des(cril)tiins of Ipiece goods.
In -i.iys the imports were only laboutt 1 per (,cent below those of 1915 .il,1
about "3 per ceint below the 1914 i-'_ir',,. IlHre the competitionn of the Japanese
mills was Imost keenly felt, and in jeanls (especially it may be said that the
Ir11tdr. if not naturally gone from Mancliester, bids fair to finish in tihe near
future. In shlirtings anid sheetiii-- Malnchester lhas still a fair portion of the
trade, but tHle proximity of '.1.Iin,. and her ability to lay down ,,1-1 not only
prolmlptly but comparatively cheaply, is telli- in these lines also. In whites
the iiiport for 1910 was ;a)boiit 1' per cent less than 1915. Here .1\ii,'l, *t'r
goods still hold tlie market. A fair business l:has been ldone in blacks, al Il,,-'i
Ita:lians have fallen off by 28 per cen11 a1nd eniietians by about 15 per cent as
coiimpatred with 1915. In poplinis not 1iuclih direct business lhas been done.
dealers dra\ ini their iilppllii-4 mostly from Sli:irlii.
Deliveries have been fairly good. Stocks are now down to a Very -.11'v level
and 1i1('ch old cargo must have been learnedd from godowns. The hii-Il values
rulii.:. at home tended to ir'..illy 1e' r1o ;-- the firin-offer busiiiess and the tend-
('i1 1 v seems to be in tlhe direction of a return to the old Ioerchllant l ra:liing.
E', change IlI>l 111 11 01ons were evidently somewhat ,.-yiil lthe desire of even
Chianese traniders, and there wa;s a great wish on their part to buy in taels, the
.-dIrlili- price l:ie(_ converted at the rate of the d.iy. The heavy bank penauil-
ties for forward delivery inmade this iiiiii--ill, and many ('olitracts conse-
quently fell Ilir,,ir'li.
In p1-:-iii-, it imay be reported that there has not been much complaint about
the outturn of dyed annii. and the British iialiiioi'iii'-rers must be ,con'''rii-
lated on i.,l-iniI the dye question iso s:il i.l' ;i rily in a limited lime.
American Piece Goods Giving Place to Those from Japan.
It is greatly to be regretted that American participatioi in the
cotton piccr-g,'ods trade is litiini:-iiiing. Last year offered the great-
e.O-t, opportunity for the United Statv-, to participate in this important
branch of trade that it had ever had, kit imports from that country
diminished instead of increa-ini:. The Ma:Lchester mills have found
great difficulty in supplying this market, and the United State.s-








CHINA-HANKOW. 11

could easily have taken advantage of this opening. bejeause no other
country enters into competition in the same grades. A careful study
of the imports of piece goods confirms the capture of this market by
Japan. Japanese merchants have established agencies with their own
nationals in Hankow and sell the piece goods that are manufactured
in Japan from warehouses without the delay of ordering from mills
on the other side of the world.
Kerosene Imports and Their Sources.
The following statement gives the imports of kerosene at, Hankow
in 1915 and 1916 from various foreign countries and Hongkong and
from Chinese ports, the reexports to Chinese ports, and the net total
imports:

Imports from foreign I Imports rroni Re ports Ili
countries ani hinee ports hinese port-. Ner ooel im-orl.
KIIids of oil. Hongkong.
1915 1916 1915 1916 1915 191'. 191 191;

American: Gallorw. Gallons. Ga llons. Gallons. Gallons. Gallon.*. Gallons. Gallons.
In ecase........ 6, ,153 ..I.T .... ...... .......... 46,658 3,613,550 1,115,000 2,890,603 .......
In bulk........ 15,574,007 110,945,905 ........ 2,130 5,880,920 2,942,351 9,6q3,087 8,005.684
Borneo, in bulk.. 9,687,711 2,242,897 241.331 143,092 2,092,600 639,600 7,S36,442 1,746,3S9
Sumatra: 2
In case.... .................... 260,0000 142,620 ... ...8,000 260,000 134,620
lu bulk........ 1,490,270 ......... 3,54,113 4,084,013 1,109, 600 1,136,410 3,625,783 2,947,603
Total....... 33,256,141 13,18,802 4,046,444 4,418,513 12,996,670 5.5,S41,361 24,305,915 12,834,296

Consumption of Oil Reduced by High Prices.
It is apparent that at the beginning of 1916 the stock of American
case oil amounted to 1,068,342 gallons. The foregoing table shows
the contraction in the consumption of oil, even after due allowances
are made for the stock on hand at the close of the year. The price
of oil increased more than 60 per cent during 1916, owing largely to
the very high freight rates, which in the case of oil coming from the
United States amounted to more than eight. times the former rates.
As a result of the high price that the two companies (one American
and one European) found it necessary to charge the consumers, there
was no extension of the trade into new territory during the year.
and even in the old territory the consumption was considerably re-
duced. Many of the Chinese, because of the high price of kerosene,
returned to the use of vegetable oils for lighting purposes. This was
particularly noticeable in the western districts.
Review of Metal Trade-Increased Machinery Imports.
According to the report of the British Chamber of Commerce the
import trade in metals and sundries was fairly active in 1916, most
of the trade being in metals. The report states:
In spite of the high prices ruling in all countries of production and the
great difficulties in deliveries and shipments, dealers came away with good
orders in the early part of the year for wire nails, galvanized sheets, wire,
bars, and tin plates, but more especially for nails. By the summer it was
clearly seen that the high prices ruling at the end of 1915 and the consequent
big profits earned by dealers had brought about considerable overbuying in
1916, and this not only in Hankow, but also in Shanghai and Hongkong. The
market became glutted, and weak holders brouIght values down much below
replacing cost, these conditions continuing practically to the end of tho year.








SL'UPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


While importers may have done fairly well, most dealers are somewhat
to the bad on t lie total of the year's %working.
'l'hTi sundries market was not at all brisk, but a certain amount of business
has mon tlirniigli, mostly, however, in the shape of purchases from Ihe
Shanghai market instead of direct tr:ildiui to Hankow.
The i Iachineryic imports were very much greater in 1916 than
thoe hi:;i been since tlhe outbreak of the European war. This was
du1. to ai conideraldh extent, to the demands of the Canton-Hankow
Railway and to new machinery iin-talled in one of the local Gold-
storage plants and in other developnlent work.
lumber and Automobile Imports Show Big Increases-Hardware Trade.
In 1910 thle imports of softwood lumber incrca-cd to 13(,:.'076ti0
square feet, as ag;iin-(. 2.'.'99,557 square feet during the preceding
y\L':. Mich of this lumber \as imported for the erection of build-
ings within this con-iila r district and for the improvement of other
public work-. The timlber is imported in the form of beams and
l, g as \\ell a. planks. When in the former state it is sawn locally.
The Anmri,; i automobile has almost the entire market, and tli
c.:tums returns retur tate tliA.t the value of imported automobile.- and
parts aLr1egateld :.i',212, as against $5,625 during the preceding
year. 'Ihis seems to be very low in valuation, as a number of new
cars were received during the year. In January, 1915, 28 automobiles
were i,-gistered, while in January, 1916, 58 %re registered, of which
35 ,were American makes, 11 French, 9 British, and 3 German.
The imports of general hardware are not of coInider:ble impor-
tance, but various other hardware items are of great importance.
Nails \,ic, ciiontrated for in laihg quantities at the I.beginning of
the year; but, owing to the fall in price and the large stocks- im-
ported, the market was not so brisk at the conclusion as it was
during the first half of the year.
large Purchases of Provisions and Glassware.
The United States supplied more provision' than during previous
years owing to the popularity of Ae:ri,.;in products omi-c introduced
and to the partial o'nii a r'g plhired upon the exportation of some
articles of food from the Europ a:in belligerent cin( ries and colo-
nim. An .ri';in butter is not so well known as American cream and
milk, which are extremely popular.
Gla--\;ar'e remains very expensive notwilh-htmilding the iiira.-ed
imports from $70,855 in 1915 to $16) ,999 in 1916. Amnri-'an: winl,\
gla-s continu,- to be found on the local market, but the Japanese
are )lpp)lying this article in increased J:quaities. Of th, 22,744
bo.\a-, it is impossible to i.- ertain what proportion w a;i lipplied by
the United States, but it is safe to say that the amount supplied by
Japan is g'r.i.ter than that by the American manufactriier.-. Before
the war this item was supplied lIrgely from Belgiui, and if Ameri-
can prices had permitted competitition with the cheap grades imported
from Japan the Unitoed States should have taken the place of Bel-
giuim in supplying this market, because in enich country it was a
more or l--, new export indn-t ry.
Scarcity of Dyestuffs-Growing Demand for Small Articles of Clothing.
The local market hia, not leL' 'n supplied sat isfaulrily with dyes,
which formerly came from Germa:ny. Aniline dyes have not re-









CHINA-HANKOW.


turned as an item of import. Indigoes of various kinds have been
imported in larger quantities, but not yet in sufficient. quantities to
meet the requirements. Dyestuffs remain high.
The United States is not exporting to Hankow any quantity of
ready-made clothing except such staple articles as boots, shoes, socks,
garters, and braces. These were imported from the United States
in larger quantities than in previous years, and it is confidently ex-
pected that many similar articles formerly obtained from Europe
will be imported from the United States in the current year and
during the continuance of the war. This is a limited market, but
it is well worth the consideration of American exporters, who should
handle their lines through their own representatives visiting periodi-
cally the various treaty ports or through their agents in Shanghai.

Export Trade, by Articles.
As the world conditions were such as to cause a shrinkage in the
usual output of raw products the high rate of exchange did not
deleteriously affect the export, trade of Hankow during 1916. Since
the world's markets were short of many raw products, the high prices
obtained counteracted the high rate of exchange in Chinn, which.
under normal conditions. would have made it difficult to maintain
the export trade in competition with similar articles from other
sources. As it was the exports of Hankow increased from $71.326,-
994 in 1915 to $101,6S0,431 in 1916. Hankow is primarily a port of
exports. Many firms have recognized this by establishing branches
here a1nd others will do so to be near the source of raw products.
The direct exports to foreign countries are given in the Chinese
Maritime Customs returns at $10,294,766. The following table fur-
nishes a statement of the quantity and value of the principal exports
(including reexports) from Hankow to foreign countries and Chinese
ports in 1915 and 1916:


Articles.


Al. unien:
Dried ................................. puunds.. 2,207, 67
Liquid ......................................do.... 45, 93.1
Antimony, crude and rcjlu ......................do.... 2t, .-2, 400)
Bean icke .................. ................. do.. 297,652,133
Beans ...........................................do ...I 0,03S, 3.1
Bones...................... .. .. ............ ..... do.... 1I,4.'.2. 4-i)
B ran..................................... .do.... 1 9I~ 267
Bristle.; .............. ... ................ .... o..... 10S, 133
Chestnuts ....................................... do. ... 1,Q18,667
Chickens, frozen..............................umber..i 7S, 434
Cigarc tes. .................................. pounds..! 2, S'9, 700
Coke ......... .................................. ons..I 2,550
Cottnn, raw ................................... pounds..' 62, 58.S, S00
Eggs and egg products:
Eggs, fresh..............................umbcr.. 16,197,997
Eggs, frozen............................ pounds.. 12,347,8'37
Egg-yolk, dry ..............................do.... 2,752,267
Egg-yolk, liquid ............................do... 7, t92, 80(
Flour .............................. ........do.... 29,924, 40)
Gallnuts.................. .......................do... 7,907,333
Hair, human...................................do.... 56,800
Hem p..................................... ..... do.... 2,857,467
Hidos:
Ass.......................................... do.... 154,133
Buffalo ...... ............. ..................do .... 3,063,467
Cow......... .............................do.... 30.934, 00
Inlrlsine. pig. idried ...................... l... o .: Ir2, 2"1


$737,358 2,24., 067
5,073 .07,600
1,346,619 21, 849, 87TO
2.172.29,3 300,067,807
1, '4,3 526 '211,136,266
69,778 9,351,067
103,725 21.054,333
1,013,2,1 2,716,267
27, 124 9'114, 410
65, 80 752,234
585,833 3, 9C3,200
11, 136 i 1,17
5.592,031 103j,5 5,2
It


53,531
4*12, 716
320,592
417,363
630,201
57, 6S9
6,573
103, 211
27,564
295,192
6,416,256
-?4, _2r


30, 721,2.0
18, 9;4, 4M0
3,7SO,533
4,S87, 467
20.,271,2011
5,400,133
109,200
1,27, 200
113,467
3, 006, n
26. 63., 200
105, 467


Value.


93,731
149,745
4,628,802
2,796,145
2,298,308
7.5, 030
147, 915
1,21, 557
19,313
69, 628
1,122,55q
10,.04
13, 214,377
142,500
1,074,669
850,194
340, 056
93-1,210
710,143
16,519
71, 0 1
27,702
395,466,
7,281,796
32,214


Quantity. Value. Quantily.










SUPPI1..M1.-\ I TO COMMIERi'I: REPORTS.


Articles.


Ql


Q u nl iity.


Iron and mild steel a:
Rails ....................................long tons.. .1 2I'l
O their .......................................do.... I', I
Iron ore ..........................................do.... 300,620
Tron, pi.1 .........................................do.... 84,246
Lily tl er, dried .............................pounds.. 1,533,733
oils:
Bean ........................................ d .... 13, 76 667
Nut and wood ............................... (do.... 80, (04, 8()
Th.1'i -I ........................... .....do.... 5,769,333
.r -.Anli -- I ................................do.... 1,442,400
Tea ..........................................do.... 1,917,600
Peanuts (groundnuts):
In shells ................................... (o.... 3,286,933
Kernels ..................................... do..... IIo s. '21;. 1, ti
i.i -. i '. r................ ....................do... .,2 I..
1 .i .* .. ................ .................... do.... .*' *iI :' ;
Seed s:
Rape ............... .....................do.... 47,15>7,600
Sesame ...................................... o.... 236, 606,267
- I cake, cotton, ir te. and sesame..............do.... 36., 1. 138
Silk cocoons, refuse and waste...................do.... 2, 12, 000
Silk, Ilonan pongee.............................do.... 510,500
Silk, raw, yellow.................................do.... 47, 733
Silk products, n. s..............................do.... 945, 867
Skins:
Kid and goat ..............................do.... 1, 80, 089
Lamb and sheep .........................number.. 189, 475
Tallow:
Animal..................................pounds.. 11,28;5,333
Vegetable.................................. do.... 28, 618, 933
Tea.............................................do.. 150,545, 6
Tin...................................... do.... 261,467
Tobacco:
Leaf.........................................do.... 12, 168,267
Prepared ................................... do.... 8,432,800
Walnuts:
In shells .... .............. ............... do... 294,000
Kernels..................................... do.... 1,917,600
Wheat........................... ...............do... 3". 2,91. SO0
Wool, sheep's..................................do .... 1 11.i,2'..
\All other articles ...................................................

T total .......................................... ............


)15 1916


Value. Quantity. Value.



$116, 754 8,883 $333,794
142,535 11,176 456,402
416,133 287,503 780,142
1,400,863 103,713 2,320,294
93,470 1,089,600 92,396
4182,694 20,152,133 976,483
3,693,327 94,832,800 6,547,680
207,427 2,238,933 104,453
48,132 3.i071 ,> 7 145,032
68,907 1,372, bou 63,961
:;. 774 351,067 5,016
2,241,785 39,730,400 1,115,604
S262,945 358,533 462,699
1,316,511 23,025,200 1,838,775

488,538 4,178,400 59,209
.1,:; .:. ;' 124,154,933 3,239,309
17.I. l:2 18,550,400 118,469
1o.. 2r.' 3,086,800 536,114
.7 ., 1i 481,733 708,054
106,533 734,400 1,297,275
1,136,399 58,134 119,824
761,360 3,132,132 1,741,699
253, 604 160,627 244,215
338,827 15,314,133 1,311 G.'I
1,463, 312 41, 684,400 :. ..I ',.%
17,917,665 133,132,467 17, .. 1,..,;
33,913 177,200 51,715
365, 877 1 ".. **~'. 600 643, 606
1,123,489 ",II.,067 1,042,179

5,695 189,867 4,675
83, 172 2,702,533 138,835
108,435 203,631,600 2,724,269
51,142 1,948,933 137,617
7,920,998 .......... 13,478,353
71,526,991 ............ 101,680,431


a Manufactured by the Hupch Iron & Steel Works.

Exports of Principal Articles and Their Destinations.

The following table shows the 1916 exports from Hankow of 11
articles s of considerable importance*, together with the countries and
ports of d(-fiiiation, and the totals complaredlc with total exports of
tlle same articles in 1915 and 1914:


Destinat ion. Cow
hides.


Tons.
I united States ......................... 5,212
I nit ed Kingdom ....................... 147
France................. ................ 427
S .. .............................. 1,275
- ',r iI .......... .................. ... .. ..........
I' l ...................... .. ........... 1,775
Shanghai.............................. 2,116
Other ............................... ... .....
T..I .I, 1916 ....................... 10 952
Total, 1915....................... 13,708
Total, 1914 ........................ 10,872


hides.
hides.


Goatskins. Bristles.


Tons. Kumbber. Tons.
680 1,1(67,226 212
178 ........... 591
53 II .'. 141
IS ............. 61
.......... I............ I..........
S.... .. ..I 141 97
434 1,768,426 105
.......... ...... ...... ......" "

1,363 3,0416,143 1,207
1,366 1,805,028 1,306
1, 811 1,606, 797 1,037


d


Woo<


Tons.
23,532
624
214
72
44
s52
8,138

33,476
26,109
32,192


Sesame
seed.


Tons.

14,791
3,157
15,401

1,450
8,157
7,581

50,537
100,457
55,824


_ ~~ __


~-~~~----1L--









CHINA-HANKOW.


Tallow.
Destination. Gallnuts. Beans. China Cotton.
grass. Ve-
table Animal.

Tons. Tons. Tons. Ton. Ton,. Tow.
Da edigtates ............................. 826 .......... 38 .520 1,4S, ..........
United Kingdom.......................... 551 29,438 301 156 5, 105 287
France.................................... 51 .......... 571 107 1,068 79
Italy........................................................ 1 154 4,344 515
3apan..................................... 26 1,552 4,812 15,942 160 1,193
Shaznha .................................. 6IS 56,229 1,097 29,740 3,012 1,634
ong ong................................ .......... 17 .......... ....................
Other ............................... ............ ........ .. ..... 19%8 21i
Total, 1916.......................... 2,072 87,237 6,967 46,D24 15,405 3,923
Total, 1915....................... 3,221 71,393 U,094 17,147 11,422 2,433
Total, 1914....................... 2,903 117,159 5,921 9,322 12,061 2,817

Decline in Tea Trade.
By far the most important item of export from Hankow is tea.
Last year saw a general increase in the difficulties of shipping, and
the buyers had great trouble in obtaining space for their require-
ments, especially to Europe. The London tea buyers were greatly
disappointed owing to the high exchange price, which practically
shut off the exports of fine teas to the United Kingdom. Regard-
less of the high exchange and freight rates- the Russian buyers
bought almost the whole crop of fine teas. It is stated that the
quality of the 191G crop was distinctly inferior to that of the pre-
ceding year, which, however, was exceptionally fine. The market
opened at Hankow on May 17, 1916, a little late because wet weather
and the cold spring prevented earlier arrivals. The weather had an
unfavorable effect on the quality, and with the single exception of
Lingchow all districts were much below the average, especially in
style and infusions. From the opening the demand, except for
Keemun, which sold readily, was sluggish, and the price fell more
or less gradually until October, from which time the small remain-
ing stock was disposed of at hardening rates. The native dealers
lost heavily, but the foreign shippers had in general a good season.
The Chinese lost so heavily from the first crop that they agreed not
to make second crops, and in theory they also agreed to put a fine
of 6 taelsaper pieul of 133, pounds in case any dealer disr.;egarded
this agreement.
The following table shows the teas of all kinds exported direct
to the principal foreign countries from Hankow in 191C and the
total exports of each kind of tea in 1915:

Destination. Black. Brick. Tablet nd Total.
dust.

Pounds. Pounds. Poun~. Pauny'.
Continent of Europe (except Russia'-: North Sea port?.. 4.82, t'7 .............. 2,..67
Russia-.
European ports........... ....................... 7,833, % 7 ........... ........... 7, :1, 33,
Pacific port ....................................... 10.,033,3 8,40,5533 219,200 IN, 7 1,0"h;
Russiaand Siberia, by stand frontier ports.............. 1,00 ........................ .... l,0i
fLanada............................................... .. .. .. ,000
Ignited Stntes....................................... 192,500 ... ............ 019 I0.
Total, 1916..................................... 19,4S2.?67 8, i.0,31 2.49,200 2 .,2i2,000
Total, 1915...................................... 29,5 ,000 II, 11,1!5,733 I, 540, 07; 12,241, W00

*The values of the Hanhow tael for the four quarters of 101G are given .-; follow< in
the quarterly statement or the Pirector of the Mint: $0 6I459, .4 7713. $0.7C0-2, and
90.8343.







SUPPLEMENT TO COM MIEIICE REPORTS.


Tea Expoits to the United States-Brick and Cube Tea.
Although the M1iaritime Cii-sil oi report state that tea valued at
S32,847 was shipped direct to the Uniteil States, the declared-export
return of this consulate geler.al shows tlhat 3,170.005 pounds, valued
t $577,570, were shipped to the United States in 1916. The fore-
going table taken from the customs indicates the destinatllion of the
tea sold on the ITankow market and the relative importance of the
co( .-1i ,ini g countries. This table does not cirres-pond to that appear-
ing in the gei.ier.al table of exports of principal article-., because it
indicates the direct trade, while the general table indicates the total
exports.
All the brick tea manufactured in Hankow is shipped to Russia.
It is not likely that it would be :uaceplable to the Amnericann market,
though some believe that the cube tea, which is in compre-ed form,
would not only be :'rcept able to the Ameri'ain market. but would be
a convenient form for many tea user.-. This tea is compressed
without being steamed and without the addition of any foreign lmat-
ter and is usually of a higher grade than brick tea. Black tea is the
chief item of importance of Ilankow and is shipped to all parts of
the world. Very little green tea is sold on this Iarkietl.
High Price of Cotton-Cow and Buffalo Hides.
Raw cotton wa:- greatf;ly sought after in 1916, and cosl.equently it
assumed the secondd place. The price was hiihl, rc-ponding to the
high Aiiieri'a.ii quotations. The arrivals at the beginning of Sep-
tember were quoted at 20( taels per picul for Liho to 23 t:cl, for
Shansi. The price fluctuated between the limits of 18.50 and 24
t;el.- per picul to the end of the year. The exports abroad were
chiefly to Japa:ll. whence the cotton would be ret iurnied in the form of
varn anld piece goods. The total exports :a,_'regatetd 47.270 long
tiin. ()nly 154,537 worth was shipped to the [Inited States.
Cowhidetl arrived in smaller quantities than in 1915, though prite-
were higher. During the first part of the year prices were firm and
the quotations. rose 20 per (ceit for autumn, with infrequent arrivals.
Buffalo hide.- maintained a bout the -a;L quantities as in 1915, but
greatly inre:l-ed in value. The United States purchli:-.d both tli te
items in larger quantities than formerly, though the deImand for
buffalo hides came rather late. The IUnited Stales received (l.6t8.:i:.'
worth of cow and buffalo hides.
Wood-oil Trade Unsettled-American Market Substituted for European.
Thle market for wood-oil opened in January at 10.20 taels per piciil
:nd reiminiiid steady until the beginningi of February. The Prov-
inces in which wood oil is produced are Szechwan. Kweichow, and
iiuniii. In Fe)brunry no wood oil could be marketed because all
available junks and lthir crews weie connmandetier by the military
;:thoritie- for the transport t ion of troops. The nm.irket was finally
opened on February 24 at 13.20 taels but i imtcdiately adv tii ed to
14 taels. which was the highest price paid. During March the oil
that had been started from Szeichwan while junks were still avail-
able, :,be'gai to arrive and the price receded very rapidly. From
March to December the limits of the price fluctuation were 9.20 and
11.60 t;Otl-. The end of December found the IIankow market bare of
stock and very little wood oil afloat from the interior.
The exports from IIankow to the Unitel States invicrea', 75 per
cent over 1915. while the exports to Europ' were 60 per cent -ma1ller







CHINA-HAN KOW.


than in 1915 and the shipments to Chinese ports, etc., 16 per cent
smaller than in 1915.
Some shippers complain that American buyers are too exacting
in testing the quality of the oil, often making claims against cargo
that has been found of high quality by eastern analysts. It can
be stated, however, that while the tests for this article are considered
simple, there was last year no independent local analyst prepared
to undertake this work. The United States purchased $4,323,854
worth of wood oil in 1916, against $1,622,434 worth in 1915.
Steady Market for Antimony-Heavy Demand for Vegetable Tallow.
The larger part of the antimony shipped from this port origi-
Mates in Hunan Province and arrives here for sale or after being pur-
chased by a local firm for export; a very small part of it is smelted
in local furnaces. The trade is largely in the hands of Japanese
firms. There was not the fluctuation in price during 1916 that the
previous year witnessed. It would seem that the demands have be-
come reasonably well established, so that no abnormally high prices
have been seen. The demand has been mo:e or less constant at lower
values per picul, ranging for regulus from 276 taels up including
packing and export duty. The United States purchased $259,232
worth in 1916 and $110,694 worth in 1915.
Vegetable tallow is one of three articles for which there was an
unusually heavy demand at very high prices, the other two being
cotton and goatskins. All through the year the price was high; in
the autumn of 1916 white vegetable tallow sold at 18 taels per picul,
or over 50 per cent higher than in the preceding year. When the
higher exchange is considered, the 1916 price represents a huge rise
in foreign money. The output was increased about one-fourth. The
demand seemed to come from Russia, and local firms state that the
quality was not maintained for this market. The United States took
$252,716 worth.
Activity in Goatskin Trade-Sesame Seed, Gallnuts, Beans, Etc.
There was an unusually active market in goatskins, which reached
its height in November. Quotations per picul of mostly white skins
averaging 2 pounds, 50 per cent short, 30 per cent medium, and 20
per cent long hair, were 155 taels. One buyer stated, regarding this
period, that the market was at fever heat, and a rise of 50 taels or
more between the opening and closing quotations on the same day
was not uncommon." The quantity shipped, 3,132,132 pieces, reached
the highest point since 1907 and was two-thirds greater than in 1915.
To the United States were shipped goatskins valued at $1,044,712.
Sesame seeds were exported in smaller quantities, owing chiefly to
poor crops and scarcity of tonnage. Gallnuts were much higher in
price, though the shipments were smaller. Beans commanded as
good prices as in the former year, but, as in 1915, were exported in
smaller quantities than usual. The exports went largely to Liver-
pool. Animal tallow was exported in quantities 50 per cent greater
than during any of the last 15 years. Bristle supplies have been
scarce in the short lengths, and for the longer bristles demands have
been made principally from the United States.
Trade in Egg Products Increasing.
The exportation of eggs and their products is increasingly impor-
tant for Hankow. The transportation facilities are particularly











18 S'lPP'I .IrEMENT T() CO \.\I I.IE-.1 I .i'RTS.

.-titable fwor tlie c(ollectiion (ll f .' _'- here, and many plants have been
established for their dessieation. Tlh following table furnishes a
'co(,lp raltivle -tatemenit 0of exports of e(-'' and e.' products in 1915
and 1910:

1915 191G
\ t icles.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.

,11 ,..n..i l id .... ........................... pImoi ds.. 2,207 S,,. $737,358 2. .' ,.067 Si'.5i.731
I L.'. i II ..................................... do.... 48,, ; :,, n7' :-,1, 00 14' 7, 745
i._-. 1 1. ................................... umber.. 1-. 17:,097 ", ".i1 30,7-'21.20 12'
: ,- il.. en.................................pounds.. .' ,867 *102,716 18, ', o 1,074,669
1 ricd ......................................... do.... 2,752,2 7 320,592 3, 780,533 .S I
iquid................................ ........ do.... 7, 92,800 417,303 4,887,407 '.I1i 0o
Total ............... ................................ ........ ... 1,99 ............ 3, 5 0, 895

Only the (,de-lccaed Ic .i was shippLed to the United1 Stat'-.
Remarkable Growth of American Purchases from Hankow.
The following table gives a comparative statement of the value of
the declared exports to the United State.-, in 1915 and 1916, as in-
voiced through the Hankow consulate geir.liu l:

1915 1916
Articles.
Quantily. Value. Quantity. Value.

Albumen:
Duck, dry................................... pounds...... ... 13,889
Hen, dry........................................do.... 392,145 $160, 685 .L' iii ].0, I;;
Frozen........................ ............do ... 980,680 '51,498 015,040 ;. ..**
.\ulimonvy:
Crude................................ ... ... ..... ... 61, .94 0, 171
I ala ......... ...... ..................................... 4 ,0i ............ 199,061
1 .. i n .l ........................... ... .. ............... ... .. 2 98
irn l .- .. ..................................pounds.. 21, (X) 1:,7 059 .'.i,. .934 386,173
China grass ..................................... do.... 4-16,000 12,(84 ii, 176 1,091
Cotton, raw............................ do..... .. 572 25,491 1,153,222 151,537
Eggs:
Dry, mixed................................... do... 37, 20 12,11 113,176 23,047
Frozen................................... .....do.... 307,280 20,208 :.213,248 .-'2.,
I' -yolk:
Duck -Liquid.................. ............... do.... 130, 150 12,916 127,018 10,597
lien--
Dry .................................do.... 1,-, 1 -; 229,224 753,551 2.'.,189
Frozen..................................do..... I 49,989 764,00 -14,410
Liquid......................................do.... 13,849 1,249 ".. 638
i ...... .... .............................do............... ...... 17,000 4,619
Powder....................................do.... 1, 00 18,804 S12,400 275,046
1 :. vegetable................................... tons. .......... ...... 25 5,637
(alluuts........................................... do.... 2,4 -4,39!7 232,212 1,011,309 253,238
IHemp............... ...........................do... 7,200 (, 212 19,398 2,183
Ilih -:
Buffalo........................................do.... 891,441 109,842 1. "."7, 17.: 250, 107
Cow.............................................do .... 11,723,958 3,117,793 1,, 7'2,00.1 4,438,425
I.;"1i ............. ................ ............ ..do.... 141,742 95,597 ..
I IiI
Beau...................................... gallons.. ....',. 107,878 318,467 173,272
Cottonseed....... ........................pounds.. .'1 1,684 115,042 622,527 48,263
Rapeseed ......................................do.... 404 2,122 499,922 36,950
Soya-beanu................................. .lln .. 189,950 63,215 979,214 562,686
Tea........................................... po ... .............. 210,647 17, 15
Vegetable........................................ do.... 87,658 5,601 .....................
Wood.......... ...........................gallons.. 4,114,116 1,622,434 6,916,870 4,j32.1, ,4
Personal effects......................... ....................5,702............. 4,47
PIL' gIts ........................................ pounds. 3,258 1,149 3,259 1,248
I'jg intestines................ .................... ... .. o ..... 21,366 10,553 1,340 21,
-kin --|
I if ............................. ....... ... d, 2,507 65,535 24,363
Goat............................. ........do.. ,03,721 1,3 015 1,044,712
I' llw, egetble.............................. ... do.... 7,936,408 454,271 3,351,622 252,716
Tannin ......................... .. o............... ... 5,600 1,953
l 1 ...................................................(do..... 2,-.4,931 603,490 3,170,005 577,570
Wool, sheep's ..................................... ..do.. .............. 72,218 17,742
All other articles............................... 1,732 ........... 1,505
Total......... .. ......................... ..... ... 7,689,815 ........... 11. IS,







CHINA-HANKOW.


Returned American goods in 1916 consisted of ammonia cylinders,
valued at $4,350. Goods in transit to Canada consisted of cotton
seed, valued at $66, and wood oil, valued at $211,284. In the latter
article there was a notable increase over the 1915 figures ($15,760).
The declared exports from Hankow to the United States during
1916 reached the maximum in the history of this consulate general
and increased over the preceding year, which was the greatest to that
date, by $6,218,268. Wood oil and goat skins showed the greatest
increases in value, though the quantity of goat skins increased only
about 280,000 pounds. Increases are noted in the value of every
form of egg products exported to the United States. The exports
of egg products alone aggregated $1,068,419 in 1916, as against
$557,441 in 1915.
Largest Chinese Iron Works at Hankow-Iron and Steel Prices.
Among the many facilities offered in this district for the establish-
ment of manufacturing plants are cheap labor, water transportation,
and a great variety of raw products and available sites,though land can
not be considered cheap. These inducements have not attracted a
great number of industries nor are the existing ones, with two ex-
ceptions, of any considerable size. The Hanyang Iron and Steel
Works is the largest Chinese undertaking in the country; it is
rapidly becoming Japanese as the result of loans and trade connec-
tions. Under the name of the Han Yell Ping Iron & Coal Co.
(Ltd.) have been combined the three companies, originally closely
allied but distinct, for the mining of iron and coal and the manu-
facture of iron and steel products. There were no additions to the
Hanyang steel plant during the year nor to the new plant at Tayeh.
The reason for delay in the anticipated development at Taveh was
the failure of American and English manufacturers to forward the
needed machinery. The iron and steel plant encountered no labor
troubles during the year. The salaries and wages of its staff of 276
(of whom four are foreigners), approximately 2,000 workmen, and
2,500 laborers were raised 5 per cent during the year. The output
of the steel plant during 1916 was as follows: Rail steel, 9,535 tons;
mild steel, 33,568 tons; total, 43,103 tons.
It is stated that the price of pig iron rose 100 per cent from the
beginning of 1916 to the end of April, but later in the year dropped
30 per cent. Structural-steel material rose during the same period
approximately 60 per cent but dropped 20 per cent after July.
Pinghsiang Colliery and Tayeh Mines.
The Pinghsiang Colliery, a part of the Han Yeh Ping Iron & Coal
Co. (Ltd.), had a gross output of run-of-mine coal of 992,493 tons,
of which, less the quantity consumed by the colliery and its railways,
there was shipped out 309,718 tons of commercial coal and 253,709
tons of coke. The colliery employed on the general staff 480 to 500
persons, about one-third of whom received during the year an in-
crease in salary of 10 per cent. There are over 7,000 laborers, who
received no increase in wages.
The new installation completed in 1916 consists of one brick and
concrete building for electric power plant; three (Babcock & Wil-
cox) water-tube boilers; two sets steam turbine, each of 2,250 horse-
power; one ventilation fan, and some minor equipment. It is in-
tended to install after the war electric hoists, two electric ventilation


19









20 SUPPLEMIENT TO COMI M I1: IlC'IE Iil'EPRTS.

fans, air collmpu-.-o -, and water-pipe line. The colliery kl',p.- a
private library of catalolges. at its mine at Pinglhslng, Kiangsi,
('llina, anTd will be inteterested in re'civiiig dI riptive literature of
mlodern coal-miningl equilpilent.
The Tayeh mines are a third part of the IInl Yeh Ping coIncern.
It.- output during 1916 was as follows: Iron ore, ,io.., ._' tons; lime-
stone, 47,180 tons; dolomite, 9,.1'9. tons. The improvenllints to the
steel works previously mentioned are to be situaltd- near tlihese mines
and include a modern steel plant.
Cold-Storage Plant.
The other industry of great magnitude is the Interi ialniiilal Export
(Co. (British), having a large plant for packing cold storag.e and
allied lines. This is a stlu-idiary concern to a well-known firm of
,En1glish packers, and it runs it own stca elir. at suitable seasons to
calry away in cold storage pork, beef, chickens, game, and allied and
byproducts. Prior to 1916 beef had not been slaughtered here. No
dllt;a were available, but the Mari im e Crustoms gil\ e the following fig-
ires for the exxu)rt;t ion of floz nI products, most of which represelnt-
tlic trade of this company, as it has no opp,- ition:
1915 1916
,r t l clc .... ..
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.

Beef......................... .................. pounds.. .................. 2,768,533 $11S, 402
Chickens.......................................... number.. ":.. ,434 $65,680 752,234 t.6, 2
'-:p frozen................ .................. pounds.. 12, 1 ,867 462,716 18.!'.1. ,IJ 1,07.1,i>19
[. l ... ......... ........ .......... ................. do.... 11,200 755 i 1 IIl,3.l in0ii, 1IN
P ..........................................number.. .......... ........... 2; 1,041
I'r k r ................... ..........................do.... 4,958 18,485 12,950 98,642
Other.. ................ ............... ......... .. ....... ..... ........ 2,061
Total................ ..................................... .. 547,636............. 1,469,531

Much of the desiccated egg exported is also produced by this
company, as well as many by-products of the art iles mentioned.
Progress of Engineering Works.
The :manaI:ger of the Yangtze Engineering Work (Ltd.), a Chi-
nese organization at Hankow, imake- the following brief report of
the company's activities in 1916:
iti. company executed in this year a large amount of work for railways
and other concerns, such as steel iridgcs.. cars, points and crossings, steel
buillitr.<, lighters, pontoons, launches, and steel tanks. In flhliion, some 50
vessels (river steamers, tugs, launches, steel and wooden liMhters, aiitld pon-
toons) have been laid up at the works for repairs. In the latter part of the
year orders for several thousand tons of steel structural work were under
execution, and to meet the ever incre:i.ini demand of work from all directions,
the works had to enlarge some of its shops and to install additional machine
tools, most of which were made in its own workshops. It was also found
necessary to install a cast-steel plant and to build a floating dock; the former
is nearly comphl'tfll and the latter still under construction. In addition, the
installation of a small rolling mill was con0iderdil necessary, and pr'r'parations
were made to start the constructive work.
On the whole, the works found 191G a pretty busy year, in spite of the
dil li.-ilty of ,liit.ini i some kilnl; of material.
With the object of pr,,iiii.ntinii Chri a small chapel built last year, where services are frequently conducted. This
(Impel was built with money raised by contribution here.
Besides Imr1lini :i. afirrniolii and evening classes for our apprentices and
workmen, a public school, s'ii,,rlir.d by contributions from the staff, has been
established for th(ioe .-1l..:ion of the childlr(*n of the workmen.









OHINA-HANKOW. 21

For the convenience of those who live in the works, a certain place has
beea set aside as a market where they can obtain all their daily necessities
at reasonable prices. In addition, we have also kept a garden for their en-
josment during nonworking hours.
Cilnese Government Paper 0ill-Other Industries.
The Chinese Government paper mill in its second year produced
90,000 reams of paper, being 18,000 reams short of the 1915 output;
this was due to the scarcity of pulp and rags and inability to find
satisfactory substitutes. Owing to disturbed conditions, the cement
works at Tayeh operated only eight months in 1916, producing
147,715 casks of Portland cement, which was in excess by 20,000 casks
of the production in the corresponding period in 1915.
The Wuchang Cotton Mill had a prosperous year, producing
about 275,000 pieces of cotton cloth for which it used its own yarn.
Oil mills found it a successful year, as did most of the other small
manufacturing and smelting plants.
There are in this vicinity three aerated-water factories, four anti-
mony smelters, two brick and tile works, one candle factory, one
cement works, one cigarette company, one distillery, egg factories,
flour mills, hydraulic pressing companies, ice works, oil mills, silk
filature, six brick-tea factories, and a number of small industries
using primitive methods. Most of these, too, had a satisfactory
year.
Price Quotations for Principal Articles.
It is very difficult to express market values ,luring 1916 in
American currency. Tlhe exchange values were extremely high,
reaching a maximum of S7 cents, the highest for over two decades,
and falling s as lwas 69 cent-. The fluctuations were so ,sudden that
but littlI indication could be had of the future; a difference of 8
per cent within a week was no- unu usual. For this reason no attempt
has beeI made to reduce price qlu,(tations to American currency.
The following table shows the market value per picul (1334 poundss,
express-ed in Hankow ta:ol, of certain raw products on March 29,
June -:IS September 2T7. an l December 27, 1916. The exchange rates
for four months' bills on each lante were 71-1 cents, 75cnts 9 cents, 79 cents,
and 92- cents.
Articles. Mir. 29. June 2S. Stpl. 27. Dec. 27.
Cowhides: Tat Tl. i' Ts. Tati.
Best selected.............................................. .001) 5s3. 5. 100 63.00
Seconds.............................................................. 47.01) S.00 53.00
Ruffalo hides, No. ............................................ 27.50 25.00 24.00 25.25
Whitt fhina grass:
W uch.a g, Poochi........................................ 13.00 12.00 11.75 .........
Sinshan, hayu................................................ ... ...... 10.75 ..........
Jute (aburilon).......... ................. ...... ....... 4.00 -1.100 3.00 ..........
Talow, vegetable:
W hilte.................... ......... ..................... 12.30 12. 17.00 12.15
Green..................................................... 11.55 10.20 12.73 11.00
Tallow, animal................................................ 15.50 14.00 1.00 15.50
Gag nuts:
Usual shape.............................................. 25.50 24.00 18.50 21.50
Plur shape.............. .............................. 30.00 29.00 22.50 25.50
Lihoo...................................................... 19.75 19.75 19.00 18.35
Cotton, Shansi ................. ............................ 23.25 22.75 22.25 23.50
Bristles, black ............................................. 110.00 105.75 108.00 110.00
Steame-seed:
W hite...................................................... 4.00 4.17 4.60 5.65
Yellow ..................................................... 4.00 4.17 4.60 5.65
Bse ns, broad................................................. 1.40 1.38 1.20 1.40
Ofs:
Sesame eed............................. ...... ............ 8.55 8.95 10.30 11.50
Wood .................................................... 10.45 10.00 10.40 10. 0
Te ...................................................... 9.80 9.30 11.00 12.50
Bea ..................................................... 8.00 7.50 8.85 10.00









'2 SUPPI.IAILNI TO COMMElRCE REPOIITS.

Imports and Exports of Treasure and Coin-Revenue.
The Chini.cse Maritime Customis statistics show that the treasure
imported into Hankow during 1916 came entirely fromu Chinese ports.
Therevas a Imarked iiilrLc:ac in tih. amount of silver and cuppl)r im-
ported during 1916. The exports of silver increased, but copper fell
off gr.-itly in 1916 ai- ,lompared with 1915 and there were no ship-
mnilit-. of gold.
The following table shows lthc imp, I and exports of gold, silver,
and copper during 1915 and 1916:

Items. GI old. -.I.r. Copper. T'Iiil.

T '-,rr- ri 1915:
',ri, i::i sources ........................... .... 408 ............ $408
I hii ... sources ............................ ...... $ 427 7,90-1,960 8371,773 8,280,160
l'.ir, sources .............. ... .....................I
I .1., : .i 1916: Chine:c sources .......... ........... ..... ... 123 1, 1. 1 5, 15 06,677
EIxports to all China:
191... ........ ........................ ........ 21. ".1 ,1,774,721 17. 1 4,934,123
191 ................. ................................ ......... 503,476 ,

During 1916 the imports of coins into Hankow \u.r valued .at
sS ,200,7,(2, against $1,197,654 in the preceding yv ar, while lthe ex-
port't- of coins amounted to $6,704,305, against ":;55,972 in 1915.
The revenue collected by the Maritime Customs at IlHank dur-
ing 1916 amounted to ::,.:',:1., against $2,:;;,78; for the pre ding
Icar. There was an increase of about :',.923 in the. anlr'inll col-
Ietiled on imports. The import duty for 1916 amounted to $847.916;
export duty, 8.".08,489; coast-trade duty, ,$163,326; tonnage dues,
'47.831: and Iran-it diu-, $54,743. The total revenue collected at
the other ports in the Hankow district in 1916 was :o, follows: Kin-
kiang, $530,625: Sla-i, $14,705; Ichang, $'.i1,081.
Decrease in Shipping at Hankow-Passengers Arrived.
The following table indicates the number, nationality, and tonlage
of steam and lsailini vessels entering the port of Hankow in 1915
and 1916:

1915 1916

Nuin1l, r.i Ton Number. l'

STEAM VESSELS.
American ................................................ 175 38,720 156 45,331
British................................................... 976 1,2.3,226 1,049 1,170,594
hinese........................................................................ 927 ''.1 %05 969 :407, Is7
Danish ....................................... ............. 1 2,699 1 3,32"
Dutch........................... ........... ...2 ,60................... 2 4,60
Gemran................................................... 60 1,133 95 2. 92q
T ,i, ... ................................................... 602 84 ,4W07 608 741.706
,r .1 ........................................... ....... 5 5,303 13 22.20S
In Isin ...................................... ............... 19 16,660 14 10,411
Total steam vessels ................................. 2,767 2,681.758 2,905 2,552,690
SAILING VESSELS.
American.............................................. ................. 18 2,079
British.................................................... 240 2 92 2 270 48,053
Chinese................ ................... .......... 6,808 .17, ,' 7,316 484,798
Dutch....... ........................................5 ......... ......
(erman................................................. 121 11,7(m0 110 11,184
Apanese............................................... 1 132 32 6,396
Total sailing vessels................................ 7,181 561,792 7,746 552,510
Grand total .................. ................ 9,948 .n.213,.1 0 10,651 3,105,200








CHINA-HANKOW.


The steamers entered and cleared during 1916 numbered 5,783,
.with a tonnage of 5,106,647, while the combined entrances and clear-
ances of steamers and sailing vessels showed 21,246 vessels, with a
total tonnage of 6,208,914. This shows an increased number of
steamers, though a decrease in tonnage. In vessels entered and
cleared there was an increase of 1,117 vessels, but a decrease of 19.812
in tonnage.
American tonnage showed an increase owing to the expansion of
American interests and the arrival of a few wood-oil vessels directly
from the United States under the Amer'i-;n flag. British and Japa-
nese tonnage remained practically the same, the former still holding
the premier position. The anticipated increase in the tonnage of
Japanese steamers was not realized, though there is no question that
the vessels entered and cleared carried. considerably more cargo than
during any preceding year. A casual observer at the various piers
on the Bund must quickly realize that this nation's v'e-els are now
carrying the bulk of the cargo.
During 1916, 4,182 foreign passengers and 202,498 Chinese arrived
in Hankow by river steamers.
Foreign Population and Foreign Firms.
The customs census of foreign firing, and foreign ire.idents in the
iWuhan cities at the end of 1916 is given in the following table:

Nalionaity. Firzr. Pc: sons. Nat i'oajii Firm;. Persons.

American........ ....... .... 19 197 Jap ne. ........... ........ ?,2,4
Beldi in................. ..... .5 13 N.:r .v in .............. .... 70
British ..................... .. 6G4 ;;7 I'orl'iucse............. .. 27
DaniIh ....................... 21 -i. ..... .. 0 !
Dutch.................... ....... .. I Spin'wh ... ...... ........ .... 27
French....................... 1.) S i ................... ..... 52
Geriarn........................ 32 .
alian.a.. .. ... .. 6 .O Toa. -1' 1 i ,19

The figures given represent a substantial increase in bIoth Japa-
nese and American communities, biit, nifortun ~ atel', t hi-e' -tat tistic
do not correctly reflect the number of Amnerican residents by over 15
per cent, as they were not all registered in the consulate at the time
the statistics were p arpared.
How to Extend American Interests.
American interests in IIankow haI ( c.-oii,:lerably ii!creu:'d during
the year 1916, but not to the extent that tlihv 4inuldl hwv,. During
the year American firim-> a;c' uired property which iilhlcrti ase-s the
aggregate under American ownership to at. least $7,51()3.,000. Many
firms have opened branch offices here, and as a result the i il)ort
trade has increased as we-ll as tile export trade. Nev.rthelec. the
United States has not availed itself to the full extent of tihe wonder-
ful opportunities offered by the world war for the extension of
American trade into the heart of China. This trade extension could
be accomplished at this time with the minimum cost. and the tirm
could be placed on a self-sustaiinng basis from the very beginning,
because competition would have been reduced to the minillll in all
instances and entirely removed in many.
It would take years to work up an organization similar to the
'American or the British oil firms operating in China. but if this sys-


231




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
11fi 111i 1 Ull I lIH Il lIllflU II II I
3 1262 08485 0626

24 SUPPLEMENT TO CO'MAIL ICEI; IL'ul.'S.

tb*ii were followed in crtlailn lines it would certainly produce satis-
i';tliry results. In collecting raw products for export to the United
l:it,.-. iiiitaition of a Brilish cold-storage colnpany or an American
woIl-oil verolpany would bring sicces-. Some lines in imports and
exports are well represented, blt in mnuny others the field is not
-;,ti-f;actorily cot el'rd1 froll an American standpoint. At present
1ii 'ri.;ia 1 1u rs and sellers must depend to a large extent upon
foreign firms of copIIl,.t'ng nations to advance their interests.
Combination of Noncomnpcting American Firms.
It is thought that an aisHOLfion:l of Americln ImanulfactulrerS of
11,i'iniipcting articles cold profitably form an organization for the
divisi -n of (.xpe\nose and be represei.ted in Shanghai, Hankow, and
pn~-.illy otlier places in Chiiim. As a suggestive list of manufactures
upon which to form the basis, the following would not be out of place,
though many otherr, could be added. The leading manufacturers of
the following articles could form an as-ociation without injustice, to
one another: Electri:ll supplies, flour-mill imacline'ry, oil-mill ma-
chinery, railway locomotives, railway rolling stock, coal-n inning ma-
chinery. iron-mining machinery, motor cars, motor engines, struc-
tural-steel material, heating plants, plumbing, arsenal equipment,
rolling-mill iI,:Iliinery. cotton-mill machinery, and desiccatcd-egg
m1ills.
The cost of Ii; itiinaiiiig oflic-es in Hankow for such an a:.-uciation
of manif;:rti --Ier would be soiictliing like the following: Local man-
ager, $5,000; office rent, 1,800 taels; clerical and Chinese staff, 5,000
taels; other office expenditure, 500 taels. The total expense might be
$1,000 per month. An office could be run on less, but this is con-
sidered co,,-e-rvItive for efliliency. The maintenance of an office in
SShlanhui :i would cost more. But even should the cost be double this
a;nouint, it will fall veryli ghtly upon each individual of the associa-
tion of tiiit ifacturers.
There are many v.iys in which money might be lent with perfect
safety to i--i-t in developing Chinese industry and extending Ameri-
can sales. An association of manufacturers on thl spot would be
able to determiine which would be safe and which would be.t de-
velop the Amenricanl export trade. The first year would not be profit-
able. but this association would build up a reputati'i n for Ameri-
can intere-t- and would receive many inquiries that at pr.srent do
not rt:acl American mannufai:turers or exporters.






L S DEPO@4TORY
:~~ ---J s "J S~B"


WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 191I