Supplement to Commerce reports

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Material Information

Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00026
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00026

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text





DMMtERCE' REPORTSS

sampiriet0# FosOitRMaSi AND DOM==TI COMMECE
$$FARTE$@f COMMERCE, WAUMINTON, 1). C.

in No 19bNovember 1, 1917

rr M KINDOML


.qthe nunierof. ships engaged in the normal. traffic
Aiiught, aboiit a shortage of raw materials, and this,
ki~ng*arcify of labor, hag had a tendency to restrict
seolrie's.1nt~engagfed in special Go'vernment work.
ti stories of this district are now specializing on work
neciedsity, with the result that those manufacturers who
yng on export trade are'rapidly losing their connec-
h America ftnd the British colonies, to the advantage
Celpemet itrs, now enjoying. a remarkable prosperity,
jgiag power has been materially increased despite the
w cst of livingy~has advanced by approx'imately,90 per
abegIn'ning of the war..
-Fort in 191Ia.
enable, it to givenmaritime 8erv'ice- to a popula-
wlihin a radius of '75 -miles. Tedocks are! owned
lity and administered by a committee of the Bristol
altonag figures are not published, it is estimated
e~tree tat the totaltonnage of this port. was
th' clenaryear. 1916, an increase of 500,000 tons
(kxoageof ships ein'gaged in ordinary -traffic, how-
Ye eil 1800 O00 or 350 060. tons less than in 1915.
Ifor handy by the diminised imports of. Urain,
:zld tialber. It is alsQ tor be attributed Z6 the
brought 4 lre shipping trade with the Continent
stedatlland there Is a Wsearity of ships left for-


lae totalkv mprts a"d ocports at Bristol during the
5 .MM *; stistiesare avable 'was a': Molows:
Olt; ($14 Wfr and $12,6e6372 duti-
914^ftee and $15,030,M7 dudi
# 16.(f 4$j42 free and $16$5811707:
..... In 108 $17,4107M in 1914, and
it is apparent that imports
.'hdbianetis We since thetw Ofnnne
.. .















llaUJ S, rvIiig t1 1 LUllWHL1aU U Ui.
began:


Mtuu UU.LUru lutl


Articles. 1913 1916 Articles. 181U


IMPORTS.
Baskets....................
Buttons, other than metal.
Canned salmon...........
Cocoa .....................
Coffee, raw..............
Cotton:
Hosiery ..........
Raw..................
Cordage and twine.........
Dairy products: Cheese
lard, butter, eggs, and
condensed milk.........
Dyestufls................
Electrical goods...........
Fertilizers.................
Fruit:
Fresh, and nuts.......
Canned, etc...........
Dried ...............
Gasoline.....................
Glass:
Bottles ...............
Window, plate, and
flint.................
Grain, chiefly wheat, bar-
ley oats, corn, and flour.
Hardware................
Hides ................
Leather, hides, undressed..
Machinery,.. qgrieultural,
mining, textile, and sew-
ing.....................
Matches, safety............
Meats.......................
Metals and manufactures
of, total.................
Copper, unwrought,
crude zinc..........


$13,359
13
117, 507
1,317,701
535,515
1,265
1,105
62, 504

7,092,676
235,508
39,906
311,679
4, 495, 776
184,712
1,001,738
1,456,714
49,828
268,182
32, 6, 115
77,870
1,271,552
1, 159,453

428,770
49,405
2,834,787
7,186,718
1,922,118


I2,068
5,462
202,227
634,631
133,665
9,666
1,717 719
137,404

8,169,916
201,956
1,600
316,586
4,843,991
165,814
598,726
3,578,921
9,373
1M4,710
42,581,940
29,962
490,698
1,971,979

252, 198
117,506
7,988,257
8, 06,134
2,596,448


urIPOT-continued.
Metals, ete.--Continued.
Iron, wrought in bars
and angles...........
Tin ore...............
Wire ................
Wire nails.............
Motor vehicles and parts
(including motorcycles)..
Molding for frames........
Musica instnuments.......
Opium ...................
Petroleum.............
Paper.......... ....
pitoc....................
Seeds ....................
Sugar .................
Tobacco.:::... ........
Toys and games..........
Wood and timber..........
hXPOBTS.
Cocoa ....................
Earthenware and pottery..
Hardware .................
Hides, raw................
Machinery and parts.......
Motorcars and parts.......
Motorcycles ..............
Painters' colors............
Paper and paper goods.....
Printed books.............
Tobacco and snuff......
Wearing apparel (except-
lng waterproof).........


2 74,


l1fl3s18







US5
21 4,138

5877:

74,6ft
33818
178,5?7
fai~


I
*f-kr


3sa34M3


aqe


Bristol is chiefly an importing center. The value of its imports i
made up mostly of wheat and cereal products, which nearly eqti ai
other items combined. More than half the value of its expoQxWt
normally composed of galvanized iron and similar products. &

Quantities of Principal Imports and Exports.

The following statistics, compiled by the dock authorities, sow
quantities of the principal articles imported into Bristol duu. I .i
calendar years 1915 and 1916:


Articles.

Cereals, meal, etc.:
Grain-
Barley..................
Corn....................
Oats ....................
Wheat .................
Other...................
Wheat, meal, and flour......
Oatmeal (Including groats
and rolled oats)............
R ice.........................
Maize meal, rice meal, uffala..
Other.......................
Coffee...........................
Coee .. ....i... .................
Flan...........................


1915


Tons.
141,124
16, 651
74,574
362,001
5,958
32,644
4,628
20,196
15,694
840
1,729
4, 63 ,
182
940


Tons.
129,438
106,387
70,914
344,212
3,215
15,348
3,866
121
4,888
503
1,403
0,825
258
4,247


Articles.


II. 1


Fruit:
Fresh-
Apples...............
Bananas.........:..'.
Lemons and oranges.....
Other.................
Dried-
Currants..............
Raisins.
a Otned.r..................,
Iron .........................
Meats:
Bfcon and hams...;......
Balted.....................
Frozen....................
Canned...................


1S1i


I '


..... ..~ ._


* "7 h C


i;r
;; ;
::il

















i,.................. 6s 76 3i. 019i

he chief items among Bristol's exports during the past two years
.." :Ion, 82,582 tens in 1915 and 23,853 tons in 1916; tin plate,
ions in 1915 and 23,121 tons in 1916; and miscellaneous ar-
iO,590 tons in 1915 and 99,550 tons in 1916; total, 106,639. tons
i and 146,524 tons in 1916.
uIport Trade in Galvanized Iron-Supply of Spelter.
export trade in galvanized iron has been very much reduced
aig:to the.demands of the Government, and as a result manufac-
i have.not been able to give sufficient attention to their large
.business with South America and the British colonies. The
l t galvanized iron and similar products exported from Bristol
A was $11,424,713 and in 1915, $2,907,191.
Sthe war spelter came chiefly from Belgium and Germany
he ome production was only a negligible quantity. This is
obtainedd almost altogether from the United States, and the
hi~ more than quadrupled. Plans are being made to divert
rimfian shelter to this port in place of that heretofore brought
MEUrmany.
e from the manufacture of galvanized-iron, tobacco, choco-
:ad cocoa, which. are the conspicuous industries the goods man-
wtPred in this district are unusual for their diversity.
fRtrture of Tobasoo, Chocolate, and Cocoa.'
he tobacco factories have been doing a brisk business during the
SSmoking materials for the army are supplied by the Imperial
baoco Co., a combination of British interests, and the British-
Dirican Tobacco Co., owned partly by Americans and partly by
Ip!perial Co. The British-American Co. manufactures for ex-
ie ; the other concern provides for the domestic market. Both
pmues are now paying large dividends.
der to conserve shipping space the British Government pro-
i way tobacco firm from importing more than one-third of the
t tobacco that it had impose during 1915, but to avoid a
of supplies the. British-American Co. proposed to the
item thiatX be permitted to brina its tobacco over on neutral
ipe nA the .nage d ing trade with England, which at the same
a would bring over materials essential to this country. This pro-
sal was accepted.
pistol is known all over England as a center for the manufacture
chobelate and cocoa, and its products are widely advertised. A
pge trade is done in normal times with foreign countries and the

AV







BUPPLEMI T TO OOMERMOE BSDEPOB


British colonies, but owing to the restricted supply of "
shortage of labor the manufacturers find it impossible iiN,
with the demand. As a consequence considerable quati d
sorted confectionery are now being imported from the IU Tii
and increased amounts of chocolate from Switzerland. -,
The export, trade heretofore enjoyed by the manufacturers otb*
fectionery in this city has declined and spme factories have 'fOlt
necessary to discontinue their export agencies. The. result i i !i
they are losing touch with foreign and colonial markets and A;eii!
ican confectionery manufacturers have been presented with an e.:'
cellent opportunity to extend their trade to those marlsta. The
British Sugar Commission is expected further to restrict the supply
to the trade.-
Output of Footwear and Clothing.
Bristol and the outlying district of Kingswood is an iMportsat
center for the manufacture of boots and shoes, and nearly all tt4b
local factories have been requisitioned by the Government, ing
1916 it is estimated that 500,000 pairs of regulation army boots,
350,000 pairs of ankle boots, and 300,000 pairs of special boots were
produced for the allied armies.
The civilian trade has been given very little attention, and the
retailers are having difficulty in replacing their stocks. The ex-
port trade is becoming more and more abandoned.
Bristol has many important tanneries, nearly all of which have
been requisitioned by the Government. The price of hides has riiea
to an unprecedented figure. All -leather suitable for militaryr-
quirements has been taken over by the Government.
There is a fairly;large export trade in ready-made clothing- te i
British colonies, principally South Africa, and this has beer s t'
fected 'chiefly by the increased cost of woolen material kad tSf
scarcity of labor. This export trade was not reduced so much as'
that in other.lines, the shipping facilities to South. Afrida having
been comparatively good. A considerable business was donei a
filling Government contracts, but owing to keen competition the
manufacturers were obliged to produce at a small profit. an t:i:
domestic market juvenile clothing met with the most deman. It
is believed that American ready-made clothing will fin a god:
market here if made in conformance to local styles. .-. "
Other Industries-Construction Work. : :
The export and domestic trade in manufactures of hemp and fCt
has been considerably reduced by the- difficulty in obtaining .tl..
ficient supplies of the raw materials. Prices are now on anta
basis, owing to the shortage of ocean transportation and a
dock and labor charges. The importation of Russian,IndiaAlW
and New Zealand'fibers is affected in practically the sane ,way',~,
The manufacturers have been kept fully occupied with tl.i
ments of the British Government, and increased quantitiesil:
can cordage and twine are now being employed in the-
The manuiifacture of brushes and planes is.another o'E,
diversified industries that is of some importance.; The
handicapped by the scarcity of labor and of materials-.:I:.
to manufacture, surh as leather, timber, and iron.
industry has been kept busy filling Government orders .'i*

















f:orMnery produced in this country. This applies particularly
utural machinery.
'the war began private construction work has come to a
ijll, but the building trade has been kept busy with Govern-
work in this locality.
p!p Tf4ber Xmlbirts Smaller.-
olelieries in Bristol and Somerset have been occupied princi-
i. providing coal for factories and for the Government. Al-
there have been ample supplies of coal for the ordinary re-
de, the chief difficulty has been in making deliveries to the
i bor question has presented some problems to colliery own-
Sprices of pit timber and equipment for collieries have been
sttly increasing.
considerable import trade in timber is carried on by Bristol
:tswith Sweden, Russia, and Canada. During 1916 the price '
laer constantly fluctuated according to the amount required by
aerfiemtnt, which bought heavily of Russian wood and left a
.mited supply for the merchant importers. Trade with the
Sea was-further affected by the tendency of the Russian
i t to give-precedence at certain ports to vessels carrying
Wtt cargo.
i .e od of. 1916 prices of Swedish timber were at least 40 per
er than at the same time in 1915, and they are still increas-
S ire quoittions for Russian and Canadian timber.
Stated. i Prov.isionl.
A Bristo imports of foodstuffs are very large, many local mer-
are interested in the provision trade. The provision dealers
stlch difficulty in 1916 in obtaining sufficient shipping accom-
and in getting their goods unloaded from ships. on arrival,
to ~the scarcity of dock laborers. Added to these difficulties
he presnted by restricted railway freight services, which
AIW neceaery on several occasions to barge the produce up the
to the city at extra cost to the importers.
miewmaid purchasing power of the laboring element has
Sbhi wa haie demand for foodstuffs than prevailed among
l.se byeh before the war. Owinh to this prosperity, the
ndealrs bave met with a much smaller percentage of unpaid
: i..was the*ease in arnmal times.
ih sa rtia of aetivitiEm the ehamber of commerce, several steasp
Mihia ri, t to Canada and the United States, which had been rei-
.:ibate i tho.a eTrm resumed thei regular series; and
htWei d to maintain an adequate volume of provision imports.


__ I







sUPPLEMr[ET TO OMMBO ra8iPOM.


Bacon is not imported into this country aured and pii
delivery to the consumer, but this work is done by te i
chants, who prepare and pack the raw product for dist ibutia i
retail trade. An extensive business in supplying baom to t" w iil
eminent is being done by Bristol merchants. .
There has been a gradual decline in the quantity of grain w M BRj
during the period of the war, but the amount received. ra~~ tll
United States has been steadily increasing. The receipts &frlo en i.!
ern Europe, Australasia, and Asiatic ports in the Mediteeran : :
have been very much reduced, but more has come from South Amasr
ica, India, and northern Africa.
The sources of imports of grain, consisting chiefly of wheat, arley,
corn, oats, and oil seeds, during the years ended April 30, 19140,115,
and 1916, are shown below:
Year ended Apr. 30- Year ended Apr. 0-
Countries. Countries.
1914 1915 1916 1914 1LS tSI

Toes. Tons. Toms. Tre. bmi. Vfit. *
Northern Europe....... 2,137 1,103 1,850 SBen Ati. ........... ........ ..... ,
Southern Europe...... 140,199 85,675 2,454 Canada.............. 260,818 8,0
India and Persia....... 68,866 45,340 82,477 United States......... 211,920 S;Is Ssi
Asiatic ports in the south America......... 14 3004 1 0,174 ,IS
Mediterranean....... 1,301 1,310 170 Australasa............. 1,7 :3SWl S
Distant Asiatic ports... 8,170 10,395 10,141
Northern Africa....... 20,663 25,608 .35,405 Total............. 910,642 888,1 *. 4
East Africa...................... 1,087 51
... ... 5 ., .
A new trade of the port is that of importing peanuts fronr WIs:
Africa. During the year ended April 30, 1916, the quantity of these
nuts imported direct to Bristol was 15,852 tons. This is I w lofiE
new venture; this trade before the war was almost entirely ii ti
hands of Germany. The use of peanuts by seed crushers at t^Iaf o
has been found quite satisfactory. ,
Agriculture the Most Essential Industry.
The outstanding feature of the agricultural industry is.tha move-
ment to increase food production by cultivating every available plot'
of ground. The necessity of this is realized from the fact that in a
normal year this country produces only one-fifth of the wheat eon-
sumed, three-fifths of the barley, four-fifths of the oats, twoe-tirds
of the beans, and one-half of the peas. I
This consular district consists principally of the counties 'of :
Gloucester and Somerset, covering a total area, excluding water: .
1,838,017 acres. The total acreage under crops is 1,500284t ;i
arable land of these two counties combined is 378,958;.. theai'iib
devoted to permanent grass, 1,123,889; and the mountain andl heati
land, 61,734 acres.
Most of the area of this district being given to grass and pasture
land, the raising of live stock is the principal agricultural pqriil
According to the returns of the Board of Agriculture of June l8 19
in the counties of Gloucester and Somerset combined then'
69,777 horses, 410,661 cattle, 744,936 sheep, and 1592655 pi gs. 1 iii
Statistics issued by the Governiment on the' same d..at
acreage of the principal crops of these two counties asi
Wheat, 81,279; barley. 35,110; oats, 56,705 beans, 11,166 ;u
potatoes, 6,960; turnips, 36,980; mangold, 15,816; cabbags4






SinIED KIEWDOW-rBEUT-OL. 7 ., ..

i so 2005; vetches or tares, ,547; alfalfa, 1,084; ferries and other
all fruits, 2,139; clover or rotation grasses, 184,427; and orchards,
SOingto the increased attention being paid to agricultural ac-
1 ties, the restricted output of British manufacturers, and the short-
oI.' f labor, there is a very large demand for American agricultural
a.hinaery and implements, particularly for gasoline tractors.
I~a. mud Othe BRivenae--el Economy.
Iustmi revenue of the port of Bristol consists chiefly of the
collected on tobacco. The total amount levied on all dutiable
n 1916 was $61,708,159, of which tobacco alone yielded
,004. The customs revenue of the port has doubled during
)st: fe years.
new match tax produced $204,845 and the impost on entertain-
$40,887. The duties collected on'alcoholic beverages show a
st ii derable decrease, Which is accounted for by the restricted hours
dMniEg which they can be sold.
.:rlirtg to gasoline restrictions, the Bristol motor omnibuses are
uj ji r operated on a.mixture of paraffin and gasoline. It is estimated
:tht the daylight-saving bill of 1916 reduced shop-lighting bills from
0:i' to 50 per cent.
I w Ei3ter of Normal Maritime Trade.
oii" iore the war a large shipping trade was carried on at this port
v wiith the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Russia,
L rance, Spain, Portugal, Italy, the United States, Canada, Central (
SAjirica, the West Indies, the Syrian ports of Turkey, Australia,
i.i New Zealand.
[ rom Scandinavia came chiefly the products of its forests, such
tiiimber, wood pulp, deals, safety matches, and paper. Since the
ar. began, increased quantities of molding, window glass, and.cal-
'ciim carbide have been received from that source.
S.The tobacco industry of Bristol obtained most of its cigarette
-p ipers from France; from the Mediterranean ports of that country
f came large quantities of hides, olive oil, and glue; and from Bor-
Sdean, the products of French vineyards.
The principal imports from Italy were fruit and nuts. A con-
VI sidirable amount of marble is received from Carrara, Sicily, but this
ca:i' stes chiefly through London. The marble trade of Bristol is con-
trill:ed by a combination of firms, which has its own quarries in
iMly. Manufactured marble formerly came mostly from Belgium.
Tronm Portugal were imported principally cork, fruit, nuts, wine,
Sand hides;, and from Spain, onions, sulphur, fruit, and nuts. An
i; irtant fruit trade is also carried on with Central America and
,thi:1 est Indies, consisting principally of -bananas. Grapefruit is
pabg beng imported directly from that source, and is meeting with
Increasing popularity.
rofleU r Iflrts from Enemy and Neutral Countries.
Before Turkey entered the war, there was a considerable import
trade in semitropical products from the Syrian ports of that country,
which were chiefly Smyrna figs, sultanas, clove oil raisins, locusts,.
Sdri valonea, hemp seed, and cotton seed. Much of this fruit trade
bas since been diverted to California.



,l







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMEXGBOE POrTB.


An important sugar trade was carried on with IollsAI, 4. 4li
product is now being obtained principally from more remote r
Dairy products and vegetables are also imported from the -l i.
lands in considerable quantities in normal times. : ;
Up to the time of its invasion, Belgium sent to Bristol ma y Adt
ments of iron and steel manufactures and glassware, but t .ifr t|
has now fallen largely to the United States.
The shipping trade with Germany was diversified and extueivo3
Steamers were plying regularly between Bristol and Hamburg and
the Rhine ports, and brought back great varieties of German goods
The hardware dealers of Bristol were extensively stocking enameled.
ware made in Germany, the street lamps were lighted with rmn-
made carbons, and the shoe stores sold boot trees of German manin-
facture. Large quantities of musical instruments, cotton knit goods,
toys, gas mantles, flint glass, jute mats, asbestos, rennet, vanlloes.,
etc., were also brought into this market from Germany.
Greater Variety of American Goods Imported.
The principal imports from the United States before the war were
foodstuffs, raw products, and goods manufactured on a large scale,
such as automobiles, dollar watches, typewriters, cash registers,
safety razors, and similar articles.
As a result of the circumstances arising from the war, this country
has become more dependent upon the United States for supplies of
many other commodities, and there has been an influx of Ameriean.:
products that local importers had previously obtained from other.:
sources, such as wire nails, glassware, cotton knit goods, shelter, etc.
The result of this diversion of trade to the United States has been
that. many American manufacturers have entered the export field for.
the first time, and an extensive foreign trade has been established in
many goods which, if reasonable foresight is used, can .sustain the';i
very keen competition anticipated later.
The American manufacturer who makes 'a favorable impression at .
present will have several advantages over future competitors after..
normal channels of trade are restored. Local buyers entirely satis-
fled with their present American connections, being of a conservatives.
nature, will not be likely to venture a change if American goods ti~
offered at a price and of a quality comparing favorably with quo.
stations from rival sources. The manufacturer in the United Stitfi::
has cut down his cost of production by efficient and systematii"C
tory methods, while the European factories are meeting with grdyt:
increased costs of labor and consequently of production.
How to Sustain American Trade.
There are several essentials to be considered at the sent time
as a precaution against the trade rivalry expected, after the war. Theai.
American exporter with an eye to future business should take ever ~,
advantage of the present opportunity to make a favorable jinprssim,
on his war customers by giving due consideration to the .
requirements of the market, by adhering conscientiously to
ments, by making quotations readily understood by British
and by offering as much credit as is reasonable where
warrants confidence. ..
Firms in this district that imported from European hontxe o-I
the war were accustomed to receive quotations for goods. ...


















"i&eto6fore offered by European firms.
b attention should be given to the particular requirements
a iXarket as regards quality, style, size, and packing, so far as
Snot involve radical changes in machinery.
|iN aede in Bristol Distriot- rovirg Picture Films.
i.g to the shortage of flour and potatoes, it is believed that
i:a: good opportunity for the introduction of corn meal and
which could be sold in standard packages. There is a market
ewers cake (made of dried grain), oil cake, hominy feed, bacon,
cheese, butter, canned goods, dried fruits, honey, waxed-paper
cls for honey, glass bottles, wire nails, moving-picture films,
ass imitations, leather bags and purses, fiber tape, gum tape,
a box cord, wrapping paper, jute and white hemp twine, gaso-
tors for farms, knit goods, window and plate glass, chloride
mn, and shipbuilding machinery.
S90 per cent of the moving-pieture films now shown in this
t aere of American manufacture. These are not shipped direct
lhe United States to this city, but come chiefly through film
in Cardiff and London, The principal American film
have their own agencies or branches in London. The
can serial feature play is meeting with an ever-growing popu-

jl ies and Agriotltural Kachinery.
Sto European manufacturers not being able to manufacture
it-eiht automobiles so cheaply as is done in the United States
ge-scale production, the Americans practically control the mar-
Tie British manufacture of motor cars for the ordinary trade
*ui to a standstill, the output being taken over entirely by the
; but the enlarged factories now producing cars for war
will be in position to turn out larger quantities for the
ht I after the war.
I"tlW' ers have handed over their automobiles to the Red
it ea ilitry authorities: hd there will be a great wastage
.... r the war. The car that will be principally in
Siar; ,i believed to be the light medium sized four-
j. The British manufacturers are now turn-
b:d action etthis American type of car and
aaaore-ibr model.
'been. habi~.i'' mder the Ministry of Muni-
i .. id ~ls I..t i C. ll :irsribution of agricultural
~I V i-lU t UrUfala3 OWbthirds. of the reapers, bind-
S. ... ...
S: :., l.::,, ', ......







SUPPLEMENT TO OMEBRCB BRPORBT.


era. and mowers used in this country have been imported,
from the United States.
The centralizntion of this industry has been made necessary owlei
to the bulky nature of these goods and the scarcity of shipping i i
and the present stimulus in agricultural development. There aS S
tendency to standardize the model and the various parts of thf me-
chinery produced, and toward amalgamation of principal uieat h
turers. Farmers have to state their requirements in advance". There
will be a particular demand for motor tractors in this district.
Buttons, Paper Goods, and Box Shooks.
There has been a steadily increasing demand for buttons during the
past few years. Local firms using them make their purchases by
indirect importation, and samples are shown by agents. Pearl but-
tons came chiefly from Japan and France; ivory, from Italy, and
prior to the war largely from Austria. Horn buttons from Japan
are made in a satisfactory imitation of ivory and sold at a emnptIa-
tively low price. **, :
Austrian and German buttons were used in large quantities, atit
fancy buttons as cheap as 12 cents per gross were obtained frame them
sources. Cheap glass buttons are now very scarce. Dress and cos-
tume buttons are manufactured chiefly in England. Therejs. a tc -
siderable demand for low-class pearl buttons used in the .roj4ttqf
of women's blouses, and for linen buttons for home-made garment
Wrapping paper was formerly obtained largely from thi* Cnti-
nent. Vegetable parchment, strawboards, and flint paper crne 'in
normal times from Belgium and Holland, and tissue paper 'fitt'lNt
paper from Germany. Cheap enamel and grease-proof paper came
from Norway, and sealing and kraft paper from Sweden and Nor-
way. Blotting paper made from rag s is manufactured in this coun-
try, but the American article is cheaper, as was the German. Gum
paper, for catalogues, and carbon papers came chiefly from the
United States; and wax paper in normal times from Belgium and
France. Although normally American paper was not usually im-
ported direct, considerable quantities have been received since the
war, and there is a demand for wrapping paper, of a strength equiv&-
lent to Scandinavian kraft, and for waxed paper receptacles.
Large quantities of box shooks are used in this district. Thei-
ber used is principally Quebec spruce, Swedish and Norwegiam
white, and Finnish battens The principal users are the lirp; to-
bacco, confectionery, a.nd soap factories in Bristol, who usually manu-
facture their own cases. A firm of chocolate and cocpa mnnufae-
turers use:, 200,000 cases a year. The tobacco manufacturers prefer
to use timber in the form of deals or round logs. Owing to the higher
prices IIoted, firm in this locality have not been importig tflteM.
materials from the United States. l. ,, .
Pumps, Wire Nails and Rope, and Brass Strips. '
American manufactu-rers practically have control of the t rd i'
low-priced pumps, owing to large-scale production. The Am-prilil.
article is. however, in the opinion of local dealers, lighter ar 'lWi*
durable than the pump of British make.
ligh-pressure power pumps suitable for use in conncetidllS'
collieries were obtained largely from Switzerland.
pumps came chiefly from Ger-IlIny, and at a much lower pritIA*



















Sand prices are quoted per 600 fathoms. The British manufac-
rs have been able to quote lower prices for wire rope than those
l United States. A:
.. is a demand for rolled, ordinary, polished, and engraving
-Sabstrips, from 6 to 18 inches wide and from 12 to 20 feet long.
Ib.gagge is Birmingham wire, 8 to 22. -These strips have been
ainied by local merchants from factories in Birmingham. There
at.i.K. a market for household hardware, as British manufacturers
s iunmable to cope with the demand.
: aL Glas sware, Chemicals, and Xarble.
|B..i:. riHani manufacturers have been shipping large quantities of
w and plate glass and glass bottles to Bristol since the war
pupplies from Belgium. Some buyers have complained that
,A|iecan window glass was not of so good quality or so well
as.was desired. Bristol merchants like to receive quotations
Sb.. vessel sailing for the United Kingdom for glass manufactured
Sb saal billets for the English trade, and prefer to be informed at
e.same time of current freight quotations, so that they can readily
Ktmate total costs. Packing must be done with great care. The
importers usually desire mixed sizes of sheets (not all the
size) in each crate, from 50 to 60 inches long by 30 to 40 inches
.. There is a large market for 1-pound and 2-pound neck glass
fl:or marmalades and jams. These must be round and patent
...ewcaps are not required.
ii portation of ammonia and calcium, used in refrigeration,
eeB. very much curtailed by the war. The Germans undersold
in tis market to the extent of 2 cents per. pound less than
tish producers. The article was put up in round cylinders. There
l pamge-a in this city which desires to obtain supplies of chloride
e iiErom the United States.
-ah th.e marble used in Bristol is for monumental work
white Sicilian. .Colored marble is used only to a
... ma.ily for decoative purposes, the local climate
M iin S:its external ust This commodity is generally


i,+2!!' t^iM :h': Sa V :".:.1 this district is made of
aa,.a m t of the i tn is done by hand. Harness
lh:ii e h~..a.r .. the ki :l At ~~ general use and a very
iia ste is preifed The harness is three-fourths brass


... ... .. ..
t :. I" Z.. ":

L .. i:+it i,,:i,::,i : I :+ : ..:::.+::








12 SUPPLEMENT TO 0OMMEERCO REPORTS.

a:nd one-fourth nickel; the heavy kind is Japanned. The "Ii ..i:
Inr type of lilrnress is phaeton or "gig"; cart and farm ti` 1iI hI
also in demand, as well as saddle trees and bridles. The'-: iw
ture of hairncss and saddlery in this country is centered in &- p''Iii
A 1vceal dealer says there is a prejudice against American himai u e
and saddlery owing to its light appearance in comparison to hat
made in this country. The amount of American harness Ibeiii
handled in the ordinary trade is small. American manufaitua e
w ill need to pay particular attention to special British requirements
in order to get their products well introduced.
Cotton and Knit Goods--Catalognes.
There is a good market, for knitted gloves, knitted undervesta, .nd
heather mixture half-hose. Large quantities of ribbed cotton di
were imported from Germany, such as blankets, ladies' divided skirts,
ordinary skirts, ladies' bodices, spencers, and cotton underwea .ir
both men and women. Ninety per cent of the demand for unr'ear
is for an ivory" color, and there should be a suggestion of A
dead white finds little demand.
One firm in this city used to buy as many as 1,500 doset,.il$sd
undergarments per annum from Germany at $3.89 each. e e
war began this concern has imported large quantities of li p-
ton goods from the United States. A local importer says, t4 t
90 per cent of the cotton undervests came from Germany, oefptw; he
war.
This consulate would like to receive more catalogues and pri: lists
from American manufacturers interested in exporting t6thi'fie-
trict. These will be placed on file and card indexed for reference
whenever a local firm inquires for particulars concerning the line
covered. The present supply of catalogues is not so codnilte as
desired.
Declared Exports to United States.
Although the total value of declared exports to the United States
during 1916. as shown by invoices certified at the Bristol consulate,
shows a slight decrease from 1915, it is fairly up to the average,. The
exports to the United States during 1914 constituted a record and .ex-
ceeded $1.000,000 in value, but decreased to nearly half that.ameont
the following year. Export restrictions, labor shortage, aadi sartity
of raw materials have been responsible, for the decline in msny items.
The following table shows the value of the principal shipments to
the United States from Bristol during 1915 and 1916:
Articles. 1915 1916 Artilee. 1UA* Ml6

Animal charcoal .............. $iS, L r........ ........ ........ ... 4
Antiqulties......... .... ....... 6,302 117,079 Marhinery ................... ........ i ;1
Bacon and ham................. .,8660 ,210 Paintings .............. .......... I
Bookbindling motrial ........... 16,702 18, I-2 Pins......... ... ... ... u SKa !
Books and isationery............ 46,733 5, Plastcine .......................
Clay................ ........... .. 26.i 14 Seeds .................. ....... :I
Chmbicals: Ammonia........... 17, I 31,.il3 Tobacco............ .......... ik ..t
Chorolato and cocoa............. 3, ,-5 2,272 Willows...........................
Cordae........................ 6,338 W IPS and spirits...............
rullra earth.................... Woo ............. ..........
Iron6. T,11 o tal.a ..................... .
Furniture.... ..... 6W All other articles .............
hon: Total ....................... 55
Ore.......... .... ........ &, 3: 6,54
Ozide....................... 19,73 1, 40 60









Vi t *ee1rda Izports.
Riglish ball clay was shipped to the United States in large quan-
i r use in connection with the steel industry. Woolen exports
s, owing to the large demand for them in the United States,
ability of shippers to obtain export licenses.
Principal decreases occurred in shipments of hides, animal
1, and tobacco. Export restrictions have brought about a
sl cessation of hide shipments, and so far as animal charcoal is
rned shipments made since the war began were merely in fulfill-
of previous contracts. The certification of invoices for tobacco
an unusual procedure and merely covered a consignment of
kcedonia tobacco that was reshipped from this port.
IiThe amount of goods exported from Bristol to the United States
smalll in comparison to the American goods imported. A con-
sirtable quantity of the exports invoiced at this office is shipped
gn Liverpool.
'Mrbst of the trade in antiquities is conducted by firms in. Bath,
hencebookbinding materials, printed books, and plasticine also are
viced. Woolen goods are sent chiefly from Stroud, Minchin-
pton, Dursley, and Trowbridge; pins, from Stroud; oxide of
Sfrom Wick and Chew Magna; agricultural seeds, from Lang-
Semp, fishing twine, and bath bricks, from Bridgeport; and
Sly, from Devonshire. The other articles enumerated in the
Sof declaredd exports are invoiced by firms in Bristol.
JT'he export trade of Bristol is mostly with the British colonies
..OS-uth America. The manufacturers of cocoa and chocolate
merly sent many shipments to the United States, but in recent
arua this business has declined, owing to the inability of the Bristol
manufacturers to compete in the United States with American
diuucers.
,; Several important industries in Bristol carry on a fairly large ex-
port trade, but not with the United States, principally because they
iUld not compete in that market with the American manufacturers.
e!nRady-made clothing is turried out in this city in large quantities
nd is..shipped mostly to South Africa and Canada. Metal manu-
hture s, motor cars, motorcycles, pottery, paper, and cardboard are
Qrtea d chiefly to Australia, New Zealand, and Canada.

".HULL.'
:l'::":i:: 3By Consul Charles M. Hathawar. Jr.
iA: i.acount'of the commerce and industries of this district in 1916
itself into a consideration of the effects of war. Import and
liecetions have become more numerous and denying in va-
toes been forbidden to private traders except under
ireiet control of sugar, leather, wool, wheat, hides,
iu bhas been taken over by the Government; rail-
is~n1 4d since the outbreak of war, and now canals
added.
ting-everything connected with the sup-
IV" ^e been requisitioned, especially hay and
".. .." .. 2,240 pounds and the hundredweight 112 pounds

.... : .: ... .
S, .... : *

A V i,'
tt:s:i; .. .I:. :.: ... .







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMEfXM EPORBTS


potatoes; prices have been fixed for milk, tea, sugar, and pFdIg; .
railway travel has been curtailed by an increase of 50 per W mi
fares and by drastic reductions in number and speed of traM ., ..
Chief Industries Are Shipping, Fisheries, and Oil anufartre.
Of the industries of Hull, the fisheries are the oldest except ~lp-
ping, and employ the largest number of persons. The whale fisheries
of the port date from 1598, and whale oil is still brought bhete,.
although there appears to have Iben no Hull whaler at sea Ister than
1868. Trawl fishing from Hull began in 1854-55, and by 1888 steam
trawlers had been introduced. Trawling at Grimsby began a little
later than at 'lull, but has developed more rapidly, until Grimaby
has become the world's greatest fishing port.
Next after fisheries in number of persons employed comes marine
transportation. Hull has long been the third port in the United
Kingdom in aggregate volume of imports and exports, and according
to statistics published in 1915 it stood fourteenth among the worli "
ports, exceeding every port of the United States except Ne ; Yor. .
This is the trade of Hull the port as distinguished from Htlf the
industrial city, for only a small proportion of all the great taonnage .
that passes through the port is controlled by Hull merchants.
Among other important industries are flour mills (H4l. is the
third milling center of the United Kingdom); chalk quarrites~;- t
works; manufactories of oil-mill and excavating machineryy, i .-
ators (American), washing blue, and other products; and (c1l-tar
distilleries: but the distinctive industry of the city is the manufeture
of vegetable oils and the residual products, feeding cake jaelMStrW-i
tilizer. Hull produces half the output of the United Kingdom in
this line and since 1911 has exceeded Marseille in volume of material
used, although not in oil produced. Extensive paint works dependent
upon the oil industry have long been established here and some soap
is made; but there is need of the addition of soap and margarin
factories on a large scale. ;
IA detailed review of tly vegetshle oil industry of Hull was putbfahed fa I,
COMMERCE REPORTS for May 14. 1917.1 ,
Grimsby, at the mouth of the Humber, and Goole, at the head of
navigation on that river, have suffered more than Hull from war
conditions, primarily because their activities are less diversified.
Grimsby's one industry of importance, its fisheries, has declined I
materially, and Goole is merely the port of the LTncashire & York-
shire Railway. Both ports are at present heavy importers of bacon,
eggs, and butter from the Continent Normally Goole has a very
large coasting trade.
Trade with United States.
Ordinarily most of the trade of Hull is with the Baltic an-d m'l
European countries. The United States, with India and lith.w.ds.
terranean countries, figures in the second group. In 1913 thei ..ge.
gate trade with the United States was valued at $35,608,197f, e
total of $411,727,402; and in 1915, $54.489,354 out of $35*4
rise from 9 per cent to 15 per cent. This was brought about
actual increase of imports from the United States on the me
and by the curtailment or complete stoppage of Hull's north
pean traffic on the other. The trade of Trimsby and GOose vi
United States is mostly included in the Hull figures.


14 ,















again ia tJ u VenuY ui U I uuo KUnL II111 .U i, ; o110 cleared irom
in 1918, compared with 151 in 1915, and 76 loaded no cargo
district, against 112 in 1915.
S Exports to VUited States.
ithe accompanying statement of declared exports to the United
as invoiced at the American consulate at Hull during the
t two years, the.quantity of the items affords a better basis for
comparison than the value.

i,", 1915 1916
7-torles.
A., l G Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.

,drugs, and dyes: -
S....................................pods.. 476,6783 7,280 437,214 59,941
SgBaum, crudecarbonato.---...--..........--.tons. 150 ,121 420 9,850
Oial-tar produots--
S. Carbolie aid............................pounds..................... 2,145 1,970
Cre"esoto................................g ons.. 44,838 9,588 85,054 19,374
Croosote oil..............................do.,.. 116,290 26, 43 61,937 15, 04
S Creosote, saponifled........................ do... 9,117 3,98 73,789 02,378
SCrel.................................... do... 145,043 72,33 88,906 70,360
r................................. ... s.. 2, 0 58 7 ......................
' ld ..................................... .. .. 127 28,313 1,890
..................................... do.... 147 33,432 ......................
'I errigpiokled.~.............. ....... pounds.. 1,854,410 111,860 C07,704 61,332
t ear........................................ ........... 22,030 ........... 18,945
S...................... ........152 8,223 337 27,51i5
i pals.....................................pounds.. 2,203,578 15 ,438 7,431,098 546,584
TiM ,human (oriental)...........................do.... 93,378 15,771 3e5,C53 94,462
i.: Cttle, wet................................... do.... 56,146 ,299 311,46 37,335
:.. Hose..........................................do.. 3,416 2,847 221,410 22,393
P ib. vegetable:
.::. L"astor ................................gallons.. ,710 4,002 28,578 25,350
m ................................pounds.. 200,504 25,787 448,579 35,675
: menp........................................gallons.. 212,119 129,527 47,733 32,196
Z:,,.,;iri pigments, and colors:
i':i:O: Bm g, etc................................pounds.. 19,026 3,200 23,871 5,547
SMarine compositions..........................do.... 23,520 2,171 33,040 3,200
'Oid otdiron.................................do.... 627,719 14,620 824,130 22,071
Paint and dryers............ ............do.... 17,715 1,037 26,441 2, 671
SParis white............. ............... do.... 948,017 4,938 585,057 3,625
tYltramarine................................do... 272,6C4 21,448 435,876 32,077
Srpping...............................do.... 36,525 4,713 40,800 6,767
T b 4de............................ do.... 01,012 191,15 1,543,300 Gfil737
........................... '-........ bushols.. 13,275 21,(29 109,404 277,395
ee...............................: .p ounds.. 94,040 5,911 112,308 9,066
Onions........................... ushels.. 15,27 13,807 ............ ..........
S1 na2natl~ures of:
t Mt press cloth...................pounds.. 75, 78 39,288 25,154 18,102
.1."::": ( 0, 329 18,085 118,131 35, 575
....................................d... 10,329 18.085 118,131 35,575
......................................... ............ 52, 475 ............ 23,761
.'l:;WL.................... ........................... I, 1, 11,775 .2,194,

American goods amounted to $2,921 in 1916, against
..b. L Exports to the Philippines in 1916 consisted of
e..dat $789. There were no exports to Hawaii or to
d cod, the only regular export to Porto Rico,
in. 1914 to $2,604 in 1915 and ceased altogether

the foregoing table, hemp (Italian), human
:castor seed (Indian), onions (Egyptian),
i'. the principal items not produced in this
i. .. rubber are products of equatorial Africa,
.'* '" :. ::" : : ..* .'. .:. ..... :.


!" "': ..:I.. .... ..... .....i" :.: "

.#.;
... ... ... "!2 l ,:... ,, I:;i '







16 SUPPLEMENT TO COKMTEc SlwPORTS.
which did not come to Hull before the war. The pic ted h
is largely from Yarmouth and Loweastft, on the southeast ..i
England.
I'anm-kernel oil is a new manufaetar of Hull, appearing St
1915. Rap? oil, the premier export before the war, which im atH
made up one-fourth of the total invoices, declined beadily.lmndr
pressure of war conditions from 347,2g99 gallons in 1914 to l18,11i
galli.ns in 1915 and 47,733 gallons in 1916. Creosote saponifsedi is
the disinfectant preparation sold in the United States under, the
trade name creolin."
Sources of Hull's American Traffic.
The declared export totals are by no means a fair meafuae of the
traffic every year leaving the port of Hull for the United States.
More shipments originate in inland districts, such as Leeds, Brad-
ford, Sheffield, and Nottingham, routed via Hull, than originate in
the Hull district. A still greater volume of traflie is supplied da:,
normal times by transshipment on through bills of lading betwea
the United States and the Baltic, the Scandinavian countries, .the
Mediterranean, India, Belgium, and elsewhere. In 1913, .fr ex-
ample, the declared exports from this consulate were valid at
$1,000,481, while the customs returns ahow exports of British goods
valued at $3,615,547 and reexports of foreign goods (including4tau-
shipments) valued at $5,748,228. Not all the goods invoiced atslidt
take ship at Hull-in some. years perhaps one-tenth part. in val~egoes
through Liverpool-and some of the articles invoiced are forig~
goods reexported (in 1913 somewhat more than one-fifth by vame~, .
so it may be estimated roughly that slightly less than $1,000$00
worth of goods is sold annually by the Hull district to the United
States, that upward of $2.500,000 worth of British goods sold to the
United States from other districts is shipped through Hull, and that
more than $5,500,000 worth of foreign (not British) goods are*car-
riNl from Hull to the United States, mostly transshipped on through
bills of lading.
The entrepot trade before the war was comparatively small; in
1916 rubber and gum copal from the Kongo and castor beans and
human hair from Asia comprised three-fourths of the invoices. Te
total value of Hull's transshipment trade to alf countries on through
bills of lading and under bond in 1913 was $14,790,067.
Staple imports from the United States into Hull are wheat, rd,
bacon, barley, wheat flour, turpentine and rosin, maize, impleunts
and tools, lard compound, paraffin wax and mineral oils, oak arin
yellow-pine logs and timber, and apples.
Market for American Goods Limited to Neceslsties.
Trade with Great Britain is now so complicated by import, eo
port, and other restrictions, that not much can profitably bs eia :.
about extending American sales here. The great staples grain-a.
provisions, and other articles of national necessity will be oa.it;
other things will be excluded, no matter how much desired I- t '.
individual purchaser. Forward contracts for delivery after tih Wa .
may be made in some cases, but until then only articles of-ar ).
need are likely to b- allowed shipping space.
To introduce novelties or maintain the trade in those already
lished is practically impossible. Although for staple necessite i













eao wen o give cmis neia immealate attention, even it only to
foundation for after-the-war trade. Imports of this sort
I!ming in. as necessities. The Government has imported motor
Sand other agricultural machinery in an attempt to relieve the
age of farm labor. Any article that can save human labor in
tal occupations has a chance and should be pushed now. It
ld be noted that, except for a few staple commodities, this dis-
it is best reached through London or another large center.
ttf Inport Trade--Provisions, Grain, and Flour.
ljlIn 1916 Hull imported from the United States 11,659 tons of bacon,
tons of lard, and 21 tons of cheese (Chamber of Commerce
i Yres); in 1915 10,811 tons .of bacon, 170 tons of hums, 12,758 tons
i, lard, 1,496 tons of lard compound, and 269 tons of cheese (custom-
.hCouse figures, unpublished). Total imports of bacon at Hull in 1916
aere 41,292 tons, against 41,125 tons in 1915; and hams, 114 tons in
:14916, against 1,887 tons in 1915. Denmark is the principal com-
i rtitor ctof the United States in the supply of pork products to this
...istrict.
:Imports of wheat, oats, maize, and flour fell off considerably from
7i15; barley increased slightly. According to the Hull Chamber of
inem pierce, the total quantities imported were:
.. Products. 1913 1915 1916

!I bat (quarters of 489 pounds)............ ...................... .. 4,200,D 56 3,068 ,451 2, 657,224
i s.l we quarters ol 448 pounda)...................................... 89,796 4.5 779 482 182
4% ftirtetsof 336 pounds).. ... .................................. --, I!0 137,957 72,1 19
i aq..: Uai rtars of 410 poindsl................................. 8 ,048 1,127,c:2 (71,580
iFr ndre gt of 112 pounds)................................. 211,576 17,650 ,74

I- Toward the end of the year the Government assumed control of the
heat supply and has prescribed a standard flour which alone may
*IIb made or sold. This regulation would appear to prevent the usual
tP.o.rtation of American flour unless it were especially milled to the
*itish. standard. Wheat prices at Hull, according to the Yorkshire
WNt, fluctuated (per 480 pounds No. 1 Manitoba delivered ex ship)
S$15.81 on January 1, 1916, to $18 in March, $11.80 in June,
S.- to $18 on October 9, when the Government took control. and
N9 4 ovember 9, around which the price remained the rest of the
k. British wheat followed a similar course, averaging in January
..6 per 480 pounds and in December $19.49.
ad- Vreetable.
fruit and vegetable trade has suffered from a shortage of sup-
The situation culminated on February 26, 1917, with the Gov-
t prohibition of the import of apples, tomatoes, and some
Baw fruits, and restriction of oranges, bananas, grapes, and
*5 per cent of the 1916 imports. Imports of all kinds into
t 1916 totaled 1,768,210 packages, against 2,612,280 packages





.. .. ....... ...:.







18 SUPPLRXIET TO 00MMEROB aWPORM. i
in 1915 and 4,733,305 packages in 1918. American apple,:, l
oranges, Egyptian and Spanish onions, Almeria grapes, Jer~l
toes, Dutch tomatoes, and miscellaneous Dutch vegetables .. J.
principal items. Prices were high, especially of oranges, onion u id
grapes. The usual summer trade in soft fruits from Germany, Ze- :tii.
gium. and France, was lost altogether. Individual traders did we ,i
but the trade in general suffered. Only one cargo of bananas we :I
received from the Canary Islands, and the usual banana shilpmeai :::
from the Caribbean countries to Liverpool, thence by rail to HUI :
for shipment to Scandinavian countries, ceased altogether.
Imports of apples from the United States amounted to 14,975
hund red weight, against 70,325 hundredweight in 1915. Some of thele
were of Canadian origin. This market exhibits a growing prefer-
ence for apples in boxes over those in barrels. Practically no Ameri-
can pears were received in 1916. In 1914 and 1915 American cran-
berries were doing well here in competition with the smaller Russian
variety, but shipping conditions have cut off this trade for the.-
present.
Petroleum and Lumber.
Imports of petroleum into Hull in 1916 were about 5,500,000 gal-
lons less than in 1915. The decrease is due to lack of transport In
1916 the total imports of petroleum were 17,926,745 imperial gllbs,
against 23,496,427 gallons in 1915 and 12,785,383 gallons in 1918.
The United States furnished 15,796,347 gallons in 1915, of which
8,233,400 gallons were kerosene, 6,275,965 lubricating, and 1,286,82
fuel. In 1916 the United States furnished 4,215,995 gallons of jplai-
cating oil and 268,702 gallons of fuel oil; Mexico, 12,714,148 galjols
of "petroleum" (presumably mostly kerosene), and 174,700 gallons
of fuel oil; and Burma, 553,200 gallons of benzine. The lubriceting
oil comes in, barrels and the rest in bultk. -
Imports of lumber of all kinds into the three Humber ports, ac-
cording to the Timber Trades Journal, were, in board measure:r For
1913, 859,184,400 feet; for 1915, 543,355,800 feet; and for 1916
480,573,000 feet. Of the 1915 imports more than 84,000,000 board
feet was consigned to a Government purchasing agent; only a little
over 5,000,000 feet was so consigned in 1916. Allowing for this, the
volume of imports by the trade was about the same in each year.
Government prohibition of import is likely to. reduce the 1917 total.
Up to March 20, 1917, Chamber of Commerce figures show imports
of 31,612,800 board feet against 44,106,000 for the cor ondig
period of 1916. About one-tird of the Humber import in 1914 W e
hewn timber. The greater part of this was mine timber mad 4
props, the trade in which was better than in 1915.
Hull as a Lumber Market-American Timber. *
In imports of sawn lumber Hull stands second to London and of
hewn lumber second to Cardiff; in tdtal tonnage received it ranks
below them both. As a general timber market, Hull is second o .in
to London. For American woods, however, Liverpool is a..:,:
greater market; Hull looks to northern Europe. The fiiate :
proved its relative position, receiving in 1916 nearly 89 per il|
its 1915 import, while the United Kingdom as-a whole .remeief i.
83. per cent. Sweden has been the main source of supply,
considerable Russian wood has come from the White Sea.












I ll proportion m l ur; out tnere are no considerable wooded areas
Hil!, and local cutting can supply but little.
inzerican oak, pitch pine, ash, and walnut are staple imports into
SOf unsawn oak 4,645,800 board feet, valued at $277,858, was
ted in 1915; no returns are available for 1916. In 1913 Hull
Fived 5,823,000 board feet of ".fir," presumably mostly pitch pine
e aand timber, from the United States, although doubtless iiclud-
some cypress and Oregon pine; in 1915 this had dwindled to
'&779,000 board feet, and in 1916 there were no direct imports of
1- ih pine. Meager supplies have come by rail from Liverpool or
Mi nchester. Sawn pitch pine timber of 14 to 16 inches and upward
rainiinged in January, 1916, from $0.608 to $1.034 per cubic foot, and
11 in December was $,.398. In December, 1916, Mobile timber realized
;4ii1:.46 per cubic foot. The opening of the Panama Canal was ex-
* :pected to make Pacific coast-pines more available here, but the ton-
fn age difficulty has deferred that possibility until after the war. It
- should then be possible to develop a fair volume of direct sales to
. ii.. ill. Liverpool, however, is likely to remain the chief British
i 'market for American lumber.
!h" .: Humber Coal Trade.
II;. Although: the total coal shipments from the Humber in 1916
14 exclusive of bunkers) were less than half those of 1915, which in
; rn were less than half those of'the last prewar year (1913), exports
ef coal from the United Kingdom in 1916 declined only about 12 per
'e: ant from 1915. Coal supplied directly to the British or allied Gov-
'"fnmenets'is not included in these figures. The output from the South
i Y': orkshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, and Nottingharnshire coal
Si: elds,'upon which the Humber ports depend, was maintained in spite
.liof labor shortage, but the large requirements of the great manufac-
S:tories in or near these coal fields and heavy naval demands on the
Si:iiumber cut down sharply the exportable surplus. Scarcity of ton-
*,flage and -Government restrictions impeded traders increasingly.
iDuring the last six months of 1916 three-fourths of the exports from
:;he Humber and from the United Kingdom as a whole were carried
.:ij foreign ships.
S'The following figures from the report of the Hull coal inspector
.d. wuig shipments of coal from ports on the Humber for the last
years (exclusive of bunkers and Government supplies) indicate
iderable decline:
SPorts. 1913 1914 1915 1916

T1m. Jwi. Tow. T .
S .............................................. 4,519,289 2,968.9! 2,440, t !,06",135
.............................. ............ I6 140,07 3 800,51 4P ,B07 22S 4,s
............................................. 294 80,130 ,,0 3O 85


...................................
LU ...
a Not including bunkeL and C





. :::. .


8,73m1118 8,088,887 3,919.434 1, GS.tO
2,674,016 2,21s,3258 1,541,17 7.000
11,295,134 8,340,145 6,140,001 2,481,006
government muppUla




~.1 II


20 eUPPLMENTmT tr 00


'a en


-aPORTS.


Bunker coal taken from Hull amounted to 668,086 toer i It
compared with 879,182 tons in 1915 and 1,53989 teas s
From Grimsby in 1916 was shipped 291,507 tons, from Gooles 3
tons, and from Immingham 23,504 tons. It is fair to as im.-.
Immingham shipped largely on naval account. In 1913 QGash7
and Immingham supplied 1,178,607 tons. The movement tf. oal
at Hull was as follows: Receipts2 4,667,788 tons in 1915 and ,290, 28
tons in 1916; shipments (including bunkers), 3,917,875 tons is 1t
and 2,049,117 tons in 1916.
About 70 per cent of the coastwise shipments went to Loadn in
1916, against 75 per cent in the previous year. France took oer
half the foreign exports in 1916 as in 1915, with Sweden second, and
Italy third. Exports to South American countries, largely Arg.s-
tina, which in 1913 amounted to 270,895 tons, in 1916 dropped to
12,914 tons.
Prices of Coal-Government Regulation.
Prices of best Yorkshire prime hards ranged from $5.28 per ton
f. o. b. Hull in January, 1916, to $10.95 in May and June, declining
to from $6.93 to $7.30 in December. Freights mounted to $8t.7 per
ton, when the Government intervened fixing prices and freights to
France from June 1, 1916-set freight, Hull to Rouen, $6.69, and
maximum price of Yorkshire coal, $7.30 per ton. The same scheme
was extended to Italy and French Mediterranean ports on October
30, 1916. Toward the end of the year this was revised, freight rates
to France and Italy being increased and provision made for extra
insurance -costs. *
Government regulation of the coal industry grew steadily through.
out the year until finally, under the stimulus of labor ditff ltue,
entire control of the mines was taken over, and now mining, tras
portation by rail and by water, prices and conditions of sile, and
freight-every stage from coal seam to consumer-is supervised by
the Government.
The Hull and Grimsby Fisheries.
The unfavorable conditions of 1915 continued through 1916, be-
coming steadily more acute; three-fourths of the fishing fleet of.
Grimsby and Hull was said to be employed on Government service in
1915. and the proportion did not decrease in 1916. Ak official esti-
mate stated that 75 per cent of all the first-class fishing vessels i
the United Kingdom and more than half of the fishermen ~wer
engaged in other work. A great part of the North Seais cosed o
fishing, and the White Sea fisheries had to be given up easy in the
war. Meanwhile inshore fishing, which had languished for years,
has been resumed; long-distance trawling off Iceland, the Faroe
Islands, and the northwest coast of the British Isles still continues.
Motor boats are being substituted for sailing vessels in the inshore
work, and the increased efficiency thereby secured may enable. thi..:
to compete with the trawlers after the war. Many fishing ve" I.
have been lost through war causes. ;
According to the Grimsby Chamber of Commerce, landing' i i
trawl fish, exclusive of shellfish, from British fishing i 'i
Grimsby for the last four years were: In 1913, 179,31.ton~, :












r the same period official statistics show that total landings on the
S tof Great Britain and Ireland, exclusive of shellfish, were: In
B -1,!0%453 tons, value $68,197,821; in 1914, 878,721 tons, value
,t74,9938; in 1915, 427,901 tons, value $47,360,155; and in 1916,
82 tons, value $52,517,550. Grimsby thus appears to have lost
heavily than the country as a whole, the 1916 catch at Grimsby
iga per cent of that in 1913, as compared with 34 per cent for
i:..t ..Jted Kingdom. Returns for January and February, 1917,
ib: ow landings of 72,407 tons, against 48,474 tons in the corresponding
mi months of 1916.
I"'P m e Prces-Imports dl Herrings from. Norway.
..;.rices of fish throughout 1916 were very high and demand in excess
i supply. Prices of December 1, 1916, were estimated as 147 per
ot t above those of July, 1914. This rise has brought extraordinary
ri:etu.rns to the fishermen--ne trawler netted about $24,400. for a
:thiee weeks' voyage to Iceland-but has been hard on the small
m.erchants and the fried-fisl shops, which latter are normally the
:. ihief distributing agency for the cheaper grades of fish. The high
prices of 1915 and 1916 have closed so many of these that it is feared
that it will be impossible to distribute the normal catch for a long
S:time after the war is over. [A report on the distributidi- of fresh
Sfish by express and parcel post was published in COMMERCE REPORTS
il; r Sept. 9, 1916.]
|; starious coarser kinds of fish that were formerly used for'fertilizer
lfir lack of another market now sell readily, for food and appear to
hive. established themselves firmly alongside the preferred sorts.
1lSome effort has been made to induce the people to eat dried cod, but
aii.pparently without success. More pickled herring, however, which,
tikBi the cod, was prepared chiefly for export, is being eaten, as a
"e .susit of the Government purchases of Norwegian fish and the low
rae: il price fixed for their sale.
Imports of Norwegian herrings into Hull in 1916 were 5,534 tons;
i 1913, 46,412 tons. Usually these exceed 40,000 tons, and the curing
exportation of them, along with the British herring catch (of
Wich normally about 85 per cent was exported), is a considerable
sea. Total British imports of fresh herrings from Norway in
were 52,727 tons.. These herrings, brought about $6.08 per hun-
weight at the beginning of 1917, against $1.22 before the war.
the.South Orkneys 4,448 tons.of whale oil were imported into
i 1916, against 5,599 tons in 1915.
Wool and tides-- emp and Flax.
S..i normal course of the wool trade was altered by the intro-
of Government control. First the whole English clip was
iu at a fixed price; then the New Zealand and Australian
lwere taken. Hull imports in 1916, according to the cham-
9enS~-Tto were 2,102,762 pounds, against 8,252,887 pounds in
Ml$44i,87 pounds in 1918. More than half of the 1916 re-


i i~i C 1k ~ tiP ++ti",,.it.....







BUPPLEMB lT TO OOMKEaOU ESPOBlR


ceipts came from Egypt. In 1913 three-fourth was from Aj
but shipping services between Hull and Australia have ati
maintained.. Prices have ranged much above those of 1915. :
tops, 56's for instance which in December, 1918, were 42j cants p
'pound and in December, 1915, were 71 cents, in December, lUI
were $1.02 per pound.
The hide market is also controlled by the Government.
to Hull in 1916, according to the chamber of commerce, wmers f
hundredweight, against 29,618 in 1915 and 83,295 in 1913. Of the
1916 total, 21,703 hundredweight were from India. In 1918 RBums,
with 26,810 hundredweight, was the chief source, and France, with
10,748 hundredweight, second. Heavy oxhides in December, 1916
were quoted at 20 cents per pound, against 16j cents in December,
1915, and 13 cents in December, 1913- light cowhides were 17 o-ant,
against 14j cents in 1915 and 13 cents in 1913.
Hemp imports, usually from 5,000 to 6,000 tons, have increased
since the war. According to the chamber of commerce 9,180 tons
were received at Hull in 1916, 7,773 tons in 1915, 6,349 tons in 1914,
and 5,527 tons in 1913. Flax imports in 1916 were 626 to against
3,310 tons in 1915. Russian hemp advanced steadily throughout the
year, owing primarily to the difficulty of getting it out of Archangel
Italian hemps advanced about 50 per cent and much difficulty was
experienced with the export restrictions of the Italian Government,
Indian hemps also rose. Itarsi, quoted at $165.46 per ton in .Jan-
uary, was $272.52 at the end of 1916; Bombay tow advanced fro*
$121.66 pep ton to $194,66, and Manila increased from 70 to, 80 pq
cent.
Exports of Coal-Tar Products, Dyes, and Paints.
The imrket for coal-tar products "was again dominated by war de-
mands. Benzol, toluol, phenol, and other derivatives were requil
sitioned by the Government. Pitch continued to be a drug on the
market, partly, at least, on account of heavily reduced exports. Hull
sends regularly to the United States sulphate of ammonia, crude
creosote, creosote oil, carbolic acid, disinfectant preparations, and"
cresol. Crude creosote and creosote oil exports have fallen of greatly
for lack of tank steamers. In the period 1911-1914 the United- States
was the principal purchaser of aniline oil and toluidine from the
United Kingdom, but in 1915 Switzerland took nearly three times 'i:
much as the United States. About one-third of the exports to the. -!:i
United States in 1913 and 1915 went from Hull. There are three d6i ::
tilling establishments at Hull, two of general scope and the othir
specialized. Official statistics do not list separately the various cad"t-
tar products, but it is evident from declared exports that :a 'ei- -'
siderable part of the exports do not originate in Hull. AnHill
does not appear at all in the export returns since 1918.
Synthetic dyes, except ultramarine, were not made in Hull beo 1
the war. One local manufacturer now produces ultramarine inp q::lft :i|
quantity and for his own use a yellow coal-tar dye from a .
mediate readily procurable in England. Another product
quantities of sulphur black and when materials cap be obtainlN
ous other coal-tar colors. There seems to be' no prospect of A..
tensive production in Hull of dyestuffs other than utrmm
sulphur black. New enterprises are naturally rather conservi....










.'4 3Wlr Aur biwc paiu. uuiaerb was nou Iavoraule, Owing to Ine
costof materials, the decreased domestic consumption, and an
Trade hampered by shortage of labor and shipping. Corn-
t was made that American paints and varnishes were gaining
Id at Hull's expense in the British colonies. Linseed oil on
aiber 19, 1916, was $11.68 per hundredweight; A merican tur-
eie, $18.68; and dry white lead, about $10.95. Many coal-tar
lors were practically not to be had. One Hull paint manufacturer
ilb ing barytes, formerly largely Imported from Germany.
Agrii alture. of the District-Colony at Patrington.
P 'i"No small part of the local trade of Hull arises from the rich agri-
Si cutral district in the midst of which the city is located. This com-
prii ss, roughly, the East Riding of Yorkshire and the northern part
'Itf Lincolnshire., Mfch of this region is level plain; some af it diked
Ilah: a below sea level at high water. The rest is rolling land of small
Ii: elevation.
: In this district, according to Government statistics, 1,536,600 acres
out of a total area of 1,716,637 acres were under cultivation on June 5,
S1916. To wheat were devoted 168,119 acres, to barley 168,535 acres,
to oats 168,433 acres, to turnips 137,786 acres, to hay 190,303 acres,
to potatoes 36,819 acres, and to carrots 2,872 acres, the last named 28
p er cent of the total area of England and Wales for this crop. On
;the sale date there were 248.063 cattle and 996,261 sheep. The pro-
at ition in 1916- follows: Wheat, 7245172t quarters of 480' pounds;
: barley, 561,852 quarters of 400 pounds; oats, 936,196 quarters of 312 i
pounds; turnips, 1,487,009 tons; and potatoes, 239,834 tons..
i A colony for discharged soldiers is being established at Patrington,
i between Hull' arid the sea, where 8,360 acres of land have- been taken
by the Government, and 46 cottages are in process of erection. It
wiil. necessarily be an experiment in intensive cultivation, and its out-
- come will be watched with interest. It is understood that poultry
:arming in particular is to be encouraged. It is intended to lease the
n ,i:: d in .small holdings.
:i baatge in Shipping of the Port.
i I"The total net register tonnage which paid dock dues at Hull in-
~1916, according to the chamber of commerce, was 3,355,149, against
4,435,565 in 1915 and 6,691,818 in 1913; this was the smallest aggre-
ate since 1895, when 3,255,581 tons paid dues. It should be noted,
oweve, that the 1916 figures do not include Government vessels or
ipl'under charter'to the Government, these being free of dues.
Total given therefore is not a fair measure of the port's activity
be growing shortage of tonnage and the increase of freights as
*rE.ect Huill are sufficiently illustrated in the coal-trade section
report. Wages of able seamen and firemen advanced from
per month in July, 1914, to $43.80 early in 1917 and other
accordingly.
ia the control of the Wilson Line the chief shipping enter-
Sthis port, passed out of Hull to Sir John Ellerman, of the



.. .... .. .
]tI~9~U

*c I








Transit to North ussla Sedea, and Siberi. .. *I .
An announcement of the completion of the Russian railroad
Petrograd via Soroka, Ker, Kandalaksha, and Kola to the ie.ii.'
port of Alexandrovsk on the Arctic Ocean is of keen interest toSlii
which is second only to London of British ports in volume of:'. :
with Russia. Although the port is now available only for R iui I
Government traffic and its facilities must remain limited withni t*i !
war lasts, it promises greatly improved communications with noith:
western Russia thereafter. It not only provides a winter substitute
for the Baltic ports and Archangel but opens large forest areas mi
which extensive lumber and wood-pulp developments are expected.
There has been further discussion of the Swedish Governments
train ferry scheme. This is designed to take trains from the Ras-
sian Finnish railroads, possibly at Helsingfors, ferry them to Stock-
holm, run them across Sweden to Goteborg, and then ferry them
again to some east-coast port of England, thus providing a through
passenger and freight service between England and Russia. Hal's
advantages as the British terminal are being urged. If the pro-
jected service should be established after the war and should come
to the Humber, it would doubtless further stimulate trade with both
Sweden and Russia.
Reference was made last year to the fact that for four summers
past vessels had gone from the Humber around the north of Europe
into the Obi and Yenesei Rivers, carrying full cargoes both ways.
In 1916 only one ship made the voyage. Special vessels are building
for this service, and it is hoped to make the Siberia, expeditiAt.m !
annual feature of Humber trade.

LIVERPOOL.
By Conmul Horaee Lee "Washlngto.
In 1913 Liverpool's share of the total trade of the United King
dom, including imports, exports, and reexports, was 26.4 per cent;
in 1914, 27.6 per cent; in 1915, 29.4 per cent; and in 1916, 83.7 per
cent. According to official returns, the overseas trade of the United
Kingdom in 1916 amounted to $7,084,158,653, the highest total on
record and $812,456,778 greater than that registered in 1918. 1Th
balance of trade is indicated by imports of $4,619,052,972 agais t.!
exports of $2,465,107,140.
The total trade of the port of Liverpool in 1916 was $2,316,018,84.. "
an increase of $402,661,557 over 1915. Of this, $1,362,735,472 was uml -~j
ports, a gain of $243,661,615; and $953,283,266 exports, a gaia a a
$159,354,914. Exports consisted of the products'of the Unitei 4 Ki
dom. $822.589.229, and reexports of foreign and colonial merchandise
$130,694.037. 7
Port Congestion Relieved-Facilities Improved.
Statistics for the United Kingdom of ships entered with car
show a reduction of 3,664,476 tons in 1916; of this, 3,397,000.. -
represents the decrease at Liverpool, despite which the a
this port was unprecedented during the year. The port co
that was acute in the latter part of 1914 and during most'o
was not felt so much in the past year. Early in 1916 the
transport committee, which has wide powers of control, issued .









.g wis xrunu a1 tar uuu u1mWauruEB wuuiu uiBcuurage aelay, ana
la D connection with the stringent measures whereby strikes were
dn in the district and peremptorily ordered to be settled by
tion, produced gratifying results.
i improvement was made in spite of the fact that there were
.dIed during the year on the Liverpool quays record landings of
tobacco and wooL The stock of tobacco in the port at the
ing of March, 1917, was 150,000 hogsheads in the board's
warehouse, and this required the construction of an annex to accom-
modate 5,000 hogsheads. During 1916 over 236,000 bales of East
Median wool were imported into Liverpool, exceeding the former
'ieer d of 187,000 bales. The activity of the dock board, which
uitosfrols in the Liverpool and Birkenhead areas, has not been limited
' to caring for the interests of shipping. On its property on the
Ii'kenhead side, by reason of the great increase in the milling trade
.t the port, it has decided to add another large mill to the five exist-
ki': ng establishments. At least 25,000,000 tons of sand were removed
1r *oBm the river entrance, and 236,000 tons of stone were deposited on
Srevetment work to maintain the depth of the water. An increase
!7:i' 347 per cent in the rates charged on all goods stored in the
:.oard's warehouse and 15 per cent in the rates and dues on ships and
? loods was made in August, 1916, and on January 1, 1917, a further
: .Mrease of 15 per cent in the rates and dues on ships and goods went
'ni:: effect.
i:::M1 ttiions in rseght batas.
I' An interesting contention is made by a leading authority that
effect of freight rates upon f~a price of foodstuffs has been but
tll, and as an illustration menfron is made of the anomaly of
ntine wheat not having been lowered in price, although brought
is country at Government blue-book rates; in the case of beef
A'Argentina the price rose from 13 cents per pound from the
ming of the war to 22 cents per pound in July, 1916, although
irate paid to the shipowners advanced only from 1 to 3 cents
pound. Fluctuations have been a notable feature of the
ht question, attributed to the apportioning at times of requisi-
Stonnage to trades that needed. assistance. One of the most
changes took place in June, 1916, when the rate for wheat
the northern ports of the United States to the United Kingdom
but $70 per quarter, against $4.27 in February, which repre-
iidecrease of $12.16 per ton. In January, 1917, quotations
OiMrdiW to the River Plate were $9.73 per ton, compared with
'i Di'ei ber, 1916, and rates from Bombay to the United
wari e ~widely.
Figures compare certain rates prevailing before the
charged in December, 1916: Cardiff to River Plate,
";River Plate to United Kingdom, $4.39 and $27.98;
Ietlil8 and $14.59; Bombay to United Kingdom,
.,t .... Cal~ to United Kingdom, $5.96 and $66.89.
lii--A1B UaverpoolIs Trade.
S2%. quantities or, in some cases, the values of
4iW|t and reexports of Liverpool during the
'f" '': .: ::i,. ........i. .
iiiL /









SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE BEPORTB.


past two years. The units have these equivalents: Ton, 2,40
hundredweight, 112 pounds; great hundred, 120 in number;lEi
cubic feet; cental, 100 pounds; tun of train and blubber oiR..
Ions; and tun of sperm oil, 252 gallons. ____

Articles. 1915


IMPORTS. "


Boots and shoes, loather ....................................doz. prs..
Butter. ........................................................... wts..
Cereals:
W heat......................................................do....
Boricy-----------------------------------do...
Bnrley........................................................do....
Oats...................................................... ..do....d
Mna re .........................................................do....
Wboat meal flour............................................. do....
Rice moal and flour....................................... ...do....
Cheese.......................................................do....
Cocoa. raw ...........................................................Ibs..
Cotton:
Raw ..................................................... entals..
Wnste from worked cotton............................ ......do...
MIL ifactures................................................ do....
Drestudls and tanning substances, excluding cutch, gambler, mvrRbo-
lams, and valonia........................................... alIe..
Fegs................................................... gt. hundred..
Fish............................................................value..
Fruits:
Dutiable-Currant s..... ... ........ ..... .............. wts..
Not liable to duty-
Apples, raw................... ..............................do....
BJanasas...............................................bunches..
Iremons, limes, and citrons................................ cwts..
Oranges..................................................do....
Hemp................................................ ..........do....
Hides, raw.....................................................do....
Instruments, etc.............. .......................................o...
Jute manufactures, other than cordage............................al tu..
Lard................ ..................... .. cWts..
Lent her............................... .. .......................... do....
Machinery and parts...............................................tons..
Meats:
Bacon................................................... ... ewls..
Beef, fresh and refrigeratd....................................do....
Hams............. ........................................ do....
Mutton, fresh and refrigerated.................... ......do....
Incnn merated.......................... ...................do....
Prcscr\ ed otherwise than by salting..........................do...
Metals:
Brass manufactures...........................................tons..
CoppeTr-
t'nwroTugbt.................... ..........................do....
Ore..................................... .... ..........do....
Iron, pig, and puddled bars..................................do....
Iron aii1 steel-
Steel ingots, etc............................................. do....
O her.................................. .......................... do....
Lead. pig and sheet .........................................do....
Manganese ore................................................do....
Silver Ure .................. ... ........................ .... valO e..
Tinl ure ..................................... ............. ........ tons..
Zinc ...........................................................do....
Milk, conilensed ....................... .......... ... .............. wt..
Nuts and kernels for oil.......................................tons..
Oils and oil sepds:
Fish (train, blubber, and sperm)...... ..........................tuns..
('Coonit ............................................... ...... cwt .
Palm and palm kernels................. .....................do....
Petroleum lamp oil................ .............................galls..
Lubricating ........................................ ....... do....
(;a.s oil ................. ........... ..... .. ........... ..........do....
Oil-seed ake. .. .......... .............................. ......tons..
Rosin. .................................. .........................cwt..
Rubber manulacitures (ex.relt apparel, boots, and shoes)........centals..
Seeds:
Cotton.......................................... ..........tons..
Flax or linseed.................................... .....qrs..
Skins:
Goat, undressed..................................... ........ No..
Sheep.................................................... value..
Skins and furs, undressed, unenumerated....................... No..
Spirits:
Rum ................................................... .. proof g lls..
Brandy......................................................o... ....
a Hundredweight.


,71,379
20,544 ,300
771, 000
1,077,6W3
6,a:77 g0
1,297, 10
6, 434,30
41, 943
116,659,827
20 295,313
8 76. 700
7, 863; 300
................
1 223 554
15, 539,401
605,067
1.224 2R8
4,460 63
-219 895
1,296.597
32 261
1,063 316
7.918 '03
$10 121 521
565 691,
536 706
35.795
2. 05 149
3.735 778
.*2 28L
8(2 076
323 095
303., 04
17,377
78,107
17, 00
3,274
199.90
210,122
40,549
19, r98
0838,297
42,2901
24,190
257, 26C
250,08$
27,425
220,003
1,261,500
5,422,470
20,035,142
9,962,261
168,482
92, 50a
423, 30
34.m18
121, 14
2,567,490
$1,374,0 .

4, S,421L,
araSdr


".-I
. A.. ,...,!,
A:!".:

















-....m m arts. .
~. .e...................................................
... .. d
Su.d .............r ... .......... .....................do....
-" nairitu em.s.. .. ..............................................lbs..
Sj.an iau u nrd ............................................ .s..
are ................ ... .............bush..
udingis.oarie..............,...................wts..
........ ............................. ....................
and uanultrets of:
S or. apit, planed or dressd, and sleepers ................. oads..
t l..........................l......................... twl ..
... m a, and lam................................... bs..
: a n ........................................................do....
or a ...............................................do....
ii;. UXPOi:I.
i";.l d/ ... .... ................................................. No..
.i ...................... ..................................value..
Smm nit tn, etc....................................... do ...
. eta.:
......................... ......... ....
S e................................... ..... ...............do....
and aebmical preparations:
S.. da compounds ................. .................... cwts..
Other s.....................................................alue..
L. and earthen ware .........................................cwts..
Seto.................................................... do....
Yards s........................................................ l.;.
Vase rom worked cotton.............................,.......do....
m u goods..................................................... d....
Sd tools (e........... machine tools).......... .......... ue...
l mantm..... .........................................v du..
anm d tools (expt machine tools).......................d. ...
!ad manUfactures of (except boots, shoes, and machinery belt-
...-......................................................... alue..
lacegos.m..t............. ............ ................ yrds..


and ste n edninanufactures of............................do....
umwrrIght. ;.............................................do-....
... umerated..;..........................................do....
.. ..................................................... .. s..
dn. ....................... ........... ................bs. ..
and worsteds:





l., .................................................... .-tals..
e m............el, d our...............................cyds..
w.,.......................................................lbs..
s am ................................... d....
.......................................................... bS..
.................................................value..
rei~t .. ...................................... ws..
l ker l......... ..............................do....
................. ............................ entls...
e .bl ........r.rat........ ........ ............................n. .
......................... ......................ndo...
..t.. ............ .............................. bs..

......................................... ..
... ........................................cwts...
..;......................................... lbs..
.. ............................ lbs..
."~;~J:.; 2.af!!.. .. .. ..di.


11. .812
6,148,012
1,279,677
400,538
1.8R0. 249
114,601.613
2,257. 873
98.547
2,237,688
450.208
101,160
7, 995, 83
1, 704
192,861,903


8,525
4,680,80 8
1, 469, 88
35,436.240
56, 04,704
6,379,828
116,211,781
1, 717, 686
2,150, 472
2,851.300
21,897.000
3,385,240.300
124,207 746
3a.001,930
84,073,814
13,753.813
73,877,300
122,6022
145,004
791,047
10,994
5,480
1,592,515
21,088,642
63,276,000
54,945,857


1,434.570
3, 022,719
2,465,930
1,989,187
2, 812,067
4, 125.346
192,248
$5,983,234
37,543
636,699
35, 616
2,450.260
1,771.419
2, 32,975
4,477.363
42.575
23,945,743
182.485


730.0MI
6,042.664
1.237. 56
264,451
2.223, 81
106,455.211
2,236. 22
57.658
2,184, 139
403,867
31,053
5,872.485
30. 174
158,000,993


17,987
6, 349, 122
617,842,267.
13.432.721
o6,088,741
4.709,538
818,127. 50
1,405.736
1,253, 785
45.548,200
23,569.600
.3, 614,970, 00
354.995.691
$3,996.374
15,935,017
14,486,873
68,194.500
118.453
114,004
659,785
12, 909
5.450
1,748,172
14,708,283
70,240,700
6, 820, 949


995,378
o295,500
1,902,808
1. 20,378
51,991.025
16,984,440

32, 680
26,5,690
211,716
2,976, 842
1,460.8
1, 982.987
5,314,88
39. 17
10,31, 857
a213, s


...... :.i..
mtmdredweight.
::i:.. .... ..... :. ... .. J...... ... .,i....


b1IW kStates into Liverpool reached the nmpre-
."| for the calendar year 1916, according
*,9; .. 80,.988,438 for 1915. These figures do





q .... .

": : ::: .:. ..


0 I.


iiiiir;









28 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE EBPQLP T.

not include the large amount of Government suppli es"4... ii
through Liverpool.
In the following table are shown the items valued at $1i
over in 1916, compared with the values in 1915:
"--- ---,,,.,


A rtcles.


Apples....... .........
Barlev..................
Boots and shoes, leather.
Butter ..................
ChcRc .. ...............
Col Ion. raw.............
ornton hosiery...........
Drugs and medicines....
Eggs....................
Fniit, crnned and bot-
tled. in not more than
12 per cent of added
sugar..................
Implements and parts...
Instruments and appa-
rfuis. scientific (other
than electrical), and
parts.................
Lard...................
Leather and manufac-
tures of:
Dressed-
Box calf........
Glace kid.......
ndressed..........
Machine tools............
Machines, machinery
and parts, unenumer-
aled....... -..........
Maize ...................
Meals:
Barn..............
Beef-
Chilled..........
Frozen..........
Hams..............
Pork, frozen........
Unenumerated, fresh
and refrigerated,
frozen.............
Metals and ore;:
Brass, bronze, etc.,
iunenumerated.....
Copper. iinwrought..
Iron and steel-
ltar3, aneles. etc.
Blooms. billets,
and slabs......
'ire nails.......
Wire rods........


$2,769.524
696. 24
1,615.010
1, 62.5 25
3,066.975
174.451. 732
5,596.690
491.983
786,216


2,640.395
967,718


2,618,759
6, 92,772


1,20,197
4, 92, 103
9, 5.3,085
5,443.336

4,992.173
1.420.282
41.456,789
8. 511. 965
2, 03. 303
15,0 09i. 03
1.286.101

1,437,228

7,. 83. 872
18,189,560
805,G34
6,043. 431
438.805
992.790


Articles.


II ii F


52.561,220
2,709,535
2.778. 7"6
3.581.449
2.608.891
245.751.920
3.96,.592
1.217.028
1,250,310


2.154,778
1,692,281


2.314,411
13,091,914


1,749.175
5.526.018
II.879.029
8,143,240

3, 46.9,98
6,739,963
57,391,20.5
6,737.036
5,09.013
19.4G3.615
4,181.503

1,754,280

4,115,794
9,013.430
1,458,912
40. 1. 761
1.662. 712
1.102,1371


Metals and ores-Contd.
Zinc ore, crude......
Unenumerated, un-
wronwht...........
Milk, condensed:
Sweetened...........
Unsweetened........
Motor car chassis, com-
mercial ..............
Moving picture ilms.....
Oats..................
Oils. lubricatin ........
Oil cake. cottoneed.....
Oleomarearin or oleo oil
and refined tallow.....
Panerpulo of wood, un-
blearhed, dry........
Paraffin wax..........
Raleins........... ......
Rosin ...................
Rubber manufactures
(except anoarel, water-
proofed, boots and
shoes, etc)...........
Salmon, ranned........
Skins and furs, unenum-
erated:
Dressed (not leather).
Undressed..........
Starch (other than ricol..
S]ra-. refined, other
Than lumn and lavep-..
Tanning extract ........
Tobacco, unmanufac-
tured:
Ste-nmed...........
Unsteramed........
W heat............... ..
Wheat meal and flour...
Wood:
Hewn-
Fir, other than
pit props or
pit wood......
Sle.ners of all
kinds.. ......
Sawn or split-Fir,
pine, or spruce....


.3S,0F7,8IM
.8573080


71.6006
247,023
1,061m8e8
3887. 3
3.692. 987
1.,897,365
791,687


876.S66
1,411,815


1,43S,057
5,74, 175

277. 15
2,342.991
132.161
8n.010
1i,Sgb,50t

4,538, 48S
15,418.775
87,00i, 391
4,111,374



587,081
646,254
1,733,758


KS,'.



a-po





aS:,




I Ohl
3,677,13





-, 78Q,3 .




4,3: 5,0..

a, ag #N


lt'sH, :i


:.: a : ,I:*

3,408, 4

,Al iiith



i.asl,wl


[A detailed list of imports from the United States into Livr.p
was published in COMM.ERCE REPORTS for July 28, 1917.]
Cotton Statistics.

The annual report of the Liverpool Cotton Association fori:
season 1915-16 shows the imports of raw cotton into Liverpool,
chester, and Belfast (the figures for the respective places not. i
shown separately) as follows, in bales: American, 2,697~7040:.
zilian, 4.870: Egyptian, 557,149; Peruvian, 151,337; West
3,338: African. 33,157; and East Indian, 110,170; making
3,557,790 bales, against 4,989,377 bales imported into Liverpp,
chester, and Hull during the 1914-15 season. -
The average net weight of the total bales imported. '
was 513 pounds (504 in 1914-15). and of the bales impo..
the United States. 491 pounds, the same as in the prz~evio
The total weight of the cotton imported into Great .Britai.
~IVI YV VCVV~ IllrVYVY ~ ~ W


: ,:]










irak s on hand at Liverpool of the various classes of raw cot-
M the close of the 1915-16 season were as follows, in bales:
ican, 516,686; Brazilian, 132; Egyptian; 41,835; Peruvian, 17,-
;~West Indian, 1,142; African, 7,297; East Indian, 60,129; mak-
a total of 644,446 bales, compared with 1,462,112 on hand at the
of the previous season.
Te average weekly consumption of raw cotton in Great Britain
the 1915-16 season amounted to 76,280 bales, which consisted
62,140 bbales of American, 490 Brazilian, 6,980 Egyptian, 3,760
ruvxan, 180 West Indian, 710 African, and 2,020 East Indian,
I g an increase of 1,470 bales per week, or for the whole year of
81,58 bales. The total weight of cotton consumed in Great Britain
iiwas 1,972,000,114 pounds, against 1,981,384,752 pounds in 1914-15.
'!alta Pri~es at LiverpooLd
iThe average prices in Liverpool of the various classes of cotton
'.'ifitlyg the seasons 1914-15 and 1915-16 were as follows, per pound:
I.fddlmg-American, $0.1058 and $0.1523; fair Permans, $0.1158 and
i0.1667; fully good fair Egypt, $0.1488 and $0.2529; fine broach,
i0.0998 and $0.1458; and good Oomra, No. 1, $0.1040 and $0.1174.
The highest point of the market for American cotton during the
i'i15-16 season was on May 19, 1916, when middling American was
i:,~ ed at $0.1772 per pound, and the lowest point on August 3, when
i: was quoted at $0.1083. The highest price of fine broach was
S~ff03O on May 19; the lowest, $0:1044, on August 3. The average
value of middling American for the season was $0.1523 per pound;
l~lb coach, $0.1458 per pound.
'of the Wool Trade.
i he enforcement of the embargo on the exportation of wool to
Countries reduced purchases on export account to a minimum
S1916. The virtual control by the Government of supplies of
rom British possessions and the formation of a bureau to
ate the distribution of these supplies curtailed the sphere of
ltions of private firms, which usually handle these wools, and
.* ved the element of speculation. Buyers at the East India wool
were required to give a written guaranty that their pur-
would be used solely for orders on hand and not for specu-
i:dealing. --The regularity of wool- shipments to this country
.i..rfered with by a reduction in the number of available ves-
~j F ar Eastern and South American trade routes.
win are comments by a prominent Liverpool broker on the
)MI 1916:
4Seb1 bowed an advance varying from 13 to 30 per cent compared
for 191: 1 Abudia wool barely appeared on the Liverpool market.
lljinvtn and. unwashed Lima wool, quoted on December 31,
Mt i CW ients per pound, respectively, for average quality, were
thgaWpNa.Aearcity of clothing wool, by the large Government
.......f. ll .g.e operations of- American wool buyers ip ieru.
tt ,having been taken over by the Governinent at
9.t1 5194' price, occupied an independent posltlon.
i W I bdlli. M to contractorss at a fixed price so as to allow
ers to furnish their respective .products at
agntrimnm ....he army. contracts department. Wools grown
i trt to 191 ate S ei in the' same manner.


*1,, '


. .... A :







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMEROB EXPORTS,


Alpaca, Mohair, and East Indian Wool. :: :j
Alpaca rose from 20 to 30 per cent over 1915 prices. Good avi...
fleece, after being stationary for most of the year, suddenly advahiz ...
during December and reached the highest point, 52 cents per poun
been reached since 1895. when it was 56 .cents per pound. The tmB
corded price for this kind of nool was 80 cents per pound in 1872.
for the advance nnmy have been the report that manufacturers in Amertil
buying this good average quality in Peru at high prices; 8.000 bale are ei
to have been shipped to America direct during 1910, against 3.100 bales tn.f^9
Mohair has been affected by the war. Shipments from Turkey habtve e
stopped, afd the quotation of 52 cents per pound for angora is nomlnadl.- fI
consequence, more interest has been taken in Cape mohair, and prices dfiSi V
quality advanced froTn 28 cents per pound at the beginning of the year to 01"i
cents per pound at the close. .
Oporto fleece has been shipped direct to America, or to America In transit t.!
through Liverpool. Donskoi and Syrian wools (lid not appear on this market '
in 1916.
As regards East Indian wool, the United States was precluded-from sharing
in the buying of this class during the whole of 1916, and purchases for France
have been negligible. Because the home trade was left solely to deal with the
arrivals of this class, the advance in prices was not so large as it might have
been; but quotations for first white Joria and first white Candahar (favorite
kinds with American users) were as high as 42 cents and 37 cents per pound
respectively. Yellow East Indian wool rose 25 per cent in price, and gray and
black correspondingly. These latter sorts have been wanted urgently for the
manufacture of colonial blankets and were more in demand, owing to the short-
;ge of dyes that would have to be used when self-colored wools were not avail-
able. The conditions surrounding the marketing of East Indian wool applied
also to the Egyptian product, the prices of which, especially during the latter
iprt of 1916, moved consistently against buyers. The quotation on January 15,
1917. for first white Cairo fleece was $0.385, against $0.32 a year previous and
the record price of $0.44 per pound in February, 1872. .,!,v.,'.
Kinds of Wool Imported.
Imports of wool into Liverpool, as into other ports of the lUnied
Kingdom, were reduced by three causes: (1) Decreased. prodtcfon
in the principal growing districts of the world owing to drought etc.;
(2) decimation of flocks in war-occupied areas; and (3) scarty of
tonnage for transporting available stocks from colonial markets at
neutral countries. During 1916 Liverpool received approximately
487,700 bales of wool, against 588,481 bales of all classes during 1915.
There were 169,100 bales of colonial wool, against 214,669 bales in.i,
1915; practically all was sent direct to consumers. inland against
forward contracts.
Of River Plate wool the imports were 33,000 bales, against 58,816 :
bales in 1915. Only 5.300 bales were dealt with at public auction ia.
Liverpool, against 9,000 bales in 1915. It is understood in Liverpool
that direct American purchases have been made more extensively in
local centers in the Argentine, thus accounting for smaller shipments a
to this country.
Only a few bales of Abudia wool came into this market. The
French Government, having commandeered Algerian wool and
supply from those parts of %orocco within its sphere of in-u
diverted the bulk of North African wools to Marseille.
Imports of washed Peruvian, unwashed Lima, and in
Chilean wools were 17,100 bales in 1916, against 26,528 bales:i
The decline is reported to have been due to Americans buyig::i..
west coast. From July to October alone, the shipments .
vian wool to New York direct were 3,700 bales. Imports fiali















&Is slaughtered for food, and sold in this market at the pub-
SImports of alpaca amounted to 28,800 bales, against
bales in 1915. During 1916 12,000 bales of Egyptian wool were
d, againstt 17,000 bales in 1915. It is believed that Italiah
ses in Egypt accounted for the difference. The imports of
Indian wool during 1916 reached the record total of 236,500
; 1915 imports were 230,788 bales. The high prices current and
sales effected were prime causes for the increased imports into
market.
I"'loes of Various Wools.
The following table shows the prices per pound of the various
sripntions of nothing, combing, and carpet and blanket wools dur-
the year:


.. ..
*


Ondes.


CLOTUrY O WOOL.
I Zeafland, unwashed, good...............................
"*laediAd, average. .............................
.' g washed, average....................-......
'w.b imnra ed, average................. .........
CONUING WOOL.
**-::. .o ,: o *o .
ong Bsees..................... ...............
ether fleeces........................................
Kmt, wet Re es................... ....................
,,"Ell..down, Bees, B1 jc. ............................
leece, goodavnt ge..............................
SB 4 e ... ........................
meece, *ralaergea..........................
CArRPET AND BLA&N'T WOOLS.
Irst: .. r. t white........... .. ......... .........
*I ta First 'white............ ............
Spa Pathan, ye-aw-................. .........
rd ow...................................... .
,~e; ..... ..............................
wa. be, irst white.......... ................
: adding ................... ............
l, l u mindPiped.~:::::.......... ..........
a white, ncland.........................


Average,
9M to
1915.


Jan. 1, Lowest. High-
1916. 1 1 Geat.


. I *I -I


80.3196
.269
.1686
.129


.2460
.2242
.272
..3006
.3668
.2716
.3226


.257
.2225
-.1906
.1586
.1946
.2166
.186
.1658
.114


80.365
.334
.263
.203


.385
.385
.446
. 496
.39
.354
.324


.40
.344
.243
.213
.284
.324
.26
.24
.172


$0.355
.334
.248
.203


.385
.385
.446
.486
.395
.354
.324


80.415
.405
.324
.263


.446
.446
.496

.527
.527


.425
.375
.304
.263
.365
.39
.314
324
.233


pts and Prices of Tin.
Mhe limits of fluctuations in tin were much the same as in 1915,
bough the level of prices was higher. Opening at $832.16, there
u an immediate rise, which continued during February and was
uated during March and April. In the next three months,
vWr, there was an almost continuous decline, until in July the
point of the year, $794.44, was reached. From that date the
was generally upward until the middle of November, after
tiber was a reaction, the metal closing on December 29 at

isi oantined to go direct.from the Straits to the United
ponsiderable quantities, supplemented by supplies from this
t~ itd S.tates now being the largest consumer.


Dec.
31,
1916.



80.415
.405
.324
.263


I


:. .= ..
.. =! .


A :i..;.:; .. ...'... .
iiiiii.'.. ii~i':iL ....<...... ,







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE tBPOAB


The year 1916 opened with three months' tin at a .
$4.86; after fluctuating until June it remained at a premium
out the year, closing at a difference of $10.83, the highest
1916.
The English average price of standard tin for the year was.
($90.36 more than in 1915), the average prices for the four
of -1916being: January to March, $892.16; April to June,.
July to September, $825.45; October to December, $891.77. iii
The country's imports of foreign tin were 5,000 tons less th a !
1915, and there was also a large reduction in the imports of tin
the total being 39.912 tons in 1916 against 44,748 tons in 1915. S f
American shipments declined by one-third, and South Africa .i
only 54 tons ....
Increased Government Demand for Steel Bars.
The trade in steel bars was a unique feature of the metal marke)||
during the past year. The Government demands for steel bars Coi!:
tinued to increase as the year progressed, and a struggle by tin-platki:f
works to secure supplies is said to have resulted. The aggregate
supply of steel allotted to the tin-plate trade was repeatedly reduced.:
The price of bars advanced from $55.90 in January to $60.82 and
$63.26 in March. In April the maximum price was fixed by theA'i
Government at $51.09, but this had no apparent effect for several,:1
months. The trade price rose in May to $65.69 and $68.13, and baS'.
were difficult to obtain. In July $70.56 was paid for prompt deliv;,
ery; but during the last months the official maximum was in force.
With regard to foreign bars the imports were less than 3,000o.ton4 .
the figures for the last four years being: In 1913, 345,503 tons; in
1914, 278,014 tons; in 1915, 12,561 tons; and in 1916, 2,969 tons.
The Tin-Plate Trade.
Notwithstanding many difficulties experienced by the tin-plate.:
trade during 1916, it is understood that the financial results have been
satisfactory to the makers, the margin of profit being higher thaiiin
normal and offsetting the reduced production. At the opening of the3'
year practically all tin-plate works were placed under Government:
control. Raw material-steel bars and sulphuric acid-were scar:cei:
and there was a shortage of labor. As the year advanced these.dif.':li
culties increased: The exports to foreign countries (allied Governm-
ments excepted) grew smaller and smaller, and on August 9 Ithl
exportation of tin plates was prohibited.
After a steady market for the first few weeks of 1916 a continued
advance in prices of tin plate began, reaching in May and j e
from $8.75 to $S.99, the highest level of the year; but the dlahia.:es
in obtaining licenses were so great that quotations fell t6o I 8 in:
the second half of July. Then followed an improvement mntil toq
ward the end of August $7.29 was reached; but at that time t
plates were placed on the prohibited list for all countries, aid
further restrictiop was soon felt. In mid-September the
gainn gave way, and in about a month declined to about $i.T
cl:.-s A work. The makers were called together, and a : P
of $(.5i was provisionally agreed upon; this rate was ia
the end of the year.
For the last few months of 1916 it was almost impossible
maker to secure hars except for class A or possibly B ordel:'ri..











i itWiW iff erences in price between class A and class C

the average price of American tin plates was considerably
that.of Welsh, and some purchases were made for this country

u f'Tin Pats.
following table shows the exports of tin plates (including
plates and tin sheets) from the United Kingdom during 1914,
and 1916, together with the total values for the years named:
Counties. 1814 1915 1016

'O Tom. Tons. TOs.
.t" i kW ....................................................... 27,7W: 9,744 498,O8
......... ... ............. .......... ,354 41,483 41,512
i: ast dies. ........... ............... .... ...:... 70,10 47,588 31,116
i: a m .. .-..............................,-9 21,515
S=,17y............. ..................... .................... ,00 38,50 19, i
a. ............................... ....... ........ ......... 2 0,50 14,72
Stual....................... .... ....................... 1 983 1 1 81 14,001
iW a............................ .......... 1,47 9,3SS 13, 2
ta .............................:............................ 16,250 19,510 12,114
r' ilus..... ................................................. 7.8. 2,W8 8,725
.=.. =====. =========================. ================== s, ,956 2,3L3 4,947
i ti: S te................ .17,468 1,014 838
Cmda.................. ............................. 8,246 2,064 775
m alt................... ................................. .1,&12 1,181 21
i mathl1 --** --------* --------------------------------*----* .17,913 ........ ........ '7..6i
9 ................ 7 .......... ...............
.a...... ........................................ 8, a .. 75,018
tal quantity, ton.................... ........... 485,3"2 368,778 821,710
S Toalvauea............................................. 19.546 27,661,211 541,164,370

Ai.B.J r trade Satisfactory in 1916.
i:: The timber trade of Liverpool and other ports on the River Mersey
iam the Manchester Ship Canal (the trade comments and figures of
7,lach port are not shown separately) during 1916 was regarded as
atisfaactry, although much smaller in volume than in prewar years.
:nae -trade was beset with difficulties, the most serious being the mat-
|ter of ocean freight rates. Tonnage, especially steam, was scarce
iiiad chartering difficult, a noticeable feature being the large number
of sailing ships engaged.
|II: A. pminment importer, in reviewing the events of the 1916 season,
'ihows that the year opened with extremely high freights, which con-
inued upward for some months, until excessive figures were reached,
daring the summer came a marked decline, which occasioned a
.in pries, mostly affecting spruce and pitch pine. Toward the
qf the season freight rates again advanced, but did not reach the
High level Imports, nwth- a few exceptions, notably pitch
were on a much reduced scale compared with previous years,
restrictions accounting very largely for the reduction in
SStocks at the close of the year were moderate, and in
masei light but the sock of spruce is regarded by the trade
f or being only slightly less than in 1915. Prices for
e. &ecript oms were very high and generally advancing

I.B N lel V a states.
i ly of pitdh pine during 1916 was estimated at 10 per ent
of 1915, and in January stocks were heavy, with -aluds.
ASN...
SI4,:.,,








34 SUPPLEMENT TO OOMMERBO REPORTS. i.
high and unsteady. Freight rates were greatly advanced, a 'o
followed tile upward trend, but contracting on c. i. f. terms::
erally difficult. At. the beginning of 1917 the prevailing pri
the highest recorded. The import of hewn pitch pine i 1ii
exceedingly light. Selected wood is in fair demand. Of saw&:i
pine imports were 43 per cent greater than in the prevtioui
(3,261,000 cubic feet in 1916, against 2,282,000 in 1915), and gene
had a good market, although during the summer prices dropped
consequence of lower freights, and several consignments were stoe
for shippers' account. At the close of the year the Liverpool attI
Manchester stocks amounted to 841,000 cubic feet; prices were thu
highest on record, chiefly owing to the excessive freights. Plankhi
and boards arrived freely during 1916, although about 34 per cent:
less in .olume than during 1915; deliveries were well maintained, i
and stocks were moderate at the end of the year; prices rose cor-i
respondingly with freights to record figures. There was a heavy im;i-
port of sleepers, most of them for direct consumption. ii
Imports of American Oak, Whitewood, Etc.
There were no arrivals of oak logs in 1916. Imports of waga n
planks, which went directly into consumption, were light; there
was a strong demand for these. Prices steadily improved and rteed:
high at the close of the year, and stocks were practically exhausted.
Cabinet oak arrived sparingly on contract; holdings were light and
quotations firm. The import of quartered and plain oak boards was
considerably below normal figures; deliveries were liberal and stocks
comparatively light. At the close of the year there was a good de-
mand at advanced prices. The few American walnut logs imported
during 1916 sold readily at.full rates. Some planks and boards were s
brought in, but in much less quantity than during 1915; stocks were
light. The imports of whitewood logs in 1916 were 16,000 cubic
feet, against 40,000 cubic feet in 1915. Deliveries were liberal, stocks
small, and demand and prices firm. The few whitewood planks and :.
boards imported were chiefly on contract; holdings were much re-
duced and all grades in demand. Hickory logs arrived freely, but-,
there were not so many received as in 1915, and the consumption :
almost kept pace with imports. Ash logs were imported in fairly
large quantities, chiefly for dealers' account; prices were well main-
tained and stocks reduced.
The total import of American staves during 1916 was 2,450 iI
(mnille=1,200 pieces) against 2,850 mille in 1915. Most of the ar
rivals of heavy cleft staves were secured for Government.parpoaees
consequently transshipinents for wine cooperage requiree6 tst were
light. The import of palm oil staves was fairly heavy, lad record
values ruled practically throughout the year. Receipts of d
staves for the beer and spirit trade were greatly curtailed by
lack of freight space, but the demand fell off considerably ow
Government restrictions. Stocks generally in first hand at the
of the year were small, but at the same time palm oil staves
stored rather heavily because the demand was restricted by tM
age of labor in the cooperage trades. Dull conditions ruled "I`
dry cooperage industry, and the demand for gum staves ai
limited.


-1





















.N. Articles.



...........................................per cubic foot..
.. i ..i............. .... ................. .......... dn....
mud I boards, pr i r .............-............a perstandard..
S; ....................................................do...
im Laao.dow. ........................................... do....

prim ....................................... cable foot..
ms and bods ............. ........ ....... ....... do....



i r n l...... ................................................do....

Sio...... ........ ................................do....

Quartered ..............................................do....
1P .iut lat..... .............................................do ..--
Slopal l ot ...... ............................ ................. do....


p d.... .................................................. do....
j L- *y. .rdloRha b..-........o ..- .................. ..........do .....
Ela. round lo .............................................do....
.i maple: "
.:u. llop ......he...... ...................................dn...
flooring ..................................a per standard..
Sialexth..........................................er ..le fdo ..
wlatt hbords pie........................................do....
: board p e........... ...................................do....
Nw Orlseans-
Ci da butts. OR inhed long ..... ............... per mile..
Double extra h eavy .................................... ....
Wine pfi, extra heavy ................................. do....
i. phad, extra heavy ........................... ..do ..
.: Barelextraheavy..a................................do....
"I New Vrk. aNnd Philadelphia---
ii: l ..vy pipe.......................................do....
t Ba pipel".................................... ......... do....
Wi 0w. h.ngshead. rmugh and dreed ......... ....do....
l eSad quality hbphead, rough and dressed...........do....
.. ... Onis ............. ................................. ... dn ....
e.................................... ....... ... do....
S lmpipe..... ......................................... do....
R I pse...............................................do....
S g, ..................................................... do....


a 165 cubio feet.


Dec. 31,1915.


10.73-
118.79-

97.33-

.73-
.60-

.60-
.85-
.P--
.97-

.85-
.7S-
.97-
.73-

107.06-
.73-
.G3-
.6&-


51. M
.85
145.P9
111.92
121. M
1.00
1.33
.07
1.00
1.00
1.58
.97

1.0L
1.21
1.44
1.09
.97
131.39
1.09
.85
.66


827.360-1,119.23
5K8.l- 778.0B
583.98- 082.64
3,3. 3- 291.19
170.32- 194.66

291.90- 16.32
170.32- 194. r
155.71- 170.32
If1A.49- 121.66
85. 16- 97.33
97.33- 109L.4
170.32- 194.6
121.66- 145.09
97.33- 121.66


a 1,200 pieces.


IlL 97-
1.na-
170.32-
111.26-
121.6 -
1.21-
.97-
1.33-
1.58-
1.21-
1.48-
1.33-

1.09-
1.21-
1.21-
1.09-
1.00-
131.39-

1.09-
.85-


51.23
1.58
218 99
145. q4
145.99

1.58
1.82

1.70
1.82
1.70
1.82
1.58
1.58
1.94
2.06
1.58
1.33
155.72
1.58
1.46
1.09


9g 29-1, 215. 62
827.29- 875.05
61t.30- 71. "7
291.B9- 34'.P5
2189- 243.32
389.32- 41-.65
218.99- 24.32
194.66- 2's.99
145 99- 1. 15
121.66- 131. 2
145.99- 170.32
218.99- 243.32
170.32- 194.66
121.06- 145.99


t Prohibition Lessens Trade In Kahogray.

a the mahogany branch of the timber trade during 1916 imports
e greatly reduced, as shown by the following statement. The
aots for 1915 were considerably less than one-half of those for
I; those for 1916 were less than one-fourth of the total for 1915,
omaly one-tenth of those of 1914.
he arrivals in 1916 amounted to only 9 per cent of the receipts in
L.This was the effect of the prohibition of mahogany imports.
SOnts of the mahogany imports in the past five years follow:
L.... __. =_,___ ,,.


iml&aL


"'. i: : :............... .

lJe*e --. .* ..... ....... ......... .. **-.
.................................
m t .kU ..L ... .......................................


mu


... I 1 --- ----- -I-


Im
ASMW
1.Om


S.174
1,i
7a. r
3e,aus


7w.

I88
s.2n 6


is-.


to,.4 al9, sa2 s,ro 7 3as


Thus


is,


*i^ ii




1.
.. .."
., :: "[
. : *:l: "s "iy


fi,,,
:" ...;;;." E:,.
::.l :.. : .


--- -- --


1 1


l


M


Doer. 31. 1916.







SUPPLEMENT TO .COMMEOBE PORBS.


The entire absence of imports of mahogany from Cuba i I
and the reduced imports during 1914 and 1915 leaves th i ..
practically without stock in first hand. Prices almost doubled |
1916. Operations in Cuban mahogany are regarded as ei ..
some time after the war. Cuban Sabino was greatly in de~m
commanded extraordinary prices. No other wood seems heii
replaced the Cuban product.
There were no arrivals of mahogany from Central America at thi
port in 1916. The trade in Honduras and Cuban mahogany was con-
ducted in London, where small parcels were received. The former
class was largely taken up for Government requirements and prices :
doubled owing to the scarcity here and the Government proclamation :
prohibiting imports from Honduras.
Operations on the West Coast of Africa have been greatly~ re&
stricted since the beginning of the war. Freight space was also inad-
equate during 1916, because of the reduced steamship service. Ma-
hogany could be imported only under license from the Government,
and the licenses granted were usually limited to about 20 logs for
each firm at one time, and then only provided there was space avail-
able.
Advanced Prices of Mahogany-American Market.
Prices of mahogany in 1916 advanced fully 75 per cent, and in
some instances as much as 120 per cent. Surprise is expressed that
prices were not higher, in view of the great scarcity of stock. The
quantity available in first hand was only 1,800 tons, with no fresh
supplies worth recording. As there was also a prohibition on the
exports of mahogany, it tended to increase the direct shipments to
the United States from West African ports, and it is believed that
these have been greatly in excess of African .shipments to Great
Britain.
Several auctions of mahogany were held during 1916, and proved
very successful, notwithstanding the limited catalogues. Much of the
wood offered for sale was of a figured character, and the best of the
logs sold were for American buyers.
Eventful Year in Tobacco Trade.
Raw tobacco is one of the leading articles of import into Liverpool ,|
from the United States. The United Kingdom is dependent upon
that country for about 90 per cent of its supplies, and most of thes ,
come to Liverpool, which is the largest English market for this
commodity. Of the total American crop, the United Kingdom a -
sumes about 12 per cent and handles for reexport a fu rte per
cent of manufactured and 1 per cent of unmanufactured tobbeco.
A review by a leading importer shows that the year 1916 was one
of the most eventful in the history of the Liverpool tobacco market..
The business done in January was very large, owing to rumors tha
imports were about to be restricted by the Government. These proey
well founded, and from March 1 to May 31 arrivals (except.tob
on the way at the time of the proclamation) were prohibited- I
censes were granted as from June 1, 1916, to May 31, 1917, for.
importation into the United Kingdom of 331 per cent of the
brought in during 1915, plus further imports of tobacco i
be manufactured for export.. ..



















of Tobasoo and Stoeks an Hant.
T he following is a statement of the imports and stocks of tobacco
ior 1914, 1915, and 1916:

Imports. Stocks on hand Dee. al-

1914 1915 9 191 1914 1915 1916


1 Witr.ip................................
;;e St........... ..........------
os..............----.... ----.. .....
rt s..... .. ...............................
Totia ...............................-..-- -- -... ..


fstr.
51,325
1% 014
12.888
7,522
1,798


Cashi.
F5.059
14,212
11,489
5, D64
1,126


(bCaka.
59, 408
14,174
5,044
5,601
801


Casks.
22.413
27,297
9.985
2.834


CaOks.
100.674
19.764
24,577
8,98
2,167


- 1 4 1


W,O IG


as,028


14,1 07 156,168


Casks.
97.708
2a,920
15,573
7,409
1,685
145,355


S Trides of Various Grade.

The prices of the various grades of strip and leaf tobacco for 1915
S and 1916 were:


]Jads.


- S I Li


-mP.

P* F~ler.......
t Ifher short.....
Very middling to
maddnlla......
i; d to flse.....
Sider ..............
dartk:
S father sbrt.....
LZ middling to
good tofie.....
Vilnla and Caro-
S. Serial -..-..
Medism or mixed
Good to ame.....


.0.115
10.13- .14
.1 .16
.165- .18
.13- .18
.125- .135
.14 .16
.165- .175
.1 .23


.18-
.24-


80.15 -a0.16
165- .175
.18- .185
.19- .22
.13
.18
.185- .19
.195- .23
.21- .24


.20-
.22 -
.25-
.30-


Kinds.


LEAP.
Western:
Filler............
Medium..........
Good to fine.....
Afrim-n Pxport...
Virginiq dark:
Filler ...........
Medium.........
Good to ine.....
Virginia and Caro-
lina bright :
Semidark ........
Semibright......
Medium or mixed
Good to fine.....
Nyasaland..........


tSfaplte of Ammonia Production and exports.
The export demand for sulphate of ammonia, which prior to 1915
:fhad been the main factor in determining the course of the market,
gpBln d not be met in 1916 because it was necessary to reserve an ade-
i|a!p supply for domestic use. In order to relieve the demand for
,ural purposes upon the supply of nitrate of soda, and with,
objet of largely increasing the use of sulphate of ammonia, in
i'anisary, 1817, an agreement was reached by which a large propor-
.tita. of the output during the spring months was reserved for home
rtsing purposes at a. preferential price substantially below the
i1 p rate. At the same time the war trade department of the
'E... Trade bean to restrict exports to neutral countries so that
Psiai d nmd allied countries should have a uAent sap-
^^^ma ^W|,^^. ^i^^b^^^ubk^^^^ j~bidS hjk


II


.iii .. .. .. .. ..


1916




30.12 -0.13
.145- .155
.16- .18
.14- .18
.13
.15- .16
.17 .18


.18 -
.20-
.23-
.14 -


S0. 075-0. 18
.10- :12
.13 .14
.12- .16
...............
.115- .125
.13- .14

.10
.13- .16
.175- .21
.3 .285
.08- .18







38 SUPPLEMENT TO COXMEBOE WEPOT. ,

An estimate of the production of ammonia calculated.-- I
phate of ammonia (including that used in the manufactSii .:
monia sodi, munitions, and for other chemical purposes),.
sources in the United Kingdom for 1915 and 1916, in tons,
Gas works, 173,000 and 175,000; iron, 16,000 and 15,000; shale, l
in both years; coke and carbonizing and producer gas, 17 O000
190,000; total, 423,000 tons in 1915 and 438,000 tons in 1916.
The exports of sulphate of ammonia from the United KI gdo iI
during 1915 and 1916, as compiled by a well-known Liverpool firm
were:
Countries. 1915 1916 Countries. 195 1
Tons. Tons. Tow. TM s.
British Guiana.................. 8,262 7,083 Netherlands................... 3,1 I : ,45w
Canary Islands .................. 4,985 5,865 pin and Portugal.............. 1 .- I &W
Franco......................... 11,430 6 Unted States................... a3- I6
Italy........................... 7,071 2,004 West Indies................. .. Vs- Mk
Japan...................... 10,537 9,155 AI other countries............... ilS
Java............................. 93,496 82,928
Mauritius....................... 7,795 9;885 Total.............. ...... 2 a8 S,1

The export prices of sulphate of ammonia during 1916 fluctuated
with the supply available, the lowest being $80.90 per ton in May and
the highest $91.24 per ton in December.
American and Canadian Apples in Liverpool Xarket.
A review of the apple and fruit trade of Liverpool as of January
25, 1917, says that the decreased imports of Canadian apples into.
this market were caused by the short crop of poor quality in Ontario,
but the prices realized were very satisfactory, those for Baldwins
ranging from $4.37 to $9.24 for No. 1's per barrel. Golden russets
were quoted at from $6.07 to $10.21 per barrel, or from $2.92 -
to $3.40 above prewar prices. The arrivals of apples from Nova
Scotia and the quality and condition of the fruit have been good;
the packing is better than in previous years. This class of apple
realized prices from 10 to 20 per cent in excess of those in
1915. Apples from Boston and Maine came in steadily; and
although the total imports were not so large as in previous sea-
sons, the quality was good, and the packing showed an improvement.
Maine Baldwins were selling early in 1917 at from $4.86 to $8.51
per barrel, which should bring shippers a fair return.
The Liverpool auction prices of various kinds of barreled aJ .i
boxed apples on February 7, 1917, were: Maine and Boston-Bki-
wins, $7.53 to $8.51 per barrel, and Ben Davis, $7.53 per basrrl:';j r-
ginian-Albemarle pippins, $11.43 to $12.16 per barrel; wb --
Golden russets, $8.51 to $9.48 per barrel; Californian-Neew*tw s,3
tiers, $2.67 per box; 4 tiers, $1.94 to $3.28 per box; and 4 tiers,
$2.92 to $2.98 per box; Oregon and Washington-Newtowns,$8.16 to
$3.40 per box, and Spitzenburgs, $3.28 to $3.40 per box.
Spanish Oranges-Onions and. Grapes.
The arrivals of oranges in the Liverpool market for the -
and 1915-16 seasons and for the first half of the 1916-17
low: From July 1, 1914, to June 30, 1915-Valencia, 880,00
and Malaga and Seville, 24,420 cases, from July 1, 1915, to .
1916--Valencia, 953,528 cases, and Malaga and Seville, 8Q, 08.

















iP t t the average and the condition of the fruit mo arrival at Liver-
lEopl has. been ood notwithLtanding delays in transit.
!i11:Th prices of eVl siaaions have been subject to violent fluctua-
-elions, those for four tiers ranging from $3.58 to $4.13 on January 25,
Il'817, against $2.31 tb $2.55 a year before, and for 5-tier cases from
4:.74 to $5.59 against $8.04 to $3.16 in Jantary, 1916. The imports
ia 1915 were 793,628 cases; in-1916, 591,850 cases; and from July 1,
1916, to January 4, 1917, 596,514 cases.
Egyptian onions ranged in price during the past season from $2.43
Il $i62 per hundredweight (112 pounds), each bag containing about
this quantity. The total Egyptian export of onions for 1916 was
1,020,000 bags, of which quantity the United Kingdom took about
1,000,000 bags, the number imported into Liverpool being 308,000
biag. The quality was good and the prices realized were excellent.
Freights varied from $24.33 to $29.19, against the prewar rates from
$4.62 to $4.86.
.Grapes from Almeria were wPl1 received on the Liverpool market,
tha imports for' 1915 being 413,000 kegs; for 1916, 303,000 kegs; and
from July 1, 1916, to January 4, 1917, 473.000 kegs. The good
quality of the fruit brought prices ranging from $2.92 to $4.86 per
keg of about 55 pounds net, against $2.92 to $4.38 in the previous
Year.
gl: at Crrants and alias.
S The stock of currants carried over from 1915 was an average one,
a:nd with the possibility of a further 10.000 tons to arrive before
the receipt of the new crop, operators predicted a firm and gradual
i appreciation of values. These anticipations were fully realized, and
:iby September, 1916, a general advance of $2.43 per hundredweight
;:'m established. Contrary to custom, it was early in October before
an new fruit was-marketed; the beginning of September is generally
ii e time of arrival of the first imports. During the last three months
f 191i trading was active, with a steady rise in price. Important
actoS in a further advancing market were the decided rise in
ts and the decline in the new crop through lack of proper
ntiqg applianes, the exportation of sulphate of copper harvng
B ohibited. The year 1917 tbgan with a. blockade of Greek
Sfrse, and there seemed to be little likelihood of further
n the near future, so that the high prices were likely to be
to th late .rrivsi of several steamers in 1915, a larger
ii Valencia raisins than usual was carried over to the 1916
ly a -nall retail business could he lone early in 1916 at
p r be wand a reduction to $19.65 failed to stimulate sale
7lji l a. t fa.1 average selected were made in August at


.~ii i'!EEi .., .......... ..i .. .......







40 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE WEOO..:

from $8.51 to $9.24, c. i. f., and by the time of the first a
October the prices had increased to $14.59 ex quay for hiMs"u
and $17.02 to $17.51 for quarter boxes. The demand contain
and further imports found ready sale at advancing prices until
was reached for half boxes and from $17.02i to $18.48 for qW'
boxes. Those of extra-fine quality brought as much as $21.89.
high range of prices eventually checked the consumption and quota
tions fell rapidly until at $13.38 per box most of the stocks wer
cleared.
Grain Trade and Milling Industry. .
The imports and sources of supply of wheat, flour, and mai 0 fLi
the years 1915 and 1916, as compiled by the Corn Trade News, were
as follows:
Wheat. Flour. sis.
Ports of origin.
1915 1916 1915 1916 1918 1316

Quarters. Quarters. Sacks. Backs. Quarern. Quatervs.
American Atlantic................. a3,333,490 b 74,784,213 a399,525 369,556 a 1,550 58Ex48
American Pacific............,.. c61,882 c37,274 64,197 2,160 ........... ..........
Argentine, Uruguayan, and Brazil-
ian ........ ..................... a 799,532 d 160,743 12,464 9,332 1,2&5,10 94,MUS
A ustralian and New Zealand................. 239,900 .......... 41,215 ....................
Black Sea and Mediterranean ....... 29 68 '24 517 524 /12665 45.8,
Canadian........................... (a) 6874,524 (a) 82,265 (i) 7%316
Indian............................. 582,941 248,784 .......... ........ 5,271 6
South, East, and West African............. ... ...... ..... .......... ....- .... ............. 14 70
All other ports ...................... (d) (d) 2,802 1,701 57,82 ........
Total........................ 4,778,139 6,345,506 503,506 506,743 1,536,664 1,824,6 53
a Figures for American and Canadian Atlantic ports combined.
b May include some PaciBc coast wheat shipped from Atlantic ports.
c Figures include shipments from ( hiletn ports.
d Figures for Argentine and "all other" ports combined.
Includes imports from Austria-Hungary.
/ Includes imports from the Danube.
The quarter of wheat or corn is 480 pounds, and a sack of flour
is equivalent to 280 pounds.
The imports of other cereals in 1916 were: Beans, 103,390 quarters
of 480 pounds; barley, 286,935 quarters of 400 pounds; peas, 52,699
quarters of 504 pounds; oats, 599,653 quarters of 304 pounds; and
oatmeal, 56,718 loads of 240 pounds.
The range of prices per 100 pounds of the various classes of Ameri-
can wheat in 1916 is indicated by the accompanying figures: Winter
No. 2 hard Gulf, $2.41 to $4.015; red winter No. 2, $2.465 to $3.,3;
West winter No. 2, $3.30 to $4.21; durum, $2.47 to $3.48; North D:-
kota No. 1, $2.51 to $4.28; North Chicago No. 1, $3.32 to $4.2 nud
winter choice hard, $3.19 to $3.65.
Although war conditions prevented any extensive development of
the flour-milling industry in the Liverpool district, which is now;
claimed to be second only to Minneapolis as a milling center, the yei
1916 was not without incident. No new mills were completed 4zu
1916, but there were three mills either in process of erection o.,
traced for at the beginning of 1917. On the Liverpool side 4
Mersey a mill was in course of erection early in 1917 to rep
destroyed by fire in 1915. Steady progress was being ma
other at Birkenhead until the Government prohibited all,
building enterprises. This mill will have an output of from










fthjwair. 'When these are completed the capacity of the Liver-
Sdistrict will be well over 1,000 sacks of 280 pounds per hour.
ia, Doiestio Ulve Stoos--Xeat Trade.
r:in to a report of the Port of Liverpool Foreign Cattle
Association, the following number of animals passed through
itock pens in 1915 and 1916: Cattle, 235,576 and 270,119; sheep,
6 and 380,589; and pigs, 60,791 and 84,509. Of the total in
1, 187,346 cattle, 135,919 sheep, and 2,210 pigs were slaughtered.
It is stated in a review of the meat trade that the number of cattle
n.the United Kingdom in June, 1916, was 12,451,540, against 12,-
171 :1,45 in June, 1915. The increase of 280,088, or 2.3 per cent, was
pcifncel d to beef cattle. The number of sheep rose from 28,275,970 in
Ir.'915 to 28,849,655 ia 1916, a gain of 573,685, or 2 per cent.
2I ;.-; The average mwothly prices of best beef per pound varied from
$.145 to $0.195 in 1915 and- from $0.155 to $0.23 in 1916; of best
lamb, from $0.1725 to $0.24 per pound in 1915, and from $0.192 to
$&275 in 1916.
i In recent years the home supply of beef, mutton, and lamb aver-
aged some 1,120,000 tons annually and represented from 60 to 62
Sp cent of the total quantity available, for consumption in the United
i agdom; in 1916 the domestic supply of 1,142,910 tons represented
6": 8 per cent of the total consumption.
i.i: The world's output of beef, mdtton, and lamb in 1916 came from
th '- e principal producing countries: British Empire, 291,827 tons
S(Australia, 104,053 tons; New Zealand, 158,123 tons; Canada, 21,723
!A.W s; South Africa, 7,928 tons); Argentina, 436,405 tons; Chile
Stagaonia), 11,986 tons; Uruguay, 43,895 tons; Brazil, 33,571 tons;k
States, 80,255 tons;. other countries, 17,441 tons; total, 915,380

~aiIik Clearances---avings Deposits.
.lThe Liverpool bank clearances for 1916 showed a substantial in-
crelase over 1915, and a still more striking gain over 1914. The total
for 1916 was $1,776,804,881, compared with $1,412,567,706 in 1915
: and $1,092,282,980 in 1914, the increase in 1916 being $364,237,125
'.ver 1915 and $084,521,851 over .1914. For October, November,
|a:.; Dd. December, 1916, the totals made new records for separate
i .onths, the highest being November, with $168,344,537.
The annual report of the Liverpool Savings Bank for its financial
rended -November 20, 1916, shows very satisfactory results.
e total deposits during the year were $4,797,419, compared with
2 ,46:. in 1915. The withdrawals amounted to only $4,599,469,
t $5,94,009 in the previous year. The number of open ac-
at the end of'the year was 156,516: and the total balance due
Ators Was $16,031,642, against $15,463.143 in 1915.
.tio Wort-Sortage of Office elp.
de the mill buildings under construction and those for which
t' arrangements have been made, there was activity in the
S of workmen's dwellings, which have sprung up by hIn-
Sat. ina~io sections near la rge manufacturing plants.
..... ,.@ ~~.. .. .
Vi: ..
Aiii ,. .
:: ,::,::::: 1EE:
*'1 ii








SUPPLEMENT TO OOMMECRE DEPOSTB.


On the Mersey River above Liverpool, in connection :i
Port Sunlight factory, a margarine factory in process of o iii
tion at the beginning of 1917 will be, it is stated, the large st i
kind. I:
The war has produced a shortage in many branches of wojrk B$
labor, but one especially felt is the scarcity of efficient clerical4-
sistants, the demand for whom has so increased that the '0Goetn.
ment offices in March, 1917 were offering a minimum of $9.78 4
week plus $0.48 war bonus for stenographers, and ordinary tyapib
receive $7.29 plus $0.48 bonus. This may be said to represent s:
increase of 100 per cent over prewar rates.
Increased Value of Declared Exports to United States.
The value of declared exports to the United States in 1916, as
invoiced at the American consulate at Liverpool, was $30,1444189
an increase of $617,584 over 1915. Raw materials, which form 62
per cent of the total, increased slightly from $18,279,009 to $18,-
847,955, and manufactured goods from $5,614,280 to $8,200,884^.
food products decreased from $5,531,597 to $2,941,852. In the table
below are shown the principal articles exported and their value in
1915 and 1916: ..


Articles.


RAW MATERIALS.
Bones....... ............
Chemicals, druk, and dyes:
Gum ropal, etc.........
Copper i gots and bars....
Cotton, raw..............
Fertilizers................
Fibers: Sisal grass and
other...................
Grease, fats, tallow, and
degras..................
Hides and skins:
Calf, wet..............
Cattle-
Dry...............
Wet and pickled..
Horse, wet...........
Sheep, pickled.......
Goat, dry............
Other.................
Hide cuttings, etc.........
India rubber, crude.......
Iron in pigs:
Ferromanganese .......
Pig iron...............
Ivory.....................
Minerals, crude............
Oils, etc.:
Coconut...............
Palm.................
Palm kernel..........
Paran ...............
Rape seed...........
Whale and other fish..
Other oils.............
Paper stock.............
Seeds:
St. John's bread.......
Other................
Tanning materials........
Tobacco.................
Woods:
Mahogany.............
Other...............
Wool.....................
All other raw materials....
Total...............


1915



95,792

422,088
1,604,129
250,715
52,173
239,498
56,396
901,267
24,074
75,113
308,408
161,809
............
123,3106
4,033,056
2,718,785
38,490
............
30,268
60,080
1,842,085
532,553
............
...........
65,794
169,726
339,436
39,181
108,177
70,975
403,635
594,493
155 958
2,726, 325
21,341
18,279,009


$96,642
52,488
6,002,51i6
191,703
59,271
197,734
62,966
521,831
3,099
442,527
271,686
146,728
40,643
199, 599
1,759,957
4,953,357
2,486
18,867
62,914

1,462,848
214,996
53, 95
36,562
27,412
35,702
343,588
26,533
49,775
242
4,184
448,490
66,702
981,705
2,507
18,847,955


Articles.

MANUFACTURED GOODS.
Art, works of, over 100
years old..............
Automobiles..............
Chemicals, drugs, and dyes:
Ammonia-
Sulphate of........
Muriate of ........
Bleachink powder.....
Cochmea ..............
utch..............
Glycerih...............
Gum tragasol..........
Soda-
Ash.............
Silicate..........
Other............
Other chemicals.....
Cotton manufactures:
Cloth...............
Laces..................
Velvets and plushes...
Tapestries and uphol-
steries.............
Yarns................
Other..............
Earthen, crockery, and
china ware..............
Fibers, manufactures of:
Bags or sacks.........
Bagging for cotton....
Bagging, old, far
patches ..............
Tx manufactures.....
Jute manufactures.....
Glassware.................
Glue and lue size.........
Indle-rubber manifcture
Iron and steel manulao-
tures:
)achlnory, tobacco....
Tools, et...........
ashes and fnrm .....
Tin plates and tagger.
Wirerope.............
Other.................


-n~






1910
go







1KI110



a- -js.
..........








,


o DA n
1 .
Jig
AP :


1916




$14,574
122,51

17 7
71,101
37,913
............
............
21,554
20,366
11,446
21,947
4,109
176,440


33, 824
12,116
20, M0
120,87
48,687

104,1W7


98,434
12,630
17,4B

11 741
............


115,3
A .
mm
,cy~~ig


.;; ;;;..;;i;;; .. ..ili i.












OOD PRODUCTS.
Breadatuls:
Biscuits............... $6,315 1573
L: $a ,1,013 H i, 1 o................... 711,546 8,81
43au 19,277 Rice flour............ 29,531 21,183
lim 18911 Co0oa, nrude............. 3,855, 844 1,01o078
e nim"a Hef n-rring, dried or
V to ....... 218 M 11,703 pickld.............. 44,744 20,806
...... 1940u M aceral.............. 149,297 918,68
lEMntltMDre:* Other.............. .... 9,54 12,127
k Bad printM FrUits and ants:
dT rittl matter... 24,899 10,518 Fruits................. 51,077 65,977
.V a, booEs4lets, and .Nuts................... 437 5,456
mater.... .. 0,996 25,536 Meat and meat products:
lO'" H e.... ...... ..... ....... 97,657 Game.................. 13,583 8,524
sausage casings...... 11,061 130,179
andtoilet prep. alt...................... 208,242 243,397
................ 8,123 11,055 p s.................... 110,786 72,891
arutdaL .... .. ,68 29,346 Bsprits, wines, etc.:
bars andld ocks 53784 65 Porter, ae, and stout.. 4,921 125,427
.................. ,m 10,688 Gigeraleetc......... 32,711 17,10
S im u m ......... 79 1,835 Other................ 21,081 55,331
r maa~ uat.res: Vege tables................. 12,748 33,545
..... ... A other ood products.... ,89 2,
... ....... 23 408 67,213
........... 1,37 11,7 Ttal................ 5,531,507 2,941,852
.A manufactured
giBs................... 3,399 7,237 Allotherartioles......... 101,719 153,548
T'al.................. 5,614,20 8,200,834 Grand total......... 29,526,605 30,144,189

:'The principal articles of export from Liverpool to the United
States are all on the list of exports prohibited except under license.
T'. i restriction, together with abnormal home demand in many cases,
Shas materially lessened the volume of exports, although a general rise
ri cen has maintained values to a large extent. There have been
d, ble increases in shipments of three classes of merchandise-raw
.. O n, tin and ferromanganese.
z" h tIst Gains in Cotton and .etai1.
'If "te greatest increase was in raw cotton, of which the export in
1M were 6,986,915 pounds and in 1916 22,252,731 pounds. Three-
leiaths of this cotton, which is all Egyptian, was shipped to the
Ui ded States in the early months of the year. At that time auto-
Smobile tire manufacturers, thread makers, and other consumers of
Egyp'tiqa'cotton in the United States, expecting an advance in prices
.:aad greater difficulty in securing delivery from Egypt, bought old-
ritrp cotton in Liverpool to cover contracts which normally would
hi|~-ve been met by purchases of the new season's crop in Alexandria.
Their anticipations were realized. Fully good fair brown cotton,
was 21 cents per pound in January, reached 40.5 cents per
in m November, and at the end of the year deliveries from
W ere long overdue.
Second article to show an increase in exports in 1916 was tin,
8,551,861 pounds were shipped in 1915 and 13,729,780 in
eIera, n late has replaced English to a large extent both in
t states and in foreianountries. To: meet this increased
larpe quantities of tli have been required, and English
iqid (in smaller. quantity) Bolivian tin have been shipped
~~iontrt to the Uited States to meet the demand,
emei"shipmentb increased in value from $2,718,785 to
L Bv- on account of advanced prices, the quantities exported


iiii .. i.. .. ..






44 SUPPLEMENT TO OOMMSBOE BBPOYM
being 40,311 tons in 1915 and 45,693 tons in 1916. The demS:iiib
the United States was uniformly good, owing to the exten:dl .......
and steel manufacture there, and licenses for export from this *
try were, as a rule, readily obtainable, supplies being well maiiatiLb~
despite high ore costs and freights.
Among less important exports, mackerel, shipments of whie a.. ::.
1915 were 2,525,103 pounds, valued at $149,297, totaled 4~$iA~L
poutlds, valued at $918,568, in 1916. In this instance the gaf .I..
largely one of price, for the quantity was less than double, butthe
value was more than six times greater. Horsehides worth $4B1_7l iL
were exported in 1916, as compared with $75,113 in 1915. This trkde
has been created in the past three years.
Items Showing Decreases in 1916.
The most marked decline was in raw cocoa, of which 22,905,926
pounds, valued at $3,855,844, were exported in 1915 and 7,646,19
pounds, valued at $1,098,078, in 1916. The cocoa shipped from iiver-
pool to the United States is practically all African. There was no
shortage of supply; imports were at least equal to those of 1915. Home
consumption was smaller than in the previous year, largely because ef
Government restriction of the use of sugar. The result was that
stocks of cocoa on hand were much larger at the end of 1916 than at
the end of 1915 and prices were lower, Accra being quoted at from.
$11.68 to $13.62 per hundredweight (112 pounds), compared with
quotations at from $12.891 to $19.46 at the close of 1915.
The decrease in exports of crude rubber was nearly as great--
from 7,1l53,298 pounds to 3,729.971 pounds. It is estimated that the
world's output of rubber increased more than 28 per cent, owing
entirely to greater production in the East, and supplies came .fr-1
ward with reasonable regularity; but there was an exceptional d,$e
mand for rubber in this country and at times licenses for export
were difficult to obtain.
Since the outbreak of the war shipments of wool to the United
States have steadily decreased, owing to the extraordinary demand
at home for war purposes and the prohibition of export except under
license. The total for the year of all classes of wool was 3,430,427.
pounds, compared with 12,445,308 pounds for 1915. Of the 1916
exportation nearly all was in the first three months of the year.
Since April, 1916, Government regulations have made it extremely
difficult to ship wool to the United States and exports have been
nominal.
Less Palm Oil and Fewer Hides Exported-Returned Goods. i;.
The quantity of palm oil shipped from LIverpool to the U.1
States declined from 37,529,998 pounds in 1915 to 17,486,262 ds
in 1916. Owing to higher prices, however, the value in 196, $1,-
462,848, was but $379,237 below that in the preceding year. Tang
the end of the two years as a point of comparison, Bonny or S
palm oil delivered at New York cost $201.96 per ton in 1915
$277.39 per ton in 1916. Government regulations have in6
seriously with this export, as the issuance of licenses was madi .ad
tingent upon the import by the exporter of a definite quai
glycerin, varying from 2 to 8 per cent of the palm- oil s

...:;'* ":"::m'il


__











a available as slapping taclities. permitted.
6f dry cattle hides dropped from $901,267 in 1915 to
in 1916 and there was a corresponding decrease in other
d skins, except horsehides. The dry cattle hides consist
y of Nigerian hides shipped to Liverpool from Lagos, British
W t Africa. Increasing exports of these hides from Lagos directly
t. United States has adversely affected the Liverpool trade.
:1e value of returned American goods during 1916 was $400,526, a
breaks of $199,158 from the previous year. As in 1915, the largest
i'i onle item was leather, returned because of unsuitability for local
ineds; in 1916 it was valued at $132,431. Returned containers, prin-
:i paly ammonia cylinders, were valued at $117,295 in 1916.
iymeants to American Insular Possessions.
Declared exportiffrom Liverpool to the Philippine Islands, which
in 1915 were $441,073, decreased to $273,230, a loss of 87 per cent, in
1916. The principal decrease was in cotton goods, the largest single
iem. To the Hawaiian Islands exports in 1916 were $27,798, a de-
iAne of $9,387.
*'.The value of the principal articles shipped to the Philippines and
to Hawaii in 1915 and 1916 follows:

Articles. 1915 1916 Articles. 1915 1916

% O PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. TO HAWAII. '"
Chemicals, drugs, and dyes...... 136,890 S9,960 Cotton manufactures........... 17,502 312,606
O 3am etum.ea-., ........ 146,972 83,947 Earthen ad kry ware ..... 1,959
ulsetsanoes, vrie....... 25,24 86,040 Ediblesubst b *ribus....... 4,092 4,15
M .11,56 3,73 Fert i aar .....-,..... ... ..... ,000 ........
teel nanuactrs: Fibers ... ...... ....... ........ 4, 66 3, 142
Mllenh ry.................. 9,777 6,610 n and steel manufactures..... 1,913 1,332
dwnay material and stores. 4,941 9,000 Woolen manufactures............ 3,103 80
Other manufactures......... 10,73 6713 All other articles................. 5,145 3,801
l bla r than iro and steel. 1,80 6,806
and varnishes. ......... 14,260 17,882 Total..................... 37,185 27,798
............................ 70,090 41,442
Slif 7s,0 tn90etc.: 4
'Ale, bee, and porter....... ... 4,392 0, 62
ts.................. 1,719 5,983
ll ric............ 13,960 9,491
STot..l................. 441, 78,230

S. ports to Porto Rico amounted to $870 in 1915 and $136 in 19" $.
seoorts trem St., Helens Agency.
: :ThAe American consular agency at St. Helens, in the Liverpool dI.'-.
.riSot, was closed on June 10, 1916. The value of the chief articles
i!ii ed for the United States during the period from January 1 to
Ili!:ijne 10, 1916, with the value of similar shipments for the calendar -
1915 in parentheses, was as follows: Bleaching powder, $12,673
17,7); muriate of ammonia, $3,735 (none); oxide of antimony,
S(none); window glass, plain, $27,477 ($193,306); glassware,
($24,795); hide cutting, $14,944 ($59,838); paints and col-
~ (i17,986); total, including all other' articles, $88,10
l. no. shipments to 'iUnited States possessions from this
Sinag 1915 and 1916.
i .... .;

ai"..;i i:..:= ..- :.. ............. .... .






46 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMBBCE MBXE Hi

NEWCASTLE-N-TT NE. .. ..
By Coasal Walter C. Hama. *:! i
Industrial activity in the Newcastle district in 1916 was i
chiefly to the manufacture of articles of national necessity. .l. 'ii
operations have practically ceased and new enterprises have'
postponed. In Newcastle, as in other English industrial ce i t. i
there has been a marked advance in wages. .; :
The tramway system has felt the effects of the war more.tha any ,
other local enterprise; most of the operatives enlisted and had.tpo be ..
replaced by inexperienced men, youths, and women. Aboati 00
women are now employed, and after training their work has given .
general satisfaction. Despite increased wages and operating ex.
penses the tramways turned about $45,000 into the municipal treas-
ury in 1916 in relief of taxes.
In Durham and other counties organizations have been formed t I
assist women seeking agricultural work and farmers needing labor.
Although many women are not adapted to such employment, the
experiment has proved successful.
According to the Yorkshire Post the general rise in food prices
throughout the United Kingdom from July, 1914 to July, 1917, was
65 per cent-in towns with a population of 50,000 or over, 68 per ent,
and in smaller towns and villages, 62 per cent. Of the various items,
sugar was 163 per cent higher in price; frozen beef, 60 per cent;'
frozen mutton, 117 per cent; fish, 87 per cent; tea, 50 per cent; and
flour; 62 per cent.
Foreign Trade-Exports to United States.
The development of trade between Newcastle and Russia, the Neth-
erlands, and the Scandinavian countries after the war is receiving
mnch consideration. This trade formerly consisted of imports of
dairy products and fruit from the Netherlands, various products frdm
Denmark, timber and paper from Swedentimber and fish from N .
way, and butter and timber from Russia and Siberia. It is planned
to increase these imports and in exchange to export manufa.ure iil
articles.
The declared exports invoiced at the American consulate at New ii
castle for the United States in 1916 increased in value by $91U .
over those certified in 1915. Cotton goods and rabbit skins wei
items showing the largest gains, which represent materially adi.-
prices for reduced quantities. The value of the principal arttllk
to the United States during the past two years is showaAn .'t:the
appended table:

Articles. 1915 1916 Articles. 129 U1 :

Antimony................. $127,086 $17,796 Minerals:
Asphalt and concrete........ 72,213 14,784 Pinoipar.... ........... 2:1 uu.
Coal and coke............... 32,345 11,282 Witherite.............. 13, 1
Cotton goods................ 270,364 457,276 Raigs..................... 13,805 1
Chemicals: Rope, old, and paper-making -
fllnoxide of barium..... 123,422 3,898 sea................... 75,17 AW
Sulphate of ammonia............... 75,314 Ble ware.................... 18 '
Flax ... .................. 24,230 9410 Bfku, rabbit............... 8 ,
Olass ................... 7,372 11 666 Stone(grindstones) .......... 1 ,f I
rnp, raw............................. 18,711 Woole goods................
Leather ................... 34,044 47,674 All otherarticles.............. a 1
Linen manufactures......... 17,426 9,188 8 --
Machinery.......... ...... 30,356 30,404 Total.................. 1 .,63


"1-~"

















oatput of iron are from the Uleveland mines was 4,2 0,000 tons
a, against 4,746,000 tons in 1915, and 50 furnaces out of 77
operated last year in comparison with 43 in 1915. During
the production of pig iron was 2,307,000 tons, against 2,154,000
in the previous year. The quantity on hand January 1, 1917,
:tly 113,000 tens, compared with an average stock of 500,000
w in a normal year. Wages in all departments of the iron in-
d~ittry were increased in 1916.
.The increase of 133 per cent in thevalue of declared exports from
Wist Hartlepool to the United -States in 1916 was due entirely to
*ihdadvanced price of ferromanganese, the chief item in the list.
'The total value of shipments to the United States was $1,082,119
i1V1915 and $2,5253809 in 1916. Exports of ferromanganese were
iiled at $1,029,727 and $2,489,377 in the respective years. Small
'eidignments of other commodities included steel bars, bricks, dia-
E:Mond, dust, linoleum, and union goods. No articles wereinvoieed.
.i'ior the insular possessions of the United States in 1915 and 1916.
.... E: PLYMOUTH.
By Conaul Jopimh G. Stephenb.
v.fe year 1916 was one 9;6markedprosperity in the southwest of
an. Domestic and foreign trade increased in volume and
vlue. The demand for labor being in excess of the supply, wages
..re higher than ever, and the abundance of money in this district
ied to heavy purchases along all lines. The United States benefited
i t, these conditions direct and indirect imports of American goods
ib.. to Plymouth, totaling many millions of dollars.
li~ rses eMade Through Distributing Centers.
Sein attending American trade in this district it should be noted
Itsubstantially all purchases are made through the large dis-
.bting centers and chiefly through agencies in London. Local
Share not accustomed to buying in sdicient quantities to warrant
shipments from the United States, so American exporters
negotiatee with distributing agents in London for sales in
pan shops are very numerous in Plymouth and throughout
.and Cornwall. A syndicate with headquarters in the Mid-
owns and operates branch establishments throughout the
Snd' these are supplied from headquarters. The local
v e no^ power or authority to make purchases.
cooperative society the' southwest of England controls much
ilo: trade, buyig largely from the wholesale cooperative
a' the llargi distributing, centers of England.
iii": iii, ...:i, .I.:. .... .. .. .. ..

: .': ., :, ". .;. :. :,., .
..., ... ... :..,. ".. ...:& : U tE"




t ::";: "'" .. "'*:': UNIVERSITY
.... .IIIIIui II
: : ;;i: : .. .. "
3 1262 00
48 SUPPLXEINT To OOaa.r...... .aN~

Declared Exports to Uaited States. ...
Clay is the outstanding item in the list of deb: n .g
the Plymouth district to the United States.
254,972 tons were exported, against 215,682 tots in 19l1.
Below is given the value of the principal articles invoi
United States during the past two years:

Articles. 1915 1916 Artioles.


Clay............................ 1,897,977 1,671,779 Wedtn goo d.............
F hu ....................... 9,285 28,087 Allotherarticles.........
Paintings .................... 4,12 6,827
Pottery..................... 121 1,287 Total.................
Spirits...................... 85,180 81,955

With the exception of $566 worth of bluing sent to :
1916, there were no'exports from Plymouth to United&
sessions during the past two years.



I .M. 14:



..'.. ...
Mil,: [


WA8sIewlM I i