Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00022
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00022

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text
















...ufi N els on T. Johnuon.
r favorably for Changsha, with a promise
rte year, and business conditions were good
the year. The political situation became dis-
$tfrom October on business was very much at a
Solitary operations in the Province. The latter
jar wa' characterized by an increasing feeling of de-
The financial situation did not improve, and
deicy on the part of merchants to limit orders and -

0I0Mind load Construction.
w.as an active one at Changsha from the point of
ard construction. The new building for the Ameri-
icomnpleted and occupied. A private concern pur-
p machinery and built a second light plant on the
ot he city. The building of the new cotton mill
triously, so that by the end of the year the con-
practically finished and the machinery was being
er of new buildings have been erected along the
i city. The style flowed is semiforeign. Chinese
statingg the styles.iof building characteristic of
Sha:inghai. -'
g Mining & Smelihg Co. has rebuilt the offices
here and is rebuiMing other parts of the smelter.
trick houses of foreign style for the low, badly
used.
ork was done during the year toward complet-
:f the city wall. This work was interrupted by
M es of the latte half of the year. The bricks
the facing of tie wall aie being sold; much
iathe construction dl a military hospital.
eed on the svstenfof roadways which are to con-
i*th the railway connecting the city with Wu-
jlia railway station is to be built in the north-
el tid it will b connected with the bund by
StBnan Yale Hospital and the Yale Mission
will be joined with the military road which
between~ t hanaa and Siangtan to the south.
ion Work v little foreign machinery is
:::
.


0







2 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMEBOB REPORTB.

used, as labor is cheap. A steam roller was brought up for "/.i
the new roads now being constructed. Small dump cars ai
being used in thel cans of the roadways near the railway
Larger amounts of foreign household hardware are being uni
AmeriicanT building hardware occupies an increasing amount
in t'he windows and show cases of the hardware dealers, andu i
being iused more by builders. However, much building hardwil'ar
especially brassware. is being made locally.
Railway Development.
Work progressed rapidly on the section of"the Canton-Hfi iko
Railway between Changsha and Wuchang during the early part of:l
the year. The road was completed between Yochow and Wuchling,.
and through traffic commenced. Great difficulty was experienced oat'n
small section of the line just outside of Yochow where unstable fouindts-:
tions for the road bed were experienced. As a result it was impo r
sible to connect Yochow with Changsha by rail, although constrie-,
tion trains ran between Changsha and a point not far from Ydohowi
Military operations in the fall of the year resulted in a cessation of
all work on the line, and it is difficult to tell when the road will be::
finally completed.
There has been no development in other directions so far as rail-E
way work is concerned. Surveys were made of the proposed routes
for a railway between Chuchow on the Siang River, about 30 miles:
south of Changsha and Paoking, a prosperous business center of
the Province. It was announced in the spring of 1917 that it was
definitely decided to construct the road from Chuchow to Paoking,
and it was understood that a contract had been signed for its con-
struction. Talk of difficulties was heard before the end of summer,
and it was finally stated that the project had been indefinitely post-:
poned.
Japanese Bank Opened at Changsha.
On May 1, a branch office was opened at Changsha by the China-
Japan Bank (Ltd.), a Japanese banking institution reported to be':
capitalized jointly by Chinese and Japanese funds and backed by thea
Japanese Bank of Taiwan. It was announced that agencies had alu.im
been established at Amoy, Canton, Foochow, Hanfiow, Kiukan1,.i
Shanghai, Swatow, Singapore. Surabaya, London, Kobe, Nagasak,
Osaka, Tokyo, and Yokohama. There was some opposition to the:
Changsha branch when it was first opened but this seems to haris
died away, and it is reported that the bank has been doing a g
thriving business. It is the first and only foreign bank to be I
at Chanusha and is the only one offering to sell foreign exchange.
The Chinese would welcome the establishment- of an Amricaul
bank at this place, especially one authorized to issue its own
as they believe it would help materially toward stabilizing the.l
currency. Such a bank should soon have a thriving business of
mittances and deposits. The Chinese claim that there is plant
money at Changsha but that it is being hoarded on account af.Z
disturbed local conditions. Foreign business men would alaub
come the establishment of an American bank having facility i
handling remittances and foreign exchange. It would be
tageous for an American banking institution to investigate. '.
tions in this city itth a view to locating a branch here,
.,x : ,:- ii!










targe Produotion of Antimony in Hunan Province.
S'Antimony has remained throughout the year the most prominent'
metal product of the Province. About 62 per cern of the total import
of antimony into the United States in 1916 was from China, and
Hunan Province produces about 95 per cent of the total output of
China. The remaining 5 per cent coming from the Provinces of
SKwangtung, Kwangsi, Yunnan, and Kweechow. The Hunan ores
air the purest. They are reputed practically free from arsenic. car-
lying from 20 to 64 per cent antimony. There is an effort being made
t concentrate the smelting of antimony ores in China near the place
iO production, and it is believed that with proper organizntiop this
funtry will be able to maintain the position it has secured as the
i eorld's foremost producer of this metal.
l;:''iThe pride of antimony reached its maximum in the month of
i" h, 1916. The past three years have demonstrated that antimony,
,ii: eminently a war metal; owing to the large demand, high prices
prevailed during the latter part of 1915 and the first three months
S :P. 16. After hat'time the effects of the enormously increased pro-:
Sduction of the metal began to be felt, and the market declined,
Rapidly until in August, 1916, the price had almost reached its pre-,
war level. Shipments of antimony ore from Bolivia and other coun-
Stries fell off rapidly, And in China the production was curtailed.
greatly. Conditions brame somewhat better toward the end of the,
year, but prices did not return to the previous high figures.
.tuangsten and Manganese Deposits.
S In 1916 a trial, shipment of 20 long tons of tungsten ore or:
Swolframite, valued at $22,892, was sent to the United States from '
SChangsha. Shipments during 1917 amounted to 182 long tons, valued :
at $150,823. Deposits of this ore occur in the southern part of tlhe
I:Province not far from the provincial boundary. The metal appears,
ii:to occur in veins and outcrops among the hills in this district. The
i ...rumbled ore is found in the detritus at the foot of the hills and in
i.::h e gravels of the streams. By reason of the high specific gravity
t f the ore, it is easily separated from the soil and gravel by a wash-
^ :process known to the country people, who find it very easy to
..qlect the ore and peddle it to dealers in near-by towns. A number
I;:if C'hinese companies have endeavored to secure exclusive rights to
thi traction of this ore in southern Hunan. On account of the high
p!I, r.icn commanded by tungsten during 1917 there was a great effort
i:.;made by the Chinese to secure supplies for shipment, but develop-
iant of the deposits was greatly hindered by the distance from trans-
Moutation facilities, by disturbed conditions in the district in which
minames were located, and by the active opposition on the part of
h registered Chinese firms claiming monopoly rights to develop the
-in question as against competitors.
,:as reported that during the year a company was organized for
p pose of developing the manganese deposits of the Province.
m the case of the development of antimony and tungsten, the
w.ho are obtaining control of the deposits, are endeavoring to
the business. This is doubtless a. very natural policy for
low, considering the difficulties which attend the opening
mBt: deposits in Hunan.
WEii~i~ i:i,, .:L.:i : .:: :
N. .iiiii::: :::! : ": .

a4~iiiiii'iiii : ', i." '.,:.










4 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMEORE REPORTS.

Foreign Trade Through Maritime Custom--Movement of Treeure.
The gross value of the trade of the port of Changsha for 1917
amounted to 27,596,811 haikwan taels, compared with 28,766,922 teela
for 1916, a decrease of 1,170,111 taels. Expressed in gold the trade of
Changshn for 1917 showed an increase over the previous year, the
figures being $28,148,746 for 1917 and $23,827,641 for 1916. This
featilre of the situation is due to the rise in the value of silver. The
average value of the haikwan tael was $0.8283 United States cur-
rency for 1916 and $1.02 for 1917, an increase of more than 28 per
cent. The net value of foreign imports from all sources for 1917
amounted to $9,427,252, an increase of $1,184,262 over the value for
191c). Goods to the value of $1,384.164 were brought in directly from
foreign countries, representing an increase of $429.036 in the value of
direct imports. There is no way at the present time of'estimating
how much of this direct import is derived from American sources,
but it is known that American glass, novelties, building hardware,
and machinery are being imported in increasing quantities.
A summary of the imports and exports passing through the custom-
house at Changsha during the two years is given below:


Import and exports.


Imports of foreign goods:
From foreign countries
and Hongkong......
From Chinese ports...
Total foreign Imports.
Eeexports of foreign goods
to Chinese ports (Han-
kow and Shanghai)......
Net total foreign im-
ports ...........
Imports of Chinese pro-
ducts...................
Roex ports of Chinese prod-
ucts to Chinese ports....
Net total Chinese
imports............


3955,128
7,376,305
8,331,433

88,443


1917


61,384,164
8,115,064
9,4099,228

71,976


8,242,990 9,427,252

2,441,110 3,105,613
3,247 34,693


2,437,863


3,070,915


Imports and exports.

Exports of Cakeso prod-
unts of local glin:
To foreign countries
and Hongkong......
To Chinese ports.....
Total exports of local
Sport n..............
Netross value of the trade of
the port...............
the port.................


1916



SI,7m
13,053,311

13,056,0 M

23,827,6 41
3, 735,085


.4
'11111


1, 805
51,542,010

15,543,906

2, 148,746
soW, o'0


During the year treasure was imported into Changsha in the shape
of silver bars and sycee to the value of $222,564 and silver coins
to the value of $938,469, a total of $1,161,033. Exports consisted of
silver bars and sycee, $252,623; silver coin, $1,688,821; and copper
coins. $27,-201; a total of $1,968,645. This leaves a balance of
$807,612 against Changsha.


Leading Articles Imported.
The following table gives the leading articles
Chungsha through the maritime customs during the
1917:


imported into
years 1.916 and


Arl icles

S. .. ...... .......................... ieres..
Ipltri nnt ......................................pounds..
lB'li rin Mer.....................................do....
Bullrtll: ..............................................grms..
I'igArrI it r.. ...............................thpsands..
I )k'lti, ii'l l clu... -s................ ................ ..
I'lr'l ri ..l ni.iri .in! : inrl ll1lirni .............. ...........


1916
Quantity. Value
313,960 27,840
488,800 13,935
116,267 22,101
34,225 15,709
54,506 103,461
7,288 9.546
...as..u.


1917
Quantity. Value.
458,SIO 180,10
780,257 ,0m2
94,6 5B 117
24,478 61,
00,4625 ......
7, a sm*3;r:i
............ i
10, 172
64,E rq


--


-- ----~










.OHUiTA-CH.AUGSHA. 5


1016 1917
Articles. Quantlty. Valge. Quantity. Value.

l0 window ................................boxes.. 6,160 540, 19 7,947 $60,468
Lamps aid lampware.................................. ............ 30, 105 ......... 19,771
S.a19......................... ........ 5,835 ............ 47,634
sapnese ................................gross.. 36,700 g,007 13,550 5,040
Sin ad nanuf otures:
,:;,.Dper iagot sand slabs ..................pounds.. 1,610,000 313,125 548,400 172,204
S.. if rode and bars.............................do.... 420,400 14,838 365,333 17,659
;- Iadls, wira and rivets..........................do.... 605,867 31,311 399,733 24,379
rma sheets and plates.........................do... 227,600 8,637 68,267 4,405
;li Iro, sheets, galvanized .......................do.... 104,809 7,644 89,067 10,212
ad. a pigs andbars.................. .........do.... 308,667 25,55f6 393,333 33,792
: 5 li .......................................do.... 3,333 1,006 15,330 7,050
8...................................... thousands.. 50,611 25,320 48,034 44,781
1Z ......................................gallons.. 124,921 62,158 68,428 19,966
American.................................. do.... 1,520,226 202.617 5,248,500 1,112,216
Borneo....................... ........... do.... 988,720 122,844 955,000 140,115
Smatra .............................do.... 614,880 79,302 1,421,110 217,430
....................................pounds.. 395,200 59,193 369,733 57,702
......................... .... .........do.... ............ ........... 75,333 17,110
a, gray, p!ain-
Am.. ica ................................pieces.. 16,580 38,529 13,880 39,298
S gLa..b .s............................. do....o.. 147,954 372,752 130,657 439,167
S. Jpnse................................ do.... 3.675 10.201 23,F86 8, 975
".. ,, ,white, pain........................ do.... 280, 38 935,938 229,047 1,002,278
tn.. etls gray, plain-
A : .:'i Amerfan ..................................do.... 18.860 45,672 8,780 26,869
Eg ish ...................................do.... 9,901 32,922 4,810 20,998
T:' Ia~es andduck, cotton ................... yards.. 144,375 24,101 30,032 7,210
Am3ri an.............. ...............piees. 1,230 4,234 2,790 12,090
Eng ish.................................. do .... 1,690 6,299 2,322 16,229
STSapanese..................................do.... 14,420 38,831 14,984 58,713
."". e"ins--
Dutch..................................do............. .. .......... 140 3,P6M
: n Eis.................................do.... 72.26 '1;S.4S' 41,253 143.589
Japaese...............................do... 5,320 221,709 63,o10 221, 829
Tloths .....................................o.. .... ......................... .9 2,3N3
PTints-Chitstes, plain, and shirlings.......... do.... ............ ............ 11,071 36,817
COtton itali ns--
Colored................................... do.... 16, 00 66,352 14,606 76,834
Fired...................................do.... 7,134 22,041 3,310 15,092
SPlain, fast black..........................do... 28,851 120, 62 17,106 96,139
C:ottan venetlans-
SColored...................................do.... 18,988 120,947 23,370 156,3a8
S Firgured................................ dn.... 829 5,MS13 8l 7,115
Plain, fast black..........................do.... 6,318 38,359 2,504 21,377
cta lasting, plain-
F astblack.............................do... 3.092 10,875 3,-10 19,819
Si rd.................................. do .... 4,251 10, 42 8,075 40,276
:.;:. ed.Jlitrtings and 9heatines, plain............do .... 11,274 29,0N7 779 3,4i3
S dm:": y lambries, lwns, and mirslns............do.... 6,121 20. M5 6,563 30,967
i W: Tkr redeambris andshirtins.g.s............ n... 19,015 42.71l 1;,620 4A, 568
i .:ittm lpanishstripes.......................o.... 53d 2,o' 1 647 3,874
P "rlottonflannels ................................do... 12,087 33.115 10,25 41,740
'elvets andvolveteens.......................yards.. 294,710 61,71.1 15',26 53,2S9
tn bankers ..............................piece. 30, 8 25,. 7,145 8,011
:' 4ntrc s..............................doen.. 37.869 10,7.0 34,310 12, 889
.. Tow ...................... ......do.. 25,257 50,657 25,242 10,090
Cotton varns-
dan. .................. .......pounds. 248,r33 36,990 02,400 20.050
J: .. apanse...............................do.... 7,57, 7. l, 1'2,34n 3, 64i, (0 764,6
Cottan thread, Ii balls.......................do.... 13,200 7,115 14,000 9,413
M. .Woolen and cotton mi tures--union and Ion(l.o
' Cloths....... ...................... .....yards.. 26,168 16,365 9,159 7,175
a g,,,,! i oods-
: : l ts. Enlsh................;fi ....ies.. 1 4 3,375 203 7,233
I: i..Qah,brnd, medium, habit, and Russian vnars.. 4,7.f 0,551 677 1.346
od........ .................. po 133 4V.57n 1,2t3.n O .4, 03.
4.... .........470, "33 (r, f01 4,014,2i7 75,S12
S.......................do.... 2,750,067 68,440 1,2261,467 29,3UJ
...................................do.... 2,721,400 77.R .5 1,644,667 1M.963
.................................. o.... 1, SI1,400 70,140 .32,733 15,334
lli ................................ l.... 7,15Q,>7 E00,.t1I2 11,0 7.:333 801,75(
......................... 02.733 *....43 ..n, I4
wo:iodii:...... ..............square cct.. 133,1 d 533, ',0,33 23.84,6
.. ................................m ber.. 11121 75,732 l2,t7s 11 H.75
............. .............................. ........... ,
.* ..r....... .......................... .............f 6, 292,8 ............ 7,403825









6 SUPPLEMENT TO OOMMEBOE REPORTS.

Increases Recorded-Imports of Chinese Manufactures.
The increase in imports of cigarettes was due to the increased
number of troops brought. into the Province.
Larger quantities of lead and tin were imported for use in the
manufacture of pewter goods at Changsha. It is interesting to note
that tin is found both as an import and as an export. It is believed
by nminy that the tin deposits located in the mountains of southern
Hunan are the most. promising mineral deposits in the Province from
the point of view of future development. They are somewhat diffi-.
cult of access; but the future should bring development with in-
creased capital and improved transportation facilities.
Increased imports of American and Sumatra kerosene were re-
corded. This means renewal of stock rather than increased sales;
as a matter of fact, sales of stocks of all kinds were much curtailed
during the greater part of the year. owing to military operations.
Imports of Japanese plain gray shirting.s showed a great increase.
Electrical fittings and fixtures were imported in greater quantity,
owing to the establishment of a second electric lighting plant at
Changsha. Electric light equipment has gone also t6 Hengehow and
to Changteh. Aniline dyes appeared again in the import returns.
Increased imports of refined and ruck sugar are recorded; the rock
sugar is used in sweetening wines and in m-eserring fruit. Foreign
umbrellas were popular. Japanese umbrellas commanded the market,
doubtless because of their cheapness.
The principal articles of Chinese manufacture (not including
reexports) imported into Changsha during 1916 and 1917 are shown
in the table below:
1916 1917
Articles. --------
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.

Cement ..........................................pounds.. 4,1 4S. (O 71 ,.101 3, 108,533 822,946
Cottl n t;irdls:
Shiring ...... ................. .......... .. pie .. i.5,7 3,991 14,818
Shr! .................. .....................do.... .7.731 218. 9 H 60,446 224,424
CIrnlli, uativu, fan:y.................. ....dn.... 21,039 39,170 19,915 50,.'
Yar .........................................pound .. 1, 591.S7 268,974 3,611,000 881,082
Flour................ ...........................do.... 2.97, 00 78, 179 1, 60,193 47, 91
Leahr .............................................do.... 379,333 108,587 191,600 135,700
Papcr, mill................. ...............d..l 1,4137 1,271 93,733 B,
Sugar:
ro ................................... .....do.... 26, 07 738 19,333 806
VWhite ....... ................. .........do.... 3 ', P33 18,315 284,533 15,783
TolI tro. prpard .............................. do.... 21, 07 124,935 170,67 120,871
Total.......... ......... ................................. 9 3,8 ............ 1,23,49

Export Trade of Changsha.
Thi- following talle shows Ihe chief articles (not including re-
exports) exlported from Changsha through the Maritime Customs
during 1916 :n111t 1917:
1916 1917
.\|it hl. --
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Vale.

Arnnie. .. ...............................potaids.. 863,07 100,320 27
lunailhti u ioais................ ................do... 281,733 51,957 203, 8
Ieauml.. .........................................do.... 843,200 14,457 61
Iri.kh1.. ..................................... do.... 207,867 53,21 17 7

ig










CHIN---CHANGSHA.


OCaleas:
BRis and paddy............................. do...
Wheat.................................... do....
Oa l, Pinghsiang ................................tons..
Cole ..................................... ...... do....
leathers, duck, fowl, etc.....................pounds..
lIbers:
CIr......................... .......do....
R;mp. ... mp ............... ...- .... do....
i: .....................................do....
iCloth......: ...............................do....
human ................................... do....
;; S, blfalo and cow.......................do....

f Antimony-
nid,. L d o..........re.pu.....do.
O;,i:* O re ..................................do....
S Lead ore .................................. do....
T,,;' in slbab e................................. .do....
S ore..... ....................................do....
,i a: oti .......... .... ....... ......c .................do....
Paper:
.. irst quality.............................do...
USecond quality...........................do....
S ltash..................... ....... ........ ......do....
e id,f1y Bower.................................do....
Teablack ....................................do....
b.. obaco, leaf and stalk.........................do....
UmbreUas, paper.............................pieces..
A" l other articles .......................................


21, M4, 133
268, 620
203,972
59, C7
338,20;7
1,i.1, 0 17
7,471,417
2-1f, 533
12.S, Wi7
1,273, L00


42, 09, 713
t'02,533
17, ti.55. .07
121,200
1,33,.200
99,460
74,933
2,357,0.17
9,331,
505, 4;7
25,200
38,400
21, FU')


7


$319,0S3
1,343,s3 "
1,247,0035
4,516
18,363
200, 70
599, .75
170,798
32, 97 3
187, M1
34, PJ


7,316,371
42,831
368, 93
25,331
2,535
7,085
14,142
11,55'<
212
47,28.
"5,701
3,901
2,215
17,592


05, .89, 407
1,059,0!57
307,919
270, :07
41,600
275,467
30, 131
7,816,400
43', 333
151,7331
13, 733
............

72,274,000
201, LOO
31,07-,467
99, 733
14.533
9,199
20,sn0
2,895,200
29,0167
441,133
210, Gti7
35, 733
1, C5-1a
.. .... .. .


12,340,911 ......
I


$I,354,752
27,0t52
1,727,420;
2,427,010
4,391
4,762
26, 116
1,321,471
499,39w
44,9313
148,711
29,195

5,511,519 I
9,394
799,502
58,671 1
121
1,013
2,695
176,300
1,090
295,285
104,253 I
2,0992
1,552
1,7 58 ,
14,758,828 i


Declared Exports to the United States.
As the declared exports of local origin shipped to the United States
are not sent directly to that country, they do not appear in the
Returns under the heading of exports direct to foreign countries, but
are included in exports to Chinese ports. As heretofore, antimony
Continues to occupy the most prominent place among shipments to
Sthe United States, although the value was only $682,359 in 1917.,
compareded with $2,861,190 in the previous year. Tungsten ore exports
were second in importance, having increased from a value of $22,892
i. 1916 to $150,823 in 1917. Exports of crude antimony totaled
1...: 126,205 in value and those of pig tin, $11,321.
S : There was an export of curios and old embroideries amount-
|,:ing to $1,168. A large shipment of locally grown tea, valued at
$28,630, was made direct to the United States; but it is understood
that the shippers had difficulties with the shipment, owing to the fact
That it was badly packed and did not stand the long voyage.
'Business was very much affected by the increased depreciation of
Sthe provincial currency and by the facts that the demand for Hunan's

pr ncipal metal product, antimolny, fell off considerably toward the
i' o of the year. The first cause continued to counteract any fav-
orable tendency toward increased purchases of foreign goods as it
increased the prices of foreign products in the exchange medium of
i e:ib:F common people. Until steps are taken to stabilize the value of
the: provincial currency, foreign merchants will find it an obstacle
r; o increased sales of their products in this district.
i lvi:: ity! of Japanese merchants in Changmha District.
t a:i H1nai continues to be an interior market, drawing its supplies
i C'?ca' the larger import centers of IJankow and Shanghai. With the


Iti. .





l'



8 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMEBOE REPORTS.

establishment at Changsha of banks capable of dealing in foreign
exchange and with the placing of representatives of foreign firms iM
Changsha, much can be done toward increasing the sale of foreign
products in the Province. The thriving business which was done
before the war by German merchants has practically all fallen into
the hands of American, British, and Japanese merchants. Japanese
merchants have been especially active in this market since the war.
They have opened a number of retail shops for dispensing Japanese
made products and novelties, dnd they constantly carry on an active
and very intelligent advertising campaign. Japanese insurance com-
panies also appear to be doing an increasing amount of business in
this district. The local Japanese bank is doing a thriving business
and is rendering assistance to Japanese merchants who are making
:t bid for the local trade in piece goods and other necessities.
Import Trade of Yochow.
The treaty port of Yochow is the port of entry and departure for
goods consigned to or coming from northwestern Hunan and Kwei-
chow Province. The reserve stores of Pinghsiang coal and coke are
kept at Yochow, which accounts for the appearance of these two
items on the list of imports of that place. This reserve is main-
tained at Yochow in order to provide for the low-water season,
when it is not practicable for tows to ply between Chuchow, the
city above Changsha, to which coal and coke are transported from
the mines by rail, and Hanyang, where it is used in.the Hanyang
Iron Works.
The following table gives the principal articles imported through
the Maritime Customs at Yochow for the years 1916 and 1917:
1916 1917
Articles.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.

FOREIGN COTTON GOODS.
Sheetigs, grave, plain ..........................pieces.. 1,700 $4,706 1,880 $6,91
ShirLinca, plain:
White .......................... ... do... 89,310 288.705 77.161 338,084
Oray. ..................................-in.... 61,758 164,638 60,770 29,,561
Drills s................................-..d-.... 4,620 13,714 3,3f10 13, 57
Ja..s.................................... ,.1.. 20, 80 60.988 21,390 80,866
Reversib'e rreinnnes..................... ......yards.. 8.23 1. ........................
Dyed criLLnns:
Italians, rrtpe, and sateens, p!ain-
FIaslt la -k .............................pieces.. 18,767 78.380 12,343 71,810
( lre ..................................do.... 4,264 18,666 330 1,768
\'anrlians. plain-
Fast b'a.:k................... ...........do... 9,391 57,017 8,186 0,716
Colnrel ........................ .........l .... 1,910 11,272 1,980 9,5S5
Reps anl ribs, figured .....................do.... %8,35 69,403 4,867 47,652
nambric, lawns, and muslns ............... do.... 3,141 6,876 2,208 8,613
Turkey-red clt Ionr ......................... .... 4,731 12. ?3 3,120 7,731
Velvet.a and vF;veleens, 22 inches...........yords.. 89,905 18,778 51,3 17, 242
rotllrn varn, Japanese- .................... poiuds.. 6,870,400 1,071,41s 3,742,420 784,r31
CHINESE COTTON GOODS.
Phroungp, gray, Shang.lai ......................lpie:es.. I, iO 2,916 1,0(10 3,04
[rils ...... ........ .......................... .... 1,770 5,175 1,361 514
NarnkP .i ............... ....................... d,.... 6,534 57.(161 8,051 21,81
('li ,.-n v. ril .............................. pounds.. 2,o101,33 303,537 4,622,800 1,019, 6 "
hSl rtiii '.c ':.rl Slnng aia ...................... pi.ces.. 1,010 3.721 ........................
i'll:li.N I'.I illE ER.
I'ir: lrr ily......................... .thu IIsndl .. 703 1,076 495 3'W
..'- ri.l nI .'i ly ........................... .. .... 1,651 :, 542 26,$17 1S ,4
lam s :'ld Iamniiware .......... ............................ ....... ... 2,5 ............. i,

.1i

















ORSIoGN SUNDRI -conmuuea.
lirosene--
A merican .............................gallons.. 4,.317 550,453 1,199,270 U351,074
Borneo .................................do.... 67,800 8,424 63,460 9,709
Sumatra.................................do.... 17,130 2,256 257,390 39,381
jar ....................'.... .......... pbunds.. 59,733 3,711 46,267 3,499
B d..................................... do.... 2,531,867 141,57 1,519,333 110,089
-............. .. ............ do.... 82,267 4,600 92,667 7,281
cotton....................-...........piees.. 22, 80 7,759 29,183 12,353
CINESE SUNDRIES.
S "nted...:. ........... ...........pounds.. 43,600 17,567 46,133 24,389
ling..................................tons.. -27,226 167,782 ............ ............
P bgbs3iang................................do.... 1,872 14,421 43,876 499,449
l Ink ow mil..........................pounds.. 409,867 12.579 80,000 2,758
artieles....................................... ........... 21,691 ............ 16,106
i ... l............................................. ............2,80,8933,908,121

Articles Exported from Yachow.
Th e quantity and value of the principal articles exported through
t:Mii Maritime Customs at Yochow during 1916 and 1917 are given
eiiuie following table:

1916 1917
Articles.
Pounds. Value. Pounds. Value.

iet as and minerals:
An., timony-
lus...................................... 810,000 $326,423 235,200 525,415
S Crude........................................ 385,333 65.070 103,067 6,363
cks.lver........................................ 23,3 20, 889 333,067 362,829
............................................. 9,814,400 137,791 4,256,667 73,593
, w ............................................. -195,467 24,031 1,495,467 226,404
,m ..................................... 21,333 9,403 69,600 37,777
ramies......................................... 2,639.333 165,110 5,397,333 259,711
............................................ 301,667 17,299 133 9
1o .......................................... 431,067 73,643 528,133 115,469
..: ....................................... 1,331,067 319,079 1,222,133 36R, 176
... ....................................... ............ 5,016 ............ 12,193
......................................81 r 812,3 ,296 1,012,000 129.293
d.............................................. 6,501, 00 317,619 4,126,400 282,209
lwer.......... ............. ................. 1,276,667 76,772 1,457,087 186,144
... .................................. a 18,132 4,941 a sj,249 15,520
i lmal ....................... ............. 56,267 3,845 18,533 1,56
table................................ ....... 77, 07 50,825 64,133 3, 32
..... ... ...... .......... 32, 6i7 5,362 291, 333 56,475
,yellOw. ......................... ........ ...... 14.933 3,;00 400 Iti
: Total...................................... ......... 1,00,013............ 2,162,648

a Pieces.

E HANKOW.
By Consul General Edwin S. Cunnlnuham.

w is situated in the heart of China. It is on the Yangtze
600 miles from the ocenn, and three days are required for the
f mail here after it reaches Shanghni.
ag, Hankow, and Hanyang, situated at the junction of the
a~*dthe Yangtze Rivers, form one of the most important and

o 90"_-18-52i--2







10 SHTPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

populous centers of China. They are almost exactly in the center of
the 8I Provinres of the Empire anid have a joint population of more
than 2.Ot~0).00. T'hi.- group of cities is the head of the large steamer
navigation on hll. Yaigtze. and the trade of all the surrounding
Proviinccs naturally flows through it. Wuchang is the historic and
political center, Ilany.rig is the manufacturing city, and Hankow
the commercially ftruIs.
From a modern point of view Hankow is the second city of China.
As the south terminus of the Peking-Hankow Railway and the north
terminus for the Canton-Hankow and Hankow-Ichang lines, this
port is rapidly growing in importance and size and may well be
termed the central city of the Empire. It is the treaty port and place
of residence of the foreigners. Foreign concessions are held by
Great Britain. France, Russia, Japan, and, until 1917, Germany.
Exchange and Freight Rates--Condition of Crops.
The trade of Hankow has been handicapped by the scarcity of bot-
toms and bv high exchange. The exchange started to rise toward the
end of 1915. continued to advance during 1916, and at the beginning
of 1917 the Hankow tael was normally quoted at $0.86 gold. Dur-
ing the year it fluctuated between $0.805 and $1.20 (the highest rate
in 39 years), and at the end of the year it was quoted at $1.05. The
fluctuation in exchange was often sudden and disturbed business cal-
culations.
Freight rates increased steadily throughout the year. There was
a scarcity of bottoms, but shippers did not consider this scarcity
sufficient justification for the rapid increase in the freight rates on
general cargo between Shanghai and the Pacific coast. At the be-
ginning of 1917 general cargo could be booked for $15 gold per
ton; at the end of January this was increased to $18.75; in March,
$25; in April. $30; in May, $40; and during the remainder of the
year the rate fluctuated between $45 and $60 per ton.
In most of the districts all field crops except tea were above the
average when not. affected by drought; the prices obtained were
much higher than for many years. Droughts seriously delayed and
affected the crops in the western part of Honan, the northwestern
part of Hupeh. and the southern portion of Shensi Province. Rains
came Inter Ihan usual, but the crops were better tlhi the forecast
indicated.
The cost of living has advanced by 15 to 200 per cent when reck-
oned in Chinese currency; this makes the advance from 25 to 50
per cent during the past. two years.
River Trade Suspended-Industrial Activities.
Until Novembler, 1917, the internal means of communication were .
open to trade, and unusually large quantities of the usual native
products arrive. There was a great demand for most of the articles,
notwithstanding high exchange and excessive over-sea freight rates.
Substantial increases were made in the export of cow and buffalo
hides, goatskins, bristles, beans, cotton, egg products, and China grasl
in most other articles there were no increases, and in some actual de
creases. Toward the close of the year, in consequence of the declari- .|
tion of independence of the South, trade was completely suspended :










.ut:bw Yangtze above Hankow. The independence of Li Tien Tnai
,,,,it a stop to trade upon the Han River also. With these two great
ti:|eeders closed, trade to the west was at a standstill during November
! nd. December.
Great industrial activity was witnessed in certain lines. There were
i:.-Pprovements in the engineering and iron works and in egg-products
IB 'ants, and considerable mineral prospecting was carried on. The new
phone system connecting the Wuhan cities, which was taken over
i!2R 1915 by-the Chinese, was completed in May, 1917. There have
rather extensive building programs carried out in the foreign
c!i!ncessions and in the Chinese city. A few foreign firms opened up
branches here. The business of the belligerent nationalities, with the
eiiixception of the United States and Japan, continued small.
Ki:i: Important buildings completed or begun during 1917 include sev-
eifal large office buildings, the new telephone building, the new
' Chinese post office; 18 residences and several business houses in the
R:iussian concession, all of brick; and a large number of substantial
::Chinese buildings of brick and concrete on Sin Sen Road. The war
|has not interfered with, but rather accelerated, the building plans.
During the latter part of the year the China Merchants' Steam Navi-
Sgation Co. commenced work on a new bund in front of their offices.
-The completion of this extensive work of reclamation will be a great
improvement to the river frontage of Hankow and an inestimable
convenience to merchants and passengers making use of this line of
vessels. The bund will then extend from the north side of the Jap-
Sanese concession to the south end of the China Merchants' Steam
,Navigation Co.'s property, a distance of nearly 3 miles.
Progress in Railway Construction.
SThe Canton-Hankow Railway as far as Changsha has now been
I placed in operation. Lack of funds and difficulty in procuring roll-
[T 'ing stock have considerably handicapped the procurement of equip-
*iirinment for this railway. The formation work from Wuchang to
I Cangsha, a distance of 226 niles, has been completed with the ex-
I Caption of a 3,000-foot embankment at Nantsingkong. All the bridge
wII'rk has been finished and the culverts constructed. The stations at
i'some places were completed months ago; others were finished only
recently. Trains carrying fourth-class passengers have been running
I'!t Puchi since July, 1917, and Changsha has recently been connected.
i n ; the Hankow-Szechwan line, the so-called German section, only
I ormation work and masonry were done during 1917. It is clainmel
i.that the high prices of material prevented the purchase of rails and
.-iother equipment necessary for the opening of this line. The Ameri-
S, n section of this railway made no advance during the calendar
i r -ri and it sold to the other sections of the same system considerable
i::pples that were on hand. Both the American and the German
i as,, s are now under the direction of one engineer in chief. These
i:w ays are being built with funds received from the Hukuang loan.
tlade of Treaty Ports.
t...i4 statistics of this report are taken from the Chinese Maritime
'.Wreturns and do not include the native customs. The rate of
g used in the conversion from haikwan taels in $0.8283 for
a *smd $1.02 for 1917.










12 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS. t

Tin- following table gives the value of the gross trade, exclusive
of coin aInd treasure, of atchl of the treaty ports of the district Lo.
thlt y ars 191i5 and 1917:


YerM.;.


HIankow. Kilkiang.


I1.......................................... SIri,.969,027 '5., 7, 111
1917.............................................. 834,7011 41,35, 181


Ichang. hasL.

$10,684, 166 ,.W44,S t
9,952,074 4,52,112


'rTlse figures indicate a substantial gain in the trade of each port
exci'pt IlhntIg, but the increase is due. in some cases to the different
rates of exchange used in the conversion of the local currency.
Gross and Net Trade of Hankow and Kiukiang.
Notwit standing disturbing elements, such as lic continuance of
war in Europe with its further restrictions on shipping, the entrance
of AnuIirica into the conflict, the British embargo against China teas,
the IntL summer followed by excessive autumn rains, and the grave
political conditions in the country, the trade of the port for 1917
must be regarded as good. The total value did, not reach that of the
preceding year, but 1916 was a re.-ord year, the net value of the trade
being nearly 4,000,000 haikwan tacls greater than that of 1915 and
29,000,000 more than in 1914. All things considered, the year 1917
made an excellent showing.
The following table gives a comparative statement of the gross
and net values of the maritime customs trade of Hankow and
Kiukinng, the most important treaty ports in this district, for 1916
and 1917:

Hankow. Kiukiang.
Imports and exports.
1916 1917 1915 L 1917


Imports or foreign goods:
From foreign countries and Hoongkng........
From Chinese ports .........................
Total foreign imports.......................
Ree porls oiforcign Roods:
To foreign countries and Uongkoug..........
To Chines ports..............................
Total foreign reexports....................... ..
Netl olat foreign Imports....................
Imports of Chi nose products ......................
nercports or Chinese products:
To foreign countries..........................
To chine.e ports............................
Total 'hinece roeeports......................
Net Lutal .'hioese imports....................
L:xpors of Chineso products of local origin:
To !nr-.lrn countries.........................
To Chinese ports....... .....................
Total sports o Ioral orii n ..................
Grcs4 vulue ou I he Irorai of the port ................
Net vailut( o thie trade o tlhe port ..................


$29,704,473
19,319,764
49,084,237


537, 90, 384
23,846,786
53,337,170


$2,017,418
8,999,692
11.017,110


$2,18, 501
11,214,009
s13, 40t, 4131


5, R74 54, 732 ............ .....
8,351, ~-Il 10,025,667 568,589 606,525
8,305,528 10,030,399 568,589 606,535
40, 71, 709 49,256.771 10,44.,521 3,',7949.8
23,984,878 40, 11,775 5,282,744 6,2 8,115

2,012,670 2,425, 151 ...................."
11,777, 48 1, 184,483 13, 80 14,SS
13.790,518 1I,60J, 634 13, 808 14,8M
16,194,360 22. 232, 141 5, 268,06 2432

8,242,097 10, 597, 9S1 1,127 1,45.
79, 007. 15 93,0J7,775 19, 407,130 2.73,79,0


87, 889,912
166,959,027
144. 802, 981


0.) ,6.M, 756
203. 34,701
174,144,668


19,409,257
35,708, 11
35,125,714


43, ...
I s


IIankow's importance as a center of trade becomes more apparent
each year; this is evident when it is noted that 20 per cent more.i::
foreign imports were distributed from Hnnkow in 1917 than in .t191t


'II)
". ..'
:,?'Ji~EE


----














ebcnipetition becomes greater.
; t Trade by Countries.
hTi e following table shows the comparative value of the direct
of Hankow with foreign countries in 1916 and 1917:

Grossimports offoreign Exports plus reexports
goods. of Chinese goods.
Countries.
1916 1917 1916 1917

SNew Zealand, etc............................ -81,330 139,215......... ...........
tlh l aIdia ..... .... ....................... ..... 3 74, 7 2,400-,7S ............ ............
......................... ...................... 118,221 1,737,911 to,23ti ...........
ii ta r ......................................... 4,831 4,60 CJ,2b9 .........
East Indies ..................................... 1,28,410 1,313,893 ............ ............
*e...... ............................................. O 1,33 48 15i, 02 9.
eI ngkonga .......................................... 3,316,240 5,940,718 7,254 15,666
.ii afb .......... ......... ......... ... ..... .......... 0 34 .......... .........
.-' JI-----..................................--..........-.. 1 -641, 5. 18, 58,08 3,107,019 3, 454, 177
T Ehei4 ands..................................... ....... 83 ................. ......
Norway ...................................... ..... 6,684 127 ........................
Phi ine Islands .................................... ............ 3, 55 ............ ............
European.....---------------------------.....................................------------ ............ ...........1, 5,745 22,306
S Asltc............................................ 192,758 43,698 3,575,020 7,020,661
i S apore, Straits Settlements, etc ..................... 117,499 .52,294 ............ ..........
Sweden............................................... 73,296 27,548 ........... ...........
~t.. ted Kingdom....................................... 1,904,710 1,181,015 1,501,245 942,311
United States (including Hawaii).................... 4,768,56 6,039,749 811,?07 1,2o0,662
All other countries.................................... 877 6 ............ ............
Total-............................................ 29,764,473 37,490,384 10,294,767 13,023,132

Import Trade Principally with Japan.
S Some nations formerly prominent in the commerce of Central
C: hina have disappeared from the list of direct traders since the com-
Inencement of the world war. When comparing the import trade of
i, 1917 with 1916 reductions are found in purchases from British India,
France, Italy, Norway, Asiatic Russia, the United Kingdom. Sweden,
Singapore, and Denmark. Japan continues to hold, the premier
position in the direct import trade. In 1916 Japan sold to Hankow
48per cent of the total direct imports of foreign goods. and this was
l.a.creased during 1917 to 49.5 per cent. Japan's proximity to China'
l t ces it in the most favorable position, but its ability to maintain
kidequate lines of steamships to and from this port is of vastly more
. importance than geographical position, as it enables Japan to deliver
iehs promptly. The existence of such lines insures a larger percent-
Sof both imports and exports being included in the direct trade
is possible for any other country. An increased number of
p anese firms have established branches in Hankow as representa-
t of various lines of commerce, thus facilitating an interchange
articles on the most advantageous terms. There was a large num-
i Japanese firms established here during 1917.
SUnited States was second in sales to Hankow during the year,
ipying more than 16 per cent of the total imports. Practically
ptAmeriea's sales are transshipments from Shanghai, and com-
'ely few shipments arrived in Hankow in American bottoms.
efirag "'America's resources and the present conditions of the
.it seems that the United States is not taking advantage.of









14 SUPPLEMENT TO OOMMEROB BEPORTB. :|

the wonderful opportunities offered for the expansion of trade l!. :
China with the least possible competition. While the Maritime
Customs report shows that in 1917 America purchased directly:
$47t,35,. in excess of what it purchased in 1916-an increase of 59
per cent-it. hy no means indicates even approximately the value of
shipments to the United States. The declared exports to the United
States as compiled directly from the invoices in this consulate gen-
eral during 1917 were valued at $23,369,883, as against $13,908,183
in 1916;, while according to the foregoing table the value was only
$811,307 in 1916 and $1,290,662 in 1917.
The increas-e of 79 per cent in imports from Hongkong indicates
that this port is continuing to regain the trade lost during the first
two years of the war. Canadian sales, although representing an in-
erease of 137 per cent, when compared with 1916, amounted to only
$1,737.911. These are possibly the largest shipments that Canada
has ever made directly to this port.
Imports by Articles.
When the statistics of imports throughout this report cover spe-
cific articles, they show the total foreign imports received at Hankow
direct from foreign countries and as reshipments from other Chinese
treaty ports, less reexports to treaty ports and foreign countries.
This fails to bring out the importance of the port as a distributing
center to other parts of China. On the other hand, the export sta-
tistics of specific articles include reexports.
The table of imports by articles indicates the diversity of the de-
mands of this market, though the volume can not be regarded as
large considering the immense population. It is well to bear in mind
that China is a much larger potential market than has yet been
realized. The following table shows the quantity and value of the
principal imports into Hankow from foreign and Chinese ports dur-
ing the years 1916 and 1917:
____ -_ ___ __ __ __ -__ __ ___*


.Artcles.


Quantity.


Value.


* I- I


Acids, lborir, nitric, eO .................... poIlls..
Ashestn' BDoiler compo-it in, sheets, packing, el.,
pounds..................................... .
A.utomoliles aud partIs.............................
Bats:
Colton. ranva S....................u...nilicr..
Gunny, new and old.......... ............do...
Bed leads iq........... ........................ ....
Ileer an.. porler, botlled.............dozen (tquaIl..
BeltinL ...........................................
I crv les ................... ........................
IJooots and shes, leather and canvas, ........pairs..
Bottles, empty....................................
Brnas.s and yofow metal.................. pounds..
Iuttons.....................................Tross..
Candle-makinr materials. stearine, and candles,
poipm ds ...........................................
C (ps and hats, foreign................... number..
Carhnn. hlrk................. .........pounds.
('Crdamomn ................................do...
Carriages, cars, wagou., and parts..................
Casks empty.............................number..
Clareties.............................thousands..
( gars........................................ do....
Chests and fttings for tea........................
Clocks................................... number..
Coal ........................................tons..
Coppe;lngots, lIar, shee s, wire,otc ......pounds. .


736, 000
107,200
...............
20, 58
4,43., 131
1,158
27,269
..............i
97:3
88 ,933
81,754
286,267
74,736
30,933
154,000
.............."
10,325
520,641
1,621
.............
20,418
93,364
1,124,133


$37,610
12,511
135,212
13,470
351,0?1
14,164
40,890
77,413
3,782
2,970
6,402
20.436
28,950
30,212
16,668
10,160
29,074
281,307
21,838
1,790,979
26, 88
117,161
25,430
463,832
213,256


191

Quantity.


Value.


_I-


451,067
55,533
..............
43,328
2,425,362
1,067
43,261
.............
1,183
..............
27i,467
213,041
635,467
89, 49
257,200
304,533
..............
3,731
736,518
1,4578
.............i
671,57
l1sis', SD


k32,764
5,828
44,580
17,519
33, 749
17,067
75:5,47
87, 45


78,B
68.00


,'

' :*illlll

: .:: .....












OHINA-HANKOW.


Articles.


:..:[. -- ......
II. ^Togoods: -
S Blankets.............................number..
y,; aDrills-
Amercan ..........................pieces..
British.............................do....
Japanese ............................do....
SDyed. n. ae s ............................. do....
ll, nnels, plain, dyed-
.:.... American..........................pic'es..
B.ritish............................... do....
i;.Jananose............................ do....
Other................................do....
ii :andkerchiefs.......................... doen..
SItalians, plain, fast black...............pieces..
Jeans-
Dutch..............................do....
English.............................do....
Japanese................ ...........do....
JLawns.................................do ....
Sheetings, gray, plain-
Amerinan.........................pieces..
English.............................do....
Japanese............................do....
Shirtings, plain-
Gray-
American ......................do....
English.........................do....
Japanese .......................do....
Dutch...........................do....
White-
American.......................do....
Dutch...........................do....
English........................do....
Japanese.................. ......do....
T cloth-
English.............................do....
Other............... ........... do....
Thread-
Balls.............................pounds..
Spools ..... .......................... ross..
Towels................................dozen..
Velvets, velveteens, cords, corduroys, etc.
.....................................yards..
Yarn..................................pounds..
Other................. ........................
Covers, hed, including dotton quilts......number..
Crucibles..................... ....................
Drapery...........................................
Dyes:
ndigo.................... ........... -.pounds..
Other................................. do....
Eletrical materials and fittings ...................
m~ery cloth, sandpaper, powder, wheels, etc.
S........... .........................renims..
S Enameled ironware...............................
I'Igine ant boiler fittings .........................
Tiles ......................... .......... ozoen..
Flour.................................... pounds..
Faits and ve ta bles, canned............. ......
,-. Garters, braces, suspenders,etc....................
Ginseng:
merl.an.............................pounds..
Japanese...............................do....
Other...................................do....
.... :s, window, stained, colored, common, etc.
........................................... hroxes..
Gloves...............................dozen pairs..
Sraphophones and a-' 'es'ries...................
Itberdis~hery and miliunery....................
Ec -rdwa -re..-... --....... ......................
,summer and straw...............nzml.rr..-
S ry, in2ludiug cotton socks.......dozen pairs..
S ,' u al---Organs and pianos.................
I Ma: ilataland surgical ..........................
Other....... ......................
i. ts and mild steel:
I*4w-
;" an........... ...............pounds..
..! Cobbles.............................do...
Hoops.................. ......do....
Nai s..............................do....
ll:1"':" : tuPpesaid tu bes, wrought............do....




.iT:f ::.


Quantity. Value.


40,251
1 875-
1,010
154,717
272,007
14,504
901
16,280
45
108,578
147,072

1 600
61,191
185, 388
23,007

5,730
37,238
11,260

520
351,419
211,0 33
350

..............
5,670
463.897
17,860

42.444
6,508

43,200
8,638
192,595

174,860
37,882,933
..............
52, 213


57,067
1,573,400
..............

..............
..............
3,746
185,733
..............

9, 8S7
12, 208
2,107
22,74.1
19.5S1
..............

42.3'4 Z
298,023
..............



5,70,.533
673,333
5, 524,800
2,903,200
1,241,733


$31,2'23
56, 704
:1, SlI3
419, 5:4
1, 130, tiS

42, 047
2, 291
49,758
119
27,172
615, 190

3,645
158, 804
440,495
63,050
15,994
1.6, 860
31,151

1,292
918,247
585,736
1,024

20,'851
1,494,716
58,434
106,775
10,421

20,847
27,441
92,384

35,7.51
6,024,007
558,518
22,332
7,795
21,022

59,505
111,171
177,633

5,202
33,846


1917


Quantity. Value.


49,819
8,377
270
365,421
364, 06
4,027
94
40, 85

13.5, 53
12"3,S18
120
27.659
247, 17
39,8'-29
1. NO
4,131
47,210

500
18n, 0.5
501,608
195

250
4,000
388,466
60,571

20, 30
13,635
40,800
2M, 788
224,475

353,292
28,278,666
51, 53


200.267
2,690,152

1,059
..............


........................
5,5f4 828
7,2i) 174,000
19, 69 ..............
143,027 ..............

110,393 12,491
2.5,20') 15,9%)
60,001 731
18i0,9 9 1. 069
7,451 31,35:;1
.X, 74.1 ...........
.28 697 I.............
17,312 6i), 1.12
,16,206 373,231

7,38 .............
13, 15 ..............
10,997 ..............

20, .55 3,R25,733
14,405 678, 4:10
278, 455 4,39, 200
390,450 5,533,733
40, 96 1,004,133


551,041
30,633
1,500
1, 31, 508
2,097,398
16,471
578
183,155
49,946
695,882
3?4
89,341
769,158
163,333

5,535
13,202
174,628

2,783
591,854
1,710,766
681

1,148
20,033
1,691,925
278,020

61,853
31,101
53,512
93,376
146,178

118,109
6,116,356
637,748
34,096
3, 217
26,433

233,611
310,222
264,380

6,445
88,342
65,113
2,01.1
6,911
23,114
10ri, 142

171,270
25, S95
56,3)4
134,63
21,954
8,213
45, asm
21, 6S7
26,215
325,690
7,625
17,175
22,214

184,967
20,314
299,178
331.684
53,186


I .












16 SUPPLEMENT TO OOMMEB4 B E PORT8.

r-


Articles.


Iroi anil nilil steel--Continue'l
New--Cnntinued.
Late ..........................pounds..
Ilails ...............................do....
Screws...............................do....
Sheets aud plates .....................do....
W ire .................................do...
Other................................do...
Old...................................... do....
Iron galvanized:
Bolts. nuts, rivets. washers. srrows, tubes.
ropes.etc............................do....
Corr i(ed shoo s ........................do....
Flat shoots..............................do....
Wire.................................... ....
Wireshort ............................do....
Lamps and lampware............................
Lead.................................... pounds..
Leather...........................................
Locomotives......................................
Lumber:
Hardwood.........................cubic fee..
Bolt wood........................square feet..
Sleepers..........................numbor..
Machines.........................................
Machinery........................................
Match-making materials................. pounds..
Matches. Japanese .........................gros..
Medicines foreign and BEon-on ................
Metals. antifriction, including babbitt and mag-
nolia metal............................pounds..
Metal white................................do....
Milk. condensed in tins.....................docwn..
Mining requisites..................................
Munitions......................................
Needles............................... thousands..
Nickel ................................... pounds..
Oil:


Kerosene-
Ameritan........................gallons..
Borneo and Sumatra................do....
Lubricating..........................do....
Paints.................................pounds..
Paper............................................ .. ...
Paper-making materials................ pounds..
Popper
Blark...................................do..
W hite..................................do....
Photneraphic materials............................
Printine and lithographic materials............... ...
Printine in% ............................pounds..
Provisinns and household stores, n e s............ ...
Pumps and rittin's............................... ...
Railwa' -plant matrrials......................... ...
Re.'reaion requisites .......................... .....
Rope, manila ........................... pounds..
Rubber anl rubber goods...........................
Safes andl aults .....................................
Brmalis ................................... numher..
Beawec., rie, rel, Inne. ct................pounds..
be'-inz and knit ing ina.hines............. umber..
Books, si s. tc ..................... .............
Boop"
Par ..................................pounds..
Toilet and ran'r..................................
Spirits i not in .luding alcohol)..................... ...
Statirinery .. ...................................... ..
"tcel:
flamlion..............................pounds..
ITars........ ...................... dn. .
ToIl and rast ............................ d ....
'Wire. nclli in and c ize ................d do
(thrr......... ....... ........... ...... do....
Htrr't- :iual rates ............ .... ............. ...
Bur-ar .............. .... ......... ...... ... pon lis..
Tar ............................. .... ..... allnn ..
'Tea:
Dust........ ... ...... .............. i. oan l .S
N hlir en ........... ...... .............do .
Telceri'lihic mulrrinl. ............................. ...
Tin......... .................... pounl.. I
Tin plail s, plain and dreuratAl ..............do...
Tnharc,' leal rnd prepared ................. n....


Quantity.


Valne.


t -


Quantity.


Val.


.- I .1 .


1,094,133
1,408,000
121,33.3
2,793,467
336,667
2,765,467
8,229,867

210,000
726,800
1,267,733
430,800
492,267
...........
5M6,R867
..... ......

206,978
130,327,608
202,202

.... ......00

163,236
. ..........

15,733
4,267
20,702

33,450
60,76


8,005,0684
4,821,612
375,98
168,733

970, 533

166,800
19,733
...........
...........
50,000



200,667

334
14,791,333
327
... .....

1,952,800



*12, 067
15, :133
476, 13
17.200
310,207

73, 17,407
107,774

62, 007,200
5,067
34,. S1
7,711 i, 00
225,007


$20,799
24,798
17,818
106,081
18,677
98,034
127, 39

15,064
51.581
96,475
2.5,666
13,119
77,450
57,725
120,168
712,705

69,779
3,454,412
150,413
1,990
681,631
91,155
42,588
20,927

5,999
3,190
30,888
17,961
41.104
16,735
53,764

802,365
600, 36
99,016
29,221
343,125
:10,922

159,466
4,475
12,534
3,418
13,732
191,958
10,427
160,'842
4,469
25,048
11,277
12,777
8,865
291, 439
6,7142
365,689

121,313
45,310
53, KRI1
33,564

2., 839
TIS
85,77S
5,1 A2
37,516
6,586
3,lm;t, a14
12,8SG8

5, W, ,{2
7T7
19, K.I
In,27R
441,314
34,7138


172,400

6B,000
705, 53
532,287
1, 937200
1,972,37



a, Wm
88,600
146,133

874,400
S 80,667
..............
627,067
............ ,
.............

10,008,753
..............

7, 95,333
211,041
..............

43,083

..............
2, 400
22,005


389,003
58,533

4,208,074
4,808,281
40P, 118
166,800
..............
469,'667

1,446, 800
43,600


60,767
..............
..............

S8,'267

380
15, 719, 17
487
..............

2,430,667
... ...........


507,067
50, 133
10n, 067
32,667

108, 954,133
117,19

1, 179,733
7, 07
..............
15,06
3,951,767
618, W0


I


65,90
eWa
45,617

105,874
sm
43,240


16,70
3,81

35,20
89,138
63,=
l, 107
3,828

81,682
438,985
............
1i2,152

349,32
65,792
331,018

15,799
1,187
42,156
40,474
p............
i 362,680
32,240

751,141
735,667
126, 773
27, 07
512,976
18,435


19,378
5,335
13,758
221,773
20, ,68
5, 127
6,=
8 18
10 10

8,13
32, Wl

419,546

714
13, 327
54'S17
63,413


I22,4
6,30
Wa
51,154



132,6
11 ,S
3,03 1

132, 679



.. .. ....=
...* ..a 1

















eundries ........................ .............. 15,244 .............. S1,
eq atea................................... .............. 29, 64 ............. 1I,,588
p ow ler ad past...................... .............. 15,231 .............. 32,85
and accessories ........................ .............. ,440 14,000
cotn, Japanese ..............numbor.. 452,263 154,714 591,481 250,373
& war... ...... .....do.en.. 10,657 39,226 15,093 64,20
ri ............................. alons.. 11,190 14,773 2,140 3,756
a es.................................number.. 5,986 10,239 4,329 8,202
table b e ................dozen quarts.. 23,048 30,545 .............. .........
net including sahke....................................... 40,871 .............. 58,822
o ods .................................. .............. 114,494 .............. 196,384
e cotton mitures ..................................... 101, 23 .............. 154,699
....................... pounds.. 228,400 67,133 191,857 32,334
S .t th7 ar ttes...................... ........... .............. 2,189,282 ............. 3,031,540
tal.................................. .... .............. 40,71,709 ............. 48,25,771

iltton Yarn and Thread.
Cotton yarn heads the import list again. America has not secured
any part of the yarn or thread trade, which is now principally Jap-
anese and Chinese. The gross import of cotton yarn for 1917 was
86,479 piculs (38,197,200 pounds) from Japan, 7,096 piculs (946,133
pounds) from India, and 247,284 piculs (32,971,200 pounds) of na-
tive make, aggregating 72.114,533 pounds, against 72,182,133 pounds
from all sources in 1916. The imports from Japan show a decrease as
compared with 1916, which is attributed generally to a greatly in-
creased use of Chinese low-count- yarns, a larger consumption of
yarns by the Japanese mills, and the speculatively high prices pre-
vailing.
The Japanese have met, at a very reasonable price, the demands of
the native for yarn. Needles, thread, and yarn are even more indis-
pemsable to the Chinese individual than they are to the occidental,
and the'Japanese have almost a monopoly of the thread and yarn
trade. They establish their own branch houses under Japanese man-
agement in every treaty port, where stocks are kept to supply the
Chinese dealers; and consequently they secure the orders which other
nations seek without stocks through foreign connections. The or-
ganization, industry, and business methods of the Nippon merchant
serve success.
SThe following'table furnishes a more complete analysis of the net
Imports of cotton yarn and thread in 1916 and 1917:
| 1916 1917
Yarn and thread.
SQuantity. Value. Qua4 i y. Value.
Ti R......................................... pounds.. 37,882,933 56,024,007 28,278,666 58,116,356
S"ty and bleaches--
Ind an.................................do.... 458, 77 88.097 777,733 168,673
: Jh.eas.................................do.... 36,945,933 5,772,518 27,004,133 5,062,401
PadV marcerized, and gossed-
esie...... ..... do.... 477,600 183,317 496,800 285,282
: othe ya.. ......................... do.... 133 75
Other yarn........................... I 7.........d..... 1 75 .......- ----
..........................................do................. 48.788 ............ 146,818
4;i a ar3,ize eto......................do.... 43,200 20,817 0,800 53,512
.ii.i: .'' lr o.p.s,0-
".vards ............................... ross.. 3, 35 4.47 13..063 17, W
I d do................. ....... .. ............. ............ 10, 39, 77
."y ..... ...:i ldo._.l 2,3F4 13,8M 3,465 23,857
F ias....................:..d..... 715 4,004 1,1s 3,775
S.'m .................. do.... 40 d5o 3 M
i ...: ....... ... ................. do... 1,56 3,5fi 77T 1,9
_0E~i!:E;...E: .:. -- - ,


*eLrld ns......... 6,7226 ..... s,


Iad.tatll~r itt" d.. .........................


G2,S, M9


6,072,296 ............










SUPPLEMENT 10 COMMERCE REPORTS.


Cotton Textiles.
(Cottun textiles werc. ilporlted in 1917 to the value of $7,017,197, or
14.5 per cent of the net foreign imports. The following table con-
tainls a collnipara; t i e ',tatemtr nt ofc the net imports of drills, flannels,
jeans, lhcetings. shirtings, and T cloth during 1916 and 1917:

Arlil.l s. 1016 1917 Artiles. 1916 ,


Coltons: Pirrq. Piece.. Shootings, grqa'
Printed ................. r, ..Nir9 '7, : Native................... Pieces. Pitaem
Turkey red ............. t.J,t.1 81,'~til I Foreign................ 1..'1 61
Drills: Shirtiags: }.' 57Sg4
Native .................. 4.44 58,116 Gra -
Fore,.ign............... J 361,:'; N aliv ............... U 1,


Flannel ........... ... 4',- ll:
Ilalians, black and olorc..... 229,tA2
Jeans, Tany:
N at iv' ................... 565
Foreign .................. 3 83 5
Lastings..................... 31,999


179,532
13,73.
295,290
2-,19-1
I'


ForTCgn.............. I
White-
Nativ ...............
Foreign........... .. 20,55
T cloth, rrav and bleauhed... 51,122
Velvets and velveteens....... a 263,802
Venetians, bla:k and colored 106,843


I753,66
( 2,910
35,670
6345,g1
8i,6'


a Yards.

The following statistics compiled by the British Chamber of Com-
merce of Hankow from the daily customs returns will be interesting
as showing the gross imports of piece goods in contrast to the pre-
ceding table of net imports:


Total. American. British. Japanese.
Articles.
Pieces. Value. Pieces. Value. ricFs;. Value. Pieces. Value.


1916.
........................ 172,602 180,071 16,875 556,701 1,010 53,843 154,717 41,624
iels, plain, dyed, and
nted.................... 31,730 94,215 14,504 42,047 901 2,291 16,280 49,758
........................ 248,179 602,944 ............... 61,191 158,801 185,388 440,495
ing;, gra, plain......... 54,22 174,00 5,730 15,194 37,238 126,860 11,260 31,151
ting, plan: I
ray.................... 563,322 1,50,29'. 520 1,292 351,419 918,417 211,083 688,73
VhiLe.................. 47,427 1,571,001 ........ ........ 463,897 1,91,716 17,860 58,434
th....................... 4S,952 117,19ti ................ 42,444 103,775..............
Total ..................1,60,440 4,548,731' 37,6291 11,037 958,100[ 2,811,536 596,538 1.585,0;W
1917. 1 II
s.......................... 371,0 1,374,641: 8,377 36,633 2 1,50 365,421 1,336,508
neli, plain, dyed, and
noted .................... 45,006 200,201' 4,027 16,471 94 578 40,885 18,145
i........................ 275,596 85,23 ............... 27,659 89,311 247,817 '8,168
ing;. gray, plain........ '53,001 193,315 1,660 5,535 4,131 13,202 47,210 174,g6Z
izlg plain:
;rs............2......... 625 ?,,30S,0 80 2,7.3 IO,055 591.854 501,608 1,710,7S
h ite.................... 4.5',2'7 1,991,12:,; 250 1,14 38.466 1,691,925 60,571 278,00
h....................... 33, O5 92,954 ....... ... 20,230 61,853 13,585 30,89
ToL l..................1,917, I 7,017,19, 15,1141 62,570 l20,905 2,40,231,277,07 4,483,1


Review of Piece-Goods Trade in 1917.

The British Chamber of Commerce review of the piece-goods
trade given below shows that Japan's gain in this line has been
chiefly at the expense of Great Britain:


The ypar 1917 has been an extrnnrdinnry one in the way of continually ikd-
vancing prices consequent upon the abnormal rise in the cost of raw mateislL
The c. i. f. recsts of grays and whites just about doubled during the yesti a4&
the prosJpects are that 1918' will see the advance, continuing. The hb* py
freights, war insurance, and continued advance in wages consequent lpn the
war have told against British goods where they have been in competition dWI
cloths from other countries, especially from Japan. The outstanding feat s


Drills
Flan
prii
Jeans
Sheet
Shirt
V
T lo



Drills
Flani
prir
Jeans
Sheet
Shirt

T lo


r
ii
;

1


.


C


" ii:i;
":!
'"*.i


" ":
'**:


I"'
. i'::


, i[














S..ompete wirn ne Japanese artuce on a sumciently large scale to make the
i' busae worth while.
There were 755.449 pieces of shirtings imported, as against 652,340 pieces In
1:918. Native cloths accounted for only 1,984 pieces, while Japanese qualities
iJamounted to about 70 per cent and British nearly 30 per cent. In 1916 the
i:' proportion was about the reverse, British goods then totaling some 65 per
ap' int, and Japanese 35 per cent
In 1917, imports of sheetings were 121,810 pieces, as against 107,487 in 1916.
Native makes accounted for about 53 per cent, Japanese'41 per cent, and British
4:' per cent. In 1916 the native mills had about the same proportion of the
trade, but Japanese goods were only 10 per cent, with the British 30 per cent.
I British white shirtjngs were still most in favor, although larger quantities
4f non-British whites came into the market in 1917 than ever before. During
I the first six months there was a considerable demand for stock goods, but
firm indent business was rendered impossible by the large differences between
S local values and home costs, which fluctuated between 10 and 25 per cent in
' spite of the rising exchange. Up to July local market prices advanced by
about 25 to 30 per cent, standing at their zenith toward the end of that month.
A slump set in in August, however, when local values receded about 20 per
cent, recovering again toward the close of the year to within about 10 per
cent of the highest figures. With -unfavorable market conditions here and the
: steadily advancing home price, the disparity between local market and re-
placing values became more and more accentuated until at the end of the
S year it was something between 70 and 80 per cent. Thus business was out of
the question, except where merchants were prepared to dispose of stocks at
considerably below replacing costs. The Japanese have been working hard to
get a larger share of the business in whites, and there is no doubt that their
goods have been improved very much in every respect. Where they are not up
to the standard of the Manchester goods, this is made up by lower prices, the
earlier deliveries obtainable, and the more favorable terms granted by
Japanese importers to their dealers.
Japanese Gaining in Many Lines.
There was a good demand for blacks in medium and cheaper qualities of
italians and venetians. The Japanese are pushing their manufacture of these
goods also and their latest samples that have arrived on this market prove
not only that they can make the cloth but also that they are steadily getting
nearer the Manchester finish. A small indent business in poplins was possible
during the early part of the year, but later, as with all other goods, local values
Were too far below home costs to admit of business. Japanese poplins, although
not up to the British goods In finish, are gaining in popularity in this market
on account of their cheapness and improved appearance.
There were 419,806 pieces of drills Imported as against 234.445 pieces in
1916. Native cloths accounted for about 14 per cent, as against 24 per cent in
1916. American cloths dropped from 8 per cent to 2 per cent, while Japanese
qualities advanced from 68 to 84 per cent Of jeans 309.029 pieces were im'
ported as against 283.565 pieces during 1916. Native cloths increased from
9 50 pieces to 13,739 pieces, or 4 per cent of the total. .Jpanese goods increased
from about 72 per cent to 87 per cent, while the proportion of British goods
fell.from 28 to 9 per cent.
Deliveries have been fairly good. Some dealers still have Stocks of various
goods, bought at cheap prices, in merchants' godowns. but on the whole stocks
In the markets must be low, and, given a chance of free trading with the in-
teaor, a considerable advance in values should result. It is, of course, within
:the mowledge of the local dealers that besides the ample stocks held by large
I SanghaI dealers and foreign piece-goods bongs, from which they can draw,
gme of Hankow branches of the latter have also sufflrient ready cargo tp
Ofe them over, and they therefore prefer a hand-to-mouth policy for the time

[2Nsi and acahinery Imports.
h e favored the import of metals and machinery, but some
E -.en countries restricted their exportation, as did America






m
20 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

toward the close of 1917. Shipping facilities were scarce and so a
natiiral result the imports of practically every metal and every clam
of machinery were reduced below those of any preceding year silne
1913. lBrass and yellow metals were imported to the extent of
271.467 pounds, as against 88,933 pounds in 1916, but nearly every
class of iron and steel as well as galvanized articles, with the excep-
tion of galvanized iron wire and iron-wire shorts, were imported in
smaller quantities. There were 874,400 pounds of galvanized iron
wire imported in 1917, against 430,800 pounds in 1916, and 8O0,667
pounds of iron-wire shorts, as against 492,267 pounds for 1916.
There was a considerable quantity of textile machinery imported
for the equipment of a new local plant. The demand was great but
the supply limited for railway and electric-lighting machinery, textile
machinery, pumping and small milling plants, flour mills, and other
machinery. A practice is growing up, though not to any consider-
able extent. of a few Chinese concerns copying foreign machinery.
This is it natural sequence of their inability to procure prompt de-
livery of machinery from foreign countries.
Kerosene-Oil Imports.
The following statement shows in detail the imports of kerosene
oil from all sources in 1916 and 1917:

Im ports from for- Imports from Reexports to Net total imports.
eign countries. Chinese ports. Chinese ports.
Kinds of oil.
1916 1917 1916 19 17 1916 1917 1916 1917 A,
Ameri-an: Gallons. Galinns. Gallnn. Gallons. Gallons. Gallons. Gallons. Gallons.
Incise......................... 2.0 3, 23 46.65b i 15,51) 1,115,003 5,316,40 ......... .........
In bulk .............. 10, 94, 90112,103,788 2, 13) 113,63 2,92,42,3 8,009,84 8, 005, '4,208,07r 4
Borneo-
In bulk .............. 2,242,8971 232,95. 143,0921 32,9S 63i9,60 7346 1,746,8 .........
Russian ................... .......... I 3I I
Sumatra: ........
In ese............... ......... .......... 1?,62 3q,000 8,000 50,000 13 .........
In bulk .............. ............ 4,0O4,013 6,419,741 1,136,410 1,611,463 2,947, O 4,808,M 81
Japan, in case............ ..........I 4 163 ......... 42,009 .........I ......... ........... ,
Toal............... 13, 1. 8Y2 14, 20, 7244,418, 513 7,003,864 5,841 ,391 15,780,674 12,f31, 9, 008, 515

Despite the world war and its attendant hindrances, the gross im-
ports of kerosene oil into Hankow increased by 3,817.273 American
gallons in 1917. This result was brought about by increased imports
of the American and Sumatra products, while the Borneo product suf-
fered a loss. Japanese kerosene oil figures in the list for the first
time. This oil is of inferior quality, and the demand for it depends
upon the low price.
Heavv tranwshipments to depots which are accustomed to receive
their oil supplies from Hankow were made in 1917, thus reducing
the net imports into this port. It is probable that some of the more
important depots in the interior from Hankow were particularly
well stocked at the end of the year as a result of these transshipments.,
In so far as cas,2 oil and oil in tins were concerned, prices averaged
about the same as in 1916. The price of oil in bulk, however, aver-'
aged appreciably less.
A featihre of the 1917 business was the urgent demand, especially-
in the latter part of lie year, from certain other trades for the used
kerosene tins. Prices were forced to unprecedented levels and had'





'CHINA-HANKOW. 21

as one effect the widening of the difference between the price of oil
in new tins and that of oil in bulk form, the demand being driven to.
the latter grade. .
Although a number of former consumers of kerosene oil were
driven back to using native vegetable oil by the sharp advance in the
Price of the foreign commodity in 1916, it is probable that competi-
l ion from native oils was not so keen in 1917 as in 1916. However,
E electric lighting is becoming more general, a development which in
time can not but have its effect on the kerosene-oil trade.
E: dew of Lumber Trade-Vehicles, Provisions, aMd Clothing.
No branch of the import trade has suffered greater depreciation
than has the import of lumber. In 1916 there were 130,327,608
square feet of softwood, 206,978 cubic feet of hardwood, and 202,202
crossties imported; while in 1917 there were no crossties, 10,008,753
square feet of softwood, and 188,309 cubic feet of hardwood im-
ported. Of this quantity very little was received from the United
States The shortage of the import of foreign timbers is due to the
high prices, the excessive freight rates, and the adoption by the trade
of the cheaper Chinese woods. Necessity has in this case developed
a home industry which may result in the removal of much of the
timber from the already sparsely forested China. The softwoods
are being imported from Foochow into this section and are of
Chinese origin.
There has been a marked increase in the import of automobiles,
carriages, cars, wagons, and parts of each. Automobiles and parts
were imported to the value of $44,580, an increase of 26 per cent over
the preceding year. When it is taken into consideration that the
total mileage of roads suitable for the use of automobiles does not
exceed 20, it is very surprising to note this increase. At the close of
the year there were registered and in-operation 84 automobiles, 163
carriages, and 2,550 jinrikishas. There were 67 of the automobiles
made m the United States, 8 in France, 6 in the United Kingdom,
and 2 in Germany.
An increase of $29,815 took place in the imports of provisions in
1917, the total amounting to $221,773. Only 174,000 pounds of for-
eign flours were imported, which is 11,733 pounds less than in the
preceding year. There is no reason why flour should be imported
into this wheat-producing section except that the local mills are not
equipped for turning out an excellent brand of flour. There appears
even less reason for the increase in imports of condensed milk, from
20.702 dozen tins in 1916 to 22.005 in 1917.
The United States exports to Hankow the ready-made clothing of
stape character, surh as boots and shoes, hats and caps. garters,
sos, and braces, all of which were imported in larger quantities
during 1917. The market for this line of goods is limited, but it is
of sufficient importance for the careful consideration of American
exporters.
report Trade of Hankow.
The high exchange that encourages imports has the reverse effect
upon exports. When local currency has an enhanced international
i vne, exports must suffer unless there is some compensating condi-
i tion to justify an increased value in the world market to sustain the
normal China market. There have been many difficulties to export


w


w











22 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


traLle. as the scarcity of silver at treaty ports was accentuated by a
shortage of copper in the interior. Copper is really the only medi-
umn of exclhaine for all (lh interior of China. The shortage of silver
in the towns is ,iFerious. but it is of very minor importance compared
with the copper shortage which affects every one in the producing
section. 'The coilm penIsat ing coalition was the scarcity of practically
every article produced, brought about by an unusual demand and by
the reduction of supplies dlne to the world war.
Exports from iHankow illcrCised from a value of $101,680,431 in
1916 to $12.2(51,.3110 ill 1917. IITnnkow primarily is a place of export,
ia it is nearer (n the source of the raw products than is any other
trade center. The following i.ble indicates the diversity of articles
procurable anId gives the quantity and value of the principal exports
(inrllu(linl" reexports) from IIankow to foreign countries and Chinese
ports in 1916 and 1917:


Ar.i Iks.


A lliimen:
Dried............................. pounds
I il id ................................. do...
Anlimony, crude and regulus.............do....
an. ake............. ................. .do....
Hl ans .................. ...................do....
Sones ................................. o....
B ran ................. ..................... 'o...
11ri'tles....................... ......... do....
i'e3sini:l(s................................do..
Shi'lkoeii, frdzen........................ number..
4 igareltes............................pounds..
Coke................. .. .................... .tons..
Col ton, raw.............................ounds..
Eggs:
Fresh.............................numbcr..
Frozen.............................pound .
Egg volk:
Dry .................................... do....
LiqLil ........ .................... do....
rli Ir ................................ ..... do ...
S.n1!lnunl ................. ............... do....
1 ri r, human.............................. do....
llemp ................................... do....
iliips:
As .................................do....
UI ullalo...............................do...
',w ....................................do....
Inte! ne, ir, i, ried ..................... do...
InJri an1' nmild steel: a
J ;,ilt .................. ........... onp' tons..
(Iler ................................ do....
Sr- in ore .................................... o....
Ir'n. pi a .............................. do...
I I!v l luer, driedd ......................pounds..
Pe' n ..................................do....
Nut .and wnnd.......................do....
I t:hreseed .............................. do....
Fe-'ami. ............................... do ....
Te'm...................................do....
In shell ..............................do....
iKernll .............................do...
)ii, k ilv er .............. ............. tn....
Ifini. .................... ............... do....

r. e .................................. do....
Sr mr e ............... .... .......... .. ....
Serdrake. uoli.in, raiec, and se-amc............
Sulk:
Comorins. refuse, and waste............do....
Hlonin Tinee. .......................do....
IRnw. Pllow ......................... do....
Bilk products, n. e. s .....................do..


Quan: iy.


2,245,007
807, 600
25,849,600
300,067, 817
211,131i, 216
9,361,067
21,054.133
2,716,267
914,400
752,2.1
3, 83,200
1, 187
105,885,200
30,721.2.50
18,954,400
3.780, 533
4,887,467
20,271,200
5,400,133
109, 2o0
1,287,200
111,4 .7
3, 000, 0,
26,635.200
105,4167

11,176
287, .03
103,713
1,089,600
20,1.2,.133
94,832, 800
2, 238, 133
3,071, 867
1,372, 800
3:11. n7
39, 30,4100
35.. 5.11
23,025,:l)O
4. 1". 100
1?4, 1.54. I'33
18,550,400
3, 0R6 M800
481,733
734,400
58. 134


Value. Quality. Value


5.13,731
14. 745
4.62.8n02
2,790,145
2, 298, 3W1.9
75,030
147,815
1,212.5.57
19,313
69. F28
1, 1252,359
10,304
13,214,375
14?. 500
1,074,C69
851, 194
340,056
534; 210
710,443
1ii,519
71,094
27,702
395,466
7,284,7S6
32,214
33..7Q4
4j5,4(i2
780,142
2,320,2594
92,390
976,483
6, 547, FRO
104.453
115, 032
63,961
5,010
1.115.004
S1,83, 77"

59.i00
3,2 9,309
119,469
536,114
70S,054
1, 27,275
119,824


a Manufactured by the lupeh Iron & Steel Works.


3,029,467
2,224,533
53,638.333
183,352,533
245, 750,733
7.561,867
17, 78, 6ti7
2,648,400
802,000
1,032.912
3,848,933
654
100,487,600
32,148, 50
1,820,933
8,138,533
4,710,000
'28. OP, 257
5,603,067
328,267
2,167,600
114.533
4,230,21,7
67, 073,867
139,733
19,777
18,207
322,381
111,904
524,000
3,480, 00
81, 255,,067
66. 000
2,093,200
712,133
533,067
14.52, 800
440,000
26,728,667
409,133
43,090,400
24,151,067
2,561,200
322.988
806,000
,.135w


31,972,460
576,094
4,161,093
2,033,83189
3,233,779
71,403
163,808
1,572,774
20,983
159,000
1,529,900
6,449
20,032,885
155,762
133,799
2,110,396
40, 483
994,455
910,832
96,038
144,393
36,164
657,505
8,913,339
49,716
916,919
976,278
1,150, N8
3,152,f5
63,525
217,019
7,813,714
4,251



2 l, MO

1,65 711

2%,471
lilt'
"1,6 7 :




....iiiii. i
:LirP















Artici6s.


1 .:*
"::': E. "a "'


,., and gat...................... pounds..
ii: a ond shbeep.............. ...... number..
nmal.............................poiuds..
eii getable. .......................... do...
i::.!." n.....................................do.

:. ... ...............................do....
Le are..............................do....
rheat d..............................do....
Walnuts:
S Inshell...............................do....
Kernels................................do....
Wheat................ ....................do....
SWool, sheep's.....................----....do....
A ethor articles................................
Total.....................................


Quint ity.


Value.


1917


Qunn Ifty.


I -I L


3, LM, 132
160, 627
15,314,133
44,684,400
133,13, 467
677, 700
15,895, 000
6,801,067
189,867
2, 70 533
201,631,600
S1,948,933


1,7.11.1 09
214,215
1,311,65;;
8,3 15, '7
17,333, nl;8
51,715
643,606
1,042, 179
4,675
138,8W5
2,724, ';60
137,617
13,478.353

01, 680, 431


107. 365



I ;ri, 4r,7
15, 7J1,000
9, 460, .33
all 067
2, 8907,467
265,514,533
2, 33, 600
..............


Destination of Principal Exports.
The following table, compiled from the' daily customs reports,
shows the quantity of 12 articles of great importance exported from
Hankow in 1917, together with the countries and ports of destination
and a comparative statement of the total exports of the same articles
in 1916 and 1915:


SDestination. Co. Bifo Goatskins. Bristle3. o esm
dsee3. hides.
seeaf


- Uited Sates............. ...........
~igland ..............................
FImaNe...................................
Italy....................................
SJ .an.g...............................
Ha ngkog..............................
Other..................................
Total, 1917.......................
Total, 1916 .......................
Total, ............................




Destinaliou.




;United tals...................... ....
I, a d .............. ................
S am .................................
ITWY..................................
kpin .................................
..................-...........

,1917........................
Wotl, 1..................
STotal, ........................


Tons.
61,092
.351
389
1,974
491
1,051
319
87


11, .57
10, '.52
13, 708



Gall-


raI.

Tons.
1,216
531
101
...... ....
369


2,220
2,072
31221


To-s.
840
269
212

208
--67-


Pieces.
1,640,958
30,7%0
144,909
150
30,822
1,109,719
............


Tens.
215
661
97
12
74
74
..........


Tons.
19,(02
770
303
10
7,C01
8
30


I----1-- -- I I I


1,837
1,363
1, 30;




SBeans.




29,
15,370
..........
..........
244
74,503


95,397
87,237
71,393


2, 957,398
3, 016,1 3
1,803,028



hliina
grass.



Tons.
879
1,14R
194
2
5,366
1,180
140


8,889
6, 9r.7
fl.OD4


1,152
1,207
1,306


(ct (on.



Tons.
1,356
871

10, 678
S34,861
30
49,.503
46,624
17,147


28,332
33,476
26,109


Tons.
462
300
. .......
800
409
7,089
9,836


19,496
50,537
100,457


Tallow.


Vegela-
ble.


Tons.
1.,700
1,250
204
2,.283

1,830
99
t0,432
15, to
11,432


Animal


Tons.
547
374
30
32R
1,233
256
44

2,812
323
2,433


i*tar Cotton Leads Exports.
: w cotton now stands at the head of the list of exports in mone-
ift importance. The exports in 1917 were unusually large in both
li i tity and value, the latter increasing from $13,214,375 in 1916 to


Value.


$2,542,605
252,854
73,.941
2,90, 570
14,573,808
79,367
990,485
1,837,166
1,290
14 ;,548
4,366,587
276.9339
20,037,174
122,265,390










24 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

$20..03-2.885. This article is purchased principally by the Sfianghai
mills and by Japan. Small quantities were shipped to the United
States, England, and Italy.
Chinn crops were short of requirements, and as India and America..
had but moderate crops, cotton prices advanced steadily and reached-
a record level in America and India toward the end of the year,
and in China during the summer. In China there was a temporary
return to lower prices in the autumn, when the new crop was first
marketed; but, owing to political unrest in the interior, forwardings
of cotton decreased toward the end of the year, and, as there was a
constant demand from China mills and Japan, the market recovered
steadily.
Smaller Shipments of Tea.
Until 1917 black tea has been the most important single item of
export from Ilankow. It is exported as black and brick tea and is
now being prepared in a convenient tablet form. Very little green
tea originates in this district.
Exports of tea of all kinds, including tea dust, were 30,499,934
pounds less in 1917 than in the previous year. Credit is acknow-
ledged to three leading tea merchants for the following information
of this year's tea season. The first musters to arrive were those of.
Keemun teas which were shown on May 17, and the market opened
three days later at prices varying from 47 to 36 taels per picul
(133A pounds), the first chops being taken off the market very
rapidly. The quality was good, although the very dry spring af-
fected the leaf to a certain extent. The quality of the second
chops was poorer than that of the first, but they were sold for
45 to 40 taels per picul. The third chops, although of a quality
much inferior to that of the first and second, were sold at ad-
vanced prices varying from 35 to 30 tnels. The quality of Kee-
mun teas, generally, was much better than it has been for many
years. The total first crop of Keemun was about 20 per cent less
than in 1916 and was mostly bought for Russia, the prices averaging
10 per cent below last season. Of first crop, 101,183 half chests ar-
rived; the settlement was for 99.932 half chests, 1,251 half chests
were shipped to Shanghai. and none remained in stock. Of the sec-
ond crop, only 2,925 half chests were prepared; the quality was very
poor. and the whole lot was sent to Shanghai to be sold there.
Ningchow and Other Teas.
The quality of the first Ningchow crop was good. At the begin-
ing of the season a few chops were bought at rather high prices, but
Inter prices declined and crack and best chops sold at 74 to 55 taels
per picul and good for 54 to 40 taels, The quantity was not large,
being nalout "2 per cent less than in the preceding year, and was conm-
posed chiefly of medium and common grades. Of first crop, 56.670
half ch-ests arrived; the settlement was for 52.138 half chests, 4,532
half chests were shipped to Shanghai, none remaining in stock. Of
the second crop, 9.336 half chests arrived; settlement 3,549 half
chests, shipped to Shanghai 4.000 half chests, and 1,787 half chests -
remnained in stock.
The market for Canfa and Towyuan tens opened on July 2. This
delay was due to the tea men who, although warned that the demand



*j I








oINA-b-EAflOW. 26

for( Gongous this year was small, were influenced by the enormous
p. fits realized in the two previous years and, having bought raw
laf at high prices, endeavored to open the market at prices only 10
per cent lower than in 1915. Buyers, however, declined the offer, fix-
iij the price at about 20 per cent less, and the market opened at 31
I: 38 taels. The loss to the tea men was considerable. The quality
Sof these teas was quite good. The total first crop was 10 per cent
has than in 1916. Of second and third crops only 20,965 half chests
were prepared, and the quality was poor. With the exception of
S hang Show Gai teas, which were very poor, most of the Hankow
teas were of much better quality than those brought down the year
Before. The market opened at prices 5 to 3-taels cheaper than in
1 1916. The total quantity of first, second, and third chops was 46,000
half chests less than in the previous season. The first Ichang teas
arrived in July, and the market opened at 34 to 32 taels per picul.
The quality was better than that of last year. Altogether 16,419
half chests arrived, of :which 541 were shipped to Shanghai and the
Remainder settled locally.
Tea Season Unsatisfactory.
Generally speaking, the tea season was unsatisfactory for both
foreign buyers and native tea men, and the latter suffered heavy
losses. No teas could be sent to Great Britain during the year, owing
to the British Government's prohibition of the importation of other
than British-grown teas. Only a limited quantity was sent to
America in consequence of the high- exchange and the abnormally
high freights. The shortage of transportation in Russia, combined
with the depreciation of the ruble, prevented the shipment of China
teas to that country, and as the Chinese Government has now laid
an embargo on all exports to Russian and Siberian ports the trade
in that direction entirely ceases. Under present regulations no brick
tea can be shipped to Russia, and a large quantity manufactured last
year is being kept in godowns both here and at Kiukiang. The brick-
tea industry is solely for supplying the Russian trade, consequently
that country's inability to buy practically destroys the business.
The prospects for China teas for the ensuing year are not bright. It
is very doubtful whether any tea will be made in 1918; if so. the
crop will probably be a very small one. The British Government
will permit the.importation of China teas into Great Britain during
1918 to the extent of 3,000,000 pounds, but taking into consideration
the large stocks held it is felt that the relief afforded will be small.
Tear's Trade in Wood Oil.
There was a decline in exports of nut and wood oil as compared
with 1916, although the value was greater. The exports for 1916
were 94,882,800 pounds, against 81255,067 pounds in 1917, and the
values were $6,547,680 and $7,813,714, respectively.
The stock of wood oil on the market at the beginning of 1917 was
very small, and oil contracted for delivery in September and Oc-
:tober, 1916, was not delivered until late January, 1917. This was
i4': i to the fact that other articles, which come from the wood oil
districts, such as goat skins, cow hides, and sesame and rape seed
oils, were selling at relatively higher figures than wood oil and nat-
urally the natives were bringing to the market the products that








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


were realizing the highest prices. In early January wood oil- was
sold at 11 taels IIankow currency, for February-March delivery, but
when supplies began to arrive more freely in early March the price
declined and at the end of the month oil was bought as low as,10.20
tawls, which was the lowest. prices during the year. Heavy pur-
chases were made in March. The price gradually advanced, and
heavy purchases were made in June at 12.75 to 13 taels. In July,
August, and September, little business was done on account of there
being no stock. In June it was reported that the new crop of oil
due to begin to arrive in Hankow about the middle of Novemaler
would be about 20 per. cent below the crop of 1916 on account of
heavy rins and sand .storms while the trees were in bloom. There
was a slight decline in the price in early October and some oil
was bought for January-February, 1918, delivery at 12.90 tael s
The year closed with no spot stock on the market.
Hides and Skins Bring Record Prices.
Prime cow hides ranged in price from 70 to 58 taels per picul and
seconds from 60 to 48 taels. The former were record prices for
China hides. Italy and France bought most of these hides and paid
higher prices than the United States. Buffalo hides were in active
demand for Europe at about the same tael quotation as in the pre-
ceding year, though the exchange maintained the gold price above
former years.
Goatskins arrived in normal quantities, and the prices varied
greatly. One shipper stated that these skins sold at 200 to 260 taels
per picul at times, whereas in 1916 the average tael price was but
one-third this amount. The United States eventually procured the
largest part of these goatskins.
Exports of Frozen Products.
Chickens, ducks, and geese are found everywhere throughout
China, but few turkeys are raised. A large amount of poultry is
consumed by the Chinese people, and if the industry were properly
encouraged it would be capable of great expansion and the large
quantities that are being exported could be increased very easily, .
A British firm has the only cold-storage plant located in this con-
sular district and exports large quantities of frozen products to
Europe: it is also said to be one of the most successful undertakings
in Hankow.
The following table furnislhes a comparative statement of the.:
frozen products exported from Hankow during the years 1916 and
1917:
1916 1917
A rt icles.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.

..................................... ....pounds.. 2, 7S.533 S118,-402 7,973,333 IWSMI,
i( ickl -u ............................ umlr.. 752,214 9,ti2 1,032,912 I tS,:
I:. frozen ............................ pounds.. 18R,.1,400 1,07.1,6f9 1,820.33 13 ~51. 5
Iar d............................ .... ... do.... 1,111,333 10.0'8O 14,400 n6,1J
......................................... ni mlier.. 237 1,M 1 .............. ........
I'ok krs ............ ............ ........ do.... 12, 90 98,642 9, 17 911.3
l'ur rpr ju.1 t.-;u ........................... pound. .. .......... .......... 194,133 9,I9
(Ither liozen producLts............................. .. .......... 2,011 ............ 2.' "..
To l............... ............................ ..... ....... ........ 1W 1l: %










,i ggs ana egg proauets are very important articles or export. 'Ile
I ieat quantity of eggs produced and their cheapness has been the
Occasion of the establishment of many plants in this vicinity for desic-
iating eggs. Modern methods are used in some instances, though
: perhaps antiquated systems are more generally in use in the rural
1 ?"tricts. Eggs are collected from remote places in large split baskets
ientaining approximately 1,000 eggs. It is one of the wonderss to
fo::.reigners that these eggs can be carried for miles in these baskets
li':thout packing and be safely delivered at the factories. The Chi-
.,;nese egg is decidedly smaller than the foreign egg; when fresh. the
taste is excellent, and the food properties are said to be equnl to those
of the western product.
Limited Quantities of Beef Used by Chinese.
There are no statistics giving the number of cattle in any part of
this consular district, though it is well known that they are plentiful
S-in Honan, Hupeh, Kiangsi, and some of the western Provinces of
the district, Beef is used by the Chinese to a limited extent. Cattle
are raised to serve as a beast of burden and to provide hides for
export. No attempt was made to export beef either in a cured or
frozen state until 1916, when it was brought about by the activities
of the British Government, working through a local cold-storage
firm, to procure beef for the soldiers. Considerable quantities of beef
cattle were slaughtered and exported. The cattle to be found are
somewhat like the Persian and Indian hump cattle, though consider-
ably smaller. They are usually in a fair condition and produce good
meat when the animal has been well cared for.
Hogs are raised everywhere and furnish the chief animal food of
the Chinese people. The pork is considered by foreigners as doubt-
ful, as there is no inspection of the animal before it is slaughtered.
Every town and city in China has shops devoted entirely to the sale
of hams and bacons of certain districts which are fancied to be superior
to those from others. The curing has much to do with the quality,
as it does in the United States. There is no improved breed of hogs;
certain foreigners who were interested in the export, have attempted
to improve the breed but without considerable results. The export of
pork has not been a matter of much consequence; in 1917. however,
pork to the value of $103,521 was exported.
Wheat and Wheat Flour.
The cultivation of wheat has become more general throughout this
consular district. New flour mills have been established and the old
ones improved. The daily capacity of the Hupeh flour mills in op-
eration and under construction is 6,300 bags of 50 pounds each.
Some of these mills are equipped with foreign-made modern ma-
chinery, though some continue to use the old style machinery. There
.i, not a line of food products that has greater potentialities for in-
tease than the production of flour. The possibilities of increased
Siroduction are dependent only upon the establishment of additional

.i,; i.i heat was exported in 1917 from Hankow in the quantity of
=i*iq$5,942 bushels; this was a considerable increase over the 3,393,860
i5a!ishels exported in 1916 and a much greater increase over the 470,466
uiptshels exported in 1913. From this it will be seen that the amount




wd-


28 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


of wheat procurable beyond the capacity of the present mills is-con-
siderable, making the expansion of the milling industry an easy
matter. The soil is well adapted to the cultivation of wheat which
has become in recent years one of the principal crops in hupeh,
Hlonan, Kansu, and Shensi Provinces. With the application of fer-
tilizers and the adoption of modern methods of sowing, reaping, and
threshing tjiere is every reason to believe that the quantity pro-
duced could be increased manyfold. The mode of cultivating, har-
vesting, and thrashing is extremely primitive, and very few modern
implements of any kind are -used. It is doubtful whether any other
part of the world offers a greater opportunity for the education of
farmers for the expansion of the production of wheat than does this
consular district.

Declared Exports to United States.

The following table gives the quantity and value of declared ex-
ports from Hanl ow to the United States during the years ended De-
cember 31, 1916 and 1917:

1916 1917
ArticIe1.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.


Antimony:
Crude........................................ ton .. 385
ReZ ilus ...................................... do.. ... 700
Sulphate.........................do............
Bean: |
Broad...................................pond ..........
Sola ........................................do. .. .............
Bone animal ................................... ion;.. 50
Bris.le .....................................pundI.. 503,934
tCamphor, crude........................do............d
Caning pig................. ................... .do.... ............
Chin. gra.....................................do...........
Cotron, raw............................ ..... do.... 1,1i.3,222
Egg;:
Dry.......................................do.... 114,n-G
Frozen ..................................do.... 3,213.24S
Egg prodlel
Albumen.................................. n.... 99, 9 0
Yolk....................................... dodo. 2,490,340
Fil er. vee able ..................................'on 2..
Gqllnut ...................................... pond .. 1,914,33 ;9
Oal lnuiL e ,tract ...................................lo.... ...
i1lP ............................................do ................
Iair, hu man...................... ............ do.... ..............
Trm !' ...................... .... ............ .....do.... 19,3L'S
Hidecs:
i1urTalo... ............................. .... 1, 7,373
Cow ......................................... t,.... 10,792, 0. 3
Julte............................................ .. ... ............
Oil:
B3an ................... .................. aU-.ns.. 31S,4(;7
(l "t.-,in-i ............................ r'nds.. 622. 27
Pat ricrd. ............................... d.... 499,0 22
F ',a n-r.id .. ................. ...... ............... ............
SW a !.(an............................... all :In.. 979,214
Tr .... ...... .......................... .,. nds.. 21 7
W,,..l a-dl nut ............................ nalls.. 6,106.S70
Ore, l un -li n ................. ........ ....... I.. ns ...........
PIa,. u lidl .. ............................p. r -nds.. ...........
I ri ll ............... ....... ................. .. ... n i
Pirl. ..... ................................ 8,64
F r'l. a... t............................... ..... ... .. .. .......
*:i ................... ...do.... 65,535-
Ir r.............. .... ... ......... .. ............ .
r'al.........................................rpounds.. 1,342,015
naI .c a .................................... o 1r s 1, 4 66


$60,171
199,0161



986
386,173
............i

154,537
21, r02
223,831
310.494
680,499
5, f37
253,238
.............
............
2,183
2'0, 1 17
4,438,425

17,272
4q. i3
30,950
C-62. rf
17, 156
4,323.854
............
1,248
2-15


24,363
1,0M4,712


............. ...................... .. ............ ............|
' tgrt....................................... i ido s .. ............ ............
lit ...................... .... ..... ...... .I-ie 5e ..l............ ............


1,4-70
1,941
30)
28,000
1, 11R,230
............i
507,019
2.299
46,936
2,337,489
2,682,763
859,518
83,120
59. 600
4,408, 505
100
urn
2,891,662
3' CO1)
9,59.
10,065
46,712
2, (183,742
10,237,916
18,365
12,701
1,135, 451
37,899
7,278
290,698
5,3q5,.363
1,005
874,338
..... .......
27,733
61,353
957,200


2,499,8 4
27
12,184
I;


3247,653
7, O63
588, 830
51,906
1,231
57,243
....... .
540,396
1,290
19,793
175,420
72, 102
331,133
6,998
535,098
1,789,616
26,680
603,825
16,116
1,385
3,952
8,962
453,722
7, 150, 546
1,560
119,48
126 ,508
985
267,489
4,0601,5M
11,860
o0,580
............
10,101
4,074
74,369
............
23,470
1,640,565
737
O,08
1609








OmINA-HANKOW.


.1916 1917
:*" ..- Asticles. .-----
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.

li" IluDmr:
:.l Animal........................ ....pounds............ ........... 1,262,739 $202,848
Vegeable.....................................do.... 3,351,622 3252,716 10,551,833 1,404,856
Tea..............................................do.... 3,170,005 7 1, 570 1,648,293 418,072
TI .............................................do.... ........... ............ 20,426 12,966
Tui nr ad........ .............................. do .... ............ .......... 16,933 830
Wool ep'................................. do.... 72,218 17,742 179,037 52,991
A llo er r tole ....................................... ........... 7,773 ............ 3,2
t ....................................................... 13,908,183 ............ 23,369,88

Goods in transit to Canada, consisting of cottonseed oil and wood
and nut oil, amounted in 1916 to $211,350 and in.1917 to $402,193;
returned American goods, consisting of ammonia cylinders and dia-
monds, amounted to $4,350 in 1916 and $1,929 in 1917.
The 1917 exports to -the United States show a wonderful growth
since 1913, when they were valued at $5,151,798. There were in-
creases in direct shipments of antimony, bristles, and raw cotton;
egg products were in particular demand at very high prices; cow
hides were in active demand at satisfactory prices; as gallnuts be-
came better known the demand increased; both soya and brqad
beans found an American market for the first-time; vegetable and
animal tallows have apparently found favor, also China grass.
American importers find difficulty in making satisfactory arrange-
ments with local firms, as most of these have their American selling
agents, but the above returns indicate that buyers are coming
directly to the source of supplies to obtain raw products.
Importance of Iron and Steel Industry.
The Hanyang Iron and Steel Works controls the most important
single industry in China. It should be one of the finest investments
in China as it is located near abundant.coal and iron mines, and by
a process of amalgamation these mines and the steel plant have been
consolidated into the Han-Yeh-Ping Iron and Coal Co. (Ltd.). The
plant constructed during 1917 a modern unloading plant for ores,
but no other large improvements have been made. The year is said
to have been a successful and busy one, the output being as follows:
Martin iron, 118,932 tons; foundry iron, 31,655 tons; rail steel,
20,093 tons; mild steel, 40,839 tons; iron ore, 541,699 tons; white
limestone, 67,368 tons; blue limestone, 10,178 tons; dolomite, 14,620
tons; coal, 288,688 tons; and coke, 252,326 tons.
Pig iron rose in price 50 per cent in October and maintained this
price to the end of the year; for structural steel there was a rise of
100 per cent for plates in September and 80 per cent for shapos,
which was maintained.
Yangtze Engineering Works-Other Industries.
The Yangtze Engineering Works (Ltd.) is a Chinese engineering
plant with an excellent reputation for undertaking and doing things
of importance, It has built gunboats for the Chinese Government,
bridges for railways, and a great number of other things that rount
industrially. The director makes the following statement regarding
i 1917 operations:
SThe works did In 1917 a good amount of work of all classes, particularly
railway work, such as steel bridges, wagons, passenger cars, points and cross.


291








80 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Wings: nilar steel hililingps. Itnks. lighter. pontoons, etc. A fair amount ofistsl
structural work f(r lilnst furnaces and remitrs to machinery, boilers, and
vessels of large nud sinall sizcs was also executed, Besides executing outside
orders-, tlhe iluint at the same time carried out Its own extension work to a vast
exteh,
This plant could le adapted to the construction of concrete ships,
thus providing another means of meeting the existing short tonnage.
Labor is cheap; material and land are available; suitable facilities
for launching could easily be provided; an up-to-date plant, capable
of modification with the least delay, is running under good man-
agement, and the vessels could reach the ocean during eight months
of the year.
The Chinese Government paper mill in its third year produced
82,000 reams of paper, a reduction of 8,000 reams as compared with
1910. The year was not a successful one, owing partly to the high
cost of materials. The mill is equipped with modern American ma-
chinery.
The Wuchang Cotton Mill had a very prosperous year. The new
mill nearing completion will more than double the capacity of the
production of cotton yarns and cloth. Oil mills had a successful
year, as did most of the other smaller plants.
There are in this vicinity a powder factory, an arsenal, a mint, a
match factory, three aerated-water factories, four antimony smelters,
two brick and tile works, one candle factory, one cement works, one
cigarette company, one distillery, egg factories, flour mills, hydraulic
pressing companies, ice works, oil mills, a silk filature, six brick-tea
factories, and a number of small industries using primitive methods.
Imports and Exports of Treasure and Coin-Revenue.
Statistics show that treasure was imported into Hankow only from
Chinese ports in 1917, and but $29,376 worth of silver was exported
to foreign countries. The imports and exports of silver were about
half as large as in 1916; gold was imported and exported in small
quantities, whereas none was moved in 1916; a slightly increased
import of copper is noted.
The following table gives the imports and exports of gold, silver,
and copper for 1916 and 1917:

Items. Gold. Silver. Copper. Total.

Imports from Chinese sources:
1916................................................ ....... 13,989,421 51,1230,254 815, 10677
1917 ............................................... 21,307 6,770,305 1,330,085 8,1 1,787
Exports to rniriLin countries in 1917 ........... ..... .... .. 29,370 ............ 28,8
Expnris o aU (h ina:
1916.... .................................... ...... ....... 8, 503,476 92,871 8,596,347
1917.................................................. 47,02U 5,779,523 52,479 5,879,12

During 1917 the imports of coins into Hankow were valued at
$5,516.4S9, against $8.200.702 in the preceding year. while the exports
of coins amounted to $4.544.716. against $6,704,305 in 1916.
The revenue collected by the Maritime Customs at Hankow in 191T7
amounted to $3,S4-.442, an increase of $520,117. The import duty:,:.:ii
in 1917 amounted to $1,133,348; export duty, $2,356,038; coast-t.~id
duty. $210,407; tonnage dues, $42,974; and transit dues, $93,675. T"i` r
total revenue collected at Kiukiang was $626,896; at Shasi, $47?,#'
and at Ichang, $80,088.



















ers are a long way aneac in me matter or Lonnage. Japanese
age is next, and Chinese tonnage holds third place. The number
hinese sailing ships entered and cleared was 16,586, representing
t 8,80 tons; an increase of 1,976 vessels and 110,816 tons. In con-
qence of the continuance of the European war the restrictions on
Mban tonnage were more severe, and, with the exception of one or
o.. steamers which cleared direct for Vladivostok during the first
i lf of the year, very few ocean steamers came to Hankow. Inter-
4ibrt carrying trade was good, and freight rates steadily increased.
American tonnage showed an increase, owing to .the expansion
,iW"American interests and the.arrival of-a few vessels directly from
:the United States under the American flag.
I.assenger Trafto--Foreign Population and Foreign Firms.
There were 184.347 passengers reported to have arrived in Hankow
'during 1917, of whom 150,512 were Chinese from down-river ports;
164,186 are reported to have departed from Hankow, of whom 136,098
were Chinese going to down-river ports. These figures can not be
regardedd as accurate, as no correct census of Chinese passengers ar-
riiiving and departing can be obtained under the present system by
i'.which the Chinese passenger traffic is farmed out to the "compra-
diiilores" of the various steamers. They are, however, the only figures
availablee, and serve, approximately, to indicate the general move-
:ment.
I::' The customs census of foreign firms and foreign residents in the
*uhan cities at the end of 1917 is given in the following table:
S1916 1917
I Nationality.
Firms. Persons. Firms. Persons.

L i ...................................................... 1 197 15 242
P E .--.................. ........................... 5 13 4 10
.............................. .................. 4 770 5S 891
..k .... 4 21 5 31
..................... .. 7 ......... 7
................................... ...... 100 9 104
................... ...................... 32 245 27 190
0...:.... :. 6 g 8
.................................................... 04 2,046 (a) (a)
..................................................... .... ..... 70 .......... 70
................................ 10 184 10 150
..................................... .......................... 27 .......... 29
..... .............................................. .......... 75
Tot ...................................... 3,849 200 3,977
',a Fgures not available.
of Amerioan Interests in Hankow.
nout encouraging sign of the permanency of America's foreign
Stae increasing desire of the American manufacturers and ex-




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 08485 147
32 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMSBC REPORT :..I.

porters to come in touch with the foreign buyer..-' his isl
many ways even in this part of China. There an a-rase ter..
of executives visiting this port on behalf of their' r:m ti orq:
first-hand information may be the basis of futu 4activ
standard of the commercial representatives is U
American branch houses are being established in i. im
and there is a stronger tendency to employ A~iim .,s .
sponsiblo positions, and a much higher standard is g..
of these employees. Young men are being educated fo
service, and this employment is becoming more popular
tracing a much better class of men. In 1913 there -ere 7
firms located in Hankow, and at the end of 1917 thi.. were
There are many opportunities for expansion of America. l
in China. No other section of the world offers greater
equally contiguous to the United States as to European
nations. To take advantage of these opportunities Americai.
build up an efficient commercial organization similar to thos~ie
successful foreign merchants now esta.blished.. "'di.
The machinery for exploitation can best be perfected (on.t h
of economy) in its initial stage by combination of nonco
interests. British interest originally developed under one sto :
company, although there are now many of great importai -,i the
Japanese did their pioneer work in a similar way, and, wMthistt
principal company continues in the lead, competitive Japaneas f iirm
have been organized. America needs a strong company capable i
combining the various possible interests without creating ai :r~aimE
nent monopoly.

4 r*


UNV. OF FL LII ..'*' .,: ,




U.S. DEPOSTORY
r$;$!
":::It.i'
*,, "'p
I... !r
r ,, 4,
*"C ,.......
::, IN~
W, ,,
9.... .. :! ;ii


WASHINGTON : COVLERN IMUT PRINTING