Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00016
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00016

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text











e No. 51b December 17, 1918

CEYLON.m *

.igor A.-la. le.r. Colaombo, September 10.
.7 c ,,general be designated as a prosperous one for
g the fact that the effects of the war were
ev hfore in a noticeable rise of prices, depression in
Itconsiderable financial stringency, shortage of ocean
ies with exchange, and an increase in unemployment
Population. On the whole, the colony met with
l itself to the changing conditions.
favorably with the record year of 1916, showing
y 4 per cent, and compared with any other year, a
a se.a This condition of prosperity was largely due
eae in the exports of raw rubber and to the con-
dhlpmets A of tea and graphite. Ceylon is fortunate in
e articles, the majority of which are war necessities.

.table shows the annual value of Ceylon's imports
;ex ding specie and coal for steamers) for the 10


T Imports EXports. Total. Trade bal-

... .. ........... 717. o $ s625 558, 885 ,2 365
l .... ..............39 47, 140 88,3 579 6,8s 701
F..48,1U475 .64,098,9835 102,737,410 5 280,460
a i;.. : ... ...........
,........ ...... ........ 5 8,58 3 0, 289 7,37.287
-:.,4..: ... .... ... 6,547, 121,8, 217 7, 666, 8
., .. ........... 60, U 71,5 31 13597.043 15,220.419
a, ................ ., 5 70, 844514 12,750,067 14, 38, 961
i .. .... .:... ....... i O0 88691, 283 141,781,823 35,602743
.. .......a........... 68,6 M 9 8, s52035 165,138,730 27,902,940
i..... 7................. 5, 7 9 o ,i679,791 158 750 38, 9 832

show the remarkable growth of Ceylon's
.k,:it decade---an increase of 50 per cent in value
oe of 185 per cent in exports.
a e gire an mportat laMtor..
fl tcs, which untiA'1916 had been well ahead in
Ceyn^ Afell in 1917 to third place as compared with
o ad foreign countries, respective. The British
Sthei largest share of the total trade being 36 per
mled ith 32 per cnt, each, for the United Kingdom and





g ii;;lp;;d ^..:... ... .
..... i +i.i. i .. .., .
+i! 3p. i~i... .. .. ... +/










foreign countries. This diversion of trade was due Iter tob
greater difficulties in ocean traffic with the United Kigd a
-compared with other parts of the world. Japan easily led the
fortegn countries in supplying goods to Ceylon, the value for the
'yye .l1917 being $3,257 615.
The considerable failing off in the value of imports in 1917, as
compared with 1916, was dye chiefly to difficulty in getting orders
executed and shortage of ocean freight. There was a larger dee ase
than the above figures indicate, due to enhanced prices. The un-
usually large shipments of raw rubber more than account for the
increase in exports. The fact that in 1917 foreign countries took
for the first time more exports than the United Kingdom, was
due chiefly to the large quantity of raw rubber purchased by the
United States.
The United States bad 22 per cent of Ceylon's trade in 1017, as
compared with 18 per cent in 1916, 13 per cent in 1915, and only
8.5 per cent in 1914.
Distribution of Trade.
The following table, compiled from the Ceylon Blue Book, shows
the distribution of the trade of Ceylon (including specie) with the
principal countries of the world in 1016 and 1917:

Imports Irom. qpOrts to.
Countries. -
1916 1917 wMe M17

British Empire:
United Kingdom.................................... 5,310, 683 810,585.0085 W.S,1 W.11B
Australasia,..................................... 73S,987 492,847 5, 28,i6 5, O.144
British Africa.................................. 44, 841 819, 52 1,W, 7 I72M5
British America....................,.............. 8,88 1,434 97,95 3,1t,
British Indl ...................................... 2,673,671 21,734,688 3,40,M T,7
Burma........................................... 10,062,978 12,158,598 5S. i.L
Hongkong................................... 587,975 280,803 314~0 S
Maldive lslands.......,...................., 769,907 730.666 6O 0 u1,68
Straits Settlements.................................. 5,512,012 4,195, 313 307,642 420,0
Other British posseesions............................ 16,266 42,592 9,750 505,448
Afrca (not British)................................................ 18,84 13,043
Austria-Hungary...................................... 9,326 533 .......................
Belgium ............................................... 39,932 3,364 ......... .........
Borneo............................................... 880,824 1,002,511 28,0 853,4
China.................................................. 384,788 60,267 1,619~72i W,M
Cochin-China ......................................... 21,574 100 ........
Denmark.............................................. 20,822 ,8 35 W1 i 3TiOi
France............................................... 353, 5 214, 06 4,69;C0 2,4
Germany................. ..... ......... .............. 18,775 13 .......
ndia (not British)..................................... 25,676 165,382 ...7 7Ca.
Italy............................. .... ............... 156,995 781 735S 1 ,4
Japan........................................ 2,963, 68 3, ,615
laaS..................................................... .,051,11 778,888
Malta.............................................. .... ...... ....... ... ....1 .
Moam que........................................... 176,048 13,86 We M'ms
Netherland........................................ 633,618 8 ,281 .......... 4m,
Norway........................... ........... .............. a3,481 il ,11.,45 ,0a
Perna........... ................................... 3, 426 U8,MY 3; 4
Philippnes ...................-................. ...... .... 6,25 4,8219 l, ,
Russia:
In Asia............................................. 35,084 1 09 1, 810 1,411,394
In Europe..................................... 184051 55,30 3 1,1t5,8m
Slam............................................... W S 6 11,200 1,10 1
Spain................................................... 29931 1200 1 18,89
Sumat. ................................................. I94.21 1I24,1 S 15,260
Swede.................................... ........... 9W,f 106,140 2.810 .........
8witzerland............................................ 264.64 06,989 7,126 1,8
South America.......................................... 3.9 1, 778 82,32 a82,4
United States of America.......................... ,500.606 1,810,341 27,11,314 33,12,Sl4
Al othwr olttries .................................... 13.7M 10,6e8 84S6 sIa
Te.lt........................................... ,384, 35 G6,07,I617 96,83,I 40,f3,lff


















1.
a Artotles.
Quantity.


I h lvH ..................................number.. 105,254
knd drin:
ir.............................hundredweight.. 1,235
ia ra t ae............................... allons.. 170,803
S......................... .....pounds.. 1,387,191
.. ............................ .....do.... 460.222
*. oi. e ........................................do.... 1,598,565
l anfctionery............................. ...do.... 1,013,038
CUr stu ......................hundredweight.. 209,547
E h---
Cred.............. .....................do.... 257,344
.nned. ................................pounds.. 343,905
Othier...........................hundredweight.. 81,857
fruit-
Presh...................................do....do 6,370
Preserved................ ,.............do... 11,819
hee.......................... ............do.... 3,032
Grain aMd Bour-
Bea ..................................... do....d 30,897
bra..................................do.... 71,088
Gram...................................do.... 100,742
Oats......................................do.. 15,261
Paddy....................................do.... 748,725
Peas......................................do... 194.630
Ripo............. ......................do.... 8,073,964
Wbest flour ................ ..........do.... 192,099
am.................... ..................do.... 1,629
M t, frozen................... ... ..............do.... 4,755
mlik, preserved........................... .......... ............
Onions.............................hundredweight.. 317,086
Potatoes...................................... d....do 107,543
needs, ses ...............................do.... 23,102
.pirits-
Brandy................................. gallons.. 82,882
in....................................... do.... 130,617
Whisky...................................do .... 157,876
r .............................hundredweight.. 548,934
e, champ ........ ..........gallons.. 2,744
.: "iaiietued =es:
Acidds..........................................do.... T6, 53
Automobiles.............................number.. 551
Books......................................... do.... 676,354
Bricks and tiles.........:......................do.... 4,526, 808
Candles............................ hundredweiht.. 15,415
bCasks andshooks..........................num er.. 16,470
Cement......................... hundredweight.. 315,598
bImists' sundries ......... ...............do.... 10,033
ih. C nawre...................................do .... 17,071
rol d parts.................................................; .....
S0 ware ................................pieces.. 1,276,441
]leetricl goods......................hundredweight.. 3,848
S.mbroldery ..................................yards.. 2,353,110
Mploives ........................................... ...........
Fa articles ................................ase.. 10,92
P e ........... ....................... pieces.. 6,508
.... .. ...........................hundredweight.. 22,181
Gunny baep.................................do.... 23,
Baberdaahery....................... ......................
i and bonnet.............................case.. 764
SJewr .y......................................................
Ilom 4 .....................................number.. 203,127
S bod........................................ ............
M: achiny...................hundredweight.. 61,922
at ... ............. ............. groms boxes.. s08,720
mtMallliEtr.ments................................ .............
I, t 00'eolor e ......................hundredweight.. 19,342
S r........................................raams.. 176,79
M, ,..: jwI .......... ........... 0 ................ pIons., 4,n
S e ma ....................h dredweght.. 479,597
-.ii.................................... pae .. 140,951
_i .P ............ .... hundredweht.. 7,746
_.s.u.r.y.................................. .CM. 0Mo
TfdMchasf ............................... number.. 3,084,143
Umbrella...................................dosen.. 27,934
Watahes...................................numbr.. 13, 8


116 1917


Vah e.


1356,822
44.297
136.961
24, 268
140,768
310,201
177,584
765,521
081,960
59,848
772,400
25,056
103,249
39,561
76,351
93,140
170,209
37.952
813,571
447,206
19,841,695
5066,011
59,126
85,797
176,428
308,621
177,115
74,163
156,870
132,948
306.848
2,524,627
20,608

175,091
604,760
184,248
108,436
141.069
155.732
.11,223
94. 620
178,156
175,673
S46,091
91,745
171,047
204,402
156,794
26,363
220,209
164,552
879,995
86,877
133,246
71,357
72.302
975, 31
131,263
58,349
186,829
361,000
93,735
e22, 39
221,329
317.807
141,041
1, 380, 71
175,336
4.365


Quantity. Value.


139,244. 1251,971
655 26,577
89,267 92,540
171,179 27,756
322,527 94,059
1,818,733 311,752
353.565 59,121
212,091 716,322
231, 60 601,782
186,279 26,0 i7
77,543 735, 293
1,759 11.809
9.185 70,499
2,715 35,317
10,997 29,995
54,883 80,701
170,459 279, 53t
18,005 43,7R2
782,062 M .."32
106.283 242, 622
7, 754, 121 19, 2S9, '93
1R2,572 533,813
545 23.300
3,037 57,600
............ 206,234
292,095 284,297
98,171 159, 25
20,737 63.424
38,q71 66,645
76,773 60,846
125.884 238,143
405,338 2, 405,794
1,905 17,531
33.413 127 801
88 92'171
515,747 242. 80
4,865,235 111.220
12,911 152,473
8,467 93,703
244,336 304,540
5,826 286,792
9,590 119,213
............ 133,1412
1,856,827 62.334
1,353 49,810
1,075,280 63,004
............ 155,533
9,576 123,223
5.101 15,966
12,425 142,889
14,537 12, 924
............ 835, 83
647 75.209
............ 127,522
79,948 38,089
............ 75,137
37,048 725,127
327,880 198,865
............ 29.885
11.411 149,214
119,805 pua,
4,360 75,638
444,886 877.340
91,700 161,405
10.961 164,405
2,239 129.400
2,600.784 1,746,1b2
15,791 151,.45
12, Mr 8,7733









4 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


1910 1917
Art!eles. ",
Quantity. Value. Quatlt i V ual,.

Mrleals:
[arlbed wir.......................hundredweight.. 10,873 60,194 1,oM 6 81
lrass ware.....................................do.... 2,829 127,941 1,15088 s
Ilardware....................................do.... 51,441 721,999 268,62 497,
Iron-
Galvanized..............................do.... 53,257 417,907 20,254 206,381
Hoop........................ ............. do.... 51,970 269,368 21,050 16, 819
Lead-
Pig .....................................do.... 105,297 792,237 120,888 06,2
Ta .......................... ............... do.... 13,229 135,916 5,391 6,794
Nails and rivets.......... ............... do.... 33,301 191,605 11,M 181,584
Bteel, cast............ ......................do.... 55,731 194,363 9,654 57,257
Steel ware...................... ................. ... 488 12,412 87 16.579
Tin slabs...................................do.... 710 31,019 1,483 77,445
Other............................................. ............ 499,121 ............. 46,709
Tobacco and manufactures:
Cigarettes.................................. ounds.. 256,779 340,382 288,8192 3,991
Clgars.........................................do.... 31,226 31,360 32,76 37,800
Tobacco-
Manufactured.............................do.... 23.423 19,819 15,069 (0,875
Not manufactured......................... do.... 2,973 880 3,134 1,944
Raw materials and miscellaneous:
Coal........................................tons.. 575,677 4,859,721 311,6 0 3,303,707
Cotton-
Raw.......................... hundredweight.. 7,477 92,405 6,856 126,376
Waste................................. do... 1,682 11,190 1,744 21.877
Hides........................................do.... 245 2,019 109 3,478
Fertilizers............... ................ do.... 2,025,063 3,626,803 928,070 1,606,304
Oil-
Castor...................................do.... 5,389 37,513 4,291 32,316
Gasoline.............................gallons.. 776.092 232.293 884,098 483,825
Kerosene..............................do... 4,960,786 1,100,730 4,201.472 996,495
Liquid fuel...............................do.... 4,965,184 206,554 6654,306 388,598
Lubricating ........................... do.... 262,743 116,898 314,398 16,686
Precious stones.. .................................. .......... 113,254 ........... 118,508
Rubber.....................................pounds.. 4,409,182 2,682,695 3,501,117 2,006,206
Seeds-
Cotton................ .........hundredwoight.. 63,446 60,484 27,833 47,550
Tea....................................do.... 1,384 42,172 858 10,664
Timber...................................... ...tons.. 7,540 340,735 6,356 298,667
All other.................................... ........... 308,928 .......... 217, 67
Textiles:
Appore......................................................... 597,299 ............ 415,038
Lae and net.............................yards.. 2,236,653 .107,797 1,209,55 64,106
Piece goods--
Dyed ......................................do.... 19,557,021 1,623,111 14,91a,30 1,867.912
Bleached ..................................do.... 10,142,209 732,723 12,186,787 1,8,207
Gray......................................do.... 2,834,123 202,050 ,28,84 275,732
Printed...................................do .... 7,764,065 720,404 6,237,7 5 5 7,578
Muslin...................................do.... 133,427 10,589 80,31 ,606
Other.................................................... 405,298 ............ 0,002
Silk and satin............................. yards.. ............ 273,843 ............ 171,410
Thread....................................... ases.. 1,442 239,126 447 40,198
Woolens ....................................................... 159.309 ......... 142,811
Yorn and twist, dyed....................pounds.. 105,390 36,636 153,748 s,700
Mixed mterials.................................. ............ 349,990 ............ 0,297
All other articles...................... ...... ............ 6,096,728 ............ ,1,408
Total......................... ...................... 68,626,891 ......... 7,262
Specie...... ..................... ............... ............ 2,767,464 ............ B31, 647
Grand total........................................ ........ ,394,3............ 0,067,e09

Cotton, Silk, and Woolen Goods-Decreased Automobile Imports.
Imports of cotton goods rose in value from $4,204,130 in 1916 to
$4,880,623 in 1917. The largest increases were in bleached, gray, and
dyed piece goods. The United Kingdom furnished 62 per cent of the
total value in 1917, as compared with 29 per cent and 9 per cent for
British possessions and foreign countries, respectively. The prices of
cotton goods generally increased to such an extent that, while the
value imported in 1917 increased nearly by one-sixth, the actual
quantity imported was less. Thread showed a considerable decrease,
falling from $239,126 in 1916 to $49,195 in 1917. The value of silk
goods imported fell from $273,843 in 1916 to $171,410 in 1917.







S,. CEYLON. 5

S Woolens showed a decrease in value notwithstanding the enhanced
pries these goods brought throughout the year. Tlhe value of im-
pute in 1917 was $142,811, compared with $159,369 in 1916, which.
was much below the figure for a normal year.
4;'here were 126 motor cars-trucks and automobiles-imported in
1917, compared with 590 in 1916. The 100 per cent import duty
imposed in February, 1917, practically ended the trade in automo-
h ,le which was largely in the hands of American manufacturers,
as-will be seen from the figures of 1916, when the United States sup-
plied 526 cars out of the 590 imported into the colony. Motor trucks
i~"au notor cycles are still subject only to the normal import duty,
whih is now 71 per cent, having been increased from 51 per cent
ha June 9, 1917.
Imports of Metal-K-eroaeae and Gasoline.
The value of imports of metals and metal ware showed a decrease
in 1917, being $2,675,186, as compared with $3,460,142 in 1916. The
United Kingdom furnished close to 40 per cent of the value, Burma
$4 per cent (chiefly supplies of pig lead), the United States slightly
over 13 per cent, Japan approximately 4 per cent, and the Straits
Settlements 3j per cent. Pig lead, which had the largest value,
showed an increase from $792,237 in 1916 to $946,723 in 1917. Gal-
vanized metals decreased by over one-half, and imports of gal-
vanized barbed wire amounted to only 1,638 hundredweight, against
10,873 hundredweight in 1916. Hardware showed a decrease of
nearly 50 per cent in value.
The quantity of kerosene oil imported in 1917 was less than that
of any previous year since the beginning of the war. More case oil,
however, was imported from the United States than in 1916, and local
dealers mn the American product report a record year in value of
their sales throughout the colony.
The customs returns for the importation of gasoline in 1917 showed
an increase in quantity of nearly 14 per cent and an increase in value
from $282,293 m 1916 to $483,825' m 1917. Very little gasoline is
impored from the United States, the chief sources of supply being
Borneo.and Sumatra.
The imports of kerosene and gasoline by countries for the years
1916 and 1917 are shown in the following table:
051 and countries of origin. 1915 1917 Oils and countries of origin. 1916 1917

BIBguBe: GOff8m. oGamf. Gallon. Gallons.
Bann os .................. ,3S, 2,821,161
Borneo (excluding Kerone-Continued.
British).............1,837,998 1,447,656 Case oil-Continued.
.ir. Pe .................. 1,1 87 546,222 United States......... 1,141.488 I,463.325
"I?:.2 .*Sata.r. ............. 20,9 827,383 Gaoline ................. ,77,092 884,093
S" ttnidltat.es......... 45,00 .......... Borneo (excluding Brit-
Se "t"............. 1,325,564 1,467,286 sh)..................... .00,655 660.114
*.,Bl (exacluding Bumatra.................. 81,77 218.800
184,076 8,960 United States............. 3,90 5,179

The Coal Tade-Other Import..
Colombo is an important coaling station and as a consequence re-
pire considerable fuel supplies. The imports fell to 311,696 tons
a ~ 9EL7 from 575,677 tons in 1916. These figures exclude imports of
; Adiralty and Ceylon Government coal. About 75 per cent of the








6 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE BEPORTB.

coal is brought from India, the remainder ooami from &liMl
African possessions, Mozambique, Japan, and Auetu ,:,i
Imports of cement amounted to 44,836 hundredweight, au seri
pareid with 315,598 hundredweight in 1916. The United Km1 d ia
supplied 174,202 hundredweight, Japan 67,281 hundredweigW, aid
Hongkong the small remainder.
Fertilizers (known locally as manuzes) showed a large deoerm
in imports for 1917, being valued at $1606804 as compared with
$3,626,03 in 1916. All sulphate of ammonia imported in 1917 ear
from the United Kingdom and superphosphates from Japan, while
basic slag and nitrate of soda came chiedy from the United KingdMo
and Japan, respectively. India supplied some gromudnat eake
Ceylon's Export Trade by Articles.
The value of Ceylon's exports in 1917 showed a slight inermam ever
that of the previous record year of 1916, due to large shipmeats of
raw rubber which more than offset the decline in other arties,
Rubber and tea alone comprised 76 per cent of Ceylon'm efa wts,
followed in order of importance by plumbago, copra, coconut oiW e.
desiccated coconut,
The quantity and vaiue of the principal exports (a~ chlding Spea-e
from Ceylon in 1916 and 1917 are sbown in the following table;

)946 0g
Alates. ---- u w-n.7
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Val8.

Animals, live................... ................number. 444 15,174 3.
Arcca nuts.............................hudredweigt.. 43 12,32 008.906 st. WI
Cacao ............................................. de.... .73,245 96,.543 N 2, j ,45
Cardamoms....................... ........... ......do.... 3,901 102.8331 ,,3 n,
Cinnamon....................................... ...to..... 73 407, 8809 ,a n W.,
Coconul:
Desiccated ...................................do.... 306,149 2,834,330 272,.051 I.,SM
Fresh...................................... nu ber.. 4,04,297 135,582 5,$9,4 14P
Coffe ..................................hudrodweivgt.. 30 500 o 5
Coir: q
Fiber.........................................d.. ..... 23 44 20, 936 I37W 1 tm
Rope......................................do.... 15,109 40,019 4L. 4Eii
Yarn..................................... do.... d0,92 ?63,2 W,38 02,1.4W
Copra ............ ...........................do.... 1, 809,939 7,094,856 ,8s, 6 ks 4,11,A
.6 ..............61 40110
Fer lizers................ ....................... do.... 1,226 2, .......
Fish, cured................ .... ...........do.... 2,670 32,,01 2, i
K 1itul (iber).................. ...................do.... 1,600 30,912 mI .1 806
Oil,. \ecc table:
Cinnamon.............................. ounces.. 183,006 16,668 W1,6, UIBt
('i1rnnea ...................................onds.. 1,866,014 424,064 1,397,5W 29M -
Cocout..........................undredweight. 323,017 2,808,M8 434,099 3,
Palmyra fiber............................... .do..... .... 2,094 .16, O C
Phunmiago....................................... ... 68.216 7,298.128 3Y9 471 %E
P'ooi a ..........................................d .... 85,386 121,191 43, .
Rublber....... ...... ....................poundp.. 6W8,i04,885 6,218,864 75,781,401 M. W
Shells, chank ...................................number.. 1,629,611 35,112 1,Z890,.05A1 a
Skins, dressed......................t....ndredweight. 8,146 179.494 413,1 18 910
Tea........................................... pouma ~., 3a3 ,3 4 84,161,O99 ia6,231,a 810 6 ,.1
Textiles................................................. .......... 188.867 ......... .,
Timber.............. ...........................tons.. 2,429 27,980 s,4@ 2 11
Tobacco................................... pouads.. 2,762,1 9 140,031 u 3,48,4 O, 0
All other articles............... ................................ ............ 1,80400 ...
Total ......................................... .... .... ....... 6, 20,..... ....... .... ,67 ,0

Increased Production of Rubber-Decline in Prices.
In 1908 the shipments of Ceylon rubber amounted to lee tiH ll :iii
million pounds; nine years later, in 1917, the figure inereaeda to er :!;
75,000,000 pounds, exceeding the previous record year of '91M V
nearly 30 per cent, compared with the increase in value of '.pa '
mately 23 per sent.






OEYLOx.


iAv ge rubber prices for the five years 1913 to 1917 were as fol-
Slows: $0S per pound in 1918, $0.46 in 1914, $0.54 in 1915, $0.58 in
Xl, and $0,46 in 1917. Owing to the dislocation of exchange, the
Ifist rubber auction in the chamber of commerce rooms was not held
rWSil February 23, and then payment was in London sterling drafts
instead of Indian rupees. This condition of payment prevailed at
all te sales throughout the year. There was, however, a fair amount
f buWip done in private sales. First-quality crepe opened at $0.58,
dancing steadily to $0.68 per pound by April. Prices then declined
Wnt the beginning of August, when first-quality crepe auctioned at
$4W p W pound, In November the price recovered to $0.52, but in
Dpebr it again fel, until the highest price paid was $0.40 per
pound. For the first three months of the year crepe had an advantage
of about $0.08; in April prices were about the same; in May smoked
sheets were relatively a cent higher; in August they reached a point of
about $0.08 higher; but during the rest of the year crpe was level
with or higher than sets.
The United States and United Kingdom took approximately equal
shares of Ceylon-grown rubber, the two countries consuming close
to 95 per cent of the colony's entire rubber production.
Iaflt decline in Tea Trade.
Compared with the preceding year and the record year of 1915,
the 1917 tea exports showed a slight decline, but the figures were
above those of any year previous to 1915. Prices fell slightly, al-
though it is difficult to calculate an exact average price, because
various Government restrictions brought about unusual fluctuations.
The average price, however, for 1917 may be taken as $0.159, com-
pared with $0.168 in 1916 and $0.184 in 1915.
SComparing shipments made in 1917 with those in 1916, as regards
distribution, it iW noted that the United Kingdom imported 26,000,000
pounds less, while Russia and China showed decreases of approxi-
mately 13,000,000 pounds and 4,000,000 pounds, respectively. Ship-
mants to the United States increased from approximately 8,300,000
Iunds to 25,500,000 pounds, while Australia and the European Con-
" showed substantial increases. The Ceylon Chamber of Cornm
mereo points out that an interesting feature of the year was the
Imti ican demand for good black pekoes of all qualities, the prices
r agng high for even inferior quality.
S le..Ion tea shipped to the United Kingdom is now handled
by the British tea commissioner in Ceylon, who ships under instruc-
t..n from the Food Controller in London.
(ata of talh Coconat falm-Decrcase la Cacao Exports.
ii: co oinaM t is the one staple Ceylon produces that has been seri-
affected by war conditions. The total value of all coconut
exporttd in 1917 was barely $11,000,000, as compared with
)80j74 1916; $1 8,191 in 1916; and $16,681,088 in the record
of 1918,
I 4pre deceiased considerably in value on account of difficulty in
eramg ocean freight, exports decreasing in value from $7,094,851
AW B to $4A87^8 m 1917, Copra has not in several years ip-
ani article of export to the United States.







8 SUPPLEMENT 10 COMMERCE REPORTS.

The export of coconut oil has increased because of a greteat
mand from the United Kingdom, which has more than offset th 4
creased shipment to the United States. The price varying from $W:
in May, 1917, to $141 per long ton toward the end of the year, wih:i;
an average given by the Ceylon customs as $150.50, was lower than'
the average of $177 for the preceding year. The export of ocooin
oil to the United States has steadily decreased, the value in 1917 i
being $24,801, compared with $162,564 in 1916, $1,169,107 in 1915, and
$9,907,688 in 1914. Preference in freight space for other prodAuct
and British Government shipping restrictions were. important fac-
tors in reducing the exports, while, at the same time, it is reported
locally that the United States could be more advantageously supplied
from nearer markets.
The catao-growing area ranges from 500 to 1,800 feet above sea
level and comprises about 22,000 acres, mostly in the hands of
English planters. The value of cacao exports decreased approxi-
mately 36 per cent in 1917 compared with the previous year. The
quantity exported was only about 1 per cent less than in 1916, but the
prices were lower in 1917. Exports of cacao to the Philippines in-
creased from 1.504,267 pounds, valued at $216,144, in 1916, to
2,972,709 pounds, valued at $323,430, in 1917. The United States
took cacao beans to the value of $118,983 in 1917, compared with
$18,804 in 1916. There was a heavy decrease in shipments to the.
United Kingdom, due chiefly to the restrictions imposed on the im-
port of this commodity by the Food Controller.
Cinnamon, Tobacco, and Other Products.
The exports of cinnamon quills for 1917 show an increase bt
378,572 pounds over those for the previous year, because the greatly
increased shipments to the United States more than offset the de- ;
creased shipments to the United Kingdom and European Continent:ii
On th3 other hand, cinnamon chips suffered from lack of ocean:
freight and from the poor demand in the United-States, so that cila I
nnmon showed a decrease in value of about 23 per cent compaiedQ
with the previous year. The market ruled low for quills, raugi&g;
between $0.10 to $0.13. The prices for chips ranged from $13.80 p l_
candy, in January, to $11.35 at the close of the year. Cinnamon i;
shipments showed a slight increase, but the total value was undB0iA
$20,000. ,'A
Exports of manufactured tobacco increased in value from $10,3
in 1916 lo $216,502 in 1917. In June, 1917, an American t
expert left the island after three years' service with the Ceyloae
cultural department. He is said to have succeeded in improving
quality and cultivation of the Ceylon product. Another Am
has been engaged to continue the tobacco experiments, but he hij
yet arrived to take up his work.
Exports of citronella oil (known in southern India as lemon
oil) decreased in value from $121,064 in 1916 to $380,614 in
The United States took over 60 per cent of the quantity e
during 1917. Prices fluctuated between $0.17 and $0.25 :ler..X
being below the level of those for 1916.
Areca nuts, cured fish, chank shells, and dressed ,skins e-Rl.
Ceylon products which showed export increases, while ca






i im.Y.LO,", 9

fresh omConnh coir, kitul fiber, palmyra fiber, and poonac showed

ti.i.ruiod tlion of eQtlon.
Pumbago, Ceylon's most. speculative industry, again had a phe-
inoi enal year, owing to the demand created by the war. Toward the
and of the year, however, exports fell off, and prospects for 1918 are
at good. The total quantity shipped in 1911 was 523,940 hundred-
i wight, valued at $7,071,803, as compared with 668,216 hundred-
wFeight, valued at $7,298,128, in 1916. In 1915 the exports were
ajiped at only. $2,569,434, which was the record up to that time.
.kwing to the Ceylon customs returns, the United States took 84
o*cebt of the value of Ceylon's plumbago in 1917, and practically
0tof the remainder went to the United Kingdom. France is said
l, iSt her supplies from Madagascar.
C Duraig 1917 the average f. o. b. price of Ceylon plumbago was
%s70 per lng ton, a slight increase over 1916. Medium to fine grades
4 ^ordinary lump ranged during the year from $210 to $446 per long
ten, while medium to fine chips varied in price from $130 to $290
per ton.
T he market for gems was poor, owing chiefly to the absence of
tourists who make purchases of Ceylon precious, semiprecious, and
fancy stones.. On account of high insurance rates, sending stones on
;onsignment has not been practicable.
Besides graphite and gems, no minerals are exported from Ceylon.
S Some monazite sand beds and mica deposits have been surveyed,
ibut no deposits of sufficient value to work have been found.
Declared Exports to United States.
The total value of declared exports from Ceylon to the United
'States in 1917 exceeded that of any previous year. These exports,
exclusive of returned American goods, were valued at $32,234,237
1917, compared with $28,857,305 in 1916, $17,774,767 in 1915, and
1: 4109838,925 in 1914.
The exports of tea increased in value from $1,596,041 in 1916 to
$:,051,242 in 1917, which approximately accounts for the increase of
the total exports of Ceylon products shipped to the United States
in 1917 over those of 1916. Rubber showed a slight increase and
Saiintained its position as the leading article of export, represent-
ing about 60 per cent of the total value, while plumbago, the next
i lar st item, showed a slight decrease compared with 1916.
SDsiccated coconut (shredded coconut) showed a substantial gain
S1917, as compared with previous years, as there has been consider-
aMe .demand from the United States for this commodity. It is
Sli rhyof note in this connection that Ceylon copra is not shipped
.iithe United States and, further, that desiccated coconut is never
Ad locally as copra. Other articles showing increases are
Sbeas, cardamoms, cinnamon, citronella oil, and papain, while
ian4ut oil, precious stones, and tea fluff show decreases.
beans to the value of $823,430 were exported to the Philip-
while $118,98 represented the value exported to the United
.acao beans and tea represent over 99 per cent of the ex-
Ceylon to the Philippines.









10 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Quantity and Value of Principal Exports to Unitel States and Possemsiu6 ::g'
The following table shows the value of exports from Ceylon WtO
F'nited States and its possessions in 1916 and 1917, according t
invoices certified at the American consulate at Colombo:
SA..
1916 .
Articles. :
Quantity. Value. Quantity. .'iii

TO UNITED STATES.
Cardn mom .................................... pounds.. 82,407 832,421 136,2b
Cardamom seeds............................ 4,2.....d.... 4,528 2,776 ... .....
Cinnamon...................................... do... 901,310 112,248 1,02,210
Cinnam on oil ... .................................do ...................
Cinnamon lea! oil ................... ..............do ......... ...........
Citrnella oil ...................................do.... 620,774 201,i65 0
racao o.......... ................. .............do.... 132, 58 18,1 068
e ..conut. desiccated ................... .......do.... R,733,700 500,350 12,414, .
Coronit oil.......................................do... 2,042,523 162,564 335, 401
Coireen ..........................................do.... 7,054 29 14,932
Cnir arm .........................................do... 67,200 2, 56 ............ .......r
rotn seeds ..... ..............................do... 35,904 2,720 1,83
Cri.de drugs.......................................do.... 654,435 37,814 1,619,487 6
Curli. ........................................... ............ .... ...- .........
Fiber, britl.e ..................................... tons. ............ ............
Fiber, mattress................................ d... 153 2,773 48 r
Fiber. iwisted................................. pounds. 162,483 2,437 212,913 .4, .
lloiisehold goods .................................................... 367 ............ .......
Jewelry............................................................. 67 ........ ........A
Papairi........................................pounds. 5,381 16,051 8,274 5, .
Plimhago .......................................tons.. 25,237 6,922,081 22,121 6,5 3
I'reciois stones ....................................... 192,308 ............
Riibber...... ..............................pounds.. 30,47358 18,47,782 34,686,I143 ,10 ,
Tea............................................. .. 8,309,36 1,596,041 25,583,91L 5,051, 1
Tea nfff.........................................do... 675, 069 41,019 587,473 214, '1
Vanilla..........................................do.... 1,277 952 258 0,


Total............................................
TO PIILIPPINE ISLANDS.
rinnamnn .....................................pounds..
Cit ronella oil......................................do....
Cncao............................................ do.
'ccannit, desiccated .............................. ...
Pepper ...........................................do...
Precious stones......................................
Tea ..........................................pounds..


............ 28,857, 35 ............ 32, 2W,

195 54..............
2,014 613 ............ .......
1,504,237 216,144 2,972,701 322,
............ ............ 6,500
560 61 ....................
83,42 17,8S60 1jM2,


Total ........... ................................ ............ 234,732 ............
TO OAWAIIAN ISLANDS. .
Tea............................................ pounds.. 24,830 6,538 11,350 3

Market for American Goods.
Imports to Ceylon direct from the United States decreased in valb66
approximately $700,000, being valued at $1,810,341 in 1917
$2,509.606 in 1916. America's share represented only 3 per centiii
Cev]on's total import trade, but Japan, with 5.4 per cent as her shab
was the only foreign country ahead of the United States as a 0c*
petitor in the markets of Ceylon. This decrease of Ameni~ca i|I
ports was chiefly accounted for by the cessation of automobile 4il
ports, due to the 100 per cent duty imposed early in 1917; for' i
noted that in 1917 automobiles to the value of only $92,171T wEi
imported as compared with $604,760 in 1916, 90 per cent of whfiS
was accredited to the United States.
Practically all lines of goods could be exported to Ceylon i.
conditions permitted. Building materials are scarce, clothing i.is: i:
high-priced, steel and iron goods are becoming more and m f 'lS. I
cult to procure, and there is a great dearth of printing paper,r.
goods, glassware, drugs, acetic acid, and many other articles













Aerni~ ean gooas exported to ueyion snouia De plainly market
in 1. A. It is not necessary to have a more complete
& such as Made in U. S. of America or Made in United
SAmerica," as "U. S. A." has now become recognized by
9,tiBh customs in Ceylon as a sufficient designation for the
.States of America. The Ceylon merchandise marks act has
*WIYcty enforced during the past two years, with the result that
INe numbers of fines have been imposed upon importers.
7 American traveling salesmen who have called in Ceylon the
:ar all report excellent results, and it is hoped that American
will realize the importance of sending representatives to
.. and Ceylon if they expect to share liberally in the trade after
0ar. In case a representative is not possible, a connection with an
House sometimes proves satisfactory. This consulate is always
to assist American exporters in trying to make connections.
prhdage and Finance.
.l..t the beginning of 1917 the trade of the colony suffered on account
SAifulty in financing the export trade, a shortage of available
credit having been brought about by the restricted sale of
nian Council Bills in London. The announcement of this restric-
was made by the Secretary of State for India on December 14,
S, Previous to that, the Ceylon banks financed the export trade
Cnugh the medium of these Council Bills, remittances being made
S',ldia to an unlimited extent.
IiTe Ceylon Government was compelled to resort to the expedient
i suing new currency notes in exchange for credit in London,
kiibh involved an issue to the extent of 9,000,000 rupees ($2,919,900).
Mi situation was later slightly relieved by an arrangement under
whib buyers agreed to accept payment in sterling in London. The
iunment also accepted the payment of export duties in sterling
.ihi offices of the Crown agents for the colonies in London. Plum-
was placed first on the priority list, so that exporters of this
uct could draw for the full value of their exports; but in the
of tea, rubber, coconut, and other products they could draw only
S t for running expenses of the estates.
About the middle of the year another exchange difficulty arose
was due to the inability of Ceylon to pay for foodstuffs im-
ifom India. Ceylon must pay India a sum of about 1,000,000
($824,433) weekly for rice and other foodstuffs. This situa-
was also made acute by the inability to issue drafts on India,
ian increase in the issue of Council Bills would have made
p hble As a temporary relief the Ceylon Government transferred
i of its gold reserve to India in exchange for credit. Ulti-
.the Indian Government agreed to allow the Ceylon Govern-
( toiplace 1,000,000 rupees ($324,433) to the credit of Ceylon
i r six months, this credit to be utilized for the purpose o
ioodtuff. This arrangement became effective August 1,




. :..!


12 SUPPLEMENT TO 00.MM CB l .PO3 B.. i

1917, and proved successful; in fact, it was ncLt mtt
use the full credit. .
Summary of Tarif Legislation.
A revised tariff for imports to Ceylon came intd e l
1917. The most important change is the increase .of d.t..
merchandise from 51 per cent to 7j per cent ad ..
applies to all goods, wares, merchandise, and mAchi e
wise charged with duty, exempted from duty, or proh'
Other important changes are the increased duty on
from 4 to 5j per cent ad valorem, and a new duty of 9j
valorem on metals, except sheet and pig lead and tin
were previously included in the free list. These ad va
are chargeable on the Ceylon c. i. f. valuation. The
tariff is based on the true wholesale market value," w '
as follows:
(a) The wholesale cash price, less trade discount, for which goods
kind and quality are sold, or are capable of being sold, at the time.
importation, without any abatement or deduction whatever except qft
of the duties payable on the importation thereof; or
(b) Where such price is not ascertainable, the cost at which gooddtV
kind and quality could be delivered at such place without any abaut
deduction except of the duties as aforesaid.
Shipping Movements.
According to the Colombo Port Commission's report
only 4 American vessels took on and discharged cargo iu.
Harbor. According to the consulate's list, however, 16 Amine
chantmen called at Colombo, in most instances only to co.aL'
The distribution of vessels according to nationality, omitt
ships and vessels calling to coal, for 1916 and 1917, is ihowt
following table:


Nationality.
Number. Tans. Nf
Briish....................................ii.r.


British...................................................
Colonial....................................................
Total British ......... ......................... .....
A merican......................................... ..........
Chinese......................................................
Danish...................................................
Dutch......................................................
French.......................................................
Greek ..........................................................
Itlian............................. ..........................
Japanese.....................................................
Norwegian.................................................
Roumanian.................................................
Russian........................................................
Spanish......................................................
Swedish....................................................
Portugueso..................................................
T ftal foreign........................................


1,652
1,372
3,024

181
47
a
I
1
102
79
I
SB


3,=4,

3,71,403.
14,011

m,m
-Sm
s30,aM




1,0I 2.
t 19


WAIHI IOTON : OVIrUNTwr infl2l